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... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...
Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.
/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence...
Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.
Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...
Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz
The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.
... standard drink. Find Out More Is your "lite" beer light in alcohol? How strong is your mixed drink? Try the cocktail content calculator How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? Trying to lose weight? Try the ...
Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter
Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The dangers associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments.
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Baldwin, S.A.; Norris, J.; Kaysen, D.; Gasser, M.L.; Wiers, R.W.
OBJECTIVE: There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college-student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential for showing
... Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health . Accessed March 18, 2016. National Institute on Alcohol ... Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders . Accessed March ...
Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner
Assessing the association between alcohol ad exposure and alcohol use in German adolescents, controlling for general ad exposure. Cross-sectional survey of 3415 sixth to eighth graders (mean 12.5 years) from 29 schools in three German states (June 2008). Exposure to 9 alcohol and 8 non-alcohol advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall. Main outcomes were ever drinking, current drinking, binge drinking, alcohol use intentions and outcome expectancies. There was a bivariate association between both exposures (alcohol and non-alcohol ads) and all alcohol use measures. After adjustment for confounding, only alcohol ad exposure retained a significant association with outcomes. Multi-level logistic regressions revealed that compared with quartile one alcohol ad exposure, the adjusted odds ratios for quartile four were 2.4 (95% confidence interval 1.7-3.4) for trying drinking, 2.7 (1.8-3.9) for current drinking and 2.3 (1.6-3.5) for ever binge drinking. There was also an independent association between alcohol ad exposure and alcohol-related attitudes among never drinkers. This study demonstrates a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising and multiple youth drinking outcomes, showing that the association is content-specific, not just a function of general ad exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...
Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.
degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...
Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.
Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...
Holst, Charlotte; Becker, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Marit E
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. METHODS: This cohort study...... was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain information on alcohol drinking patterns......, i.e. frequency of alcohol drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and consumption of wine, beer and spirits, from which we calculated beverage-specific and overall average weekly alcohol intake. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox...
Steele, C M; Southwick, L L; Critchlow, B
Based on recent evidence supporting the assumption that cognitive dissonance is experienced as an unpleasant emotional state, and further evidence pertaining to the effects of drinking alcohol, it was predicted that among social drinkers, dissonance arousal would increase the amount of drinking and that drinking, in turn, would reduce dissonance and subsequent attitude change. This hypothesis was tested in the first two experiments by having subjects taste rate different brands of an alcoholic beverage--ostensibly to test taste discrimination but in fact to measure the amount of drinking--immediately after dissonance was aroused by having them write a counterattitudinal essay. The effect of drinking on dissonance reduction was assessed by measuring subjects' postattitudes immediately after the drinking task. Both experiments found that although dissonance arousal had little effect on the amount of drinking, whatever drinking occurred was sufficient to eliminate dissonance-reducing attitude change. The second experiment further established that these results occurred for light as well as heavy social drinkers. Evidence that the dissonance-reducing effect of drinking resulted form some effect of drinking alcohol was provided by the finding, in the second and third experiments, that neither water or coffee drinking was sufficient to eliminate attitude change in this paradigm. Both the practical and theoretical implications are discussed. The practical implication is that some forms of alcohol abuse may evolve through the reinforcement of drinking as a means of reducing dissonance; the theoretical implication is that dissonance may be frequently reduced through behaviors that ameliorate the feelings of dissonance without involving cognitive change.
... The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...
On three different occasions, blood samples sent to this laboratory from the accident and emergency department were found to contain potentially toxic amounts of methanol (30, 34 and 41 mmol/l) during analysis for ethanol by a gas chromatographic method. It is suggested that the simultaneous determination of both alcohols may be clinically important in methylated spirit drinking alcoholics.
Crabbe, John C.; Harris, R. Adron; Koob, George F.
Binge drinking is prevalent and has serious biomedical consequences. In children, adolescents, and young adults, it is a prominent risk factor for later development of alcohol-use disorders. Many preclinical models have been employed to study the genetic risks for and biomedical consequences of alcohol drinking. However, these models historically did not result in blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) exceding 80 mg%; this relatively modest level is the threshold that currently defines a binge session, according to the NIAAA and CDC. Nevertheless, in alcohol-dependent rodents, binge drinking has been well documented. Key neurobiological substrates localized to brain reward and stress systems have been identified. Studies of newer models of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed here. In these models, rodents, non-human primates, and flies will drink enough to reach high BACs. They often display observable signs of intoxication. The neurobiological consequences of these episodes of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed, preliminary evidence for roles for GABA, glutamate, opioid peptides, and corticotropin releasing factor are discussed, as is the need for more work to identify the antecedents and consequences of binge drinking in both animal models and humans. PMID:21272009
Stockwell, T; Honig, F
Drivers who wish to stay 'under the limit', problem drinkers wishing to control their drinking and literally anyone who drinks alcohol and is concerned about their health are all increasingly exhorted to monitor their alcohol intake by counting 'standard drinks' (each containing 8-14 g, depending on the country in question). Unfortunately, the evidence presented in this paper suggests that this system permits many errors. In particular, it requires two assumptions to be met: (1) that drinks of the same beverage type (i.e. beer, wine, fortified wine or spirits) normally contain the same percentage of alcohol by volume; and (2) that people serve, or are served, alcoholic drinks in standard serves. It is shown that in practice the strength of drinks available for sale of a given beverage type varies widely and that 'atypical' strengths form a significant proportion of alcohol sales. Furthermore, whether drinking occurs in a private residence or on licensed premises, it is usual for quantities greater than the supposed Australian standard of 10 g to be served. In practice, most people are unaware of the strengths of different beverages or the rough equivalences between them. Even if they are taught the standard drink system, they cannot make allowances for 'atypical' variations in strength. It is suggested these problems could be readily overcome if all alcohol containers were labelled in terms of standard drinks. The benefits of such a labelling system are discussed with regard to health promotion, accident prevention and the accuracy of surveys of alcohol use.
Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S
Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.
DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.
Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictiv...
Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F
Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L
The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
National Committee for Food Safety
The Directorate General for Food Hygiene, Food Safety and Nutrition asked the Committee to deliver an opinion on hazards to health linked with energy- drinks consumption, in particular combined with alcohol. Energy- drinks contain substances whose effects are described as “positive” since are purported to boost mental and physical energy; in most cases, these substances are caffeine, taurine, carnitine, guarana, glucoronolactone, ginseng, ginko biloba etc. If used in moderate amounts these su...
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander
The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...
Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period....
Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.
This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a
Juarez, Barbara; Morel, Carole; Ku, Stacy M; Liu, Yutong; Zhang, Hongxing; Montgomery, Sarah; Gregoire, Hilledna; Ribeiro, Efrain; Crumiller, Marshall; Roman-Ortiz, Ciorana; Walsh, Jessica J; Jackson, Kelcy; Croote, Denise E; Zhu, Yingbo; Zhang, Song; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Edwards, Scott; Roberts, Amanda; Hodes, Georgia E; Lu, Yongke; Calipari, Erin S; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Friedman, Allyson K; Han, Ming-Hu
Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is the most prevalent substance-use disorder worldwide. There is substantial individual variability in alcohol drinking behaviors in the population, the neural circuit mechanisms of which remain elusive. Utilizing in vivo electrophysiological techniques, we find that low alcohol drinking (LAD) mice have dramatically higher ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neuron firing and burst activity. Unexpectedly, VTA dopamine neuron activity in high alcohol drinking (HAD) mice does not differ from alcohol naive mice. Optogenetically enhancing VTA dopamine neuron burst activity in HAD mice decreases alcohol drinking behaviors. Circuit-specific recordings reveal that spontaneous activity of nucleus accumbens-projecting VTA (VTA-NAc) neurons is selectively higher in LAD mice. Specifically activating this projection is sufficient to reduce alcohol consumption in HAD mice. Furthermore, we uncover ionic and cellular mechanisms that suggest unique neuroadaptations between the alcohol drinking groups. Together, these data identify a neural circuit responsible for individual alcohol drinking behaviors.
Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria
It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
... it is? About 18 million Americans have an alcohol use disorder. Drinking too much alcohol raises your risk of ... consequences.” Studies show that most people with an alcohol use disorder can benefit from some form of treatment. If ...
Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris
Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. A literature search was performed using the keywords "energy drink and Red Bull(®)" and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality.
Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris
Background Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. Methods A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. Results There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Conclusion Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality. PMID:22399863
Linden, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J
An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the cross-sectional study presented here aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work.
Kerr, William C; Patterson, Deidre; Koenen, Mary A; Greenfield, Thomas K
Alcohol content in drinks has been shown to be variable. This study evaluates claims regarding the effects of glass size and glass shape on the amount of alcohol served in on-premise drinks. Wine and spirits drinks were purchased and measured in 80 on-premise establishments in 10 Northern California Counties. Alcohol content was measured as the liquid volume of the drink multiplied by the percentage alcohol by volume of given brands or from analysis of mixed drink and wine samples. Spirits drinks were classified as either straight shots or mixed drinks. Mixed drinks poured in short wide glasses were not found to contain more alcohol than those poured in tall thin glasses. Straight shots and mixed drinks served in the relatively large pint glass and variable 'other' glass type were found to contain more alcohol than drinks served in a short wide glass. No other significant differences were found between glass types. Analyses of establishment characteristics found that bars with mostly black patrons serve spirits drinks with more alcohol than bars with other patron types. Glass shape does not affect actual drink pours in the USA but glass size does in some cases. Consumer education programs should foster awareness of the relatively high alcohol content of on-premise wine and mixed spirits drinks. More research is needed to evaluate potential differences in drink pours by patron race and ethnicity.
Marczinski, Cecile A
Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with a variety of risks beyond that observed with alcohol alone. Consumers of AmED beverages are more likely to engage in heavy episodic (binge) drinking. This study was to investigate whether the consumption of high caffeine energy drink mixers with alcohol would increase the desire to drink alcohol compared to the same amount of alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 26) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 6 double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, participants received 1 of 6 possible doses: (i) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, (ii) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg energy drink, (iii) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 6.05 ml/kg energy drink, (iv) 3.63 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, (v) 3.63 ml/kg energy drink, and (vi) 6.05 ml/kg energy drink. Following dose administration, participants repeatedly completed self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire and provided breath alcohol readings. Alcohol alone increased the subjective ratings of "desire for more alcohol" compared to placebo doses. Energy drink mixers with the alcohol increased desire for more alcohol ratings beyond that observed with alcohol alone. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages lead to greater desire to drink alcohol versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. The findings are consistent with results from animal studies indicating that caffeine increases the rewarding and reinforcing properties of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan; Miller, Peter
Combining energy drinks (such as 'Red Bull(®)') with alcohol is becoming increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining the harms associated with this form of drinking. To review current evidence associated with combining energy drinks with alcohol and provide recommendations for addressing this issue within primary care. Combining alcohol with energy drinks can mask the signs of alcohol intoxication, resulting in greater levels of alcohol intake, dehydration, more severe and prolonged hangovers, and alcohol poisoning. It may also increase engagement in risky behaviours (such as drink driving) as well as alcohol related violence. General practitioners should be aware of the harms associated with this pattern of drinking, and provide screening and relevant harm reduction advice.
Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.
Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…
Berey, Benjamin L; Loparco, Cassidy; Leeman, Robert F; Grube, Joel W
This review investigates effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent drinking. Prior reviews focused on behavioral outcomes and long-term effects. In contrast, the present review focuses on subgroups with greater exposure to alcohol advertising, research methods to study alcohol advertising, potential mechanisms underlying relationships between adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and increased drinking and points to prevention/intervention strategies that may reduce effects of alcohol advertising. Alcohol advertising influences current and future drinking. Further, evidence suggests adolescents may be targeted specifically. Alcohol advertisements may influence behavior by shifting alcohol expectancies, norms regarding alcohol use, and positive attitudes. Media literacy programs may be an effective intervention strategy. Adolescents are exposed to large quantities of alcohol advertisements, which violates guidelines set by the alcohol industry. However, media literacy programs may be a promising strategy for adolescents to increase critical thinking and create more realistic expectations regarding alcohol.
Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Stamates, Amy L.; Maloney, Sarah F.
Background Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with a variety of risks beyond that observed with alcohol alone. Consumers of AmED beverages are more likely to engage in heavy episodic (binge) drinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of high caffeine energy drink mixers with alcohol would increase the desire to drink alcohol compared to the same amount of alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Methods Participants (n = 26) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 6 double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, participants received 1 of 6 possible doses: 1) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, 2) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 3.63 ml/kg energy drink, 3) 1.21 ml/kg vodka + 6.05 ml/kg energy drink, 4) 3.36 ml/kg decaffeinated soft drink, 5) 3.36 ml/kg energy drink, and 6) 6.05 ml/kg energy drink. Following dose administration, participants repeatedly completed self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire and provided breath alcohol readings. Results Alcohol alone increased the subjective ratings of “desire for more alcohol” compared to placebo doses. Energy drink mixers with the alcohol increased desire for more alcohol ratings beyond that observed with alcohol alone. Conclusions This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages lead to greater desire to drink alcohol versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. The findings are consistent with results from animal studies indicating that caffeine increases the rewarding and reinforcing properties of alcohol. PMID:27419377
Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekoviç, M.
Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents’ drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which
Vorst, H. van der; Schuck, K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Hermans, R.C.J.
To prevent harmful drinking, it is essential to understand factors that promote alcohol use at an early age. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of parental alcohol use in children's selection of alcoholic beverages in a virtual reality (VR) environment and their intentions to drink
Carrigan, Maureen H.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Carrie L.
Repeated use of alcohol as a coping strategy to reduce anxiety or discomfort increases one's risk of developing alcohol dependence. Previous studies have found alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) strongly predict drinking behavior, in general, and also are related to drinking to cope. The purpose of the current study was to examine AOE that may be related to drinking to cope with discomfort in social situations. It was hypothesized that positive AOE, especially related to assertion and tension...
Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Kleinjan, M.; Lemmers, L.A.C.J.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine
DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.
Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793
Barnett, Nancy P; Wei, Jill; Czachowski, Cristine
The main objective of this study was to measure the alcohol content in college party drinks. Samples of mixed drinks were collected from on-campus parties (N = 23) over a 12-week period at a university in the Northeast. Samples were analyzed by using a method that measures oxygen utilization during ethanol oxidation. Standard drink equivalents were calculated and blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) for men and women were estimated. The percent alcohol in sampled drinks ranged from 3.7% to 22.8%. Characteristics of the sampled parties were not related to drink concentration. A party drink at the median concentration and drink size contained 0.97 standard drinks. Estimated BACs varied widely depending on drink alcohol concentration, but in most cases a heavy drinking episode for both men and women resulted in an estimated BAC at or above .08. Mixed drinks at the sampled parties on average approximated one standard drink, but the variability in mixed drink strength compromises a drinker's ability to keep track of the number of drinks consumed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Pisinger, Veronica S C; Holst, Charlotte A; Bendtsen, Pernille
,025 high school and vocational school students (15-25years) participated. Drinking patterns were investigated by the following outcomes: non-drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, frequent binge drinking, and early intoxication debut age. The main predictor variables were perceived parental alcohol problems......), higher odds of early intoxication debut age (boys: OR=1.68 [95%CI 1.50-1.89]; girls: OR 1.95 [95%CI 1.79-2.14]), and more frequent binge drinking (boys, OR=1.16 [95%CI 1.04-1.29]; girls, OR=1.21 [95%CI 1.11-1.32]) compared to young people without parental alcohol problems. In conclusion, this study shows...... that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have an earlier intoxication debut age, binge drink more frequently, and drink larger quantities per week than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems....
Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J
The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.
Milgram, Gail Gleason
Alcoholic beverages have been used throughout American history but their use has always been controversial. Ethyl alcohol is one of the few alcohols man is able to drink, although it is never full strength. The fermentation process is used to manufacture alcoholic beverages. Wines are made from a variety of fruits. Beer is made from yeast and a…
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T
Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
DiBello, Angelo M; Miller, Mary Beth; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton; Lindgren, Kristen P
Drinking identity, or the tendency to view one's self as a drinker, is a unique predictor of alcohol use and related consequences among young adults; yet the mechanism by which it leads to alcohol problems is poorly understood. Based on self-presentation and self-verification perspectives, we examined drinking to cope as a mediator of the association between explicit drinking identity and alcohol-related problems among two samples of young adults. Study data come from two large, longitudinal studies. Participants from Sample 1 and Sample 2 included undergraduates (55% and 59% female, respectively) who reported drinking in the previous three months. Tests of the indirect effects indicated that 3-month drinking to cope significantly mediated the positive association between baseline drinking identity and 6-month alcohol-related problems in both samples. In contrast, 3-month drinking identity did not mediate the association between baseline drinking to cope and 6-month alcohol-related problems. Findings indicate that individuals with a stronger drinking identity are more likely to use alcohol to cope and, subsequently, experience more problems. Thus, drinking identity may be an important intervention target for college students as it appears to temporally proceed drinking to cope in the prediction of alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E
Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…
Pedersen, Peggy J.
Examines the perceived influence of alcohol advertising in a daily campus newspaper on the drinking behaviors of students. Findings indicated that college students do perceive that their drinking patterns are influenced by alcohol promotions in the campus newspaper and, furthermore, that self-identified binge drinkers were influenced significantly…
Meilman, Philip W.; And Others
Reports a study that examined the average number of alcoholic drinks that college students (N=44,433) consumed per week. Surveys indicated that most students drank little or no alcohol on an average weekly basis. Only about 10% of the students reported consuming an average of 15 drinks or more per week. (SM)
Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of
Panconesi, Alessandro; Franchini, Michela; Bartolozzi, Maria Letizia; Mugnai, Stefania; Guidi, Leonello
This project aims to investigate the role of alcoholic drinks (ADs) as triggers for primary headaches. Patients followed in the Headache Centre and presenting with migraine without aura, migraine with aura (MA), chronic migraine (CM), and tension-type headache (TH) were asked if their headache was precipitated by AD and also about their alcohol habits. Individual characteristics and drink habits were evaluated within two binary logistic models. About one half (49.7%) of patients were abstainers, 17.6% were habitual consumers, and 32.5% were occasional consumers. Out of 448 patients, only 22 (4.9%), all with migraine, reported AD as a trigger factor. None of 44 patients with MA and none of 47 patients with TH reported AD as a trigger factor. Among those patients with migraine who consume AD, only 8% reported that AD can precipitate their headache. Multivariate analyses showed that AD use, both occasional and habitual, is unrelated to TH. Moreover, analysis performed among migraine patients, points out that occasional and habitual drinkers have a lower risk of presenting with CM than abstainers, although statistical significance occurred only among occasional drinkers. Only 3% of migraine patients who abstain from AD reported that they do not consume alcohol because it triggers their headache. Our study shows that AD acts as headache triggers in a small percentage of migraine patients. Differing from some prior studies, our data suggest that AD do not trigger MA and TH attacks. Moreover, the percentage of abstainers in our sample is higher compared with that reported in general population surveys. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Visual Attention to Alcohol Cues and Responsible Drinking Statements Within Alcohol Advertisements and Public Health Campaigns: Relationships With Drinking Intentions and Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory
Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. PMID:28493753
Visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements within alcohol advertisements and public health campaigns: Relationships with drinking intentions and alcohol consumption in the laboratory.
Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt
Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ross, Carolyn F.; Weller, Karen
The objective of this study was to examine different methods of preparation of a low-alcohol drink for use as a control in behavioral studies. Treatments included: untreated juice, juice with alcohol (rum), juice with rum floated on the surface and juice with ethanol floated on the surface. Untrained panelists (n=48) rated each drink for overall…
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W
Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest.
Conclusion: The current food-based dietary guideline “If you drink alcohol, drink sensibly”, issued by the South African. Department of Health ..... and colon cancers; female breast cancer; liver cancer; diabetes mellitus ... Table II: Characteristics of adult alcohol consumption in different regions of the world13. WHO region.
Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko
The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Corbin, William R; Gearhardt, Ashley; Fromme, Kim
Individual differences in subjective alcohol effects have been shown to differ by risk status (e.g., family history of alcoholism) and to predict future risk for alcohol-related problems. Presumably, individual differences in both stimulant and sedative responses affect the rewarding value of drinking which, in turn, impacts future drinking behavior. Although plausible, this theoretical model is largely untested. The current study attempted to provide experimental evidence for the impact of subjective alcohol responses on within session drinking behavior. Using a placebo-controlled between-subjects alcohol administration paradigm, experiences and evaluations of stimulant and sedative alcohol effects (after a target dose of 0.06 g%) were assessed as predictors of ad-libitum consumption in the context of anticipatory stress. Analyses indicated that an initial dose of alcohol increased experiences of both stimulation and sedation although stimulant effects were evaluated much more positively. In addition, stimulant effects after a priming dose predicted further consumption, whereas sedative effects did not. At least among moderate to heavy drinking college students, stimulant alcohol effects are more reinforcing and predict within session drinking behavior under social stress. Increased attention should be given to stimulant alcohol effects as a risk factor for excessive consumption in this population. Incorporating information about stimulant alcohol effects in prevention and intervention programs may also be important if additional research supports the current results.
Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Nadeau, Louise; Picard, Elyse
The aim of this study was to assess whether the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake varies according to the context in which the drinking act occurs. The data were drawn from the Canadian Addiction Survey, a national telephone survey conducted in 2004. The analytical sample included 1,079 drinking occasions nested in 498 female drinkers and 926 drinking occasions nested in 403 male drinkers between 18 and 55 years of age. A multilevel linear statistical model was used to estimate the variance related to the drinking occasion (Level 1) and to the parental role (Level 2). Parenthood was not associated with alcohol intake per occasion. Drinking context variables brought great explanatory power to the study of alcohol intake, but, overall, the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake did not vary according to the context in which drinking occurs. Only one interaction between the parental role and contextual characteristics was found. Men's and women's alcohol intake within drinking contexts is more likely to be influenced by the immediate context in which drinking occurs than by their parental role. The explanation for alcohol behaviors within the general Canadian population may lie as much in the situation as in the person.
Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...
Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L
To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.
Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196
Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S
Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol
Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J.; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa
Aims Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Methods Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. Results The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. Conclusions The conservative TU policy—to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors—may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still ‘in progress’ and the final outcome has not been evaluated. PMID:18482416
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.
Full Text Available Joris C Verster1, Christoph Aufricht2, Chris Alford31Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Währinger Gürtel, Wien, Austria; 3University of the West of England, Psychology Department, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UKBackground: Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol.Methods: A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase.Results: There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse.Conclusion: Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The
Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J
Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R
There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Williams, Joah L
Elevated alcohol reward value (RV) has been linked to higher levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and there is evidence that specific drinking motives may mediate the relationship between demand and problematic alcohol use in college students, making these variables potentially important indicators of risk for high RV and alcohol problems. The present study evaluated these relationships in a high-risk sample of military veterans. Heavy-drinking (N = 68) veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom or Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) completed the alcohol purchase task (APT) measure of alcohol demand (RV), and standard assessments of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and drinking motives. RV was associated with overall alcohol consequences, interpersonal alcohol consequences, social responsibility consequences and impulse control consequences. Mediation analyses indicated significant mediation of the relationships between RV and a number of problem subscales by social motives, coping-anxiety motives, coping-depression motives and enhancement motives. This suggests that individuals who have a high valuation of alcohol may have increased motivation to drink in social, mood-enhancement, and coping situations, resulting in increased alcohol-related consequences. Demand and drinking motives should be examined as potential indicators of need for intervention services and as treatment targets in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chiou-Jong
To examine the association between work characteristics and the risk of alcohol dependence across different employment types and occupations, including the pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of energy drinks and its association with alcohol dependence. A total of 13,501 men and 8584 women participated in a national survey in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence was defined as ≥2 points in the CAGE questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire recorded drinking behaviors, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks, employment type, occupation and a number of psychosocial work stressors, namely job demands, job control, employment security and workplace justice. Of the total, 9.4% of men and 0.8% of women were CAGE-positive, and 6.0% of men and 0.7% of women regularly consumed alcoholic energy drinks. In male and female regular consumers of alcoholic energy drinks, 38.7 and 23.3%, respectively, were alcohol-dependent. Multivariate regression analyses showed that male employees in manual skilled occupations, with lower workplace justice, having weekly working hours alcohol dependence. Certain occupational groups and workers with adverse psychosocial work characteristics should be targets for prevention of alcohol dependence. Alcoholic energy drink consumption should be taken into consideration while studying alcohol dependence in the work population in Taiwan.
Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Gulick, Danielle; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I
Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been associated with reduced drinking in these patients, but its toxicity reduces its use. We have attempted to create a clozapine-like drug by combining agents that capture components of clozapine's pharmacologic action, including its weak dopamine D2 blockade and noradrenergic modulation. The current study assessed whether paliperidone, a dopamine D2 receptor and adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonist like clozapine, would attenuate alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring P rat and the Syrian golden hamster, and whether desipramine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, would potentiate the ability of paliperidone to attenuate alcohol drinking in the P rat and the Syrian golden hamster. Daily subcutaneous injections of paliperidone (5 mg/kg for the rat; 1 mg/kg for the hamster) over 20 days slightly and transiently attenuated initiation of alcohol consumption in both animals. Desipramine (3 mg/kg) or lower doses of paliperidone alone did not affect alcohol drinking. However, the combination of desipramine (3 mg/kg) and paliperidone essentially prevented initiation of alcohol drinking and acquisition of alcohol preference in the P rat (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and almost as dramatically suppressed chronic alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the hamster (2.5 mg/kg). Taken together, the current data suggest that (1) the desipramine and paliperidone combination attenuates alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner, and (2) desipramine and paliperidone may serve as an effective new treatment for alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.
Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549
Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S
Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50-59 years) was associated with an increased risk, whereas the amount in 20-29 and 30-39 years was not. In men drinking 14-28 drinks/week, HR was 7.47 (95% CI: 1.68; 33.12), 3.12 (95% CI: 1.53; 6.39), and 1.69 (95% CI: 0.79; 3.65) in drinkers of little (drinking drinks/week. In general, results were similar for women. In men, daily drinking was associated with an increased risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent alcohol consumption rather than earlier in life was associated with risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Compared to beer and liquor, wine might be associated with a lower risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mundt, Marlon P; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Fleming, Michael F
Despite the enormous burden of alcohol-related injuries, the direct connection between college drinking and physical injury has not been well understood. The goal of this study was to assess the connection between alcohol consumption levels and college alcohol-related injury risk. A total of 12,900 college students seeking routine care in 5 college health clinics completed a general Health Screening Survey. Of these, 2,090 students exceeded at-risk alcohol use levels and participated in a face-to-face interview to determine eligibility for a brief alcohol intervention trial. The eligibility interview assessed past 28-day alcohol use and alcohol-related injuries in the past 6 months. Risk of alcohol-related injury was compared across daily drinking quantities and frequencies. Logistic regression analysis and the Bayesian Information Criterion were applied to compute the odds of alcohol-related injury based on daily drinking totals after adjusting for age, race, site, body weight, and sensation seeking. Male college students in the study were 19% more likely (95% CI: 1.12-1.26) to suffer an alcohol-related injury with each additional day of consuming 8 or more drinks. Injury risks among males increased marginally with each day of consuming 5 to 7 drinks (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.13). Female participants were 10% more likely (95% CI: 1.04-1.16) to suffer an alcohol-related injury with each additional day of drinking 5 or more drinks. Males (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.14-2.50) and females (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.57) with higher sensation-seeking scores were more likely to suffer alcohol-related injuries. College health clinics may want to focus limited alcohol injury prevention resources on students who frequently engage in extreme drinking, defined in this study as 8+M/5+F drinks per day, and score high on sensation-seeking disposition.
Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.
Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…
Alcohol use is an important part of the health profile of older adults, and little is known about the prevalence and correlates of drinking among this population in Ghana and South Africa. This study aimed to describe and compare the prevalence and correlates of drinking patterns among adults aged 50 and above in Ghana ...
Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; d'Hoore, William
One young adult in two has entered university education in Western countries. Many of these young students will be exposed, during this transitional period, to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialisation groups, and social activities. This kind of transition is often associated with risky behaviour such as excessive alcohol consumption. So far, however, there is little evidence about the social determinants of alcohol consumption among college students. We set out to explore how college environmental factors shape college students' drinking behaviour. In May 2010 a web questionnaire was sent to all bachelor and master students registered with an important Belgian university; 7,015 students participated (participation = 39%). The survey looked at drinking behaviour, social involvement, college environmental factors, drinking norms, and positive drinking consequences. On average each student had 1.7 drinks a day and 2.8 episodes of abusive drinking a month. We found that the more a student was exposed to college environmental factors, the greater the risk of heavy, frequent, and abusive drinking. Alcohol consumption increased for students living on campus, living in a dormitory with a higher number of room-mates, and having been in the University for a long spell. Most such environmental factors were explained by social involvement, such as participation to the student folklore, pre-partying, and normative expectations. Educational and college authorities need to acknowledge universities' responsibility in relation to their students' drinking behaviour and to commit themselves to support an environment of responsible drinking.
Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn
This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.
Wicki, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Gmel, G.
Background: High volumes of alcohol consumption and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) among university students have been shown to be associated with considerable harm to both those who consume alcohol and their fellow students. The vast majority of these studies are based on US and Canadian
Bonar, Erin E.; Green, Michaela R.; Ashrafioun, Lisham
Objective: Research has identified correlates (e.g., drug use, risky sex, smoking) of using alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMEDs). Few studies have investigated common mental health-related concerns (e.g., depression, sleep). Participants: Alcohol-using college students (n = 380 never used AMEDs, n = 180 used AMEDs) were recruited in the study…
Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, type of beverage, patterns of drinking and alcohol-attributable burden of disease among adults in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) for the year 2002. Exposure data were taken from surveys, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Status ...
Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated risk behaviour for oral health in young Indian males. ... Nigerian Dental Journal ... Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health ...
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Background: A sizeable percentage of Hispanic youth are affected by alcohol use. Research is needed to identify specific factors placing Hispanic youth at elevated risk. Purpose: This study examined whether recent alcohol use (past 30 days) and frequent episodic heavy drinking among 7th - 12th grade Hispanic students (N = 946) in Greater…
Kim, Sarah L.
Intermittent access to alcohol in rats produces a pattern similar to alcohol binge drinking which has been shown to be associated with of alcohol dependence in humans, however direct causal evidence is missing. Moreover, the neuronal ensemble responsible for the excessive drinking behavior is currently unknown. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), an anti-reward stress brain system, has been speculated in playing a critical role during ...
Eriksson, C J P; Etelälahti, T J; Apter, S J
A number of studies have shown that stress and an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with increased voluntary alcohol drinking. Recently, associations have been found between activated HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in alcohol-preferring AA and non-preferring ANA, F2 (crossbred second generation from original AA and ANA), and Wistar rats. The aim of the present study has been to determine the role of corticosterone and alcohol-related testosterone-effects in subsequent alcohol drinking in AA, ANA, F2 and Wistar rats. The present study comprises of four substudies presenting new analyses of existing data, by which correlations between basal corticosterone levels, changes in testosterone levels during alcohol intoxications and subsequent voluntary alcohol consumption are investigated. The results displayed positive correlations between basal corticosterone levels and subsequent alcohol-mediated testosterone elevations, which was positively associated with voluntary alcohol consumption. The results also showed a negative correlation between basal corticosterone levels and alcohol-mediated testosterone decreases, which was negatively associated with alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the present study displays novel results, according to which the HPA axis, one hand, relates to testosterone elevation (potentially causing and/or strengthening reinforcement) during alcohol intoxication, which in turn may relate to higher voluntary alcohol consumption (AA rats). Vice versa, the HPA axis may also relate to alcohol-mediated testosterone decrease (causing testosterone reduction and disinforcement) and low-alcohol drinking (ANA, F2 and Wistar rats). In addition, the present results showed that alcohol-mediated testosterone changes may also, independently of the HPA axis, correlate with voluntary alcohol drinking, which indicate the impact of genetic factors. Thus, the role of the HPA-axis may be more related to situational
Marczinski, Cecile A
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Full Text Available The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20 who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1 reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months. Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol
Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D
The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with
Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett J; Federoff, David L; Fischer, Stephen M; Rasmussen, Dennis D
This study examined whether prazosin reduces alcohol drinking over the course of prolonged treatment and whether it blocks the initiation of alcohol drinking in rats with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking, that is alcohol-preferring (P) rats. In study one, alcohol-experienced P rats that had been drinking alcohol for 2 h/d for several months were treated daily with prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg body weight [BW]) for 7 weeks. In study two, alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with prazosin (0, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW) for 2 weeks prior to, or concomitantly with, the initiation of alcohol access and throughout 3 weeks of alcohol availability. Prazosin treatment and alcohol access were then discontinued for 2 weeks followed by reinstatement of alcohol access without prazosin treatment for 4 weeks, followed by resumption of daily prazosin treatment (2.0 mg/kg BW) for 3 weeks. Prazosin reduced alcohol drinking throughout 7 weeks of treatment in P rats accustomed to drinking alcohol. Following termination of prazosin treatment, alcohol drinking slowly returned to pretreatment baseline. Reduced alcohol intake was accompanied by increased water intake. In alcohol-naïve P rats, prazosin administration prior to the first opportunity to drink alcohol and throughout 3 weeks of alcohol access retarded acquisition of alcohol drinking and reduced the amount of alcohol consumed. When prazosin was administered concomitantly with the first opportunity to drink alcohol, it abolished acquisition of alcohol drinking. Discontinuation of prazosin treatment allowed expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking to gradually emerge. Prazosin retained the ability to reduce alcohol intake with repeated treatments. Prazosin decreased alcohol drinking during prolonged treatment and may be useful for treating alcoholism and alcohol-use disorders. Prazosin may also be useful for deterring the initiation of drinking in individuals with a family
de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C
The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED). The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days. A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively), and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4), significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5), and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9). The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5) in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7). Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours). Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were reported (2.6) for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9). Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.
Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n=1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol and cannabis. The response rate at the beginning of the study was 99.6% (1,369 students). The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 3.2 per 100 students year. After adjusting for alcohol consumption and cannabis use, the multivariate model revealed that a high frequency of heavy drinking was a risk factor for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio=3.89 [95%CI: 2.16 - 6.99]). The proportion of alcohol-related injuries in exposed subjects attributable to heavy drinking was 59.78% [95%CI: 32.75 - 75.94] while the population attributable fraction was 45.48% [95%CI: 24.91 - 57.77]. We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…
Background: Alcohol abuse remains one of the most serious substance abuse disorders in South African society, resulting in inordinately large social, economic and health problems at all levels of society. Alcohol consumers in South Africa are estimated to drink 16.6 l per annum, with a per capita consumption of 7.1 l.
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.
Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy
The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. This study used a 2-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred. Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week. Data were collected across 389 drinking days; 40 of these days involved AmED use. Multilevel modeling findings revealed that odds of drinking AmEDs were higher on days where individuals drank at a bar or club and drank at home relative to other locations. In addition, odds of pregaming were higher on AmED days as compared to non-AmED days. AmED use was linked with lower odds of drinking game behavior. Overall, AmEDs appear to be consumed in potentially risky contexts. In combination with prior findings that AmED days are linked with heavier alcohol use and more harms experienced, these findings support the unique nature of AmED consumption in terms of the factors that may predict or maintain potentially hazardous drinking patterns. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Roek, M.A.E.; Spijkerman, R.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and
Van Bui, Tan; Blizzard, C Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Van Truong, Ngoc Le; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark R; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana
To provide nationally representative data on alcohol consumption in Vietnam and to assess whether reported numbers of 'standard drinks' consumed have evidence of validity (particularly in rural areas where home-made alcohol is consumed from cups of varying size). A nationally representative population-based survey of 14,706 participants (46.5% males, response proportion 64.1%) aged 25-64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with WHO STEPS protocols. Data were analysed using complex survey methods. Among men, 80% reported drinking alcohol during the last year, and 40% were hazardous/harmful drinkers. Approximately 60% of men and alcohol during the last week, with one-in-four of the men reporting having consumed at least five standard drinks on at least one occasion. Numbers of standard drinks reported by men were associated with blood pressure/hypertension, particularly in rural areas (P alcohol consumption was provided by binary responses to questions on whether or not alcohol had been consumed during the reference period. Alcohol use and harmful consumption were common among Vietnamese men but less pronounced than in Western nations. Self-reports of quantity of alcohol consumed in terms of standard drinks had predictive validity for blood pressure and hypertension even in rural areas. However, using detailed measures of consumption resulted in only minor improvements in prediction compared to simple measures. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Müller, Stefanie; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
The association between the alcohol use of parents and their offspring is well established. However, little is known about the factors underlying, or mediating, this link. This study investigated whether drinking motives mediate the link between the drinking habits of parents and the frequency of their adolescent children's alcohol consumption and drunkenness. A nationally representative sample of 1,854 13- to 15-year-old students in Switzerland who drink alcohol was analyzed. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. As soon as drinking motives were included in the model, the previously significant link between the drinking habits of parents and the frequency of their adolescent children's alcohol consumption was reduced and was no longer significant for drunkenness. Thus, parents' drinking habits indirectly affected adolescent alcohol use via drinking motives, in terms of both the frequency of alcohol consumption and drunkenness. In particular, social, enhancement, and coping motives were prominent mediators in the link between parental drinking and adolescent alcohol consumption, whereas coping and enhancement motives played a key role in the link between parental drinking and adolescent drunkenness. The results of this study suggest that drinking habits of parents are not responsible for the widely reported link between the alcohol use of parents and their offspring, per se. Rather, results suggest that parental drinking shapes the drinking motives of adolescent children, which, in turn, influences adolescent alcohol use.
Marczinski, Cecile A.
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590
Tolstrup, Janne S; Hansen, Jane L; Grønbaek, Morten; Vogel, Ulla; Tjønneland, Anne; Joensen, Albert Marni; Overvad, Kim
The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls). Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited.
Knop, J; Penick, E C; Nickel, E J
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of father's alcoholism on the development and remission from alcoholic drinking by age 40. METHOD: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort that included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk; HR) and 106 matched controls (low risk; LR). Clinical...... examinations were performed at age 40 (n = 202) by a psychiatrist using structured interviews and DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: HR subjects were significantly more likely than LR subjects to develop alcohol dependence (31% vs. 16%), but not alcohol abuse (17% vs. 15%). More subjects with alcohol...... abuse were in remission at age 40 than subjects with alcohol dependence. Risk did not predict remission from either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Familial influences may play a stronger role in the development of alcoholism than in the remission or recovery from alcoholism....
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.
Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline followback interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady vs. casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type. PMID:18648928
Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E
Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cameron, Jennifer M; Heidelberg, Natalie; Simmons, Lisa; Lyle, Sarah B; Mitra-Varma, Kathakali; Correia, Chris
OBJECTIVES, PARTICIPANTS, METHODS: Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. The current study investigated drinking game participation among 133 undergraduates attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) in April of 2007. A large percentage of the sample reported lifetime (77%) and recent (52%) drinking game participation. Males were more likely to report recent participation and reported higher levels of consumption while playing drinking games. Drinking game participants were more likely to experience a range of alcohol-related problems, and the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related problems was mediated by weekly alcohol consumption. These results suggest that drinking game participation is a risk factor for elevated levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Programs should be developed to educate students about the risks of drinking game participation, and prevention programs like NASD should address drinking games.
Oei, Tian P S; Jardim, Claudia Lee
The effects of alcohol expectancies (AE) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in predicting alcohol consumption in Caucasians has been well studied. However, the role of AE and DRSE in Asian students is still not well understood. This study reported on this using Caucasian (n=98) and Asian (n=92) student samples. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to measure their hazardous alcohol consumption, and the drinking expectancy profile (DEP) to assess their alcohol related expectancies and ability to resist drinking in certain situations. Results showed that Caucasians reported significantly higher confidence, higher sexual interest, and higher tension reduction expectancies than Asians. Conversely, Asians significantly expected cognitive enhancement and negative consequences more than Caucasians. Relative to Caucasians, the Asian sample also reported that they would be more able to refuse alcohol when under social pressure. Results from regression analyses showed that for the Caucasian sample, AE, DRSE and their interactions were significant predictors of alcohol consumption. For the Asian group, the only significant effect to emerge was that DRSE was negatively related to alcohol consumption. The clinical implications of the differential pattern of results between the samples are discussed in terms of self-efficacy and negative consequences of alcohol consumption, especially when dealing with university aged individuals.
Osberg, Timothy M; Boyer, Amber
We explored the potential mediating role of willingness to experience drinking consequences and other traditional alcohol outcome predictors (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies) in explaining the association between college alcohol beliefs 1 (CABs) and the actual experience of drinking consequences among college students. The sample consisted of 415 college students tested in October 2014. Participants responded to an online survey. When compared to both types of norms and positive alcohol expectancies, CABs demonstrated the strongest associations to both willingness to experience drinking consequences and actual drinking consequences among college students. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that the impact of CABs on students' actual drinking consequences was mediated only through their willingness to experience drinking consequences. Students' college alcohol beliefs and their corresponding willingness to experience drinking consequences should be targeted in prevention and intervention programs designed to address the problem of college student drinking.
Kerr, William C; Patterson, Deidre; Koenen, Mary Albert; Greenfield, Thomas K
To estimate the average of and sources of variation in the alcohol content of drinks served on premise in 10 Northern Californian counties. Focus groups of bartenders were conducted to evaluate potential sources of drink alcohol content variation. In the main study, 80 establishments were visited by a team of research personnel who purchased and measured the volume of particular beer, wine, and spirit drinks. Brand or analysis of a sample of the drink was used to determine the alcohol concentration by volume. The average wine drink was found to contain 43% more alcohol than a standard drink, with no difference between red and white wine. The average draught beer was 22% greater than the standard. Spirit drinks differed by type with the average shot being equal to one standard drink while mixed drinks were 42% greater. Variation in alcohol content was particularly wide for wine and mixed spirit drinks. No significant differences in mean drink alcohol content were observed by county for beer or spirits but one county was lower than two others for wine. On premise drinks typically contained more alcohol than the standard drink with the exception of shots and bottled beers. Wine and mixed spirit drinks were the largest with nearly 1.5 times the alcohol of a standard drink on average. Consumers should be made aware of these substantial differences and key sources of variation in drink alcohol content, and research studies should utilize this information in the interpretation of reported numbers of drinks.
Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy
Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W
A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.
Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst
Recent studies have suggested gestational weeks 8-14 as a time window of particular importance to the intrauterine development of the male genitalia, and prenatal exposure to alcohol is under suspicion as a risk factor for cryptorchidism. We examined if prenatal exposure to alcohol, and especially...
Jaegtvik, T; Schei, E
Studies have shown that adolescents in Nordland county consume more alcohol than the national average, and that home-made liquor is an important element in the local alcohol traditions. We conducted a school based survey of 435 high school students in the municipality of Alstahaug, Nordland county, with a response rate of 85%. We found that home-made liquor was frequently consumed by students of all ages. Boys started drinking at an earlier age than girls, and continued drinking higher amounts. Access to alcohol was easy for students of all ages. The students bought alcohol themselves, had others buy it for them, or they made their own liquor. Nearly all interviewees who drank much beer, wine or brandy, also had a high consumption of home-made liquor. The consumption of liquor among adolescents in the Alstahaug community seems to be unusually high and warrants preventive action.
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning. Some research has found that alcohol consumption in adolescence does not significantly affect executive functioning while others found it does. It is possible that these discrepancies could be due to the history of alcohol consumption, that is, at what age the subjects started drinking. The aim of our study is to assess the performance on executive functioning tasks of 13–19-year-old adolescents according to their pattern of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that BD adolescents will perform worse than non-BD subjects in tasks that evaluate executive functions, and these differences will increase depending on how long they have been consuming alcohol. Three hundred and twenty-two students (48.14% females; age range 13–22 years; mean aged 16.7 ± 2.59 participated in the study; all of them had begun drinking at the age of 13 years. Participant were divided into three groups, according to their age range (13–15, 16–18, and 19–22 years and divided according to their pattern of alcohol consumption (BD and control groups. Then, the subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tasks that assess executive functions like working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, or self-control among others. The entire sample showed a normal improvement in their executive performance, but this improvement was more stable and robust in
Bragulat, Veronique; Dzemidzic, Mario; Talavage, Thomas; Davidson, Dena; O'Connor, Sean J; Kareken, David A
Small, priming doses of alcohol enhance desire to drink, and thus play a role in the loss of control of alcohol consumption. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we previously showed that alcoholic drink odors (AO; subjects' drinks of choice) induce greater nucleus accumbens (NAc) activity than non-appetitive odors (NApO; grass, leather) in subjects at risk for alcoholism. Here we hypothesized that priming exposure to alcohol would enhance responses to AO in the NAc and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison to NApO (grass, leather) and to the appetitive control odors (ApCO) of chocolate and grape. Ten hazardous drinkers (mean age = 22.7; SD = 2.9, average drinks per drinking day = 5.9, SD = 2.3; drinking days/90 days = 50.4, SD = 13.7) were scanned on a 1.5 T GE Signa MR scanner during intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer's or 6% ethanol in lactated Ringer's that was pharmacokinetically modeled to achieve a constant breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 50 mg% throughout imaging. During scanning, subjects sniffed AO, NApO, and ApCO. Alcohol infusion enhanced the contrast between AO and NApO in the NAc, and in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and precuneus/posterior cingulate regions. The contrast between AO and appetitive control odors (ApCO; chocolate and grape) was similarly larger in the orbital, medial frontal, precuneus, and posterior cingulate/retrosplenial areas, with the most robust finding being a potentiated response in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial area. The orbital region is similar to an area previously shown to manifest satiety-related decreases in activity induced by food cues. The results suggest that priming exposure to alcohol renders a limbic network more responsive to alcohol cues, potentially enhancing desire to drink.
Osberg, Timothy M.; Boyer, Amber
Objective: We explored the potential mediating role of willingness to experience drinking consequences and other traditional alcohol outcome predictors (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies) in explaining the association between college alcohol beliefs1 (CABs) and the actual experience of drinking consequences among…
... and Mortality Weekly Report ( MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing ... 44 years (N = 198,098) who reported any alcohol use or binge drinking, † by selected characteristics — Behavioral ...
Becker, Howard C
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits. This progressive dysfunctional (allostatic) state is characterized by changes in neuroendocrine and brain stress pathways that underlie expression of withdrawal symptoms that reflect a negative affective state (dysphoria, anxiety), as well as increased motivation to self-administer alcohol. This review highlights literature supportive of this theoretical framework for alcohol addiction. In particular, evidence for stress-related neural, physiological, and behavioral changes associated with chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal experience is presented. Additionally, this review focuses on the effects of chronic alcohol-induced changes in several pro-stress neuropeptides (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) and anti-stress neuropeptide systems (nocicepton, neuropeptide Y, oxytocin) in contributing to the stress, negative emotional, and motivational consequences of chronic alcohol exposure. Studies involving use of animal models have significantly increased our understanding of the dynamic stress-related physiological mechanisms and psychological underpinnings of alcohol addiction. This, in turn, is crucial for developing new and more effective therapeutics for treating excessive, harmful drinking, particularly stress-enhanced alcohol consumption. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "Alcoholism". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kaziya M.; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A.; Waltermire, Ryan S.; Szumlinski, Karen K.
Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-Dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal. PMID:26048424
Anpaa; Fleury, B; Craplet, M; Nalpas, B
In order to improve knowledge on the typology of drinking drivers, their clinical management and their outcome in terms of alcohol consumption following treatment, 1086 drinking drivers attending one of the 18 outpatient centres for the care of alcoholics participating to the study were studied; those requiring long-term therapy or those mandated to treatment were followed-up during one year. Most of them (95%) were men with a mean age of 38 years. The drinking-driving offence was recorded during an alcohol spot-check (62%), following a traffic accident (23%) or a traffic offence (15%). For 35%, it was the second offence and 19% have been mandated to treatment. Alcohol consumption before checking were based on spirits in 67% of cases and only wine or beer for the remaining 33%. Severe alcohol problems (i.e. abuse or dependence) were diagnosed in 38%, both in men and women. Mean blood alcohol level was 1.6 g/l, without any difference according to sex; it was significantly increased in those checked following a traffic accident, in those having drank spirits, wine and beer and in those having a severe alcohol problem. Follow-up was organized for those mandated to treatment and for a third of the others, including mainly those second-offenders and those with a severe alcohol problem. Observance to appointments were similar in both groups. At the end of follow-up (350 subjects were concerned), 75% were either non- or moderate drinkers while the 25% remaining were still abuser or dependent; the single parameter independently and significantly associated to an absence of alcohol behaviour improvement was "to be mandated to treatment" (RR=4.4 CI [2.03-9.69], palcohol problems in drinking drivers and demonstrate that women are concerned as much as men. They assess that since increased blood alcohol levels in drivers are observed whatever the type of alcoholic beverages consumed, all these latter without any exception are dangerous when drank in excess before driving
Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early
Amodeo, Leslie R.; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day (PD) PD26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed ratio (FR) 16-lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low adolescent drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and had faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood whereas the low consumers were no different than controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that results from complex interactions of numerous risk factors - genetic and environmental - over time, eventually leading to the diseased phenotypes. Thus, while epidemiological studies can point to risk factors, they cannot determine cause and effect relationships, and are unable to give biological and clinical insights into carcinogenesis. The link between any risk factor and carcinogenesis needs to be validated in experimental models. This is particularly true in epidemiological studies on alcohol consumption and its consequences. While there is no doubt that heavy alcohol consumption has devastating health effects, the inconsistencies in alcohol-related epidemiological studies and cancer suffer from possible sources of the variability in outcomes, ranging from inaccuracy of self-report of consumption to the problem of correlating cancer that started decades earlier to current or recent alcohol consumption. To further study the interactions between alcohol and cancer, the use of "Molecular Pathological Epidemiology" (MPE) advocated by Ogino et al. for dissecting the interplay between etiological factors, cellular and molecular characteristics, and disease progression in cancer is appropriate. MPE does not consider cancer as a single entity, rather it integrates analyses of epidemiological studies with the macroenvironment and molecular and microenvironment. This approach allows investigating the relationships between potential etiological agents and cancer based on molecular signatures. More research is needed to fully elucidate the link between heavy alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer, and to further investigate the roles of acetaldehyde and FAEEs in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
GUILAMO-RAMOS, VINCENT; JACCARD, JAMES; TURRISI, ROBERT; JOHANSSON, MARGARET; BOURIS, ALIDA
Objective This research examines correlates of mothers’ misperceptions of their adolescent children’s regular alcohol consumption. Theories of adolescent autonomy, attribution processes, and stereotypes were used to make predictions about the biasing effects on attribution accuracy of maternal age, relationship satisfaction, and supervision of one’s adolescent, as well as the adolescent’s age, gender, physical development level, and peers. Method The present research used a nationally representative sample of approximately 20,000 parent-adolescent dyads from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a school-based sample of 20,745 adolescents in Grades 7–12. Mothers indicated their perceptions of their adolescent children’s alcohol use, and adolescents reported their actual use of alcohol. Results There was a tendency for mothers to underestimate alcohol use, sometimes substantially so. Maternal attributions followed a correlational pattern consistent with the scientific literature. There was evidence, however, that mothers may overgeneralize the applicability of these correlates, resulting in misattributions. Conclusions Our analyses have important practical implications for parent-based intervention programs aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use. First, programs should alert parents to the cues that signify adolescent alcohol consumption. Second, intervention programs should appropriately sensitize parents to identifying adolescent alcohol use in cases in which the child may not fit the stereotype of an adolescent drinker. Third, intervention messages should emphasize firm and consistent parental actions that minimize alcohol use independent of the particular cues that an adolescent is projecting. PMID:16847542
Slicker, Ellen K.
Examines patterns of alcohol use at a mid-South state university so as to discover the reasons students (N=403) endorse for not drinking on those occasions when they chose not to drink. Results indicate that safety needs, the risk of underage drinking, the affordability of alcohol, and religiosity all contributed to decisions not to drink. (RJM)
Both groups were asked to complete a self‑rating questionnaire containing information, which included questions about age, sex, monthly income, education level, marital status, height, weight, alcohol drinking and smoking habits. Student's t‑test, Pearson's Chi-square and logistic regression were used to statistical analysis ...
current work aimed to evaluate demographic factors in an IBS population in Iran using a case‑control design. Subjects and Methods. From, October 2010 to October 2011, we performed. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index,. Alcohol Drinking and Smoking Habits on Irritable. Bowel Syndrome: A Case Control ...
Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A; Gasser, Melissa L; Kaysen, Debra; Norris, Jeanette; Wiers, Reinout W
As research on implicit (in the sense of fast/reflexive/impulsive) alcohol associations and alcohol advances, there is increasing emphasis on understanding the circumstances under which implicit alcohol associations predict drinking. In this study, we investigated habitualness of drinking (i.e., the extent to which drinking is automatic or occurs without thinking) as a moderator of the relations between several measures of implicit alcohol associations and key drinking outcomes. A sample of 506 participants (57% female) completed web-based measures of implicit alcohol associations (drinking identity, alcohol approach, and alcohol excitement), along with indicators of habitualness, and typical alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and risk of alcohol use disorders. As expected, implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, were positively associated with, and predicted unique variance in, drinking outcomes. Further, habitualness emerged as a consistent, positive predictor of drinking outcomes. Contrary to expectations, habitualness rarely moderated the relation between implicit alcohol associations and drinking outcomes. Although moderation was rarely observed, findings indicated that even mild levels of habitualness are risky. Findings also continue to support implicit alcohol associations, particularly drinking identity, as a risk factor for hazardous drinking. Collectively, this suggests the importance of targeting both in prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher
Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.
de Haan L
Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were
Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew
The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were
Hustad, John T P; Eaton Short, Erica; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P; O'Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Kahler, Christopher W
College students who are cited for violating campus alcohol policy are often fined or sanctioned to complete an intervention or public service. Although some interventions have been found efficacious for mandated students, it is possible that being cited for an alcohol-related incident alone may be sufficient to reduce alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of alcohol consumption patterns following a citation for an alcohol policy violation. Participants were college students (N = 445) who received a citation for a campus alcohol policy violation at a small northeastern liberal arts college. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back indicating their daily alcohol use 2 weeks prior to the citation through 2 weeks after the citation. Results indicated that participants decreased their alcohol use following a citation event. However, the reduction in alcohol consumption was modest, suggesting that the citation event itself has a very temporary influence on the drinking of college students. Additional research is needed to reconcile these findings with those from other studies that found a more meaningful citation effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moaddab, Mahsa; Mangone, Elizabeth; Ray, Madelyn H; McDannald, Michael A
Adolescent alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol-use disorder in adulthood. Yet, the changes in adult neural function resulting from adolescent alcohol drinking remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that adolescent alcohol drinking alters basolateral amygdala (BLA) function, making alcohol drinking BLA-dependent in adulthood. Male, Long Evans rats were given voluntary, intermittent access to alcohol (20% ethanol) or a bitter, isocaloric control solution, across adolescence. Half of the rats in each group received neurotoxic BLA lesions. In adulthood, all rats were given voluntary, intermittent access to alcohol. BLA lesions reduced adult alcohol drinking in rats receiving adolescent access to alcohol, but not in rats receiving adolescent access to the control solution. The effect of the BLA lesion was most apparent in high alcohol drinking adolescent rats. The BLA is essential for fear learning and is hyper-active in anxiety disorders. The results are consistent with adolescent heavy alcohol drinking inducing BLA hyper-activity, providing a neural mechanism for comorbid alcohol use disorder and anxiety disorders.
Pavanello, Sofia; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Sartore, Daniela; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo
Regular and irregular abuse of alcohol are global health priorities associated with diseases at multiple sites, including cancer. Mechanisms of diseases induced by alcohol are closely related to its metabolism. Among conventional markers of alcohol abuse, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes is prognostic of alcohol-related cancer and its predictivity increases when combined with functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B [rs1229984] and ADH1C [rs698]) and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 [rs671]). Whether these genetic variants can influence abuse in alcohol drinking and MCV has never been examined in drunk-driving traffic offenders. We examined 149 drunk drivers, diagnosed as alcohol abusers according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls), all Caucasian males. Alcohol intake was assessed according to self-reported drink-units/d and MCV unadjusted and adjusted for age, smoking, and body mass index. Multivariable models were used to compute MCV adjusted means. Genotype analyses were performed by PCR on DNA from blood. The adjusted MCV mean was higher in drunk-driving abusers than in controls (92 vs. 91fL; Pdrunk-driving abusers (P=.008), reported higher drink-units/d (P=.0126), and had larger MCV (P=.035). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with MCV. ADH1B*1/*1 polymorphism is significantly associated with being a drunk-driving abuser, higher alcohol drinking, and MCV enlargement. This suggests that drunk drivers with augmented MCV modulated by the alcohol metabolic ADH1B*1/*1 genotype may be at higher risk of driving incapability and of alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borsari, Brian; Neal, Dan J.; Collins, Susan E.; Carey, Kate B.
This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol-related problems and 3 indexes of risky drinking in college student drinkers: number of drinks consumed per week, frequency of binge drinking, and estimated blood alcohol levels (BALs). Use of 2 independent samples (N1 = 204, N2 = 181) allowed a cross-validation of obtained associations. Results indicated that neither binge drinking frequency nor BAL were more highly related to alcohol-related problems than was weekly drinking. Furthermore, BAL did not provide unique explanatory power in accounting for alcohol-related problems; mixed results were obtained regarding the relationship of binge drinking estimates with problems. PMID:11767264
Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida
This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…
Where, when and what type of alcohol do pregnant women drink? ... Previous study in the Bosomtwe district put the prevalence of women drinking alcohol in pregnancy as 20.4%. Objectives: To describe the ... Key Words: Reproductive years, Alcohol consumption, Foetal Alcohol Syndrome, Ghana, Women, Akpeteshie ...
Viet Cuong, Pham; Casswell, Sally; Parker, Karl; Callinan, Sarah; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Kazantseva, Elena; Meier, Petra; MacKintosh, Anne-Marie; Piazza, Marina; Gray-Phillip, Gaile; Parry, Charles
This study examines the proportion of alcohol markets consumed in harmful drinking occasions in a range of high-, middle-income countries and assesses the implications of these findings for conflict of interest between alcohol producers and public health and the appropriate role of the alcohol industry in alcohol policy space. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 10 countries as part of the International Alcohol Control study. Alcohol consumption was measured using location- and beverage-specific measures. A level of consumption defined as harmful use of alcohol was chosen and the proportion of the total market consumed in these drinking occasions was calculated for both commercial and informal alcohol. In all countries, sizeable proportions of the alcohol market were consumed during harmful drinking occasions. In general, a higher proportion of alcohol was consumed in harmful drinking occasions by respondents in the middle-income countries than respondents in the high-income countries. The proportion of informal alcohol consumed in harmful drinking occasions was lower than commercial alcohol. Informal alcohol is less likely to be consumed in harmful drinking occasions compared with commercial alcohol. The proportion of commercial alcohol consumed in harmful drinking occasions in a range of alcohol markets shows the reliance of the transnational alcohol corporations on harmful alcohol use. This reliance underpins industry lobbying against effective policy and support for ineffective approaches. The conflict of interest between the alcohol industry and public health requires their exclusion from the alcohol policy space. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Gasser, M.L.; Kaysen, D.; Norris, J.; Wiers, R.W.
Introduction: As research on implicit (in the sense of fast/reflexive/impulsive) alcohol associations and alcohol advances, there is increasing emphasis on understanding the circumstances under which implicit alcohol associations predict drinking. In this study, we investigated habitualness of
Pham Bich Diep
Full Text Available Background: This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Methods: Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Results: Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.
Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E S; Knibbe, Ronald A; De Vries, Nanne
This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C
Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot
Foster, Susan E; Vaughan, Roger D; Foster, William H; Califano, Joseph A
To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry. Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets. The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research. A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources. Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking. Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence. The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001. The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.
Mustonen, Heli; Mäkelä, Pia; Lintonen, Tomi
The first aim was to estimate the extent to which the variation in alcohol use across specific drinking occasions arises from variation at the occasion level and from variation at the drinker level. The second aim was to identify characteristics of drinking situations that moderate or increase situational alcohol use beyond the influence of drinker-level characteristics. The general population aged 15-69 years in Finland was sampled randomly in 2008. The multilevel analysis was based on data from 1511 drinkers and 2933 drinking occasions that occurred in the 7 days before the interview. Alcohol use was operationalised as estimated blood alcohol level (BAL). Characteristics of drinking occasions included location, circumstance, company and timing. Drinker-level data included demographic and drinking pattern variables. Fifty-three percent of the variance in BAL was between occasions and 47% between respondents, for both women and men. With drinking patterns and demographic characteristics controlled for, the dominant characteristics of drinking occasions predisposing to greater intoxication were late-night drinking, across locations and for both genders. For private locations, predisposing characteristics included drinking on weekends for both genders and drinking with friends for men. Situational and drinker levels are equally important in determining the BAL in drinking occasions; therefore, prevention efforts should be targeted at both risky individuals and risky drinking occasions. Occasions occurring late at night, often at home and with friends, are a central challenge for targeting preventive efforts related to situational drinking.[Mustonen H, Mäkelä P, Lintonen T. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:772-784]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo
While several researchers have proposed a causal relationship between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption and subsequent alcohol intake, there is a dearth of research exploring the potential mechanisms underpinning this association. Marczinski and colleagues (in press) report the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-groups study assessing whether an initial AmED dose primes an increased motivation to drink relative to alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) received either alcohol (0.91 ml/kg vodka), energy drink (ED; 1.82 ml/kg Red Bull(®) ), AmED, or a placebo beverage and then self-reported their motivation to drink via the Desire-for-Drug scale. Subjective ratings of "desire more alcohol" were significantly higher than predrink in the placebo, alcohol, and AmED conditions, with this effect apparent at more time points in the AmED condition. While it was concluded that EDs may increase alcohol priming, between-condition analyses revealed that ratings did not differ significantly in AmED and alcohol conditions, with moderate magnitude treatment effects at most, and ratings of desire generally closer to 0 (absence of desire) than 100 (very much desire). While the study by Marczinski and colleagues fills an important gap in the literature, direct measurement of AmED priming's effect on subsequent alcohol consumption using a within-subjects design and appropriate statistical comparison is required to (i) establish the practical implications of these results for AmED consumers and (ii) discount any individual differences in such priming effects. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Christopher R Olson
Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.
Velazquez, Cayley E; Poulos, Natalie S; Latimer, Lara A; Pasch, Keryn E
To explore associations between energy drink consumption and alcohol use among college students. Participants included 585 students (m age=18.7; 47.0% White, 21% Hispanic, 25% Asian, 7% other race/ethnicity; 56.0% female). Energy drink behaviors included past month and past week consumption. Alcohol use behaviors included past month and past two week consumption, as well as heavy drinking and quantity of alcohol consumed. Consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol was also measured. Linear and logistic regression analyses between energy drink consumption and alcohol use were run controlling for gender, age, and race/ethnicity. For each one unit increase in past month (i.e., additional day used) energy drink use, the likelihood of past month alcohol use increased by 80%, heavy drinking by 80% and past month energy drinks mixed with alcohol use by 90%. Similar results were found for past week energy drink use. A positive relationship between energy drink use and quantity of alcohol consumed during a single episode of drinking was also found (pconsumption and alcohol use as well as quantity of alcohol consumed were found, with relationships stronger among males than females. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Energy drinks are readily available to students and pose potential health risks. Students who report greater energy drink consumption also consume more alcohol, are more likely to mix energy drinks and alcohol, and experience heavy episodes of drinking, which is problematic given the potential negative consequences of these drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.
Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C
Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy
Nayak, Madhabika B.; Kerr, William; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Pillai, Aravind
Aims: There is sparse literature on drink alcohol content in developing countries. This study documented detailed information on drink sizes and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages consumed in three different parts of India. Methods: Data primarily from formative phases of studies on alcohol use patterns in the states of Delhi, Rajasthan and Goa are reported. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants and drinking respondents were used to assess different beverage types and to empirically measure actual drink sizes as poured. Investigation of ethanol content included the use of biochemical analyses, the alcoholmeter and the Analox Analyser AM3. Respondents interviewed in the post-formative phase in one study were also asked to define the volume of their drinks by indicating pour levels in select drinking vessels. Results: A wide range of alcoholic drinks were documented that varied in ethanol concentration across and within sites. Drink sizes, particularly for high-strength beverages, varied both by study site and respondent, with pours of distilled spirits on average being larger than standard measures. Conclusion: Estimates of both mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking amounts are influenced by variability in alcohol concentration and respondent-defined pour sizes. The variation in drink alcohol content found across Indian states indicates that prior to conducting quantitative surveys, preliminary work on sources of drink alcohol content variation should be undertaken to tailor measurement tools to specific beverages and drinking practices observed. Recommendations for alcohol research in developing countries are provided. PMID:18832137
Nayak, Madhabika B; Kerr, William; Greenfield, Thomas K; Pillai, Aravind
There is sparse literature on drink alcohol content in developing countries. This study documented detailed information on drink sizes and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages consumed in three different parts of India. Data primarily from formative phases of studies on alcohol use patterns in the states of Delhi, Rajasthan and Goa are reported. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants and drinking respondents were used to assess different beverage types and to empirically measure actual drink sizes as poured. Investigation of ethanol content included the use of biochemical analyses, the alcoholmeter and the Analox Analyser AM3. Respondents interviewed in the post-formative phase in one study were also asked to define the volume of their drinks by indicating pour levels in select drinking vessels. A wide range of alcoholic drinks were documented that varied in ethanol concentration across and within sites. Drink sizes, particularly for high-strength beverages, varied both by study site and respondent, with pours of distilled spirits on average being larger than standard measures. Estimates of both mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking amounts are influenced by variability in alcohol concentration and respondent-defined pour sizes. The variation in drink alcohol content found across Indian states indicates that prior to conducting quantitative surveys, preliminary work on sources of drink alcohol content variation should be undertaken to tailor measurement tools to specific beverages and drinking practices observed. Recommendations for alcohol research in developing countries are provided.
Antai, D.; Lopez, G. B.; Antai, J.; Anthony, D. S.
Alcohol use and associated alcohol-related harm (ARH) are a prevalent and important public health problem, with alcohol representing about 4% of the global burden of disease. A discussion of ARH secondary to alcohol consumption necessitates a consideration of the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking pattern. This study examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and self-reported ARH. Pearson chi-square test (χ 2) and logistic regression analyses were used on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). The NCS-R is a cross-sectional nationally representative sample. Data was obtained by face-to-face interviews from 9282 adults aged ≥18 years in the full sample, and 5,692 respondents in a subsample of the full sample. Results presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Alcohol drinking patterns (frequency of drinking, and drinks per occasion) were associated with increased risks of self-reported ARH; binge or “risky” drinking was strongly predictive of ARH than other categories of drinks per occasion or frequency of drinking; and men had significantly higher likelihood of ARH in relation to frequency of drinking and drinks per occasion. Findings provide evidence for public health practitioners to target alcohol prevention strategies at the entire population of drinkers. PMID:25057502
Blegen, Mariah B; da Silva E Silva, Daniel; Bock, Roland; Morisot, Nadege; Ron, Dorit; Alvarez, Veronica A
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured. The goal was to identify a paradigm where operant behaviors such as lever presses and nose pokes, as well as other tracked behavior such as licks and head entries, can be used to reliably predict blood alcohol concentration (BAC). All mice were first exposed to alcohol in the home cage using the "drinking in the dark" (DID) procedure for 3 weeks and then were trained in alcohol self-administration using either of the operant paradigms for several weeks. Even without sucrose fading or food pre-training, mice acquired alcohol self-administration with both paradigms. However, neither lever press nor nose-poke rates were good predictors of alcohol intake or BAC. Only the lick rate and consumed alcohol were consistently and significantly correlated with BAC. Using this paradigm that accurately measures alcohol intake, unsupervised cluster analysis revealed three groups of mice: high-drinking (43%), low-drinking (37%), and non-drinking mice (20%). High-drinking mice showed faster acquisition of operant responding and achieved higher BACs than low-drinking mice. Lick rate and volume consumed varied with the alcohol concentration made available only for high- and low-drinking mice, but not for non-drinking mice. In addition, high- and low-drinking mice showed similar patterns during extinction and significant cue-induced reinstatement of
González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.
Chromatography is, at present, the most used technique to determine the purity of alcoholic drinks. This involves a careful separation of the components of the liquid elements. However, since this technique requires sophisticated instrumentation, there are alternative techniques such as conductivity measurements and UV-Vis and infrared spectrometries. We report here a method based on salt-induced crystallization patterns formed during the evaporation of alcoholic drops. We found that droplets of different samples form different structures upon drying, which we characterize by their radial density profiles. We prove that using the dried deposit of a spirit as a control sample, our method allows us to differentiate between pure and adulterated drinks. As a proof of concept, we study tequila.
Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il
Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L
Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.
van de Wiel, A; de Lange, D W
Many observational studies have shown an association between moderate alcohol consumption and a lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some of these studies, whether or not inspired by the French paradox, suggest a more favourable effect of wine than of other alcoholic drinks. Certain polyphenols including the flavonoids, more abundant in red than in white wine, are held responsible for this 'bonus' effect. However, this conclusion seems premature, since no significant bioactive effect of wine polyphenols has been shown in humans so far. Furthermore, wine drinking proves to be associated with a healthier lifestyle profile than consumption of beer and liquor, and this may have a substantial influence on the outcome of studies. In contrast to moderate drinking, incidental heavy or binge drinking is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk by influences both on the electrical conduction system of the heart and the process of atherothrombosis. Although only prospective randomised intervention trials including a sufficient number of people will give definite answers, the chances are small that they will ever be performed given the ethical and practical objections of such studies. Available data so far justify the conclusion with regard to cardiovascular risk that the pattern of drinking is of more importance than the content of the bottle.
Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.
Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis, i...... for the association between alcohol drinking habits and the risk of developing acute coronary syndrome, if any, is very limited....
Iakunchykova, Olena P; Andreeva, Tatiana I; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Chislovska, Natalia; Antipkin, Yuri
OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents. DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period between 25 December 1992 and 23 J...
Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G
Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.
Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris
It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to
Full Text Available Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e. percepts of complete left or right images and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol’s effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol’s effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry.
Full Text Available FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1 Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2 The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3 Blood alcohol concentration (BAC was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4 Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5 Baseline corticosterone (CORT was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T and rs3800373 (T/G, were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162 from 21–26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.
Tucker, Joan S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
Mixing alcohol with energy drinks is associated with heavier drinking and related problems among college students. However, little is known about how high school drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks (AmED) compare to those who do not (AwoED). This study compares high school AmED and AwoED users on their alcohol use during middle and high school, as well as key domains of functioning in high school. Two surveys were conducted three years apart in adolescents initially recruited from 16 middle schools in Southern California. The analytic sample consists of 696 past month drinkers. Multivariable models compared AmED and AwoED users on alcohol use, mental health, social functioning, academic orientation, delinquency and other substance use at age 17, and on their alcohol use and related cognitions at age 14. AmED was reported by 13% of past month drinkers. AmED and AwoED users did not differ on alcohol use or cognitions in middle school, but AmED users drank more often, more heavily, and reported more negative consequences in high school. AmED users were also more likely to report poor grades, delinquent behavior, substance use-related unsafe driving, public intoxication, and drug use than AwoED users in high school. Group differences were not found on mental health, social functioning, or academic aspirations. AmED use is common among high school drinkers. The higher risk behavioral profile of these young AmED users, which includes drug use and substance use-related unsafe driving, is a significant cause for concern and warrants further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mallett, Kimberly A; Bachrach, Rachel L; Turrisi, Rob
Interventions for college student drinking often incorporate interpersonal factors such as descriptive and/or injunctive norms to correct misperceptions about campus drinking (e.g., BASICS [Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students] and social-norms campaigns). Some interventions also focus on intra-personal factors of alcohol consumption, which can be considered as one's own perception of drinking, one's attitude toward drinking, and one's intended outcome related to drinking. The current study sought to extend previous work by examining relationships between both inter- and intrapersonal perceptions of drinking and reported drinking behavior. College students (N=303) completed questionnaires assessing drinking behaviors, perceptions of other students' attitudes toward drinking (i.e., injunctive norms), their perception of the quantity and frequency of student/friend drinking (i.e., descriptive norms), and their attitudes and perceptions toward their own alcohol consumption (i.e., intrapersonal factors). Multiple regressions were used to analyze the unique influence between inter- and intrapersonal drinking perceptions and drinking behavior. Among the interpersonal perceptions of drinking, only closest friend's drinking significantly predicted alcohol consumption, whereas all three intrapersonal factors significantly predicted alcohol consumption. Suggestions for enhancing college student drinking interventions are discussed.
Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob
Objective: Interventions for college student drinking often incorporate interpersonal factors such as descriptive and/or injunctive norms to correct misperceptions about campus drinking (e.g., BASICS [Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students] and social-norms campaigns). Some interventions also focus on intra-personal factors of alcohol consumption, which can be considered as one's own perception of drinking, one's attitude toward drinking, and one's intended outcome related to drinking. The current study sought to extend previous work by examining relationships between both inter- and intrapersonal perceptions of drinking and reported drinking behavior. Method: College students (N = 303) completed questionnaires assessing drinking behaviors, perceptions of other students' attitudes toward drinking (i.e., injunctive norms), their perception of the quantity and frequency of student/friend drinking (i.e., descriptive norms), and their attitudes and perceptions toward their own alcohol consumption (i.e., intrapersonal factors). Results: Multiple regressions were used to analyze the unique influence between inter- and intrapersonal drinking perceptions and drinking behavior. Conclusions: Among the interpersonal perceptions of drinking, only closest friend's drinking significantly predicted alcohol consumption, whereas all three intrapersonal factors significantly predicted alcohol consumption. Suggestions for enhancing college student drinking interventions are discussed. PMID:19261229
Cameron, Jennifer M.; Heidelberg, Natalie; Simmons, Lisa; Lyle, Sarah B.; Mitra-Varma, Kathakali; Correia, Chris
Objectives, Participants, Methods: Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. The current study investigated drinking game participation among 133 undergraduates attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) in April of 2007.…
Although most people in Western society drink alcohol and regard this to be harmless and normal, some people drink excessively and develop an alcohol use disorder. This thesis examined the onset, course and treatment of alcohol use disorders in the general population using 3-year longitudinal data
Miller, Mary Beth; Borsari, Brian; Fernandez, Anne C; Yurasek, Ali M; Hustad, John T P
Both drinking location and pregaming have been associated with heavy alcohol use among college students, yet the manner by which they uniquely contribute to alcohol intoxication remains unclear. The current study examined the unique utility of drinking location and pregaming in predicting alcohol intoxication among college students who violated campus alcohol policy. Between 2011 and 2012, mandated college students who reported drinking prior to their referral events (N = 212, 41% female, 80% White, Mage = 19.4 y) completed a computerized assessment of drinking location and related behaviors as part of larger research trial. Chi-squared statistics, t-tests, one-way analyses of covariance, and regression were used to examine study aims. Participants were most likely (44%) to report drinking in off-campus housing prior to the referral event, and approximately half (47%) reported pregaming. Alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral event differed significantly as a function of both drinking location and pregaming, but pregaming did not moderate the association between drinking location and alcohol intoxication among mandated students. Female birth sex, pregaming, and drinking at either fraternities or off-campus housing predicted greater levels of alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral incident, while drinking in a residence hall/dorm predicted lower intoxication. Drinking location and pregaming are distinct predictors of alcohol intoxication among mandated college students. Future interventions may benefit from targeting both where and how college students consume alcohol.
Carlson, Scott R; Johnson, Season C
Student drinking is a major problem on North American campuses and impulsivity is a significant risk factor for heavy drinking. The present study investigates the moderation of the impulsivity-drinking relationship by the expectation that having a drink will lead to positive experiences. Undergraduate drinkers (n=292) completed measures of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11; BIS-11), positive drinking expectancies, and alcohol use. Expectancies moderated the relationship between BIS-11 scores and alcohol use. BIS-11 scores were significantly related to typical alcohol quantity, frequency, quantity X frequency, and binge drinking frequency for individuals with average and high levels of positive expectancies, but not for those with few positive expectancies. Implications for interventions targeted at highly impulsive students, using expectancy modification are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M
Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.
Mørch, Lina S; Johansen, Ditte; Thygesen, Lau C
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of alcohol intake and drinking pattern on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 17 647 nurses were followed from 1993 until the end of 2001. At baseline participants completed a questionnaire on alcohol intake and other lifestyle......-related factors. Data were analysed using Cox's proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During follow-up 457 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer was 2.30 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.56-3.39] for alcohol intake of 22-27 drinks per week, compared to 1-3 drinks per week. Among...... alcohol consumers, weekly alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 2% for each additional drink consumed. Weekend consumption increased the risk with 4% for each additional drink consumed friday through sunday. Binge drinking of 4-5 drinks the latest weekday increased risk with 55...
Visnovič Poredoš, Aleksandra; Kolšek, Marko
Alcohol consumption in Slovenia is one of the highest in Europe. In Slovenia there were a few epidemiological studies on drinking habits among adult population, but none of them has used the AUDIT questionnaire or the Internet for research. The aim of this study was to analyse the drinking habits of the visitors of our website www.nalijem.si, which included an anonymous questionnaire for self-assessment of alcohol drinking. A cross sectional survey was conducted between January 2010 and December 2013. The front page of our website included an invitation to fill in the anonymous web-based questionnaire; a part of it was the AUDIT 10 questionnaire. Everyone who filled in the questionnaire completely received an individualized feedback on his drinking. 54.020 persons visited our website, 15.817 (29.3%) of them started to fill in the questionnaire, 12.800 (80.9%) filled it in completely. In the analysis, 9.087 (71.0%) persons were included who completed the questionnaire for themselves. There were 37.1% (N=3.373) women and 62.9% (N=5.714) men. The average age was 33 years, the majority was employed (59.7%, N=5.222). The minority drank alcohol 2-4 times per month (32.8%, N=2.977) and most of them (64.5%, N=5.869) drank more than 3 units of alcohol per one occasion on a typical day. The average AUDIT 10 score was 11.7 for men, 8.1 for women. A large percentage of participants were identified as hazardous and harmful drinkers, which should be a matter of serious concern.
Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing
To investigate the association between parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs) and alcohol drinking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study. 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. 1738 students (mean age 14.6 years ± 2.0, boys 67.8%). Drinking status, drinking intention and exposure to 9 PPDPs (eg, seeing parents drunk, helping parents buy alcohol, encouraged to drink by parents) were reported by students. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted ORs (AORs) of drinking and intention to drink by each PPDP and the number of PPDPs (0, 1-2, 3-4, 5 or above), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, parental drinking and school clustering. Nearly half (48.6%) of the students were ever-drinkers, 16.2% drank monthly (at least once per month) and 40.3% intended to drink in the next 12 months. Most PPDPs were significantly associated with ever drinking (AORs 1.40-6.20), monthly drinking (AORs 1.12-8.20) and intention to drink (AORs 1.40-5.02). Both ever and monthly drinking were most strongly associated with parental training of drinking capacity (ability to drink more without getting drunk) with AORs of 6.20 and 8.20 (both pdrinking intention was most strongly associated with parental encouragement of drinking and training of drinking capacity with AORs of 3.19 and 5.02 (both pdrinking, monthly drinking and drinking intention in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. More studies, especially prospective studies, should be conducted to confirm these results, followed by interventional studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Foerster, Maryline; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gmel, Gerhard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Cornuz, Jacques; Hayoz, Daniel; Pécoud, Alain; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Paccaud, Fred; Rodondi, Nicolas
Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with lower coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. However, data on the CAD risk associated with high alcohol consumption are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of heavier drinking on 10-year CAD risk in a population with high mean alcohol consumption. In a population-based study of 5,769 adults (aged 35 to 75 years) without cardiovascular disease in Switzerland, 1-week alcohol consumption was categorized as 0, 1 to 6, 7 to 13, 14 to 20, 21 to 27, 28 to 34, and > or =35 drinks/week or as nondrinkers (0 drinks/week), moderate (1 to 13 drinks/week), high (14 to 34 drinks/week), and very high (> or =35 drinks/week). Blood pressure and lipids were measured, and 10-year CAD risk was calculated according to the Framingham risk score. Seventy-three percent (n = 4,214) of the participants consumed alcohol; 16% (n = 909) were high drinkers and 2% (n = 119) very high drinkers. In multivariate analysis, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from a mean +/- SE of 1.57 +/- 0.01 mmol/L in nondrinkers to 1.88 +/- 0.03 mmol/L in very high drinkers); triglycerides (1.17 +/- 1.01 to 1.32 +/- 1.05 mmol/L), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (127.4 +/- 0.4 to 132.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg and 78.7 +/- 0.3 to 81.7 +/- 0.9 mm Hg, respectively) (all p values for trend alcohol use, with a J-shaped relation. Increasing wine consumption was more related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas beer and spirits were related to increased triglyceride levels. In conclusion, as measured by 10-year CAD risk, the protective effect of alcohol consumption disappears in very high drinkers, because the beneficial increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is offset by the increases in blood pressure levels.
Butler, Adam B.; Dodge, Kama D.; Faurote, Eric J.
We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by gender. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking. PMID:20604635
Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.
Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…
Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M
Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D
Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on
Walker, Stephanie; Higgs, Suzanne; Terry, Philip
Evidence suggests that college students are often unclear about how much alcohol is present in different drinks. To evaluate the abilities of students to estimate the alcohol contents of drinks, both in relative and absolute terms, and to examine how alcohol strength informs behavior. For 10 popular drinks that varied by alcohol content, beverage and volume, 209 UK university students rank-ordered the drinks according to total alcohol content and then estimated, for each drink, the number of UK "units" of alcohol contained and its percentage alcohol-by-volume (% ABV). Participants also reported the importance of drink strength as a factor in drink choice, and its influence in different scenarios. There was low but significant concordance between participants' rank-orderings of drinks by strength, and the correlation of mean ranks with correct ranks was also significant. However, their explicit estimates of the numbers of "units" in the drinks, and their % ABV values, often diverged dramatically from actual values. Participants tended to overestimate the unit contents of spirit-based drinks but underestimated the unit contents of beers and wine; women were consistently less accurate than men, typically making greater underestimates for commonly-consumed drinks. Over one-third of the sample reported that strength influenced drink choice, but its importance ranked below flavor and cost; drink strength might contribute to drink choice depending on the drinking situation. Conclusion/Importance: Young drinkers (women especially) have a poor awareness of the alcohol contents of different drinks, particularly wines and beers, but they make better judgments of relative strength.
Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Tujague, Jennifer; Brown, Stephan E
Empirically based estimates of the mean alcohol content of beer, wine and spirits drinks from a national sample of US drinkers are not currently available. A sample of 310 drinkers from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey were re-contacted to participate in a telephone survey with specific questions about the drinks they consume. Subjects were instructed to prepare their usual drink of each beverage at home and to measure each alcoholic beverage and other ingredients with a provided beaker. Information on the brand or type of each beverage was used to specify the percentage of alcohol. The weighted mean alcohol content of respondents' drinks was 0.67 ounces overall, 0.56 ounces for beer, 0.66 ounces for wine and 0.89 ounces for spirits. Spirits and wine drink contents were particularly variable with many high-alcohol drinks observed. While the 0.6-ounce of alcohol drink standard appears to be a reasonable single standard, it cannot capture the substantial variation evident in this sample and it underestimates average wine and spirits ethanol content. Direct measurement or beverage-specific mean ethanol content estimates would improve the precision of survey alcohol assessment.
Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P
The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All
Morean, Meghan E; Cooney, Judith L
Military service is associated with increased rates of heavy drinking. Widely used clinical practices (e.g., motivational interviewing) indicate that addressing both negative and positive drinking consequences is essential to effective treatment. However, research on effectively assessing positive drinking consequences in a clinical population is absent. The current study (1) evaluated the utility of the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ), a measure previously validated in an undergraduate sample, for use with treatment-seeking veterans, and (2) evaluated relationships between positive drinking consequences and alcohol expectancies, pre-treatment alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Ninety-seven veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems completed an anonymous survey (97.9% male; mean age = 49.76[11.40], 67.0% Caucasian). The PDCQ evidenced a single factor latent structure and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90). Positive drinking consequences and expectancies were related yet distinct constructs. After controlling for demographic factors, experiencing more positive drinking consequences at program intake was associated with heavier pretreatment drinking (ηp(2) = .10, p = .003) and alcohol-related problems (ηp(2) = .18, p alcohol use (ηp(2) = .12, p = .002) and alcohol-related problems (ηp(2) = .11, p = .003) when expectancies also were included in the model. Positive drinking consequences are assessed reliably by the PDCQ in a clinical sample and appear to play an important role in the drinking behavior of veterans seeking alcohol treatment.
Gmel, Gerhard; Gaume, Jacques; Faouzi, Mohamed; Kulling, Jean-Pierre; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard
The objectives of this study were to analyse (a) the distribution of risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) among 19-year-old men in Switzerland and (b) to show the percentage of all alcohol consumption in the form of RSOD. The study was based on a census of Swiss francophone 19-year-old men consecutively reporting for processing. The study was conducted at Army Recruitment Center. The participants were 4116 recruits consecutively enrolling for mandatory army recruitment procedures between 23 January and 29 August in 2007. The measures were alcohol consumption measured in drinks of approximately 10 g of pure alcohol, number of drinking occasions with six or more drinks (RSOD) in the past 12 months and a retrospective 1 week drinking diary. 264 recruits were never seen by the research staff, 3536 of the remaining 3852 conscripts completed a questionnaire which showed that 7.2% abstained from alcohol and 75.5% of those drinking had an RSOD day at least monthly. The typical frequency of drinking was 1-3 days per week on weekends. The average quantity on weekends was about seven drinks, 69.3% of the total weekly consumption was in the form of RSOD days, and of all the alcohol consumed, 96.2% was by drinkers who had RSOD days at least once a month. Among young men, RSOD constitutes the norm. Prevention consequently must address the total population and not only high-risk drinkers.
Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan E; Breda, Joao; Møller, Lars; Alfonso-Sanchez, Jose L; Gorgojo, Lydia
Consumer and public health organizations have called for better labelling on alcoholic drinks. However, there is a lack of consensus about the best elements to include. This review summarizes alcohol labelling policy worldwide and examines available evidence to support enhanced labelling. A literature review was carried out in June-July 2012 on Scopus using the key word 'alcohol' combined with 'allergens', 'labels', 'nutrition information', 'ingredients', 'consumer information' and/or 'warning'. Articles discussing advertising and promotion of alcohol were excluded. A search through Google and the System for Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) identified additional sources on alcohol labelling policies, mainly from governmental and organizational websites. Five elements were identified as potentially useful to consumers: (i) a list of ingredients, (ii) nutritional information, (iii) serving size and servings per container, (iv) a definition of 'moderate' intake and (v) a health warning. Alcohol labelling policy with regard to these aspects is quite rudimentary in most countries, with few requiring a list of ingredients or health warnings, and none requiring basic nutritional information. Only one country (Australia) requires serving size and servings per container to be displayed. Our study suggests that there are both potential advantages and disadvantages to providing consumers with more information about alcohol products. Current evidence seems to support prompt inclusion of a list of ingredients, nutritional information (usually only kcal) and health warnings on labels. Standard drink and serving size is useful only when combined with other health education efforts. A definition of 'moderate intake' and recommended drinking guidelines are best suited to other contexts.
Full Text Available Sean J Johnson,1 Chris Alford,1 Karina Stewart,2 Joris C Verster3–5 1Department of Health and Social Sciences, Psychological Sciences Research Group, University of the West of England, 2Department of Applied Sciences, Biomedical and Analytical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; 3Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 4Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Introduction: Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO. Methods: A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250. Results: Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol
Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S
Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Lindgren, Kristen P
Two variations of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the Drinking Identity IAT and the Alcohol Identity IAT, assess implicit associations held in memory between one's identity and alcohol-related constructs. Both have been shown to predict numerous drinking outcomes, but these IATs have never been directly compared to one another. The purpose of this study was to compare these IATs and evaluate their incremental predictive validity. US undergraduate students (N=64, 50% female, mean age=21.98years) completed the Drinking Identity IAT, the Alcohol Identity IAT, an explicit measure of drinking identity, as well as measures of typical alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. When evaluated in separate regression models that controlled for explicit drinking identity, results indicated that the Drinking Identity IAT and the Alcohol Identity IAT were significant, positive predictors of typical alcohol consumption, and that the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, was a significant predictor of hazardous drinking. When evaluated in the same regression models, the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, was significantly associated with typical and hazardous drinking. These results suggest that the Drinking Identity IAT and Alcohol Identity IAT are related but not redundant. Moreover, given that the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, incrementally predicted variance in drinking outcomes, identification with drinking behavior and social groups, as opposed to identification with alcohol itself, may be an especially strong predictor of drinking outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.
Weera, Marcus M; Fields, Molly A; Tapp, Danielle N; Grahame, Nicholas J; Chester, Julia A
Studies show that repeated nicotine use associates with high alcohol consumption in humans and that nicotine exposure sometimes increases alcohol consumption in animal models. However, the relative roles of genetic predisposition to high alcohol consumption, the alcohol drinking patterns, and the timing of nicotine exposure both with respect to alcohol drinking and developmental stage remain unclear. The studies here manipulated all these variables, using mice selectively bred for differences in free-choice (FC) alcohol consumption to elucidate the role of genetics and nicotine exposure in alcohol consumption behaviors. In Experiments 1 and 2, we assessed the effects of repeated nicotine (0, 0.5, or 1.5 mg/kg) injections immediately before binge-like (drinking-in-the-dark; Experiment 1) or during FC alcohol access (Experiment 2) on these alcohol drinking behaviors (immediately after injections and during re-exposure to alcohol access 14 days later) in adult high- (HAP2) and low-alcohol-preferring (LAP2) female mice (co-exposure model). In Experiments 3 and 4, we assessed the effects of repeated nicotine (0, 0.5, or 1.5 mg/kg) injections 14 days prior to binge-like and FC alcohol access on these alcohol drinking behaviors in adolescent HAP2 and LAP2 female mice (Experiment 3) or adult HAP2 female mice (Experiment 4). In Experiment 1, we found that repeated nicotine (0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) and alcohol co-exposure significantly increased binge-like drinking behavior in HAP2 but not LAP2 mice during the re-exposure phase after a 14-day abstinence period. In Experiment 2, 1.5 mg/kg nicotine injections significantly reduced FC alcohol intake and preference in the third hour postinjection in HAP2 but not LAP2 mice. No significant effects of nicotine treatment on binge-like or FC alcohol drinking were observed in Experiments 3 and 4. These results show that the temporal parameters of nicotine and alcohol exposure, pattern of alcohol access, and genetic predisposition for
Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Richardson, Heather N.
Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweete...
Peeters, Margot; Koning, Ina; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Wiers, Reinout W
Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcohol-associated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this reasoning, we hypothesized that alcohol availability at home might moderate the relationship between implicit alcohol associations and future drinking behavior of adolescents. Participants were 262 at-risk adolescents (235 boys, 27 girls, adolescents with externalizing behavioral problems) with a mean age of 14.11 years (SD = 0.86, age range: 12-16 years) at baseline. Adolescents completed a questionnaire and a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test; SC-IAT). Stronger implicit alcohol associations predicted increase in frequency of alcohol use, only in adolescents who indicated that alcohol was available at home. No moderating effects were found for increase in quantity of alcohol use and problematic alcohol use, suggesting that implicit alcohol associations particularly influence the decision of whether to drink in adolescence. The findings illustrate that the availability of alcohol in the home setting influences adolescents' implicit alcohol associations and consequently affects the frequency of alcohol use. In this way, alcohol availability at home may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining the effect of implicit alcohol associations on the future drinking behavior of adolescents.
Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carey, Kate B.
Interventions designed to reduce heavy drinking among college students often contain suggestions for drinking control strategies. However, little is known about the relationship of the use of these strategies to alcohol consumption. This study developed a measure of drinking control strategies and investigated its psychometric properties in a sample of 250 college drinkers. Strategies clustered into three factors: selective avoidance of heavy drinking activities/situations, strategies used while drinking, and alternatives to drinking. These three types of strategies were independently associated with alcohol use; however, the first and last types were negatively associated with alcohol consumption, whereas the second type was positively associated with alcohol use. The findings from this study suggest that type of strategy recommended may be important when the goal is alcohol reduction. PMID:17874884
Johnson, S. J.; Alford, C.; Stewart, K.; Verster, J. C.
Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when the...
Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew
Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were
Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W
This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm.
Parada, María; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
Binge drinking (BD) is prevalent among college students. Studies on alcoholism have shown that the prefrontal cortex is vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. The prefrontal cortex undergoes both structural and functional changes during adolescence and young adulthood. Sex differences have been observed in brain maturation and in alcohol-induced damage. The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship between BD and cognitive functions subserved by the prefrontal cortex in male and female university students. The sample comprised 122 undergraduates (aged 18 to 20 years): 62 BD (30 females) and 60 non-BD (29 females). Executive functions were assessed by WMS-III (Backward Digit Span and Backward Spatial Span), SOPT (abstract designs), Letter Fluency (PMR), BADS (Zoo Map and Key Search) and WCST-3. BD students scored lower in the Backward Digit Span Subtest and generated more perseverative responses in the SOPT In relation to interaction BD by sex, BD males scored lower in the Backward Digit Span test than BD females and non-BD males. BD is associated with poorer performance of executive functions subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results do not support enhanced vulnerability of women to alcohol neurotoxic effects. These difficulties may reflect developmental delay or frontal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.
Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…
Leeman, Robert F.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Taylor, Laura A.; Volpicelli, Joseph R.
Trait disinhibition is associated with problem drinking and alcohol drinking itself can bring about a state of disinhibition. It is unclear however, if expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition are unique predictors of problem drinking. Impaired control (i.e., difficulty in limiting alcohol consumption) may be related to disinhibition expectancies in that both involve issues of control related to alcohol use. Data from a prospective survey of undergraduates assessed during freshman (N = 337) and senior year (N = 201) were analyzed to determine whether subscales of the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale and the Impaired Control Scale predicted unique variance in heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. In Time 1 cross-sectional models, dysphoric disinhibition expectancies predicted alcohol-related problems and impaired control predicted both alcohol-related problems and heavy episodic drinking. In prospective models, Time 1 impaired control predicted Time 2 alcohol-related problems and Time 1 euphoric/social disinhibition expectancies predicted Time 2 heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition and impaired control predict unique variance in problem drinking cross-sectionally and prospectively and that these phenomena should be targeted in early intervention efforts. PMID:20025361
de Haan, L.; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.
Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol
Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt
To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.
Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927
Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Lake, Sarah L; Roache, John D; Cates, Sharon E; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M
Transdermal alcohol monitoring is a noninvasive method that continuously gathers transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC) in real time; thus, its use is becoming increasingly more common in alcohol research. In previous studies, we developed models that use TAC data to estimate peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and standard units consumed when the rate of consumption was tightly controlled. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 21 to 52 who reported consuming alcohol on 1 to 4 days per week were recruited from the community. The final study sample included 11 men and 8 women. Both TAC and BrAC were monitored while each participant drank 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 beers in the laboratory on 5 separate days. In contrast to previous studies, a self-paced alcohol administration procedure was used. While there was considerable variation in the times it took to consume each beer, key TAC parameters were not affected by pace of drinking. TAC data were then used in combination with the previously derived equations and estimated peak BrAC and standard units of alcohol consumed. Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to reliably estimate peak BrAC and standard number of units consumed regardless of the rate of consumption, further demonstrating its usefulness in clinical research. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Chartier, Karen G; Dick, Danielle M; Almasy, Laura; Chan, Grace; Aliev, Fazil; Schuckit, Marc A; Scott, Denise M; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura J; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Hesselbrock, Victor M
Variations in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes are associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence in multiple populations. Additionally, some environmental factors have been recognized as modifiers of these relationships. This study examined the modifying effect of religious involvement on relationships between ADH gene variants and alcohol consumption-related phenotypes. Subjects were African American, European American, and Hispanic American adults with lifetime exposure to alcohol (N = 7,716; 53% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Genetic markers included ADH1Brs1229984, ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, ADH4-rs1042364, and ADH4-rs1800759. Phenotypes were maximum drinks consumed in a 24-hour period and total number of alcohol dependence symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Religious involvement was defined by self-reported religious services attendance. Both religious involvement and ADH1B-rs1229984 were negatively associated with the number of maximum drinks consumed and the number of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed. The interactions of religious involvement with ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, and ADH4-rs1042364 were significantly associated with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms. Risk variants had weaker associations with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms as a function of increasing religious involvement. This study provided initial evidence of a modifying effect for religious involvement on relationships between ADH variants and maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms.
Young, Chelsie M; DiBello, Angelo M; Traylor, Zachary K; Zvolensky, Michael J; Neighbors, Clayton
The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over 2 years. First-year college student drinkers (n = 818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every 6 months over a 2-year period. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Connor, Jennie L; Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly
Previous research shows associations of geographical density of alcohol outlets with a range of alcohol-related harms. Socioeconomic conditions that are associated with both outlet density and alcohol-related outcomes may confound many studies. We examined the association of outlet density with both consumption and harm throughout New Zealand while controlling for indicators of area deprivation and individual socioeconomic status (SES). Individual alcohol consumption and drinking consequences were measured in a 2007 national survey of 18-70 year olds (n=1925). All alcohol outlets in New Zealand were geocoded. Outlet density was the number of outlets of each type (off-licences (stores that sell alcoholic beverages for consumption elsewhere), bars, clubs, restaurants) within 1 km of a person's home. We modelled the association of outlet density with total consumption, binge drinking, risky drinking (above New Zealand guidelines) and two measures of effects ('harms' and 'troubles' due to drinking) in the previous year. Logistic regression and zero-inflated Poisson models were used, adjusting for sex, educational level, a deprivation index (NZDep06) and a rurality index. No statistically significant association was seen between outlet density and either average alcohol consumption or risky drinking. Density of off-licences was positively associated with binge drinking, and density of all types of outlet was associated with alcohol-related harm scores, before and after adjustment for SES. Associations of off-licences and clubs with trouble scores were no longer statistically significant in the adjusted analysis. The positive associations seen between alcohol outlet density and both individual level binge drinking and alcohol-related problems appear to be independent of individual and neighbourhood SES. Reducing density of alcohol outlets may reduce alcohol-related harm among those who live nearby.
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin
Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F
Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a
Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.
This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…
Ralston, T.E.; Palfai, T.P.; Rinck, M.
Background Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially
Nienhuis, Karin; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nicolaas
The direct clinical health effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) consumption are largely unknown. Using data from a nationwide questionnaire, two groups were compared: adolescents who consumed an energy drink at the event (ED+) and adolescents who did not (ED–). Blood alcohol
Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.
Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The
Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine
To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....
Background. Although the South African (SA) government has implemented alcohol control measures, alcohol consumption remains high. Objectives. To quantify the prevalence of self-reported current drinking and binge drinking in SA, and to determine important covariates. Methods. We used the 2014 - 2015 National ...
Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael
Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…
Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris
It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jackson, Kristina M; Janssen, Tim; Barnett, Nancy P; Rogers, Michelle L; Hayes, Kerri L; Sargent, James
Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.
Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa
Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.
Esser, Marissa B; Bao, James; Jernigan, David H; Hyder, Adnan A
To evaluate the evidence base for the content of initiatives that the alcohol industry implemented to reduce drink driving from 1982 to May 2015. We systematically analyzed the content of 266 global initiatives that the alcohol industry has categorized as actions to reduce drink driving. Social aspects public relations organizations (i.e., organizations funded by the alcohol industry to handle issues that may be damaging to the business) sponsored the greatest proportion of the actions. Only 0.8% (n = 2) of the sampled industry actions were consistent with public health evidence of effectiveness for reducing drink driving. The vast majority of the alcohol industry's actions to reduce drink driving does not reflect public health evidenced-based recommendations, even though effective drink-driving countermeasures exist, such as a maximum blood alcohol concentration limit of 0.05 grams per deciliter for drivers and widespread use of sobriety checkpoints.
Thrul, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.
While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals' drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict
Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.
Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Westgate, E.; Greenwald, A.G.
There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared with
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C
Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.
Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Lasek, Amy W; McClintick, Jeanette; Ding, Zheng-Ming; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L
Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) and neuroimmune signaling have been posited to regulate alcohol drinking. This study evaluated the involvement of PDE4 and Il22ra2 on ethanol (EtOH) intake by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats. Exp 1 determined the dose-response effects of PDE4 inhibitors, rolipram, and Ro 20-1724, on 2 h/day free-choice EtOH intake by adult P and HAD1 rats. Exps 2-3 examined the effects of repeated administration with the PDE4 inhibitors on EtOH or sucrose intake and locomotor behavior. Exp 4 determined Pde4-associated gene expression differences in subregions of the extended amygdala, between high- and low-alcohol-consuming rat lines. Exp 5 evaluated the effects of infusing short hairpin RNA to knock down Il22ra2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell on a 24-h free-choice EtOH drinking by P rats. Administration of rolipram or Ro 20-1724 reduced EtOH intake by P rats; Ro 20-1724 reduced EtOH intake by HAD1 rats. Repeated rolipram or Ro 20-1724 exposure reduced EtOH intake by P and HAD1 rats. PDE4 inhibition induced motor impairment during the first hour of EtOH intake by P rats. Higher gene expression levels for PDE4A were found in the NAc shell of P vs NP rats. ShRNAs targeting Il22ra2 in the NAc shell significantly reduced chronic EtOH intake. PDE4 and neuroinflammatory/immune signaling pathways could represent molecular targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. This study underscores the importance of testing compounds over multiple days and rat lines when determining efficacy to disrupt excessive alcohol intake.
Rush, Christina C; Curry, John F; Looney, John G
The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent drinkers. Participants anonymously completed a survey as part of a universal alcohol abuse prevention program between September 2007 and April 2008. Co-occurring disordered eating behaviors and binge drinking characterized 17.1% of males and 19.0% of females. Rates of binge drinking were higher in those with disordered eating behaviors. Students with disordered eating behaviors also had more positive and negative alcohol expectancies and engaged in more risky and fewer protective drinking behaviors than their counterparts. Students with disordered eating behaviors have outcome expectancies and behavior patterns associated with problematic drinking. These findings may enhance prevention and intervention programs.
Chan, Gary C K; Leung, Janni; Connor, Jason; Hall, Wayne; Kelly, Adrian B
Existing research on parental supply of alcohol analyses the effects of self-reported parental supply on adolescent drinking using individual level data. This study examined the contextual effect of parental supply of alcohol on adolescent alcohol use by examining the association between the prevalence of parental supply in each Australian state and adolescent alcohol use using a multilevel analytic framework. Adolescent samples (Age: 12-17) were drawn from the four National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (2004, 2007, 2010 and 2013; N = 6803). The prevalence of parental supply of alcohol, defined as the weighted percentage of sample who reported obtaining alcohol from their parents, was estimated in each state and territory across the four surveys. Three multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the contextual effects of parental supply prevalence on adolescents' alcohol use in the past 12 months, weekly drinking and heavy drinking. Overall, adolescents' rates of past 12 months alcohol use, heavy drinking and weekly drinking between 2004 and 2013 were 40.1, 14.4 and 6.4% respectively. The prevalence of parental supply was significantly associated with past 12 months alcohol use (OR = 1.06, p adolescent drinking, regardless of whether adolescents primarily obtained their alcohol from their own parents.
Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E
Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Sweeting, Helen; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Mathis, Federica; Hanewinkel, Reiner
To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. State-funded schools. Baseline survey of 12 464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10 259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Madson, Michael B; Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
Drinking motives are robust predictors of alcohol use behaviors among college students. However, less is known about the link between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors among African American college students. This study explored the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors in a sample of 215 African American college students. The study also assessed whether protective behavioral strategies mediated the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors. A direct relationship emerged between enhancement motives and alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. Protective behavioral strategies mediated each of these relationships. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Dougherty, Donald M; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E; Lake, Sarah L; Cates, Sharon E; Roache, John D
Transdermal alcohol monitoring is used extensively in forensic settings to identify whether individuals have violated court-ordered mandates to abstain from drinking. Despite widespread use in that setting, comparatively few studies have explored the clinical utility of transdermal alcohol monitoring. Furthermore, of the few studies conducted, most have relied on the forensically established conservative criteria to identify whether or not a drinking episode has occurred. Here, we explore how transdermal alcohol monitoring data can be used to estimate more clinically meaningful parameters relevant to clinical treatment programs. We developed a procedure to use transdermal data to objectively estimate the number of standardized drinks an individual has consumed. Participants included 46 men and women who consumed 1 to 5 beers within 2 hours in the laboratory on separate days while wearing devices to monitor transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC). A mathematical model was derived to estimate the number of standardized alcohol drinks consumed, which included a number of variables (time-to-peak TAC, area under the TAC curve, and sex). The model was then validated by applying it to data from a separate study. Our results indicate that transdermal alcohol devices can be used to estimate the number of standard drinks consumed. Objective methods characterizing both the level of intoxication achieved and the number of drinks consumed, such as transdermal alcohol monitoring, could be useful in both research and treatment settings.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F
The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this
Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G
Alcohol-impaired driving among college students represents a significant public health concern, yet little is known about specific theoretical and individual difference risk factors for driving after drinking among heavy drinking college students. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heavy drinkers with elevated alcohol demand would be more likely to report drinking and driving. Participants were 207 college students who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode (4/5 or more drinks in 1 occasion for a woman/man) in the past month. Participants completed an alcohol purchase task that assessed hypothetical alcohol consumption across 17 drink prices and an item from the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire that assessed driving after drinking. In binary logistic regression models that controlled for drinking level, gender, ethnicity, age, and sensation seeking, participants who reported higher demand were more likely to report driving after drinking. These results provide support for behavioral economics models of substance abuse that view elevated/inelastic demand as a key etiological feature of substance misuse. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B; Lust, Sarah A; Kalichman, Seth C; Carey, Michael P
It is often assumed that "mandated students" (i.e., those who violate campus alcohol policies and are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention) drink more than students from the general population. To test this assumption empirically, we compared alcohol-use levels of a sample of students mandated for alcohol violations (n = 435) with a representative sample of nonmandated students from the same university (n = 1,876). As expected, mandated students were more likely to be male, younger, first-year students, and living in on-campus dorms, and they reported poorer academic performance (i.e., grade point averages). With respect to alcohol use, after controlling for demographic differences, they reported more drinks per week than those in the general university sample but they did not report drinking heavily more frequently than nonmandated students. Within the mandated student sample, there was considerable variability in drinking level; that is, the frequency of heavy drinking covered the full range from never to 10+ times in the past month, and there was a larger standard deviation for drinks per week among mandated students than among those in the general sample. These results challenge the assumption that mandated students drink heavily more often but do provide empirical support for the assumption that students who violate alcohol policies drink at higher quantities, justifying the need for an alcohol use reduction intervention.
Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner
To test the hypothesis that changes in alcohol-related attitudes and expectancies mediate the effect of alcohol advertising on youth drinking. Longitudinal survey with a 9-month interval. Twenty-nine public schools in 3 German states. A total of 2130 sixth- to eighth-grade students (age range, 11-17 years; mean, 12.2 years) who were nondrinkers at baseline. Exposure to alcohol and nonalcohol advertising was measured at baseline with masked images of 17 commercial advertisements with all brand information digitally removed; students indicated contact frequency and brand names. Positive attitudes toward alcohol, current alcohol use, lifetime binge drinking. A total of 581 of the students (28%) started to drink alcohol during the observation period. Alcohol use initiation was positively related to baseline alcohol advertisement exposure. This effect of alcohol advertisement exposure on alcohol use was partially mediated by a change in alcohol-related attitudes, which explained about 35% of the total effect after controlling for baseline covariates and exposure to other advertising contents. The analysis revealed similar results for binge-drinking initiation. More favorable attitudes about alcohol may be one path through which alcohol advertising exerts behavioral influence.
Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian W; Rotman, David; Tumanov, Sergej
Hazardous consumption of large quantities of alcohol is a major cause of ill-health in the former Soviet Union (fSU). The objective of this study was to describe episodic heavy drinking and other hazardous drinking behaviors in eight countries of the fSU. Data from national surveys of adults conducted in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2001 were used (overall sample size 18,428; response rates 71-88%). Heavy episodic drinking, high alcohol intake, drinking alcohol during the working day, and using illegally produced strong spirits were examined. On average, 23% of men and 2% of women were defined as heavy episodic drinkers (> or = 2 l of beer or > or = 750 g bottle of wine or > or = 200 g strong spirits at least once every 2-3 weeks). This was more common in young males, women who are single or who are divorced/separated/widowed, in smokers, and in frequent alcohol drinkers. About half the respondents who drank strong spirits obtained at least some alcohol from private sources. Among drinkers, 11% of males and 7% of women usually took their first drink before the end of working day. Heavy episodic alcohol drinking is frequent in males throughout the region--although prevalence rates may have been affected by underreporting--but is still relatively rare in women. Alcohol policies in the region should address hazardous drinking patterns and the common use of illegally produced alcohol.
Schulte, Marya T.; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A.
While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol traj...
Poelen, E.A.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Willemsen, G.
Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The Netherlands Twin Register were available for 1,526 twin pairs aged 16-25 years. We categorized the twin pairs as concordant (both report similar alcohol use in their friends) or discordant for the a...
O'Brien, Mary Claire; McCoy, Thomas P; Rhodes, Scott D; Wagoner, Ashley; Wolfson, Mark
The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college campuses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was conducted in a stratified random sample of 4,271 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. A total of 697 students (24% of past 30-day drinkers) reported consuming AmED in the past 30 days. Students who were male, white, intramural athletes, fraternity or sorority members or pledges, and younger were significantly more likely to consume AmED. In multivariable analyses, consumption of AmED was associated with increased heavy episodic drinking (6.4 days vs. 3.4 days on average; p Students who reported consuming AmED had significantly higher prevalence of alcohol-related consequences, including being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of another sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and requiring medical treatment (p student's reported typical alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.027). Almost one-quarter of college student current drinkers reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks. These students are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences, even after adjusting for the amount of alcohol consumed. Further research is necessary to understand this association and to develop targeted interventions to reduce risk.
Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Green, Brooke A; Benotsch, Eric G
Young adults are a population at great risk for problematic health behaviors. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption is a relatively popular health risk behavior among young adults. AmED consumption continues to illustrate negative outcomes in the research literature, having been linked with other substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual victimization. Limited research to date has examined associations between AmED consumption and patterns of alcohol dependence. Undergraduate college students (n=757) filled out an online survey which assessed their drinking habits in the past week and month, including their consumption of AmED beverages, personality characteristics, substance use, and problematic alcohol consumption via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A minority of participants reported AmED consumption in both the past month (11.6%) and past week (9.7%). Compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts, AmED consumers scored significantly higher on measures of impulsivity, and lower on anxiety sensitivity when compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts. In multivariate analyses, AmED consumption was robustly associated with patterns of alcohol dependence (AUDIT score≥8) among young adult college students, while controlling for energy drink use, alcohol use, personality factors, substance use, and demographic variables. AmED consumption in the past month is robustly associated with problematic alcohol consumption. The present study describes harmful outcomes associated with AmED consumption, and extends the literature on the combined effects of alcohol and energy drinks on young adult risk behaviors. Further research needs to address causal mechanisms for the AmED and problematic alcohol consumption relation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Kolt, Gregory S; Webber, Andrew; Hunter, John A
High-profile sportspeople are posited as role models for others. We examine whether university sportspeople and non-sportspeople's perceptions of high-profile sportspeople's (sports stars) and friends perceived drinking behaviours are related to their own drinking behaviours. Further, we examine the importance of drinking with competitors after sports events. A convenience sample of 1028 participants (58% females, n=652 sportspeople) from two Australian universities were approached at sporting and university venues. Participants completed a survey booklet containing demographic questions, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, alcohol measure), perceived drinking of high-profile sportspeople and friends (social norms), and for sportspeople only, items assessing the importance of drinking with competitors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess relationships. Both sporting and non-sporting participants perceived high-profile sportspeople to drink less than themselves and their friends. Small significant bivariate relationships were found between high-profile sportspeople's perceived drinking and self-reported drinking for sportspeople (r=0.20, P Friends' and normative drinking practices were predictors of drinking.[O'Brien KS, Kolt GS, Webber A, Hunter JA. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław
Selective breeding alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats showed a strong preference for the sucrose solutions, whereas P rats intake greater amounts than NP rats. The aim of this study was the estimation of selectively bred ethanol-preferring (WHP - Warsaw High Preferring) and ethanol-nonpreferring (WLP - Warsaw Low Preferring) rats for their preference for various tastes. The oral drinking of the following substances was studied at a range of concentrations: sucrose (0.5-64.0 g/100 ml), NaCl (0.025-3.2 g/100 ml), citric acid (0.008-2.048 g/l), and sucrose octaacetate (0.002-0.512 g/l) solutions. Separate groups of 7-8 rats from each line were investigated of each of the four tastes. The investigated solutions were presented continuously keeping water and food always available. Concentrations of the various flavors were doubled every 48 h. Rats from WHP and WLP lines clearly revealed the preference for the sucrose solution and the highest preference was at the 4.0 and 8.0 g/100ml sucrose concentration. Similar to sucrose, both lines exposed strong preference for the NaCl solution and this preference enhanced together with the increase of the NaCl concentration. Nevertheless their preference for the NaCl solutions decreased when the concentration of NaCl reached 1.600 g/100 ml. Both lines of rats did not differ in citric acid or sucrose octaacetate intake at any of the concentrations studied. Selective breeding of rats (WHP) for high and rats (WLP) for low ethanol drinking is favorably correlated with the drinking of sweet and salty solutions and negatively correlated with the consumption of sour and bitter tastes. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Ly, Suw-Young; Yoo, Hai-Soo; Chun, Seung-Kyu
The presence of trace metal cadmium assay was investigated with a copper immobilized on a graphite carbon electrode (GPC), the modified property of which was determined with handheld voltammetric systems. Following the determination of the analytical stripping conditions of 0.45 V amplitude, 30 Hz frequency, -1.4 V initial potential, and 4.0 mV increment potential, only a 60-s experimental accumulation time was used. Using these conditions, the analytical detection limit approached the nano range. At this condition, the analytical application was performed on distilled alcoholic drinks for food manufacturing systems. This developed technique is faster and less costly than the common voltammetric and spectrophotometric methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L
Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, I-Chen; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Duan-Rung; Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu
This study aims to identify peers and social network characteristics associated with drinking occasions through early adolescence. The study sample of 1808 middle school students (aged 13-15 years) in northern Taiwan was collected via a two-wave longitudinal study of the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children (AREC). Data concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, peer influence, and alcohol drinking behaviors were collected via web-based self-administered questionnaire. Building upon the maximum of five friends nominated by young respondents at 7th grade, class-based social network was first constructed via the UCINET and Pajek; the network position (i.e., member, bridge, and isolate) for each student was subsequently ascertained. Complex surveys analyses and negative binominal regression models were used to evaluate concurrent and prospective relationship estimates. Effects of peers and social network were found to operate differentially by childhood alcohol experience. For the alcohol naïve youngsters, receiving higher peer's nomination at baseline was linked with subsequent increased drinking occasions (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio [aIRR]=1.06; 95% CI=1.01-1.10), whereas having peers against alcohol drinking may reduce drinking occasions at 9th grade (aIRR=0.59; 95% CI=0.41-0.87). For the alcohol experienced youngsters, having parental alcohol offer, drinking peers, and attending classes of higher drinking norms may increase future drinking occasions by 90%, 80% and 44%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that parental alcohol offer, peer norms, and social network may affect adolescent drinking occasions differentially depending on childhood drinking experience. The findings have implications for the interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in underage population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin
Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako
This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rubinsky, Anna D; Bishop, Michael J; Maynard, Charles
Both AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores up to a year before surgery and clinical documentation of drinking over 2 drinks per day immediately prior to surgery ("documented drinking >2d/d") are associated with increased postoperative complications and health care utilization. The purpose of this study...... was to evaluate whether documented drinking >2d/d contributed additional information about postoperative risk beyond past-year AUDIT-C screening results....
Nishiyori, Atsushi; Shibata, Akira; Ogimoto, Itsuro; Uchimura, Naohisa; Egami, Hideki; Nakamura, Jun; Sakata, Ritsu; Fukuda, Katsuhiro
The development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is related to various social, economic, cultural, environmental and hereditary factors. Several potential risk factors have been proposed for AUD in addition to alcohol consumption, including alcohol dehydrogenase2 (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2), marital status, educational, occupational or past medical history (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, lung, digestive tract, or chronic liver disease) or smoking habits. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between the aforementioned potential risk factors and AUD in Japan. A case-control study was performed on 153 male Japanese AUD patients and age-, gender-, or other confounder-matched controls to investigate the relation multivariately between ADH2, ALDH2 or alcohol drinking and AUD. Genomic DNA were extracted from nail clippings by the guanidium method, and genotyping of ADH2 and ALDH2 were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Univariate analyses by the conditional logistic regression model revealed statistically significant odds ratios due to ADH2*1/1 genotype, ALDH2*1/1 genotype, middle school as the final school attended, longest occupations as farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, miners, production process or construction workers, and past histories of chronic liver disease and AUD. However, multivariate analyses under a hierarchically well-formulated model strategy with interaction and confounding assessment indicated that (i) heavy alcohol intake was a significant risk factor (odds ratio per 1.0 g of daily ethanol intake; 1.096, 95% confidence interval; 1.026-1.171) for developing AUD after adjusting for other confounders; and (ii) ADH2*1/1 genotype and ALDH2*1/1 genotype were not risk factors after adjusting for daily ethanol intake and other confounders. The present study shows that AUD was more directly and strongly associated with alcohol drinking than with
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. Methods One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18–25 alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i alcohol warning; (ii alcohol promoting; or (iii advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Results Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. Conclusions In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.
Full Text Available Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e. to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e. fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness and behavioral inhibition (BIS systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5,362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, conformity was also tested.Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness –alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness –risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the
Osler, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Grønbaek, M
AIMS: To examine trends in alcohol drinking in different educational groups. METHODS: Data from three cross-sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92 were analysed to estimate trends in abstention, moderate, heavy, and sporadic heavy alcohol use in relation to level...... of education, age and smoking. In total, 6,695 Danish men and women aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years were included. RESULTS: Alcohol drinking decreased in both men and women during the study period, but changes were only significant among the highest educated. In the highest educated men the prevalence...... of moderate alcohol use increased from 77 to 82%, while heavy alcohol use declined from 19 to 12%. In the highest educated women the prevalence of abstention increased from 15 to 22%, while moderate alcohol use declined from 78 to 68%. CONCLUSION: During the 1980s, alcohol drinking decreased among the highest...
Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A
In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Diep, Pham Bich; Schelleman-Offermans, K; Kuntsche, E; De Vries, Nanne; Knibbe, Ronald A
To investigate whether the links between alcohol expectancies (tension reduction; global positive change; improved cognitive and motor abilities; and change in social behavior) and alcohol outcomes (drinking volume, 6+ drinks, alcohol problems, and symptoms of alcohol dependence) are mediated by drinking motives (social, enhancement, conformity, and coping). A multi-stage sampling strategy was used in four Vietnamese provinces, resulting in a final sample of 4756 students (43.2% females) with mean age 20.6 (SD 1.8) years. Structural equation models, including indirect effects, were estimated for women and men separately. Overall, there were many cases of full mediation (indirect effects range from -0.006 to 0.083 and p-values from social motives also played a role in mediating the effects of expectancies on alcohol outcomes. Among women, full mediation was found far less often and less consistently. By confirming that, in Vietnam, motives mediate the link between expectancies and drinking behavior, this study supports the cultural robustness of a key assumption of the motivational model (i.e. that drinking motives are more closely associated with alcohol use than expectancies). Enhancement, coping and social motives are most frequently found as mediators among male students whereas coping motive only is most frequently found as a mediator among female students. As most of the effects of expectancies were mediated by motives, drinking motives appear to be a promising factor for interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue
Alcohol abuse appears to increase postoperative complications, but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify how alcohol drinking affects postoperative surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage and to determine...... the impact of perioperative alcohol intervention....
de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C
This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences.
Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.
While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…
Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark
This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina
INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and
Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D
Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.
a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined...... as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist...... drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may...
Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kelley, Michelle L
Although the majority of research on partner drinking styles has examined married couples, dating partners may influence one another's problem behaviors including alcohol use. This study identified patterns of at-risk alcohol use in college women and their dating partners using a person-centered statistical approach (i.e., latent profile analysis). Participants were 286 college student women in dating relationships. They completed questionnaires regarding their own and their partners' drinking, alcohol use severity, intimate partner violence (IPV), relationship satisfaction, and relationship-specific alcohol expectancies. Data were collected in 2012 through 2013. Results revealed three distinct, latent classes based on both partners' alcohol outcomes. The "Low-Risk" group (58%) consisted of non-heavy drinking partners. In the "High-Risk - Higher Men" class (27%), men drank more than women; however, both men and women were high-risk drinkers. The "High-Risk - Higher Women" group (15%) consisted of high-risk drinking partners but women consumed more alcohol than men. Both high-risk couple groups were more dissatisfied in their relationships and experienced more IPV, but held stronger beliefs about how alcohol influenced their relationship. Findings indicate that there are several distinct classes of dating couples that differ in relationship problems and beliefs about alcohol's impact on their relationship. Riskier couples differ in behaviors and alcohol-related beliefs from low-risk couples. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious alcohol interventions tailored toward high-risk drinking dating couples.
Mallett, Kimberly A; Scaglione, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Turrisi, Rob
The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported anabrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences.
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Gasser, M.L.; Teachman, B.A.
Introduction: Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We
Hingson, Ralph W; Heeren, Timothy; Edwards, Erika M; Saitz, Richard
Excessive alcohol consumption is most widespread among young adults. Practice guidelines recommend screening and physician advice, which could help address this common cause of injury and premature death. To assess the proportion of persons ages 18-39 who, in the past year, saw a physician and were asked about their drinking and advised what drinking levels pose health risk, and whether this differed by age or whether respondents exceeded low-risk drinking guidelines [daily (>4 drinks for men/>3 for women) or weekly (>14 for men/>7 for women)]. Survey of young adults selected from a national internet panel established using random digit dial telephone techniques. Adults age 18-39 who ever drank alcohol, n =3,409 from the internet panel and n=612 non-panel telephone respondents. Respondents were asked whether they saw a doctor in the past year; those who did see a doctor were asked whether a doctor asked about their drinking, advised about safe drinking levels, or counseled to reduce drinking. Of respondents, 67% saw a physician in the past year, but only 14% of those exceeding guidelines were asked and advised about risky drinking patterns. Persons 18-25 were the most likely to exceed guidelines (68% vs. 56%, padults are asked and advised by physicians about excessive alcohol consumption. Physicians should routinely ask all adults about their drinking and offer advice about levels that pose health risk, particularly to young adults.
Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna
Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students.
Unrecorded homemade alcohol consumption has been less examined in the literature. Previous studies of homemade alcohol in Russia have almost entirely focused upon the use of samogon (moonshine) attributed to the northern style of drinking. No systematic analysis is available regarding the production and consumption of homemade wine. This paper explores the drinking patterns demonstrated by consumers of samogon and homemade wine in Russia. The main factors affecting the consumption of these beverages are investigated. Data were collected from a 2014 nationwide survey of 14,986 respondents aged 15+ years. Beverage preferences, volume of consumed alcohol, drinking habits, and alcohol availability were the main measures reported. Demographic, socio-economic, spatial, and policy-related factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption are examined using logistic regression. The percentages of samogon and homemade wine consumers were similar, although a greater volume of samogon in pure alcohol was consumed compared to homemade wine. The groups of samogon and homemade wine consumers showed very little overlap. Unlike homemade wine consumers, samogon drinkers consumed larger amounts of alcohol and were more engaged in frequent and excessive drinking, drinking without meals and drinking in marginal public settings. Gender, education, regional affiliation, and type of residence showed opposite associations with regard to the consumption of samogon and homemade wine. Availability of homemade alcohol in the neighbourhood was the most influential predictor due to respondents' own production, presence of homemade alcohol in friendship networks and at illegal market. The prices of manufactured alcohol and the consumption of homemade alcohol did not show significant relationships. Consumers of samogon and homemade wine demonstrate contrasting drinking patterns that are largely driven by different factors. Samogon is consumed in a more hazardous manner, whereas homemade wine is
Vuchinich, R E; Tucker, J A; Bordini, E; Sullwold, A F
Alcoholic individuals often are assumed to deny personal responsibility for their alcholism and to assign causation to external situational factors. To evaluate this assumption, 20 alchololics and 14 nonalcoholics made causal attributions for a recent personal drinking episode and for the drinking behavior of three target individuals (an abstinent alcoholic, a nonabstinent alcololic, and a nonalcoholic). Results showed that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects tended to make external attributions for their own drinking behavior. Subjects' attributons for the target individuals depended on bot the targest' and subjects' drinking histories. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to models of alcoholism and to actor-observer differences in casual attribution processes.
Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Karanikas, Chrisanthi A.; Richardson, Heather N.
Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (∼postnatal days 28–42) in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA), a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity), an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects with
Nicholas W Gilpin
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects
Wiersma, Jacquelyn D; Fischer, Judith L
This study examines the association between young adult drinking partnerships (ages 18-26 years) and later alcohol-related problems and consequences, alcohol use, relationship quality, and relationship dissolution in adult relationships (ages 26-35). Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Waves III and IV) with 1,347 young adults and their partners at Wave III, including dating, cohabiting, and married couples, and individual adult behaviors at Wave IV, 6 years later. Drinking partnerships were based on alcohol use frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and getting drunk. Four clusters included (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b) discrepant male heavy and frequent, (c) discrepant female heavy and frequent, and (d) congruent heavy and frequent drinkers. Young adult discrepant partnerships reported more alcohol-related problems and consequences 6 years later. Young adults in the congruent heavy drinking partnership indicated more separation/divorce and alcohol use as adults. Young adult married men who drank discrepantly and higher compared to their wives reported higher rates of adult drinking and problems than other men. There were a number of negative effects from congruent heavy drinking, especially for women. These findings demonstrated that there are multiple types of young adult drinking partnerships based on couples' alcohol use behaviors. Men may be at risk for serious alcohol-related problems later in adulthood, especially when paired with discrepant drinking partners and congruent heavy drinking partners. Women are at risk when in congruent, heavy and frequent drinking partnerships. Studying romantic relationships and drinking has implications for broad aspects of young adult and adult development.
Haug, Severin; Ulbricht, Sabina; Hanke, Monika; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich
To investigate associations of normative misperceptions and drinking behaviors in apprentices, complementing the previous literature on university students. A survey in a defined region of northern Germany was carried out among 1124 apprentices attending vocational schools. Using items from the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), drinking behaviors and normative perceptions of drinking in the reference group of same-gender apprentices were assessed. Demographic, smoking- and drinking-related predictors for normative misperceptions were explored. Personal drinking behavior was positively correlated with perceived norms, both for drinking frequency (males: Kendall's τ = 0.33, P Alcohol use disorders according to AUDIT-C cut-offs were more prevalent in subjects who overestimated drinking quantity in their reference group than in those who correctly estimated or underestimated drinking quantity (male: P risk (RR) 1.78; female: P alcohol use were positively associated with normative misperceptions of both drinking quantity and frequency. Interventions correcting alcohol use misperceptions might be effective in reducing problem drinking in adolescents with heterogeneous educational levels.
Martin Braunstein, Laura; Kuerbis, Alexis; Ochsner, Kevin; Morgenstern, Jon
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and substance use, yet many individuals break free of these patterns and change their behavior. Traditional candidate predictors of behavior change/persistence rely on self-reports of factors such as readiness to change. However, explicit measures only characterize top-down influences on behavior. The incentive sensitization model of addition suggests that more implicit, automatic processes, such as the tendency to approach substance cues, play a major role in behavior. We examined implicit alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies using a reaction time (RT) task in a sample of problem drinkers with alcohol use disorder (AUD) seeking to reduce heavy drinking. We measured alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies at baseline and at outcome, 12 weeks later. We asked whether alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies (i) changed over time, (ii) related to current drinking, and (iii) predicted changes in drinking from baseline to outcome. Approach and avoidance tendencies did not significantly change over time, nor did they correlate with current drinking, but these tendencies at baseline did predict drinking weeks later. Faster alcohol approach was associated with greater overall drinking at outcome, and faster alcohol avoidance predicted fewer drinking days per week at outcome. Exploratory analyses examined the relationship between approach and avoidance and traditional explicit measures including appraisals of alcohol and motivation to change. Implicit approach tendencies were largely distinct from explicit measures, and approach and avoidance tendencies explained unique variance in outcome drinking. The current findings suggest that implicit alcohol approach and avoidance tendencies assessed via a simple reaction time task can predict relative changes in drinking weeks later. Given that many explicit measures typically used in treatment studies fail to predict who will change, approach and avoidance tendencies
Beck, Kenneth H.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Background Previous research has suggested important contextual factors that can differentiate problem and non-problem drinkers. Objectives To evaluate the strength of the prospective association between social contexts of drinking and subsequent alcohol use disorder and drunk driving 2 to 3 years later. Methods The sample consisted of 652 individuals who were originally recruited at college entry, had complete data on at least one social context subscale, met minimum criteria for Year 1 drinking, and had non-missing data on at least one of the outcome variables in Years 3 and/or 4. Social contexts of drinking were assessed in Year 1 using previously-validated scales measuring six different situational and motivational contexts in which alcohol is consumed. DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence and drunk driving were assessed annually. Results Holding constant gender, race/ethnicity, and baseline drinking frequency, the frequency of drinking in a context of social facilitation, sex-seeking, or in a motor vehicle during Year 1 was significantly related to a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and drunk driving in Years 3 and/or 4. Drinking in a context of emotional pain was related to alcohol dependence and drunk driving but not to alcohol abuse. Conclusions The Social Context of Drinking Scales have utility for identifying students who are at risk for developing alcohol-related problems. Scientific Significance: Identifying college students who might develop alcohol dependence requires an assessment of both situational and motivational factors that influence drinking, especially drinking in a motor vehicle. PMID:22746152
Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin
Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129
Willis, C; Lybrand, S; Bellamy, N
An ignition interlock device is part of a multi-dimensional programme aimed at reducing recidivism in convicted drink drivers. To operate a vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device, the driver must first provide a breath specimen. If the breath alcohol concentration of the specimen exceeds the predetermined level, the vehicle will not start. As a measure to reduce circumvention of the device (i.e. someone else blows into the mouthpiece), random retests are required while the vehicle is running. Other components of the drink driving programme include information seminars for the driver and downloading data from the device's data logger, which logs all test attempts and records all passes, warnings and failures. To systematically assess the effectiveness of ignition interlock programmes on recidivism rates of drink drivers, by examining rates of recidivism while the ignition interlock device was installed in the vehicle and after removal of the device. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was searched, in addition to relevant electronic databases and the Internet. Controlled trials in which offenders have been charged with drink driving and have either been sentenced to participate in an ignition interlock programme or the usual punishment (either licence suspension or some form of treatment programme). This study was not restricted by language or status of publication. One randomised controlled trial (RCT) and ten controlled trials were identified, and also three ongoing trials. Data regarding recidivism while the interlock is installed in the vehicle; after the interlock has been removed from the vehicle and total recidivism during the study were extracted and entered into analyses using RevMan. The RCT showed that the interlock programme was effective while the device was installed in the vehicle; relative risk 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.63). Controlled trials support this conclusion, with a general trend - in both first-time and repeat
Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott
Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender
Arévalo, Nadia Milena; Beltrán, Sandra Dolores; Chavarro, Yuri Lizeth; Medina, Alix Lorena; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto
Some studies have reported a high prevalence of alcohol drinking problem among indigenous populations in Latin America. However, there is no available information on some of the variables associated with alcohol problem drinking. To determine the prevalence and some factors associated with alcohol problem drinking among a sample of Colombian indigenous population in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a Colombian indigenous population sample over 15 years old living in the community. Alcohol problem drinking was quantified with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) (Cut-off point of 8). Non conditional logistic regression was computed to adjust associated variables. A total of 184 subjects from the indigenous population participated in this research. The mean age was 32.0±14.0 years and educated for 6.0±3.7 years. A total of 84 participants (45.7%) reported alcohol problem drinking. The AUDIT showed Cronbach alpha of 0.877. Male sex (OR=4.2; 95%CI, 2.2-7.6), and longer time living in Bogota (OR=1.8; 95%CI, 1.0-3.2) were associated with alcohol problem drinking. Almost 50% of the Colombian indigenous population living in Bogota meet criteria for alcohol problem drinking. Male gender and longer time living in Bogota are related to alcohol problem drinking. Further studies are needed to formally identify alcohol abuse or dependence. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
I.M.B. Bongers (Inge); I.A.M. van de Goor (Ien); H.F.L. Garretsen (Henk)
textabstractResearch was undertaken regarding the Dutch climate on alcohol in 1994 and results were compared with earlier findings. It was found that the social climate on alcohol in The Netherlands can be characterized by 'moderation'. Over the years, drinking without
Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard
This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…
Joyce, Kayla M; Hudson, Amanda; O'Connor, Roisin; Thompson, Kara; Hodgin, Megan; Perrot, Tara; Stewart, Sherry H
Alcohol use has been reported to fluctuate over women's menstrual cycles (MCs), with increased intake occurring premenstrually/menstrually (phases characterized by heightened negative affect) and during the ovulatory phase (a phase characterized by positive affect). This suggests women may drink for particular emotion-focused reasons at specific points in their cycles. However, no research had yet examined MC variability in drinking motives, or links between cycle-related changes in drinking motives and alcohol consumption. Ninety-four normally cycling women (M age = 22.9 years old, SD age = 4.7) completed daily diary measures (via Smartphone surveys), with questions pertaining to state drinking motives and quantity of alcohol consumed for the course of a full MC. Drinking motives differed by cycle phase. Women reported a slight increase in drinking to self-medicate for negative affect premenstrually, with drinking to cope peaking in the menstrual phase and declining mid-cycle. Women reported a slight increasing trend across the cycle in social motives for drinking, while enhancement motives remained relatively stable across the cycle. Cycle-related changes in drinking motives predicted increases in the quantity of alcohol consumed. Drinking to cope with negative affect predicted a greater number of drinks menstrually (days 1-5). While social motives predicted a greater number of drinks during the follicular and ovulatory phases (days 5-16), enhancement motives were unrelated to drinking quantity across cycle phase. Clinicians should be attentive to cycle phase when treating reproductive-aged women with alcohol disorders (e.g., encouraging the use of healthier means of coping with negative affect during menses). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene
In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rose, Abigail K; Hobbs, Malcolm; Drummond, Colin
Alcohol consumption can prime motivation to continue drinking and may contribute to excessive drinking. Most alcohol administration research assesses the effect of a single alcohol dose on outcome measures; however, this differs from typical drinking occasions in which several drinks are consumed over time. This research tracks priming measures (alcohol urge, latency to first sip, and consumption time) and subjective effects (intoxication, stimulation, and sedation) across consumption of 5 drinks, over a period of 2.5 hours. Alcohol, placebo, and no-alcohol (i.e., soft drink) conditions are compared with isolate the effects of alcohol expectancies and differentiate these from alcohol's pharmacological effects. Alcohol urge and subjective state were measured before and after an initial drink was consumed (preload: alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol). Four additional drinking phases followed whereby participants had access to 2 drinks (alcohol/no-alcohol, or placebo/no-alcohol). Experimental priming (urge, latency to first sip, consumption time) and subjective effect (intoxication, stimulation, and sedation) outcomes were recorded after each drink. The pattern of alcohol urge following placebo drinks differed compared with alcohol and no-alcohol consumption, Fs(1, 90) > 4.10, ps alcohol condition, while in the alcohol condition urge increased after the first few drinks before decreasing. Urge ratings showed the opposite pattern in the placebo condition (a decrease followed by an increase). Alcohol produced the highest ratings of lightheadedness, F(5, 440) = 2.8, p alcohol and placebo produced increased sedated feelings, Fs ≥ 19.05, ps ≤ 0.001. After placebo, urge was positively related to liking and enjoying the "alcoholic" drinks and feeling more stimulated (rs ≥ 0.31, ps ≤ 0.01). In social drinkers, different factors may affect priming during different stages of a drinking episode. For example, the pharmacological effects of alcohol appear
Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley
This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K
College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health.
Mialon, Melissa; McCambridge, Jim
There is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of alcohol industry commercial activities, and concern about possible adverse impacts of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, on public health. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and examine what is known about CSR initiatives undertaken by alcohol industry actors in respect of harmful drinking globally. We searched for peer-reviewed studies published since 1980 of alcohol industry CSR initiatives in seven electronic databases. The basic search strategy was organized around the three constructs of 'alcohol', 'industry' and 'corporate social responsibility'. We performed the searches on 21 July 2017. Data from included studies were analyzed inductively, according to the extent to which they addressed specified research objectives. A total of 21 studies were included. We identified five types of CSR initiatives relevant to the reduction of harmful drinking: alcohol information and education provision; drink driving prevention; research involvement; policy involvement and the creation of social aspects organizations. Individual companies appear to undertake different CSR initiatives than do industry-funded social aspects organizations. There is no robust evidence that alcohol industry CSR initiatives reduce harmful drinking. There is good evidence, however, that CSR initiatives are used to influence the framing of the nature of alcohol-related issues in line with industry interests. This research literature is at an early stage of development. Alcohol policy measures to reduce harmful drinking are needed, and the alcohol industry CSR initiatives studied so far do not contribute to the attainment of this goal.
Sinclair, Julia; Searle, Emma
Correct identification of alcohol as a contributor to, or comorbidity of, many psychiatric diseases requires health professionals to be competent and confident to take an accurate alcohol history. Being able to estimate (or calculate) the alcohol content in commonly consumed drinks is a prerequisite for quantifying levels of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to assess this ability in medical and nursing students. A cross-sectional survey of 891 medical and nursing students across different years of training was conducted. Students were asked the alcohol content of 10 different alcoholic drinks by seeing a slide of the drink (with picture, volume and percentage of alcohol by volume) for 30 s. Overall, the mean number of correctly estimated drinks (out of the 10 tested) was 2.4, increasing to just over 3 if a 10% margin of error was used. Wine and premium strength beers were underestimated by over 50% of students. Those who drank alcohol themselves, or who were further on in their clinical training, did better on the task, but overall the levels remained low. Knowledge of, or the ability to work out, the alcohol content of commonly consumed drinks is poor, and further research is needed to understand the reasons for this and the impact this may have on the likelihood to undertake screening or initiate treatment.
Sinclair, Julia; Searle, Emma
Objectives: Correct identification of alcohol as a contributor to, or comorbidity of, many psychiatric diseases requires health professionals to be competent and confident to take an accurate alcohol history. Being able to estimate (or calculate) the alcohol content in commonly consumed drinks is a prerequisite for quantifying levels of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to assess this ability in medical and nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 891 medical and nursing students across different years of training was conducted. Students were asked the alcohol content of 10 different alcoholic drinks by seeing a slide of the drink (with picture, volume and percentage of alcohol by volume) for 30 s. Results: Overall, the mean number of correctly estimated drinks (out of the 10 tested) was 2.4, increasing to just over 3 if a 10% margin of error was used. Wine and premium strength beers were underestimated by over 50% of students. Those who drank alcohol themselves, or who were further on in their clinical training, did better on the task, but overall the levels remained low. Conclusions: Knowledge of, or the ability to work out, the alcohol content of commonly consumed drinks is poor, and further research is needed to understand the reasons for this and the impact this may have on the likelihood to undertake screening or initiate treatment. PMID:27536344
Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Łobaszewski, Jakub; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Bylina, Jerzy; Mańczuk, Marta; Zatoński, Witold A
Alcohol drinking is a major contributing factor to death, disease, injury and social problems such as violence or child neglect and abuse, especially in Eastern Europe. To preliminary evaluate the prevalence and social and behavioural patterns of alcohol drinking in a pilot group of the Polish-Norwegian Study (PONS study) subjects. Open-ended prospective cohort study conducted in Świetokrzyskie province. A pilot group of subjects aged 45-64 years has been examined. Data on alcohol drinking were collected for 3,845 respondents with the use of the Health State Questionnaire administered by the CAPI method. In males, 72.3% drank alcohol currently, 22.7% were former drinkers, and only 5% never drinkers. Among females, the percentage of current alcohol drinkers was significantly lower than in males, while the percentages of former and never drinkers was higher (50.3%, 35.4% and 14.6%, respectively). 7.4% of males and 0.8% of females drank alcohol daily or almost daily, and weekly alcohol drinking was respectively at level of 32.2% and 15.7%. Males drank mainly vodka (or other spirits) and beer, females grape wine and vodka. PONS study includes interesting dataset for assessing prevalence and patterns of alcohol drinking at population level. Alcohol drinking seems to be common among PONS subjects. Comparison with nation-wide surveys shows on higher number of alcohol abstainers and lower number of binge drinkers among PONS study subjects. On the other hand, frequency and social patterns of alcohol drinking seem to be consistent with data found in national studies.
Roberson, Angela A; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley
To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well as moderation by gender and race. Drinking behavior was directly related to perceived norms and attitudes toward alcohol that develop, in part, from direct and indirect interactions with their online and offline peers, as well as engagement with alcohol-related content on social media. Gender and ethnicity moderated some effects. College student drinking is influenced by friends' alcohol-related content posted on social networking sites and by greater engagement with traditional and online alcohol marketing. College campus alcohol misuse interventions should include components to counter peer influences and alcohol marketing on social media.
Wade, Jeannette; Peralta, Robert L
Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables. African American students were more likely to abstain from alcohol and less likely to engage in HED compared to their White counterparts. Results also suggest that students who believe their drinking will solicit race-based police bias have lower odds of engaging in HED and greater odds of alcohol abstention. We conclude that unsolicited policing, experienced by African Americans generally, and White Americans on campuses, explains effect sizes.
Wada, K; Price, R K; Fukui, S
To estimate the prevalence of Japanese adolescents' alcohol use in Japan and the situations surrounding their drinking. A general population self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with a sample of 5,240 Japanese junior high school students obtained from 12 representative schools of the Chiba Prefecture in Japan. Almost 80% of the boys and 75% of the girls reported having consumed an alcoholic beverage on at least one occasion. Consumption occurred most frequently on a ceremonial occasion (52.4%), followed by drinking with family (39.0%), with peers (20.6%), after a bath (9.7%) and at ritual parties among friends (9.3%). In this sample, a greater percentage of students in a higher grade reported a drinking occasion after a bath, at parties among friends, or with peers. However, this trend was not observed for drinking on ceremonial occasions or with family in the evening. A gender difference was observed for the prevalence of drinking after a bath. A majority of students agreed with the statement that minors' use of alcohol was "acceptable depending on the situation." This was in sharp contrast with their perception of cigarette smoking and solvent use (16.3% and 3.8%, respectively, endorsing the same statement). By sometime in their first year of junior high school (when most students are age 12 years), more than 75% of Japanese adolescents have tried alcohol. Prevalence rates and trends across grades are different depending on the occasions of drinking. The findings on situational drinking among adolescents of this age group appear to reflect that assimilation into Japanese drinking culture takes place early on in family or traditional settings.
Peeters, M.; Koning, H.M.; Monshouwer, K.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wiers, Reinout W
Objective: Recent studies suggest that the predictive effect of implicit alcohol associations is context dependent. Findings indicate that implicit associations are more easily retrieved in an alcoholassociated setting or context (e.g., bar) compared with a neutral setting. In line with this reasoning, we hypothesized that alcohol availability at home might moderate the relationship between implicit alcohol associations and future drinking behavior of adolescents. Method: Participants were 26...
Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Hsueh-Yu; Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Chen, Wei J
To investigate potential effects of alcohol ads in six major marketing channels on drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan. The data were derived from the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children study. The baseline sample was comprised of 1926 seventh-eighth graders from 11 public middle schools in Taipei in 2010; follow-up was conducted one year later (follow-up rate=97%). Information concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, exposure to media portrayals of drinking and alcohol ads on major marketing channels, and drinking experience was collected through web-based self-administered questionnaires. Complex survey analyses were used to evaluate the association estimates, with stratification by prior drinking experiences in childhood. Television, in-store displays, and websites are the three most common marketing channels for young adolescents to report past-month alcohol advertising exposure. With statistical adjustment for potential confounders and six market channels, exposure to alcohol ads on television was associated with subsequent increased drinking initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.62; 95% CI=1.14-6.02). For those who have initiated alcohol use in childhood, the exposure to ads on the web (aOR=1.50; 95% CI=1.04-2.15) and radio (aOR=2.58; 95% CI=1.60-4.15) may elevate subsequent risk of occasional drinking. Exposure to media drinking portrayals was not related to subsequent drinking behaviors in this sample. Our results demonstrated that the effects of alcohol advertising on drinking behaviors in early adolescence may differ by marketing channels. Preventive strategies targeting underage drinking should consider restraining marketing channels (e.g., websites and radio) from certain advertising content and placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Haan L
Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, The Netherlands; 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences.Keywords: energy drink, alcohol, alcohol related consequences, survey, methodology
This research evaluated the risk factors associated with alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and related consequences among high school students in Taiwan. A total of 779 10th grade students from four randomly selected high schools in eastern Taiwan were included in the survey. Survey data were self-reported by students and analyzed using logistic regression methods. The results showed that alcohol consumption and problem drinking was 2.22-2.71-fold greater in male than in female adolescents. Parents and peer groups were the determinants influencing alcohol consumption, and these influences could be enhanced particularly by the drinking behaviors of fathers and peer groups, and the relationship of students with their peer groups. The probability of developing adolescent problem drinking was fourfold greater in students whose fathers had habits of drinking. Ethnicity had a notable impact on the risk of problem drinking. The occurrence of problem drinking among indigenous adolescents was 2.98-fold higher than among Hans, indicating a diversity of biological factors, social norms, and expectation for alcohol drinking between these two ethnic groups. This study suggests that a policy for preventing alcohol abuse among high school students should start by addressing the two major associated problems: a need to earn peer group recognition, and the lack of family support among at-risk students.
Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhao, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Lei, Xin-Xing; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Gang; Yan, Fang; Wang, Guan-Nan; Chen, Han; Jiang, Yi-Quan; Xia, Yun-Fei
The relationship between alcohol drinking and the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unknown. To investigate the prognostic value of alcohol drinking on NPC, this retrospective study was conducted on 1923 male NPC patients. Patients were classified as current, former and non-drinkers according to their drinking status. Furthermore, they were categorized as heavy drinkers and mild/none drinkers based on the intensity and duration of alcohol drinking. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. We found that current drinkers had significantly lower overall survival (OS) rate (5-year OS: 70.2% vs. 76.4%, P Drinking ≥14 drinks/week, and drinking ≥20 years were both independent unfavorable prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.81, P = 0.022; HR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.75, P = 0.007). Stratified analyses further revealed that the negative impacts of alcohol were manifested mainly among older patients and among smokers. In conclusion, alcohol drinking is a useful predictor of prognosis in male NPC patients; drinkers, especially heavy drinkers have poorer prognosis.
Hocking, Elise C; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Freeman, Harry
Evidence suggests that for young adults, intimate partners influence each other's drinking patterns. Therefore, exploration of variables related to intimate partner relationships (such as attachment style) could broaden the current understanding of risk factors for alcohol problems in this demographic. The current study examined the role of drinking context in the relationships among insecure attachment, alcohol problems, and relationship satisfaction. A path model was hypothesized where the relationship between insecure attachment and alcohol problems would be explained via two distinct drinking contexts (i.e., drinking with one's partner and drinking away from one's partner). It was also hypothesized that the relationship between insecure attachment and relationship satisfaction would be explained via these same two drinking contexts. Participants were 194 undergraduate students ages 18-25 who reported being in a monogamous intimate partner relationship for at least 90 days and had also consumed alcohol in the past 90 days. The sample was comprised of 76% women and 24% men. The hypothesized direct relationship from anxious attachment to alcohol problems was significant; there were also significant direct paths from both anxious and avoidant attachment to relationship satisfaction. The hypotheses regarding indirect relationships were not supported. The results of this study contribute to the existing literature, in that they suggest that drinking in the context of an intimate relationship may not directly affect relationship satisfaction in this population. However, relationship functioning still appears to be an important variable to consider in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems affecting college students.
Sinclair, Julia; Searle, Emma
Objectives: Correct identification of alcohol as a contributor to, or comorbidity of, many psychiatric diseases requires health professionals to be competent and confident to take an accurate alcohol history. Being able to estimate (or calculate) the alcohol content in commonly consumed drinks is a prerequisite for quantifying levels of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to assess this ability in medical and nursing students.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 891 medical and nur...
Hanewinkel, Reiner; Tanski, Susanne E; Sargent, James D
To assess whether movie alcohol exposure is associated with alcohol use during early adolescence. We conducted a survey of adolescents (N = 5,581) from 27 schools in Germany. Each was asked if he/she had seen a list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from a sample of 398 US box office hits released there. Screen alcohol use was timed for each movie, summed for movies each adolescent had seen, and adjusted to reflect exposure to all 398 movies. We assessed the association between this exposure and any alcohol use without parental knowledge (WPK) and binge drinking (>or= 5 drinks). Alcohol use was depicted in 88% of the 398 movies. Median exposure to movie alcohol use was 3.44 h (interquartile range = 1.51-6.23 h). Overall 36.6% of subjects used alcohol WPK and 18.1% reported binge drinking. Movie alcohol exposure was directly associated with alcohol use WPK and binge drinking, after controlling for multiple covariates including sociodemographics, personality characteristics and social influences. Compared with quartile one, the adjusted odds of alcohol use WPK were 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.82], 2.12 (1.75-2.57) and 2.95 (2.35-3.70) for quartiles 2, 3 and 4, respectively; similarly, adjusted odds of binge drinking were 1.42 (0.93-2.28), 1.84 (1.27-2.67) and 2.59 (1.70-3.95). This study demonstrates an association between exposure to alcohol use in US movies and alcohol use without parental knowledge in Germany, and is the first study to link movie exposure with binge drinking. Given international distribution of US movies, depicted behaviours may influence adolescents outside the country of origin.
Clapp, John D; Reed, Mark B; Martel, Brandi; Gonzalez, Maria C; Ruderman, Danielle
Substance abuse is the fastest growing health concern for older adults. Heavy drinking among older persons is associated with an increased risk of health consequences such as diabetes, cognitive impairment, sleep issues, and depression. It is important to note, however, the prevalence estimates of alcohol use among older adults are often based on inconsistent methodology. To address these potential methodological shortcomings, this study examines drinking patterns among low-income older adults using both self-report and unobtrusive methods. The study was conducted in a low-income residential senior center in the United States. A total of 174 participants, aged 60 years or older, completed 2 self-administered cross-sectional surveys. A bogus recycling program was implemented to assess the amount of alcohol consumed by residents. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to model predictors of drinking status and to determine predictors of 3 category Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test scores. Bivariate associations that predicted associations with alcohol use were included in the final multivariate model. Alcohol containers collected from recycling were converted to standard drink estimates in order to calculate the capital consumption of residents. About 40% of respondents reported consuming alcohol and 25% reported drinking at least once a week. On average, a total of 1,079 drinks were consumed per month. There were 3 significant predictors of drinking status: age, education, and diagnosis of diabetes. Additionally, there appears to be an increase in recycled alcohol containers coinciding with the time residents received their social security checks. Overall, the combination of self-report and unobtrusive measures of alcohol consumption has potential to highlight different aspects of drinking behavior with a population living in a single dwelling such as a senior center apartment complex, residential hall, and the like. Copyright © 2014 by the Research
Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon
The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017
Jones, Sandra C; Gregory, Parri
In response to increasing concerns about excessive drinking among young people the Australian alcohol industry announced that it will introduce more visible standard drink labels. This study sought to examine whether young people use this information in a way that decreases, or increases, alcohol-related harms. Six focus groups with students enrolled in an undergraduate university course in a large regional city in New South Wales, recruited by direct approach on the university grounds and via an online message posted on the university bulletin board. The majority of the participants reported that they are aware of the existence of standard drink labelling; notice standard drink labels; and take these into account when choosing what to purchase. However, this was predominantly to help them choose the strongest drinks for the lowest cost. This study provides initial evidence to support the view that standard drink labelling, in isolation of other modifications to product packaging and marketing, is likely to serve to further increase heavy drinking among young people.
Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R
Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
As part of the Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP), staff members of the Virginia Highway Research Council, acting in their role as evaluators of the project, conducted a baseline survey of the nighttime drinking-driving patterns in Fairfax,...
Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward
Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine
Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C
The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.
Agoglia, Abigail E.; Holstein, Sarah E.; Reid, Grant; Hodge, Clyde W.
Background Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, the neural mechanisms underlying this liability are unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if binge-drinking alters expression or phosphorylation of two molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity, calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) and the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) in addiction-associated brain regions. We also asked if activation of CaMKIIα-dependent AMPAR activity escalates binge-like drinking. Methods To address these questions, CaMKIIαT286 and GluA1S831 protein phosphorylation and expression were assessed in the amygdala and striatum of adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice immediately after voluntary binge-like alcohol drinking (blood alcohol > 80mg/dL). In separate mice, effects of the CaMKIIα-dependent pGluA1S831-enhancing drug tianeptine were tested on binge-like alcohol consumption in both age groups. Results Binge-like drinking decreased CaMKIIαT286 phosphorylation (pCaMKIIαT286) selectively in adolescent amygdala with no effect in adults. Alcohol also produced a trend for reduced pGluA1S831 expression in adolescent amygdala but differentially increased pGluA1S831 in adult amygdala. No effects were observed in the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum. Tianeptine increased binge-like alcohol consumption in adolescents but decreased alcohol consumption in adults. Sucrose consumption was similarly decreased by tianeptine pretreatment in both ages. Conclusions These data show that the adolescent and adult amygdalae are differentially sensitive to effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on plasticity-linked glutamate signaling molecules. Tianeptine-induced increases in binge-like drinking only in adolescents suggest that differential CaMKIIα-dependent AMPAR activation may underlie age-related escalation of binge drinking. PMID:26247621
Poelen, Evelien A P; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Willemsen, Gonneke
Previous research has indicated that friends' drinking may influence alcohol use in adolescents and young adults. We explored whether similarities in the drinking behavior of friends of twins influence the genetic architecture of alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Survey data from The Netherlands Twin Register were available for 1,526 twin pairs aged 16-25 years. We categorized the twin pairs as concordant (both report similar alcohol use in their friends) or discordant for the alcohol use of their friends. Genetic moderator models were tested by carrying out multi-group analyzes in Mplus. Findings showed a significant moderation effect. Genetic factors were more and common environment less important in the explanation of variation in alcohol use in twins discordant for alcohol use of friends than in twins concordant for alcohol use of friends.
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas
Guided by the assumptions of the social ecological model and the social marketing approach, this study provides a simultaneous and comprehensive assessment of 4 major alcohol reduction strategies for college campuses: school education programs, social norms campaigns, alcohol counter-marketing, and alcohol control policies. Analysis of nationally representative secondary survey data among 5,472 underage students reveals that alcohol marketing seems to be the most formidable risk factor for underage drinking, followed by perceived drinking norms (injunctive norm) and lax policy enforcement. This analysis suggests that, to make social norms campaigns and alcohol control policies more effective, alcohol reduction strategies should be developed to counter the powerful influence of alcohol marketing and promotions.
Conroy, Dominic; Sparks, Paul; de Visser, Richard
To assess the impact of a mental simulation intervention designed to reduce student alcohol consumption by asking participants to imagine potential positive outcomes of and/or strategic processes involved in not drinking during social occasions. English university students aged 18-25 years (n = 211, Mage = 20 years) were randomly allocated to one of four intervention conditions. The dependent variables were weekly alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking (HED) frequency and frequency of social occasions at which participants did not drink alcohol when others were drinking alcohol ('episodic non-drinking'). Measures of alcohol-related prototypes (i.e., prototypical non-drinker, prototypical regular drinker) were used to compute sociability prototype difference scores as a potential mediator of any intervention effects. All measures were taken at baseline and at 2- and 4-week follow-up. Participants completed one of four exercises involving either imagining positive outcomes of non-drinking during a social occasion (outcome condition); imagining strategies required for non-drinking during a social occasion (process condition); imagining both positive outcomes and required strategies (combined condition); or completing a drinks diary task (control condition). Latent growth curve analyses revealed a more substantial rate of decrease in weekly unit consumption and HED frequency among outcome condition and process condition participants, relative to control condition participants. Non-significant differences were found between the combined condition and the control condition. Across the whole sample, an inverted U-shape trend indicated an initial increase in episodic non-drinking before it returned to baseline levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that mental simulation interventions focused on non-drinking can successfully promote behaviour change. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? UK drinking recommendations advise two 'dry
Dietze, Paul; Agius, Paul A; Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Lim, Megan S C; Wright, Cassandra J C; Room, Robin
Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD. Longitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately 1 year apart. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25 years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks (ASD: 10 g ethanol) in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of seven ASD for females in a single occasion in the previous year). Random digit-dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual-specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed. Changes in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Likelihood Ratio χ 2 (2) = 24.4, P Event-specific characteristics are important predictors of the number of drinks consumed during risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and illustrate the importance of event contexts when considering interventions targeting RSOD. The total number of drinks consumed in a RSOD session appears to rise independently with the duration of the drinking event, the number of drinking locations and the number of different types of beverage consumed. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen
Workplace alcohol policies are crucial for workers' health and safety. The practice of outsourcing is gaining popularity around the world and was found to be associated with poorer health in the working population. This study aimed to examine how outsourcing complicates the implementation of workplace alcohol policies and affects workers' drinking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 outsource workers, 3 subcontractors and 3 worksite supervisors. Information regarding workers' drinking behaviors, their knowledge, and attitudes toward workplace alcohol policy were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Factors associated with poor workplace alcohol management included smaller size and private ownership of outsourcers, subcontractors' own drinking behavior and positive attitude to alcohol, and precarious employment conditions of outsourcing workers. The multilateral relationship between outsourcers, subcontractors, and workers complicated and impaired the implementation of workplace alcohol policies. The implementation of workplace alcohol management policies was hampered in outsourcing work conditions due to poor coordination of supervisors in the subcontract chain. The enforcement of alcohol policies in the workplace should be strengthened by consolidating management responsibilities of outsourcers and subcontractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Krentzman, Amy R; Webb, Jon R; Brower, Kirk J
Although spiritual change is hypothesized to contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence, few studies have used prospective data to investigate this hypothesis. Prior studies have also been limited to treatment-seeking and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) samples. This study included alcohol-dependent individuals, both in treatment and not, to investigate the effect of spiritual and religious (SR) change on subsequent drinking outcomes, independent of AA involvement. Alcoholics (N = 364) were recruited for a panel study from two abstinence-based treatment centers, a moderation drinking program, and untreated individuals from the local community. Quantitative measures of SR change between baseline and 6 months were used to predict 9-month drinking outcomes, controlling for baseline drinking and AA involvement. Significant 6-month changes in 8 of 12 SR measures were found, which included private SR practices, beliefs, daily spiritual experiences, three measures of forgiveness, negative religious coping, and purpose in life. Increases in private SR practices and forgiveness of self were the strongest predictors of improvements in drinking outcomes. Changes in daily spiritual experiences, purpose in life, a general measure of forgiveness, and negative religious coping also predicted favorable drinking outcomes. SR change predicted good drinking outcomes in alcoholics, even when controlling for AA involvement. SR variables, broadly defined, deserve attention in fostering change even among those who do not affiliate with AA or religious institutions. Last, future research should include SR variables, particularly various types of forgiveness, given the strong effects found for forgiveness of self.
Valencia-Martín, José Lorenzo; Galán, Iñaki; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
To examine the association between alcohol drinking patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-2010 among 12,715 adult individuals in Spain. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 questionnaire and alcohol intake with a diet history. The threshold between average moderate drinking and average heavy drinking was ≥ 40 g/day of alcohol in men and ≥ 24 g/day in women. Binge drinking was defined as the intake of ≥ 80 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women at any drinking session during the preceding 30 days. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Compared to non-drinkers, all types of average drinkers reported better scores on the SF-12 physical component: β=1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.81) in moderate drinkers and β=1.86 (1.07 to 2.64) in heavy drinkers. In contrast, average alcohol consumption was not associated with the mental component of the SF-12. The number of binge drinking episodes and most types of beverage preference showed no association with physical or mental HRQL. Alcohol drinkers, including those with heavy drinking, reported better physical HRQL than non-drinkers. © 2013.
Cooper, R; Hildebrandt, S; Gerlach, A L
The high comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) is often explained by excessive drinking in social situations to self-medicate social anxiety. Indeed, the motive to drink alcohol to lower social fears was found to be elevated in socially anxious persons. However, this social anxiety specific motive has not been directly investigated in primarily alcohol dependent individuals. We explored social anxiety, the motivation to drink alcohol in order to cope with social fears, and social anxiety as a consequence of drinking in AUD with and without comorbid SAD. Male AUD inpatients with (AUD+SAD group, N=23) and without comorbid SAD (N=37) completed a clinical interview and a questionnaire assessment. AUD+SAD patients reported higher levels of depression and an elevated motive to drink due to social anxiety but did not experience more social fears as a consequence of drinking. Previous results concerning alcohol drinking motives in order to relieve social fears could be replicated in a clinical AUD sample. Additionally, our findings suggest comorbid AUD+SAD patients to be more burdened regarding broader psychopathological symptoms. Thus, accessibility to SAD-specific screening and treatment procedures may be beneficial for primary AUD patients.
Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G
Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Health (NSDUH) show that 8.5 percent of pregnant women aged 15 to 44 drank alcohol in the ... 7 percent binge drank. Most alcohol use by pregnant women occurred during the first trimester. Alcohol use was ...
Guo, Shuai-jun; Yu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Xin; An, Wei-wei; Guo, Li-na; Wang, Jia
To investigate the status of smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors in undergraduate students, and explore the relationship between smoking and alcohol drinking and other health risk behaviors. A total of 7 979 students from 44 universities or colleges across China were sampled with multiple-stage stratified sampling method. A cross-sectional investigation on smoking, alcohol drinking and other health risk behaviors was conducted, and SPSS 13.0 was used to statistically analyze the data. The prevalence of current smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors was 19.6% and 42.2%, respectively. There was significant difference in different genders (male 34.1% vs. female 6.1%), geographical regions (East China 15.7% vs. Mid-China 19.0% vs. West China 29.8%), types of university (key university 17.9% vs. vocational college 21.2%) and majors (arts 15.4% vs. science and engineering 21.5%) in undergraduate students who currently smoked (Pstudents who currently drank (Pabuse, bad personal health habits, intentional and unintentional injuries, in the smoking and alcohol drinking students was higher than that of the control group. The smoking and alcohol drinking status was not optimistic in undergraduate students in China, which is highly related to other health risk behaviors. Comprehensive prevention and intervention programs should be developed according to different demographic distributions.
Alati, R; Baker, P; Betts, K S; Connor, J P; Little, K; Sanson, A; Olsson, C A
Parental drinking, harsh parental discipline and adolescent antisocial behaviour have been independently implicated in adolescent alcohol use. Robust prospective studies are required to examine developmental relationships between these factors and their effect on trajectories of alcohol use across adolescence. Data were ascertained at three consecutive adolescent waves (13.5, 15.5 and 17.5 years) from the Australian Temperament Project, a 15-wave (30 year) general population birth cohort in Victoria, Australia. Adolescent alcohol trajectories, adjusted for time-varying measures of parenting and antisocial behaviour, were regressed on time-stable measures of parental alcohol use. The full case analysis comprised 751 individuals with complete data. Two distinct alcohol trajectories were identified across the three adolescent waves after adjusting for time-varying factors: a higher and lower drinking group. Both trajectories increased linearly over the study period. Antisocial behaviour was positively associated with both trajectories while harsh parental discipline was positively associated with alcohol use in the lower-use group only. Increased maternal and paternal drinking at 13.5 years placed teenagers at a greater risk of being included in the high-risk trajectory. Parental drinking was the strongest predictor of different drinking trajectories in adolescence. This finding underscores the importance of comprehensive public heath approaches that target both parental and adolescent drinking attitudes and behaviour.
Askgaard, Gro; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Gerds, Thomas A.
incidence of heavy drinking among patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease in Denmark 1990-2013. We then analyzed pre-transplant demographic and psychiatric characteristics as predictors of post-transplant heavy drinking. Information was obtained from medical records, from nationwide registries...
Mooney, Debra K.; Gilbert, Brenda O.
Describes the relationship between personal and perceived opposite-sex peer expectations and drinking behavior. As compared to themselves, participants believed that their opposite-sex best friend had greater expectations for the effects of alcohol. Perceived peer expectancies added to the prediction of self-reported drinking beyond that which is…
Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.
Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…
Maani Hessari, N; Petticrew, M
The alcohol industry uses responsible drinking messaging as a central element of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. It has been argued that such messaging is vague, and potentially part of broader CSR activities to protect industry interests at the expense of public health. This study aimed to identify how industry defines responsible drinking, and in what contexts it is used. This was a qualitative documentary analysis of publicly available documents and web pages, including company web pages, press releases, reports and blogs from a representative selection of alcohol producers, and industry social aspect/public relations organizations; these were compared to health NGOs and Public Health England. All materials were coded iteratively using NVivo, and results were analysed using the hermeneutic approach. The term 'responsible drinking' was used almost exclusively by industry or industry-funded organizations. 'Responsible drinking' was not clearly defined with relation to any particular level of alcohol consumption, and government alcohol guidelines were rarely referenced. Responsible drinking is a strategically ambiguous, industry-affiliated term that allows for multiple interpretations. Industry sources rarely reference government drinking guidelines in the context of responsible drinking, stressing individual responsibility and risk management. Public health practitioners should be aware of these distinctions, and use clear language regarding lower risk drinking.
Smyth, Bobby P
We sought to examine the fall in age of first drinking in Ireland and to determine whether there were gender differences. We also aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the per capita alcohol consumption evident when people entered later adolescence and their age of drinking onset.
Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark
Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chung, Vincent C H; Yip, Benjamin H K; Griffiths, Sian M; Yu, Ellen L M; Kim, Jean H; Tam, Wilson W S; Wong, Alvin H C; Chan, Iris W T; Lau, Joseph T F
In an effort to promote Hong Kong as a global wine hub, the government eliminated duties on wine and beer in 2008. The changes in alcohol consumption patterns are examined. Anonymous, cross-sectional telephone surveys on a random sample of Chinese male and female residents aged 18-70 were carried out in 2011 (n = 4800) and 2012 (n = 1001). These data were compared with those of a 2006 (n = 9896) baseline survey conducted before the excise tax elimination. Prevalence of those ever drinking alcohol significantly increased from the 2006 baseline level of 66.6% to 82.0% in 2011 and to 85.2% in 2012. Of note, 10.2% of ever drinkers within the 2012 sample reported consuming alcohol for the first time in or after 2008. Younger, more educated or more affluent parts of the population are more likely to be ever drinkers. Unexpectedly, prevalence of binge drinking in the population decreased slightly from the 2006 baseline of 9.0% to 7.1% in 2011 and to 7.3% in 2012. Quantity of alcohol reportedly consumed by individuals did not change, while alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence levels decreased. However, binge drinking prevalence among the unemployed has increased. Logistic regression showed that those with lower educational achievement and the unemployed have higher likelihood of binge drinking. The government appears to have achieved its objective of making Hong Kong a world center for alcohol trade. However, the resulting access locally to cheaper alcohol has been associated with an increase in the numbers of those drinking alcohol. There has been a trend toward more adults drinking alcohol and greater risk of harm to some disadvantaged groups.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408 who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51.6% reported binge drinking. Compared to students who did not binge drink, university students who presented this pattern were more likely to report all evaluated problems, among them: black out (aOR: 5.4; having academic problems (aOR: 3.4; acting impulsively and having regrets (aOR: 2.9; getting involved in fights (aOR: 2.6; drinking and driving (aOR: 2.6 and accepting a ride with someone who had drunk alcohol (aOR: 1.8. Students who binged also had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (b=4.6; p<0.001, more negative consequences (b=1.0; p<0.001 and a reduced perception of the negativity of the consequences (b=-0.5; p<0.01. Conclusion: binge drinking was associated with an increase in the chances of manifesting problems related to alcohol use. The conclusions of this study cannot be generalized for all of the Brazilian population.
Swahn, Monica H.; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B.; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John
This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age ( = 2 2 5 7 ). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcoh...
Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia
Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…
Dougherty, Donald M.; Karns, Tara E.; Mullen, Jillian; Liang, Yuanyuan; Lake, Sarah L.; Roache, John D.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie
Background Recently, we demonstrated that transdermal alcohol monitors could be used in a contingency management procedure to reduce problematic drinking; the frequency of self-reported heavy/moderate drinking days decreased and days of no to low drinking increased. These effects persisted for three months after intervention. In the current report, we used the transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) data collected prior to and during the contingency management procedure to provide a detailed characterization of objectively measured alcohol use. Methods Drinkers (n = 80) who frequently engaged in risky drinking behaviors were recruited and participated in three study phases: a 4-week Observation phase where participants drank as usual; a 12-week Contingency Management phase where participants received $50 each week when TAC did not exceed 0.03 g/dl; and a 3-month Follow-up phase where self-reported alcohol consumption was monitored. Transdermal monitors were worn during the first two phases, where each week they recived $105 for visiting the clinic and wearing the monitor. Outcomes focused on using TAC data to objectively characterize drinking and were used to classify drinking levels as either no, low, moderate, or heavy drinking as a function of weeks and day of week. Results Compared to the Observation phase, TAC data indicated that episodes of heavy drinking days during the Contingency Management phase were reduced and episodes of no drinking and low to moderate drinking increased. Conclusions These results lend further support for linking transdermal alcohol monitoring with contingency management interventions. Collectively, studies to date indicate that interventions like these may be useful for both abstinence and moderation-based programs. PMID:25582388
Full Text Available In our culture, consuming of alcohol drinks is generally tolerated. The alcohol drinks is easily available and even represent a particular pattern of behavior. Young populations are at risk for alcohol abuse while most of them are beginning to experiment with alcohol in early adolescence and early creates a habit of drinking. To determine the frequency of alcohol consumption and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students of the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica and their association with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of students of Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica, in the period from 26th to 30th November 2012. As the survey instrument was used Questionnaire about behavior and health. From the statistical methods were used chi-square and Man-Whitney test, with a significance level of 0.05. In the week preceding the survey alcohol had consumed significantly higher part of students of economics (55.2% than medical students (29.9%. More often alcohol consumed males, older students and students of higher years of study. Most of the students declared that tried alcohol for the first time at home in the presence of their parents (37.6%, alcohol consumption is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live (76.1% and where they study (81.6%, and that they would not be embarrassed when in the company of fellow ordered a drink that is not alcoholic (87%.Nearly one of three medical students and half of students of economics in Kosovska Mitrovica had tried alcohol in the previous week, while the majority concluded that the consumption of alcohol is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live and study.
Zhou, Y; Rubinstein, M; Low, M J; Kreek, M J
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. This study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle, intermittent access (IA, 24-h cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs. water in a two-bottle choice) and alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) models. Wild-type nPE+/+ exposed to 1-week DID rapidly established stable alcohol drinking behavior with more intake in females, whereas nPE-/- mice of both sexes had less intake and less preference. Although nPE-/- showed less saccharin intake and preference than nPE+/+, there was no genotype difference in sucrose intake or preference in the DID paradigm. After 3-week IA, nPE+/+ gradually escalated to high alcohol intake and preference, with more intake in females, whereas nPE-/- showed less escalation. Pharmacological blockade of mu-opioid receptors with naltrexone reduced intake in nPE+/+ in a dose-dependent manner, but had blunted effects in nPE-/- of both sexes. When alcohol was presented again after 1-week abstinence from IA, nPE+/+ of both sexes displayed significant increases in alcohol intake (ADE or relapse-like drinking), with more pronounced ADE in females, whereas nPE-/- did not show ADE in either sex. Our results suggest that neuronal POMC is involved in modulation of alcohol 'binge' drinking, escalation and 'relapse', probably via hypothalamic-mediated mechanisms, with sex differences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Salemink, E; van Lier, P A C; Meeus, W; Raaijmakers, S F; Wiers, R W
Most individuals start drinking during adolescence, a period in which automatically activated or implicit cognitive processes play an important role in drinking behavior. The aim of this study was to examine personality-related antecedents of implicit associations between alcohol and positive or negative reinforcement motives in adolescents. It was hypothesized that frequent alcohol consumption in combination with specific personality traits (neuroticism for negative reinforcement and extraversion for positive reinforcement) could predict specific implicit alcohol-relaxation and arousal associations. Participants completed a brief Big Five Questionnaire and alcohol use questions at T1. Approximately eight months later (T2), two Brief Implicit Association Tests were completed to assess alcohol-relaxation (negative reinforcement, n=222) and alcohol-arousal (positive reinforcement, n=248) associations. Results indicated that frequently drinking adolescents who scored high on neuroticism had the strongest alcohol-relaxation associations eight months later. No significant predictors were observed for alcohol-arousal associations. The current study identified precursors of strong implicit alcohol-relaxation associations (i.e., high levels of neuroticism in combination with frequent alcohol consumption) which can inform future prevention and intervention studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina
A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. The most frequent neutral motives reported for AMED consumption included "I like the taste" (66.5%), and "to celebrate a special occasion" (35.2%). 52.6% of AMED consumers reported consuming AMED for at least one of five negative motives, primarily "to get drunk" (45.6%). Despite these negative motives those students reported consuming significantly less alcohol and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions compared to alcohol-only (AO) occasions. Although the motives for consuming AMED and AMOB were comparable, more participants reported consuming AMED "to celebrate a special occasion", "to get drunk", because they "received the drink from someone else" or "because others drink it as well". However, significantly more students reported consuming AMOB than AMED because "It feels like I can drink more alcohol". Alcohol consumption was significantly less on AMED occasions compared to AMOB occasions, and both occasions significantly less than AO occasions. The majority of reasons for consuming AMED relate to neutral motives. Although 52.6% of students reported one or more negative motives for AMED consumption (predominantly "to get drunk") this had no differential effect on total alcohol consumption. The differences in motives suggest AMED is consumed more to enjoy special occasions and as a group-bonding experience, however alcohol consumption is significantly lower on such occasions in comparison to when AMOB or AO are consumed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals? drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age =23.1) in French-speaking Swit...
Tanski, Susanne E; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D
Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 years of age; P advertising receptivity score independently predicted the onset of drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.69 [95% CI, 1.17-2.44]), the onset of binge drinking (AOR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1
Tanski, Susanne E.; McClure, Auden C.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
IMPORTANCE Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. OBJECTIVE To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. RESULTS Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15–17, 18–20, and 21–23 years of age; P advertising receptivity score independently predicted the onset of drinking (adjusted
Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.; Owens, Adam; Barleen, Nathan A.
Background: There is some debate over the efficacy of alcohol industry parenting manuals. Purpose: This study compares the content and focus of alcohol industry and non-industry "talk to your child about drinking" parenting manuals. Methods: Parenting manuals from Anheuser-Busch and Miller Brewing Company were compared to federal government and…
Brechting, Emily H.; Carlson, Charles R.
Religiousness has consistently emerged in the literature as a protective factor for alcohol use. Relatively few studies have empirically explored possible mechanisms for this robust effect. The present study examines descriptive drinking norms as a potential mediator of the religiousness--alcohol consumption association. Consistent with the…
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
Osler, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Grønbaek, M
AIMS: To examine trends in alcohol drinking in different educational groups. METHODS: Data from three cross-sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92 were analysed to estimate trends in abstention, moderate, heavy, and sporadic heavy alcohol use in relation to level of ...
Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…
Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu
Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors, but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. All identified reasons except confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol's sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs' vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking.
Koyama, Chieko; Belli, Gabriella
Alcohol use, acculturative stress, and drinking motivations of 262 students in English as a second language programs in a U.S. community college were explored. Alcohol consumption was generally low, but differences between two groups with different legal statuses indicate the need to consider subgroups of international students for research…
The negative consequences of alcohol consumption on the drinker are well documented. Alcohol is the cause of many physical and mental health conditions and is associated with social problems affecting the drinker, the family and the society at-large. Nondrinkers also experience the impact of other people's drinking ...
McBride, Nicole M.; Barrett, Blake; Moore, Kathleen A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence
Objective: This study explored associations between positive alcohol expectancies, and demographics, as well as academic status and binge drinking among underage college students. Participants: A sample of 1,553 underage college students at 3 public universities and 1 college in the Southeast who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey in the…
Jasinski, Jana L.; Ford, Jason A.
Evidence indicates GLB individuals may be at greater risk for high rates of alcohol consumption; however, few studies have identified specific factors explaining why differences exist. Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, we examined the ability of drinking motives and social norms to explain the relationship between sexual orientation…
Linneberg, A; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C
Although hypersensitivity reactions following intake of alcoholic drinks are common in Caucasians, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance are not known. In contrast, in Asians, alcohol-induced asthma and flushing have been shown to be because of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...
Ostafin, Brian D.; Bauer, Chris; Myxter, Peter
Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol and drug use are influenced by automatic motivational responses to substance use cues. With increasing evidence that automatic alcohol motivation is related to heavy drinking, researchers have begun to examine interventions that may modulate the
Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.
In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…
Nelson, Jon P; McNall, Amy D
Natural experiments are an important alternative to observational and econometric studies. This paper provides a review of results from empirical studies of alcohol policy interventions in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Sweden, and Switzerland. Major policy changes were removal of quotas on travelers' tax-free imports and reductions in alcohol taxes. A total of 29 primary articles are reviewed, which contain 35 sets of results for alcohol consumption by various subpopulations and time periods. For each country, the review summarizes and examines: (1) history of tax/quota policy interventions and price changes; (2) graphical trends for alcohol consumption and liver disease mortality; and (3) empirical results for policy effects on alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. We also compare cross-country results for three select outcomes-binge drinking, alcohol consumption by youth and young adults, and heavy consumption by older adults. Overall, we find a lack of consistent results for consumption both within- and across-countries, with a general finding that alcohol tax interventions had selective, rather than broad, impacts on subpopulations and drinking patterns. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Darcq, Emmanuel; Morisot, Nadege; Phamluong, Khanhky; Warnault, Vincent; Jeanblanc, Jerome; Longo, Frank M.; Massa, Stephen M.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) keeps alcohol intake in moderation. For example, activation of the BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the DLS reduces intake in rats that consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Here, we tested whether long-term excessive consumption of alcohol produces neuroadaptations in BDNF signaling in the rat DLS. We found that BDNF was no longer able to gate alcohol self-administration after a history of repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and withdrawal. We then elucidated the possible neuroadaptations that could block the ability of BDNF to keep consumption of alcohol in moderation. We report that intermittent access to 20% alcohol in a two-bottle choice paradigm that models excessive alcohol drinking produces a mobilization of DLS p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), whose activities oppose those of the Trk receptors, including TrkB. These neuroadaptations were not observed in the DLS of rats exposed to continuous access to 10% alcohol or in rats consuming sucrose. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of the p75NTR gene in the DLS, as well as intra-DLS infusion or systemic administration of the p75NTR modulator, LM11A-31, significantly reduced binge drinking of alcohol. Together, our results suggest that excessive alcohol consumption produces a change in BDNF signaling in the DLS, which is mediated by the recruitment of p75NTR. Our data also imply that modulators of p75NTR signaling could be developed as medications for alcohol abuse disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuroadaptations gate or drive excessive, compulsive alcohol drinking. We previously showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, TrkB, in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), are part of an endogenous system that keeps alcohol drinking in moderation. Here, we show that a history of excessive alcohol intake produces neuroadaptations in the DLS that preclude BDNF
Sajber, Dorica; Tahiraj, Enver; Zenic, Natasa; Peric, Mia; Sekulic, Damir
Adolescent alcohol consumption is a significant public-health problem, although there is a lack of studies investigating this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of alcohol drinking, and the factors associated with harmful drinking (HD) in Kosovar 17-18 years old adolescents. The sample comprised 636 girls and 366 boys (17-18 years old) from Pristina, Kosovo. The independent variables included sociodemographic factors, variables examining familial-monitoring and conflict (familial-variables), and sport-factors. Alcohol-drinking (dependent variable) was measured by means of the alcohol use disorders identification test scale. 39% of the girls and 43% of the boys reported HD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% confidence interval = 0.90-1.55). A higher likelihood of HD is found for those girls whose mothers have an advanced education (OR = 1.59), who reported a higher level of conflict with their parents (OR = 1.95), whose parents are frequently absent from home (OR = 1.93), and who reported lower religiosity (OR = 0.90). HD is more frequent among boys who have participated longer in sports (OR = 1.49), whose fathers have an advanced education (OR = 1.80), and who reported higher level of familial conflict (OR = 2.87). The prevalence of HD is high. Knowing the problems related to alcohol drinking in girls (violence, trafficking, etc.), public-health authorities should urgently develop a specific preventive programme (SPP) to combat the misuse of alcohol. In preparing SPP, special attention should be paid to the varying influences of the studied factors on HD in boys and girls.
Hustad, John T.P.; Eaton, Erica M.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Kahler, Christopher W.
College students who are cited for violating campus alcohol policy are often fined or sanctioned to complete an intervention or public service. While some interventions have been found efficacious for mandated students, it is possible that being cited for an alcohol-related incident alone may be sufficient to reduce alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of alcohol consumption patterns following a citation for an alcohol policy violation. Participants wer...
Wilson, Hollie; Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander
Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile app aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter "calculators") were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps.
Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia
The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries specifically addressing "responsible drinking." Search descriptors included responsible, responsibility, drinking, alcohol, brewer, and campaign. Eighteen articles constituted the final sample. The matrix method was utilized to organize and abstract pertinent information. Misunderstanding stemming from the inconsistency and counterintuitive nature of brewer-sponsored "responsible drinking" campaigns is further compounded by researchers' use of the term and concept of "responsible drinking" in their scholarly reports. In articulating the definition of "responsible drinking," researchers employ subjective notions and personal ideas, thus not differentiating the construct's meaning from the one acquired in brewer-sponsored campaigns. Researchers are consistently inconsistent when identifying specific health measures that promote and/or contradict responsible alcohol consumption. To evade the subjective notions of researchers and restrictive impressions attached by the alcohol industry, the manner in which individuals interpret, perceive, and practice responsible drinking must be systematically explored and examined using theoretically based constructs.
Clapp, John D; Holmes, Megan R; Reed, Mark B; Shillington, Audrey M; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E
In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments. Specifically, we present the methodology from a large field study of student drinking environments along with some illustrative data from the same study. Field surveys, observational methods, sampling issues, and breath alcohol concentration sample collection are detailed.
Yusko, David A; Buckman, Jennifer F; White, Helene R; Pandina, Robert J
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes compared to non-athletes reported more exaggerated perceptions of peer heavy drinking and lower sensation seeking and coping and enhancement motives for drinking, suggesting a risk profile distinct from non-athletes. In the overall sample, higher sensation seeking, overestimation of peer heavy drinking, non-use of protective behaviors while drinking, and higher enhancement and coping drinking motives were associated with greater frequency of heavy episodic drinking and more negative drinking consequences. In athletes compared to non-athletes, sensation seeking was more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking to cope was more strongly associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. Overall, the results suggest that already proven brief intervention strategies, with minor adaptations related to the roles of sensation seeking and drinking to cope, may be helpful for student athletes.
Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes compared to non-athletes reported more exaggerated perceptions of peer heavy drinking and lower sensation seeking and coping and enhancement motives for drinking, suggesting a risk profile distinct from non-athletes. In the overall sample, higher sensation seeking, overestimation of peer heavy drinking, non-use of protective behaviors while drinking, and higher enhancement and coping drinking motives were associated with greater frequency of heavy episodic drinking and more negative drinking consequences. In athletes compared to non-athletes, sensation seeking was more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking to cope was more strongly associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. Overall, the results suggest that already proven brief intervention strategies, with minor adaptations related to the roles of sensation seeking and drinking to cope, may be helpful for student athletes. PMID:18752900
Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole
Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.
Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin
Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathol...
Eriksson, C J Peter
Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.
A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…
Karatzi, Kalliopi; Aissopou, Evaggelia K; Katsana, Konstantina; Moiragia, Marousa; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Sfikakis, Petros P; Protogerou, Athanase D
The association of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks with microcirculation is poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of daily consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks with retinal vessel calibers. In consecutive adults at increased risk but free of CVD and diabetes mellitus, (n=181, age: 51.32±12.42 y, 51.4% women), we determined CRAE, CRVE and AVR, respectively. Daily consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks was assessed through 24 h recalls. After adjustment for potential confounders: (i) caffeine was positively associated with CRVE (b=0.177, P=.006 for left, b=0.208, P=.002 for right eye, respectively) (ii) decaffeinated coffee was positively associated with CRAE (b=0.141, P=.035 for left eye) and negatively associated with CRVE (b=-0.234, Palcohol, and any type of alcoholic drink did not associate with retinal vessel calibers. Alcohol and alcoholic drinks' consumption were not associated, while decaffeinated coffee and caffeine consumption were associated in an opposing pattern with retinal vessel calibers. The reason of this controversy merits further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gibbons, Frederick X.; Kingsbury, John H.; Wills, Thomas A.; Finneran, Stephanie D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Gerrard, Meg
This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents’ reactions to positive vs. negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that reaction times to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; i.e., the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. PMID:27099959
Dallas, Rebecca; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abi; Robinson, Eric
Drinking partners may be influenced by each other's alcohol consumption. However, these effects have only been shown in artificially created social pairings and typically among same-sex young adults. Here, we test whether similarly strong influence effects occur among "real" pairs of social acquaintances (friends and partners) and whether people are aware of this influence on their alcohol consumption. Forty-six pairs of social acquaintances aged between 19 and 60 years old participated in a between-subjects experiment, in a semi-naturalistic bar laboratory setting. One member of each pair (the confederate) was randomly selected and asked to consume only alcoholic (alcohol condition) or soft drinks (nonalcohol condition), while the pair completed a game together in a bar setting. The other participant (naïve) was unaware of these drinking instructions. Postconsumption, we measured the extent to which naïve participants believed that their partner had influenced their own drinking behavior. A large effect of condition on alcohol consumption was observed, χ² (2) = 15.8, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.59, whereby the number of alcoholic drinks selected by naïve participants in the alcohol confederate condition was significantly greater than in the nonalcohol confederate condition. The majority of naïve participants (81%) also tended to be unaware that their partner had influenced their alcohol consumption. Social acquaintances are influenced by each other's alcohol consumption and may not be aware of this influence on their behavior. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.
drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...... a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined...
Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Valmas, Mary; Urban, Trinity; Harris, Gordon J.
Background Alcoholism has been repeatedly associated with gray and white matter pathology. Although neuroimaging has shown alcoholism-related brain volume reductions and axonal compromise, the integrity of white matter volumes in chronic alcoholism has been challenging to measure on a regional level. Methods We first examined effects of alcoholism on cerebral white matter volumes by lobar and gyral subdivisions in 42 abstinent alcoholics and 42 control participants (split evenly by gender). We also examined cerebellar white matter and regions of the corpus callosum, as well as ventricular volumes. Next, relationships between white matter and ventricular volumes with measures of drinking patterns were assessed. Finally, an examination of early versus late abstinence was conducted. Within each examination, gender effects were explored. Results Differences in regional white matter volumes between alcoholics and controls were observed primarily in the corpus callosum, with a stronger group difference among men than among women. Years of heavy drinking had a strong negative impact on frontal and temporal white matter among alcoholic women, and on the corpus callosum among alcoholic men. Quantity of alcohol consumption was associated with smaller corpus callosum and larger ventricular volumes among alcoholic women, while abstinence duration was associated with larger corpus callosum volume among alcoholic men. Preliminary data indicated that alcoholic women showed stronger positive associations between sobriety duration and white matter volume than men within the first year of abstinence, while men showed this association more so than women after one year of abstinence. Conclusions Effects of drinking history on white matter and ventricular volumes vary by gender, with alcoholic women showing greatest sensitivity in frontal, temporal, ventricular, and corpus callosum regions, and alcoholic men showing effects mainly in the corpus callosum. Preliminary results indicate
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
We evaluated the association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and current problem drinking among 139 African American women aged 21 to 49 years in Central Harlem, New York City. We found that exposure to advertisements was positively related to problem drinking (13% greater odds), even after we controlled for a family history of alcohol problems and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the density of alcohol advertisements in predominantly African American neighborhoods may add to problem drinking behavior of their residents.
Vaeth, Patrice A.C.; Wang-Schweig, Meme; Caetano, Raul
Data from approximately 140 articles and reports published since 2000 on drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), correlates of drinking and AUD, and treatment needs, access and utilization were critically examined and summarized. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates alcohol-related disparities across U.S. racial/ethnic groups. American Indians/Alaska Natives generally drink more and are disproportionately affected by alcohol problems, having some of the highest rates for AUD. In contrast, Asia...
Berger, Lisa; Brondino, Michael; Fisher, Michael; Gwyther, Robert; Garbutt, James C
In a recent study conducted in a family medicine setting, the medication acamprosate was found not to be efficacious in the treatment of alcohol dependence, but a drinking goal of abstinence was found to have positive effects on alcohol use outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to further understand which patients with an alcohol use disorder may be most successfully treated in a primary care setting. The study was exploratory and used a trajectory-based approach based on data from the acamprosate treatment trial of 100 participants (recruited mostly by advertisement) who were randomly assigned to receive either acamprosate or a matching placebo. Post hoc trajectories of alcohol use before treatment were identified to examine whether trajectory classes and their interactions with treatment arm (acamprosate or placebo), pretreatment drinking goal (abstinence or a reduction), and time predicted alcohol use outcomes. Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: frequent drinkers, nearly daily drinkers, and consistent daily drinkers. Consistent daily drinkers with a goal of abstinence significantly improved over time on the primary outcome measure of percent days abstinent when compared with frequent and nearly daily drinkers. In addition, all participants with a goal of abstinence, regardless of trajectory class, significantly reduced their percentage of heavy drinking days over time. Patients with an alcohol use disorder who have a drinking goal of abstinence, in particular consistent daily drinkers, may maximally benefit from alcohol use disorder treatment, including the use of medication, in a primary care setting. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Normann, Per T; Vollrath, Margarete E
To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy. Cohort. Norway 1999-2008. The study includes complete information on 66 111 pregnant women and their partners. We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) representing 39% of the pregnant population. Light alcohol use (0.5-2 units one to four times per month) and binge drinking (an intake of 5 alcohol units or more) measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C). For each unit increase in maternal negative affectivity the odds for light alcohol use increased with 27% in the first trimester [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.36], and 28% in the second trimester (95% CI 1.18-1.39). With respect to binge drinking, each unit increase in maternal negative affectivity was associated with 55% higher odds in the first trimester (95% CI 1.44-1.67), and 114% higher odds in the second trimester (95% CI 1.70-2.69). Negative affectivity is associated with both light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy. The mechanisms mediating the relation between negative affectivity and alcohol use in pregnancy should be investigated further. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Curry, Kim; Stasio, Michael J
Caffeinated energy drinks-alone or with alcohol-are heavily marketed to young adults, many of whom believe that caffeine counteracts some negative effects of alcohol intoxication. While the effects of caffeine and alcohol have been widely investigated, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance after consumption of a beverage containing both ingredients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 non-caffeine-deprived female participants were randomly assigned to consume a caffeinated energy drink alone, one containing alcohol, or a non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated control beverage. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted using alternate forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants who consumed the energy drink plus alcohol evidenced significantly lower post-test performance on a global score of neuropsychological status. Specifically, deficits were found in both visuospatial/constructional and language performance scores. While participants who consumed the caffeinated beverage alone trended toward improved attention scores, neuropsychological status did not show meaningful changes from the pre- to post-test. Consumption of an energy drink containing 6% alcohol by volume negatively influenced performance on a global measure of cognitive functioning. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pilatti, Angelina; Caneto, Florencia; Garimaldi, Javier Alejandro; Vera, Belén Del Valle; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos
The aim of the study was to analyze independent and potential interactive effects of age at drinking onset and family history of alcohol abuse on subsequent patterns of alcohol drinking, alcohol-related problems and substance use. Participants were college students (60.3% females, mean age = 20.27 ± 2.54 years) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several measures were used to assess alcohol, tobacco and drug use. The Spanish version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire was used to assess alcohol-related problems. Factorial analyses of variance, or its non-parametric equivalent, were performed to explore differences in substance use behaviors and alcohol-related problems in subjects with early or late drinking onset and with or without family history of alcohol abuse. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the association between these two risk factors and categorical measures of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Early onset of drinking was associated with amount of consumption of alcohol including up to hazardous levels, as well as tobacco and drug use. However, the frequency of alcohol problems and frequency of episodes of alcohol intoxication were only related to age of onset in those with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Delaying drinking debut is particularly important in the prevention of future alcohol problems in those adolescents who have a family history of such problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some epidemiologic studies found inverse associations between alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease (PD, the majority of studies found no such significant associations. Additionally, there is only limited research into the possible interactions of alcohol intake with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 activity with respect to PD risk. We examined the relationship between alcohol intake and PD among Japanese subjects using data from a case-control study. Methods From 214 cases within 6 years of PD onset and 327 controls without neurodegenerative disease, we collected information on "peak", as opposed to average, alcohol drinking frequency and peak drinking amounts during a subject's lifetime. Alcohol flushing status was evaluated via questions, as a means of detecting inactive ALHD2. The multivariate model included adjustments for sex, age, region of residence, smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of selected medication histories, and several dietary factors. Results Alcohol intake during peak drinking periods, regardless of frequency or amount, was not associated with PD. However, when we assessed daily ethanol intake separately for each type of alcohol, only Japanese sake (rice wine was significantly associated with PD (adjusted odds ratio of ≥66.0 g ethanol per day: 3.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-11.0, P for trend = 0.001. There was no significant interaction of alcohol intake with flushing status in relation to PD risk. Conclusions We did not find significant associations between alcohol intake and PD, except for the daily amount of Japanese sake. Effect modifications by alcohol flushing status were not observed.
Boniface, Sadie; Kneale, James; Shelton, Nicola
Several studies have found participants pour more than 1 standard drink or unit as their usual glass. This is the first study to measure actual and perceived amounts of alcohol in a self-defined usual glass of wines and spirits in the general population. Participants were a convenience sample of adults who drink alcohol or who pour drinks for other people (n = 283, 54% women) at 6 sites in South East England. The survey was face to face and comprised a self-completion questionnaire and pouring task. Estimation accuracy, categorised as correct (±0.5 units), underestimate (>0.5 units), or overestimate (>0.5 units) was the main outcome. The mean number of units poured was 1.90 (SD 0.80; n = 264) for wine and 1.93 (SD 0.78; n = 201) for spirits. The amount of alcohol in a self-defined usual glass was estimated in 440 glasses (248 wine and 192 spirits). Overestimation took place in 42% glasses of spirit poured and 29% glasses of wine poured, and underestimation in 17 and 19%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression found volume poured to be significantly associated with underestimating both wines and spirits, and additionally for wine only, belonging to a non-white ethnic group and being unemployed or retired. Not having a university degree was significantly associated with overestimating both drink types. This study is the first in the general population and did not identify systematic underestimation of the amount of alcohol in a self-defined usual glass. Underestimation is significantly associated with volume poured for both drink types; therefore, advocating pouring smaller glasses could reduce underestimation of alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Cheng, Hui G; Phillips, Michael R; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Zhizhong
Drinking motives have been linked to alcohol consumption and drinking-related problems in western countries, but evidence about this relationship is largely lacking for Asian countries. We aim to assess the relationship between drinking motives and drinking-related outcomes in China, where alcohol use disorders are an increasingly important contributor to the overall burden of illness. Validated Chinese versions of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) were used to assess drinking motives and drinking-related outcomes among 612 current drinkers identified from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 2425 adults living in Ningxia Province in 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the relationships linking specific drinking motives ('enhancement', 'conformity', 'social' and 'coping') to drinking-related outcomes ('level of alcohol consumption', 'alcohol dependence' and 'adverse consequences'). The enhancement motive is significantly associated with the level of alcohol consumption (β=0.52, 95% CI=0.27, 0.78). The conformity motive is associated with higher levels of alcohol dependence (β=0.74, 95% CI=0.50, 0.98) and adverse consequences of drinking (β=0.43, 95% CI=0.04, 0.81). The social motive and drinking to cope motive are not significantly associated with any of the three drinking outcomes. The relationships between drinking motives and drinking-related outcomes in China are quite different from those reported in western countries. This study highlights the need to consider local context when adapting prevention or intervention strategies developed in western countries to address the problem of the harmful use of alcohol in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Michael; Effertz, Tobias
The study aimed to explore the place of taxation in preventing underage binge drinking in Germany. We reviewed evidence on the role of excise taxes on alcohol in preventing alcohol problems and underage drinking. We analyzed historical German data on tax on alcoholic beverages and compared this with European data, finally calculating tax scenarios and their impact on underage binge drinking. Germany applies lower taxes than many other European countries and alcohol beverage prices have decreased by 30% relative to overall price levels during the last 40 years. An optimal tax rate for reducing underage drinking would be set between the European average tax rates and Scandinavian tax rate levels.
Yurasek, Ali; Miller, Mary Beth; Mastroleo, Nadine; Lazar, Vanessa; Borsari, Brian
Pregaming is a common phenomenon among college students and is associated with increased risks such as heavy drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and violating campus alcohol policies. However, the mechanism by which pregaming increases student risk is unclear. The current study aimed to delineate the role of personal endorsement of pregaming, duration of an entire drinking episode on the night of an alcohol violation, and movement from one location to another in predicting alcohol use and violation-related cognitions. Participants (N = 113) were college students who had received an alcohol violation. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to investigate the predictive value of pregaming endorsement, duration of drinking, and movement on drinking behaviors [number of drinks consumed and estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC)] on the night of the alcohol violation as well as violation-related cognitions (responsibility, aversiveness). Pregaming and duration of drinking were significant predictors of alcohol consumption and eBAC on the night of the violation, whereas movement was not. Duration of the drinking episode was significantly related to increased perceived responsibility for the alcohol violation. Self-reported pregaming and the duration of the drinking episode appear to be better targets than movement for prevention and intervention efforts addressing pregaming on college campuses. Interventions should continue focusing on reducing pregaming and its associated consequences, especially for those who report a longer duration of drinking following a pregaming episode.
Froehlich, Janice C; Fischer, Stephen M; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nicholas J; Smith, Teal N; Rademacher, Logan C
This study examined whether naltrexone (NTX) or varenicline (VAR), alone or in combination, can retard the phenotypic expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high alcohol intake when drug treatment is initiated prior to, or concomitantly with, the onset of alcohol drinking. Alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW), VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW), a combination of NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW) + VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW), or vehicle (VEH) for 2 weeks prior to, or concomitantly with, their first opportunity to drink alcohol and throughout 21 days of daily 2-hour alcohol access. Drug treatment was then discontinued for 3 weeks followed by reinstatement of drug treatment for an additional 3 weeks. When P rats were pretreated with drug for 2 weeks prior to onset of alcohol access, only NTX + VAR in combination blocked the acquisition of alcohol drinking in alcohol-naïve P rats. When drug treatment was initiated concomitantly with the first opportunity to drink alcohol, NTX alone, VAR alone, and NTX + VAR blocked the acquisition of alcohol drinking. Following termination of drug treatment, NTX + VAR and VAR alone continued to reduce alcohol drinking but by the end of 3 weeks without drug treatment, alcohol intake in all groups was comparable to that seen in the vehicle-treated group as the expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking emerged in the drug-free P rats. After 3 weeks without drug treatment, reinstatement of NTX + VAR treatment again reduced alcohol intake. A combination of NTX + VAR, when administered prior to, or concomitantly with, the first opportunity to drink alcohol, blocks the acquisition of alcohol drinking during both initial access to alcohol and during a later period of alcohol access in P rats with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol intake. The results suggest that NTX + VAR may be effective in curtailing alcohol drinking in individuals
Letourneau, Brian; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Gioia, Christopher J
Several psychometrically sound measures of alcohol use have been developed to assess drinking. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and its shorter counterpart the AUDIT-C, which contains the first 3 AUDIT questions, were developed by the World Health Organization and have become the preferred brief measures for screening and evaluating problem severity. This study compared the first 3 questions on the AUDIT with another psychometrically sound brief measure of alcohol use, the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS). Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention promoting self-change with 472 alcohol abusers (n = 280, no prior alcohol treatment; n = 192, prior alcohol treatment). Participants' retrospective self-reports of alcohol consumption were collected using the QDS and the 3 AUDIT-C questions and compared. Although both measures contain similar questions (2 quantity-frequency and 1 binge drinking), they differ in 2 important ways: (i) temporal interval over which data are collected, and (ii) formatting of response options (i.e., a continuous number vs. categorical). Intraclass correlations for drinking variables were moderate to moderately high. A repeated-measures MANOVA using treatment condition and gender as variables revealed significant differences in absolute values between the 2 drinking measures with the QDS showing greater consumption on almost all variables. Participants' numerical answers on the QDS were compared to their categorical answers to the similar alcohol use questions on the AUDIT-C. The comparison revealed that participants' answers on the AUDIT-C were associated with extreme variability compared to their QDS answers. This variability suggests the AUDIT-C would be unreliable as a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption. The differences between the 3 alcohol use questions on the AUDIT-C and the same questions on the QDS may reflect the imprecision of the AUDIT-C's drinking response
Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J
An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S
Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.
Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X
Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation
Full Text Available Alcohol ingestion–related increased left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT pressure gradient in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM has been reported in the literature; however, acute myocardial infarction (AMI after alcohol drinking in this patient group is rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man with chronic alcoholism suffering from AMI after alcohol drinking. Electrocardiography revealed complete left bundle branch block, and chest X-ray showed acute pulmonary edema. Intubation was done for respiratory failure and intra-aortic balloon pump was also inserted for unstable hemodynamics. However, emergent coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. HOCM was diagnosed by a high pressure gradient over LVOT and systolic anterior motion of mitral valve by echocardiography. This patient became stable under intensive care and medical treatment. This case reminds physicians that alcohol ingestion might cause AMI in HOCM patients because of increased LVOT pressure gradient and decreased coronary perfusion despite normal coronary arteries.
Hunt, Elizabeth N; Martens, Matthew P; Wang, Kenneth T; Yan, Grace C
Drinking behaviors and alcohol use consequences can have a major effect on well-being in college student populations. Little research has addressed how the unique acculturative stress experiences of international students may affect their alcohol use and consequences. This study examined acculturative stress as a moderator of the relationship between international student drinking behaviors and alcohol use consequences. Data were collected from 175 international students and analyzed using hierarchal regression analysis to assess the moderating effect of acculturative stress. Acculturative stress moderated the relationship between alcohol use and related consequences such that the relationship was stronger among those with higher levels of acculturative stress. Efforts to alleviate acculturative stress experiences of this population may help decrease alcohol use consequences.
Ilomäki, Jenni; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi; Cumming, Robert G; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J; Blyth, Fiona M; Handelsman, David J; Bell, J Simon
To explore the association between psychotropic drug use and alcohol drinking in community-dwelling older Australian men. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study using baseline data collected between 2005 and 2007 from 1705 participants in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) conducted in Sydney, Australia. All participants were men aged ≥70 years. The prevalence of antidepressant and sedative or anxiolytic drug use was ascertained at clinical examinations and alcohol drinking was self-reported. Logistic regression models were used to compute the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between sedative or anxiolytic use and antidepressant use with drinking patterns. In the study sample, 8.0% used an antidepressant, 5.7% used a sedative or anxiolytic, 33.7% were daily drinkers, 13.9% were binge drinkers, 19.2% were heavy drinkers and 11.0% were problem drinkers. Overall, 27.1% of antidepressant users were daily drinkers and 42.7% of sedative or anxiolytic users were daily drinkers. Sedative or anxiolytic use was associated with daily drinking (prevalence ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence intervals 1.09-1.76) but not with other drinking patterns. The associations between antidepressant use and alcohol drinking were not statistically significant. Potential psychotropic drug-alcohol interactions were common in older Australian men. Users of sedative or anxiolytic drugs were more likely to engage in daily drinking compared with non-users of sedative or anxiolytic drugs. Clinicians should monitor patients prescribed sedative or anxiolytic drugs for possible adverse events arising from concomitant use with alcohol. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Aitken, P P; Leathar, D S; Scott, A C
Groups of children discussed a number of issues concerning advertising, including advertisements they liked and disliked. The findings suggest that advertisements for alcoholic drinks become increasingly salient and attractive over the years 10 to 14. For example, although 10-year-olds rarely mentioned advertisements for alcoholic drinks when talking about favourite television commercials, the older children tended to do so almost immediately. There were also consistent developmental trends in their descriptions of liked and disliked qualities of advertisements and of the symbolism in commercials for alcoholic drinks. Whereas the 10-year-olds' comments tended to be tied to what is specifically shown in commercials, the older children tended to go beyond this and alluded to much more complex imagery, much in the same way that adults do. For example, the 14- and 16-year-olds tended to see larger and beer commercials as promoting masculinity, sociability and working-class values. These findings indicate that advertising campaigns for alcoholic drinks aimed at older teenagers and young adults present qualities which younger teenagers find attractive. We suggest it is no longer tenable for advertisers to absolve themselves of any responsibility by saying that advertisements for alcoholic drinks are targeted only at adults.
Morean, Meghan E; L'Insalata, Alexa; Butler, Ellyn R; McKee, Avalon; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra
Drinking at an early age (AO) and quickly progressing to drinking to intoxication (Delay=Age of Intoxication[AI]-AO) confer risk for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. However, inconsistencies exist in the literature, which may reflect the use of different definitions of AO and AI. We evaluated whether 1) defining AO as age at first sip of alcohol (AO sip) versus age at which at least one standard drink was consumed (AO drink); and 2) defining AI as age at first "drunk" (AI drunk) versus age at first binge episode (≥5 standard drinks consumed; AI binge) resulted in different self-reported ages or differentially predicted drinking outcomes. 248 high school students (53.6% male; 16.50[1.19] years; 71.4% White) completed anonymous surveys assessing alcohol use. Participants reported a younger AO (sip) than AO (drink) and a younger AI (drunk) than AI (binge), resulting in significantly different Delay values for the four AO-AI pairings. Univariate general linear models indicated that AO-Delay pairings accounted for more variance in maximum drinks and alcohol-related problems than did the individual AO and AI variables. Pairings comprising AO (drink) and Delay (drink-binge) and AO (sip) and Delay (sip-binge), respectively, uniquely accounted for variance in both maximum drinks and problems. Clearly defining AO and AI using objective definitions that reflect specific amounts of alcohol (e.g., first sip; first standard drink; first binge) appears to outperform subjective definitions of alcohol use (e.g., first drunk). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L
This article examines an overlooked class of alcohol products, described herein as multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). The article describes how characteristics of these products likely contribute to hazardous alcohol consumption among youth. Government regulation of these products may be needed to protect adolescent and young adult populations. National substance abuse surveillance systems should consider immediate adoption of MFAC use indicators to determine use and harm associated with these products, and to assess the effectiveness of future regulatory actions.
Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.
Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K
Research has shown a developmental process of "maturing out" of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17-22), young adulthood (ages 23-28), and adulthood (ages 29-40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to nonrisky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers and that many high-risk drinkers who mature out merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking.
Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio
The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Renner, Karen Adell
Recent research using mobile phone interventions to address public health issues such as smoking, obesity, depression, and diabetes provides a basis for trialing a similar approach toward reducing the negative consequences of risky drinking. This feasibility study aims to recruit drinkers between 18-34 years to a website where they will design and enter their own personal messages (repeating or one-off) to be sent to their mobile phones when they are drinking to remind them of their pre-drinking safety intentions. Participants in the treatment group will have access to the messaging function for 3 months and will be compared to a control group who will have 3 months access to a web chat site only. Data collection will occur at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome is a change in unintended negative consequences from drinking at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include the acceptability of the intervention to this population, recruitment rate, participant retention, reduction in alcohol consumption, and the self-motivation discourse in participant messages. Existing alcohol interventions in New Zealand attempt to reduce alcohol consumption in the population, but with little effect. This study aims to target unintended negative consequences resulting from drinking by empowering the drinkers themselves to deliver safety messages during the drinking session. If proven effective, this strategy could provide a cost-effective means of reducing the public health burden associated with risky drinking. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000242921.
Schulte, Marya T.; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A.
While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls. PMID:19592147
Schulte, Marya T; Ramo, Danielle; Brown, Sandra A
While prevalence rates for alcohol use and related disorders differ widely between adult men and women, male and female adolescents do not exhibit the same disparity in alcohol consumption. Previous research and reviews do not address the emergence of differences in drinking patterns that occur during late adolescence. Therefore, a developmental perspective is presented for understanding how various risk and protective factors associated with problematic drinking affect diverging alcohol trajectories as youth move into young adulthood. This review examines factors associated with risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in adolescent girls and boys separately. Findings indicate that certain biological (i.e., genetic risk, neurological abnormalities associated with P300 amplitudes) and psychosocial (i.e., impact of positive drinking expectancies, personality characteristics, and deviance proneness) factors appear to impact boys and girls similarly. In contrast, physiological and social changes particular to adolescence appear to differentially affect boys and girls as they transition into adulthood. Specifically, boys begin to manifest a constellation of factors that place them at greater risk for disruptive drinking: low response to alcohol, later maturation in brain structures and executive function, greater estimates of perceived peer alcohol use, and socialization into traditional gender roles. On an individual level, interventions which challenge media-driven stereotypes of gender roles while simultaneously reinforcing personal values are suggested as a way to strengthen adolescent autonomy in terms of healthy drinking decisions. Moreover, parents and schools must improve consistency in rules and consequences regarding teen drinking across gender to avoid mixed messages about acceptable alcohol use for boys and girls.
Hallgren, Mats; Andréasson, Sven
Local communities are increasingly targeted for alcohol and drug prevention campaigns. This study describes some of the key findings from the Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial (2003-2007) and lessons learned following an evaluation of the trial's effectiveness. The paper focuses mainly on changes in youth drinking and related harms. This was a pre- to post-intervention effect study comparing six trial communities that received added training and technical support with six control communities where regular prevention efforts were supported by national alcohol and drug action plans. A repeated, cross-sectional survey of 8092 youths aged 15-19 years assessed changes in alcohol consumption, binge drinking, perceived alcohol availability, access to alcohol via parents and adult attitudes towards the supply of alcohol to youths. National registry data were used to assess changes in hospital admissions due to alcohol intoxication. Overall, there were few significant improvements in the six trial communities compared with the control communities. The absence of program effects was largely attributable to the selection of strategies (in particular, school and parental programs) lacking evidence of effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption at the aggregate level. Prevention programs based on efficacy studies need to be tested in community-based effectiveness trials before being disseminated. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Background. Dolenjska is a region with well developed viniculture and spirits production. The analysis of the mortality, premature mortality, hospitalization and temporary absence from work attributed to alcohol in Dolenjska in comparison to those in the other part of Slovenia was performed.Methods. Data source on mortality, premature mortality, hospitalization and temporary absence from work was national statistics of the Institut of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia and of the Health Insurance Institut of Slovenia. Statistical data were collected in accordance with diagnoses and age limits defined by the metodology of the Centers for Disease Control in USA for each gender separately (1991– 1996. Alcohol-related mortality, premature mortality, hospitalization and temporary absence from work were calculated using in the USA established alcohol attributable fractions for each disease or injury with the exception of the cirrhosis of the liver, for which the known Slovene alcohol attributable fraction exists.Results. Selected health indicators are pointing important differences for men and partly for women in Dolenjska in comparison to the rest of Slovenia. In Dolenjska there are 12.0% of deaths, 23.0% of premature mortality, 6.2% of hospitalizations and 3.4% of temporary absence from work attributed to alcohol. In the other part of Slovenia there are 9.6% of deaths, 19.4% of premature mortality, 5.3% of hospitalizations and 3.4% of temporary absence from work attributed to alcohol.Conclusions. There is a need to build up national alcohol policy. It must be based upon measures for reducing alcohol supply and demand, early detecting and preventing harmful drinking and treatment of the dependance on alcohol. Specifity of some regions where people produce alcohol drinks by themselves must be considered. Epidemiological research about alcohol use, drinking habits among people and harmful effects of alcohol on peoples health must be performed.
Pleil, Kristen E.; Rinker, Jennifer A.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; McCall, Nora M.; Kendra, Alexis M.; Olson, David P.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Thiele, Todd E.; Kash, Thomas L.
Summary paragraph Binge alcohol drinking is a tremendous public health problem because it leads to the development of numerous pathologies including alcohol abuse, and anxiety1–4. It is thought to do so by hijacking brain systems that regulate stress and reward, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin–releasing factor (CRF). The central actions of NPY and CRF play opposing functional roles in the regulation of emotional and reward–seeking behaviors; therefore, dysfunctional interactions between these peptidergic systems could play a role in the development of these pathologies. Here, we used converging physiological, pharmacological, and chemogenetic approaches to identify a precise neural mechanism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic brain region involved in pathological reward and anxiety behaviors, underlying the interactions between NPY and CRF in the regulation of binge alcohol drinking in both mice and monkeys. We found that NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) activation in the BNST suppressed binge alcohol drinking by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission specifically in CRF neurons via a novel, Gi-mediated, PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism. Further, chronic alcohol drinking led to persistent alterations in Y1R function in the BNST of both mice and monkeys, highlighting the enduring, conserved nature of this effect across mammalian species. Together, these data provide both a cellular locus and signaling framework for the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, including alcohol use disorders. PMID:25751534
Full Text Available It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting.The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence per body weight (mg/kg in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis.Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001. The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003 and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026.Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery.
Uehara, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Shibata, Mikiko; Oue, Keiko; Kambe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kunihiko
Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be associated with a decreased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Whether drinking pattern is associated with the risk of proteinuria is unknown. Methods Study subjects were 9154 non-diabetic Japanese men aged 40–55 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, no proteinuria, and no use of antihypertensive medications at entry. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained by questionnaire. We defined “consecutive proteinuria” as proteinuria detected twice consecutively as 1+ or higher on urine dipstick at annual examinations. Results During the 81 147 person-years follow-up period, 385 subjects developed consecutive proteinuria. For subjects who reported drinking 4–7 days per week, alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with a decreased risk of consecutive proteinuria (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.80) compared with non-drinkers. However, alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01–3.14). For subjects who reported drinking 1–3 days per week, alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day was associated with a decreased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.51–1.12), and alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day was associated with an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 1.58; 95% CI, 0.72–3.46), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Men with frequent alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day had the lowest risk of consecutive proteinuria, while those with frequent alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day had an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria. PMID:26902169
Ekholm, O.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbæk, M.
Background/Objectives: Our knowledge of the association between alcohol intake and alcohol-related health outcomes depends, to a large extent, on the validity and reliability of self-reported alcohol intake. Weekly drinking measures are frequently used in epidemiological surveys, but it has been......-reported weekly alcohol intake. Subjects/Methods: The data is derived from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005, which is based on a region-stratified random sample of 21¿832 Danish citizens aged =16 years (response rate: 67%). The data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Results: A beverage......-specific question on alcohol intake on each day during the last week did not alter the strong association between the recall period and self-reported alcohol intake. However, the overall self-reported alcohol intake increased substantially when using the beverage-specific question instead of asking for the overall...
G. Schumann (Gunter); Liu, C. (Chunyu); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); Gao, H. (He); Song, P. (Parkyong); Xu, B. (Bing); Ruggeri, B. (Barbara); N. Amin (Najaf); Jia, T. (Tianye); S.R. Preis; Lepe, M.S. (Marcelo Segura); Akira, S. (Shizuo); Barbieri, C. (Caterina); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); S. Cauchi (Stephane); T.-K. Clarke; S. Enroth (Stefan); K. Fischer (Krista); J. Hällfors (Jenni); S.E. Harris (Sarah); Hieber, S. (Saskia); E. Hofer; J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); P.K. Joshi (Peter); Kaartinen, N. (Niina); J. Laitinen (Jaana); Lemaitre, R. (Rozenn); A. Loukola (Anu); J. Luan (Jian'An); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); M. Mangino (Massimo); A. Manichaikul (Ani); H. Mbarek; Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K. Mukamal (Kenneth); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer ); Partinen, E. (Eemil); R. Rawal; A. Robino (Antonietta); L.M. Rose (Lynda); C. Sala (Cinzia); Satoh, T. (Takashi); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schraut, K. (Katharina); R.A. Scott (Robert); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); J.M. Starr (John); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. Trompet (Stella); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C. Venturini (Cristina); Vergnaud, A.-C. (Anne-Claire); N. Verweij (Niek); Vitart, V. (Veronique); D. Vuckovic (Dragana); Wedenoja, J. (Juho); L. Yengo (Loic); Yu, B. (Bing); W. Zhang (Weihua); Zhao, J.H. (Jing Hua); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); J.C. Chambers (John); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); Daniela, T. (Toniolo); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); K. Hagen (Knut); T. Esko (Tõnu); Eulenburg, V. (Volker); O.H. Franco (Oscar); P. Froguel (Philippe); C. Gieger (Christian); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.L. Hartikainen; A.C. Heath (Andrew); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); Hofman, A. (Albert); C. Huth (Cornelia); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); Lahti, J. (Jari); C. Langenberg (Claudia); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); P.A. Madden (Pamela); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); N. Pirastu (Nicola); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); R.J. Rose (Richard); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.J. Stott (David J.); D.P. Strachan (David); I. Tzoulaki; P. van der Harst (Pim); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. Marques-Vidal; P. Vollenweider (Peter); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.B. Whitfield (John B.); J.F. Wilson (James); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); G. Bakalkin (Georgy); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Liu, Y. (Yun); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); Kliewer, S.A. (Steven A.); Mangelsdorf, D.J. (David J.); Müller, C.P. (Christian P.); D. Levy (Daniel); P. Elliott (Paul)
textabstractExcessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drinking habits are known to be inherited, few genes have been identified that are robustly linked to alcohol drinking. We conducted a genome-wide association metaanalysis and replication study among >
Schumann, Gunter; Liu, Chunyu; O'Reilly, Paul; Gao, He; Song, Parkyong; Xu, Bing; Ruggeri, Barbara; Amin, Najaf; Jia, Tianye; Preis, Sarah; Lepe, Marcelo Segura; Akira, Shizuo; Barbieri, Caterina; Baumeister, Sebastian; Cauchi, Stephane; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Enroth, Stefan; Fischer, Krista; Hallfors, Jenni; Harris, Sarah E.; Hieber, Saskia; Hofer, Edith; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Asa; Joshi, PeterK.; Kaartinen, Niina; Laitinen, Jaana; Lemaitre, Rozenn; Loukola, Anu; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Mangino, Massimo; Manichaikul, Ani; Mbarek, Hamdi; Milaneschi, Yuri; Moayyeri, Alireza; Mukamal, Kenneth; Nelson, Christopher; Nettleton, Jennifer; Partinen, Eemil; Rawal, Rajesh; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda; Sala, Cinzia; Satoh, Takashi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schrautz, Katharina; Scott, Robert; Smith, Albert Vernon; Starr, John M.; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Venturini, Cristina; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Verweij, Niek; Vitart, Veronique; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wedenoja, Juho; Yengo, Loic; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Chambers, John; Chasman, Daniel I.; Daniela, Toniolo; de Geus, Eco; Deary, Ian; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tonu; Eulenburg, Volker; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne; Hofman, Albert; Huth, Cornelia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lahti, Jari; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liu, Yongmei; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas; Morrison, Alanna; Penninx, Brenda; Pirastu, Nicola; Psaty, Bruce; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul; Rose, Richard; Rotter, Jerome I.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schmidt, Helena; Spector, Tim D.; Stott, David; Strachan, David; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; van der Harst, Pim; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wilson, James; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce; Bakalkin, Georgy; Evangelou, Evangelos; Liu, Yun; Rice, Kenneth M.; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Muller, Christian P.; Levy, Daniel; Elliott, Paul
Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drinking habits are known to be inherited, few genes have been identified that are robustly linked to alcohol drinking. We conducted a genome-wide association metaanalysis and replication study among >105,000
Higgs, Suzanne; Stafford, Lorenzo D; Attwood, Angela S; Walker, Stephanie C; Terry, Phil
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cues that signal the alcoholic strength of a beverage on drinking rate in young social drinkers. In Experiment 1, two groups of young social drinkers (n=20 per group) consumed a lager-based drink containing either 3% or 7% alcohol-by-volume. The pattern of drinking behaviour was observed, and drinking time was recorded. Self-reported mood was measured across the session, and participants also provided ratings of the drinks' sensory and hedonic properties. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1, but used a within-subjects design (n=12). In both experiments, participants took significantly longer to consume the 7% drink compared with the 3% drink, and the total inter-sip interval was longer for the 7% drink. These effects were most closely related to the participants' changing estimates of alcohol strength across the test session, alongside concomitant changes in various aspects of self-reported mood. Sensory and hedonic evaluations of the drinks did not affect drinking behaviour in either experiment. The findings suggest that the consumption rate of an alcoholic beverage can be modulated by its alcohol content, and that the perceived pharmacological effect of the alcohol serves as an effective signal to alter drinking behaviour.
Cantacorps, Lídia; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L; Valverde, Olga; Conejo, Nélida M
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of maternal alcohol binge drinking on brain function and behaviour. To address this issue, we used pregnant C57BL/6 female mice with time-limited access to a 20% v/v alcohol solution as a procedure to model alcohol binge drinking during gestation and lactational periods. Male offspring were behaviourally tested during adolescence (30 days) and adulthood (60 days), and baseline neural metabolic capacity of brain regions sensitive to alcohol effects were also evaluated in adult animals from both groups. Our results show that prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure caused age-dependent changes in spontaneous locomotor activity, increased anxiety-like behaviour and attenuated alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in adults. Also, significant changes in neural metabolic capacity using cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) quantitative histochemistry were found in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, the mammillary bodies, the ventral tegmental area, the lateral habenula and the central lobules of the cerebellum in adult mice with prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure. In addition, the analysis of interregional CCO activity correlations in alcohol-exposed adult mice showed disrupted functional brain connectivity involving the limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. Finally, increased neurogenesis was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of
Sandra C Jones
Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti
Vellios, N G; Van Walbeek, C P
Although the South African (SA) government has implemented alcohol control measures, alcohol consumption remains high. To quantify the prevalence of self-reported current drinking and binge drinking in SA, and to determine important covariates. We used the 2014 - 2015 National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative dataset of just over 20 000 individuals aged ≥15 years. Multiple regression logit analyses were performed separately by gender for self-reported current drinkers (any amount), self-reported bingers as a proportion of drinkers, and self-reported bingers as a proportion of the total population. An individual was defined as a binge drinker if he/she reported consumption of ≥5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, 32.4% females). The prevalence of self-reported binge drinking as a percentage of the total population was 14.1% (22.8% males, 6.4% females). Although black African males and females were less likely than white males and females to report drinking any amount, they were more likely to report binge drinking. Coloured (mixed race) females were more likely than black African females to report drinking any amount. Males and females who professed a religious affiliation were less likely than those who did not to report drinking any alcohol. The prevalence of self-reported binge drinking was highest among males and females aged 25 - 34 years. Smoking cigarettes substantially increased the likelihood of drinking any amount and of binge drinking for both genders. In SA, one in three individuals reported drinking alcohol, while one in seven reported binge drinking on an average day on which alcohol was consumed. Strong, evidence-based policies are needed to reduce the detrimental effects of alcohol use.
Huang, Jiun-Hau; DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari K; Towvim, Laura G
Little is known about how the reasons that college student drinkers and abstainers have for choosing not to drink might differ. The present study examined this issue among a sample of 2,500 U.S. college students from 18 colleges and universities. Abstainers endorsed significantly more reasons for not drinking than drinkers, and among drinkers, light drinkers endorsed more reasons than heavy drinkers. Abstainers' decision not to drink appeared to be a lifestyle choice that was supported by multiple reasons, including personal values, religious beliefs, not wanting the image of a drinker, and beliefs about alcohol's effect on behavior. Heavy drinkers were more likely to endorse situational reasons such as having to drive home later or being concerned about school work or weight gain from drinking. Implications of these findings for alcohol prevention work on college and university campuses are discussed.
DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess; Whittemore, Robin; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Redeker, Nancy S.
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the sleep and psychological characteristics of heavy drinking college students, their perceptions of sleep and sleep/alcohol interactions, and their reactions to a proposed integrated sleep and alcohol internet-based intervention. Students (N = 24) completed standardized surveys and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Participants reported a high degree of sleep disturbance, sleep obstacles, and sleep-related consequences, which were validated by both quantitative and qualitative investigations. Sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment were associated with more frequent drinking and greater risks from drinking. Participants perceived that alcohol has positive and negative effects on sleep latency, continuity, and quality. They expressed overall enthusiasm for the intervention but had specific content and format preferences. PMID:24924956
Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.
Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one’s partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one’s partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439
Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M
Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.
Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of s...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clock genes govern circadian rhythms and shape the effect of alcohol use on the physiological system. Exposure to severe negative life events is related to both heavy drinking and disturbed circadian rhythmicity. The aim of this study was 1 to extend previous findings suggesting an association of a haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism of PER2 gene with drinking patterns, and 2 to examine a possible role for an interaction of this gene with life stress in hazardous drinking. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an epidemiological cohort study on the outcome of early risk factors followed since birth. At age 19 years, 268 young adults (126 males, 142 females were genotyped for PER2 rs56013859 and were administered a 45-day alcohol timeline follow-back interview and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Life stress was assessed as the number of severe negative life events during the past four years reported in a questionnaire and validated by interview. RESULTS: Individuals with the minor G allele of rs56013859 were found to be less engaged in alcohol use, drinking at only 72% of the days compared to homozygotes for the major A allele. Moreover, among regular drinkers, a gene x environment interaction emerged (p = .020. While no effects of genotype appeared under conditions of low stress, carriers of the G allele exhibited less hazardous drinking than those homozygous for the A allele when exposed to high stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may suggest a role of the circadian rhythm gene PER2 in both the drinking patterns of young adults and in moderating the impact of severe life stress on hazardous drinking in experienced alcohol users. However, in light of the likely burden of multiple tests, the nature of the measures used and the nominal evidence of interaction, replication is needed before drawing firm conclusions.
Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit
Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.
Hagman, Brett T; Cohn, Amy M
One major limitation of the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence is that a cluster of individuals who endorse a subthreshold number of dependence criteria and no abuse criteria do not receive a formal diagnosis; despite elevated risk for alcohol-related problems relative to those with an abuse diagnosis. These individuals have been referred to as diagnostic orphans. The primary aim of this study was to examine alcohol use correlates of a group of diagnostic orphans in a sample of 396 nontreatment seeking college students who reported drinking on at least one occasion in the last 90 days. DSM-IV criteria were assessed using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM). Diagnostic orphans represented 34.1% (n = 135) of the original sample who did not receive a formal diagnosis; with the most frequently endorsed dependence criteria being tolerance and drinking larger/longer amounts than intended. Diagnostic orphans reported a range of alcohol-related negative consequences and reported greater frequencies of social and enhancement drinking motives in comparison to coping motives. They were similar to alcohol abusers and dissimilar to those with dependence or those without a diagnosis on alcohol consumption, alcohol problem severity, drinking motives and restraint variables. The present findings indicate that diagnostic orphans in college students represent a distinct group of drinkers who may be at risk for the development of alcohol use disorders and may be in need of intervention, given their similarity to those with an abuse diagnosis. Prevention and intervention efforts across college campuses should target this group to prevent escalation of alcohol problem severity. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Khan, Shivani R; Cottler, Linda B; Striley, Catherine W
Predictors of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) among youth have been understudied. The current analyses investigated the prevalence of and correlates for use of AmED among alcohol users from a national study of stimulant use among youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) assessed behaviors and risk factors for stimulant use from 11,048 youth, 10-18 years of age recruited from entertainment venues across 10 US cities. Of the four cross sections, two had questions on having alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in the past 30 days along with sociodemographic characteristics, current tobacco and marijuana use and current nonmedical use of prescription opioids, anxiolytics, and stimulants. Only 13 to18 year olds and those who reported alcohol use were included in the analyses. Overall, 28.4% (1392 out of 4905) of the 13 to18 year olds reported past 30-day alcohol use. Among alcohol users, 27% reported having alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that use of AmED was significantly associated with tobacco and marijuana use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Underage drinking is common among youth and more than a quarter of these drinkers use AmED. Use of AmED is significantly associated with tobacco and marijuana use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Drug and alcohol intervention programs should educate on the risks of AmED, as the same population is at high-risk for use of AmED and alcohol/drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard
Peer pressure (PP) has been shown to play a major role in the development and continuation of alcohol use and misuse. To date, almost all the studies investigating the association of PP with alcohol use only considered the PP for misconduct but largely ignored other aspects of PP, such as pressure for peer involvement and peer conformity. Moreover, it is not clear whether the association of PP with alcohol use is direct or mediated by other factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of different aspects of peer pressure (PP) with drinking volume (DV) and risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), and to explore whether these associations were mediated by drinking motives (DM). A representative sample of 5521 young Swiss men, aged around 20 years old, completed a questionnaire assessing their usual weekly DV, the frequency of RSOD, DM (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, and conformity motives), and 3 aspects of PP (i.e. misconduct, peer involvement, and peer conformity). Associations between PP and alcohol outcomes (DV and RSOD) as well as the mediation of DM were tested using structural equation models. Peer pressure to misconduct was associated with more alcohol use, whereas peer involvement and peer conformity were associated with less alcohol use. Associations of drinking outcomes with PP to misconduct and peer involvement were partially mediated by enhancement and coping motives, while the association with peer conformity was partially mediated by enhancement and conformity motives. Results suggest that PP to misconduct constitutes a risk factor, while peer conformity and peer involvement reflect protective factors with regard to alcohol use. Moreover, results from the mediation analyses suggest that part of the association of PP with alcohol use came indirectly through DM: PP was associated with DM, which in turn were associated with alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huber, Sabine E; Zoicas, Iulia; Reichel, Martin; Mühle, Christiane; Büttner, Christian; Ekici, Arif B; Eulenburg, Volker; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P
Alcohol use disorders are major psychiatric disorders. Correlational studies in humans suggested organizational hormonal effects during embryonic development as a risk factor for adult alcohol dependence. Permanent changes can be induced by the activity of sex hormones, like testosterone. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between prenatal androgen receptor (AR)-activation and adult alcohol as well as water drinking in mice in a sex-dependent fashion. Prenatal AR inhibition using the antagonist flutamide decreased adult male alcohol consumption. In contrast, prenatal AR activation by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) led to an increase in adult alcohol consumption in females. These effects were different in adult water drinking, flutamide increased water consumption in females and DHT increased water consumption in males. Prenatal flutamide reduced locomotion and anxiety in adult males but was ineffective in females. We found that prenatal AR activation controls adult levels of monoaminergic modulatory transmitters in the brain and blood hormone levels in a sex-specific way. RNA-Seq analysis confirmed a prenatal AR mediated control of adult expression of alcohol drinking-related genes like Bdnf and Per2. These findings demonstrate that prenatal androgen activity is a risk factor for the establishment of alcohol consumption in adults by its organizational effects. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A
Commercial student pub crawls are associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, and are of growing concern amongst public health and student bodies. However, little is currently known about drinking behaviours whilst participating in these events. A questionnaire was implemented amongst 227 students attending commercial pub crawls across three UK events. Questions established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview and throughout the remaining night out, and pub crawl experience. Breathalyser tests were used to measure breath alcohol concentration (converted to blood alcohol concentration [BAC]) at interview. Analyses used chi squared, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression. 94.3% of participants had consumed alcohol, 90.9% of whom reported preloading. Drinkers reported consuming a median of 10.0 alcohol units (80g of pure alcohol) up to the point of interview (range one-40.6), with estimated total consumption over the evening exceeding 16units (range three-70.6). Median BAC of drinkers at the time of interview was 0.10%BAC (range 0.00-0.27). High BAC (>0.08%; at interview) was associated with having not eaten food in the four hours prior (AOR 4.8, palcohol consumption before and during commercial pub crawls should aim to alter drinking behaviours such as preloading and rapid and excessive drinking. Organisers, local authorities, universities and students should all be involved in ensuring the effective management of pub crawls, including implementation of harm prevention measures. © 2013.
Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A
Co-use of alcohol and cigarettes is highly prevalent, and heavy drinking smokers represent a large and difficult-to-treat subgroup of smokers. Negative affect, including anxiety and depressive symptomatology, has been associated with both cigarette and alcohol use independently, but less is known about the role of negative affect in heavy drinking smokers. Furthermore, while some studies have shown negative affect to precede substance use, a precise biobehavioral mechanism has not been established. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, to test whether negative affect is associated with alcohol and cigarette use in a large community sample of heavy drinking smokers (n=461). And second, to examine craving as a plausible statistical mediator of the association between negative affect and alcohol and/or cigarette use. Hypothesis testing was conducted using a structural equation modeling approach with cross-sectional data. Analysis revealed a significant main effect of negative affect on alcohol use (β=0.210, p0.10) in this sample. Mediational analysis revealed that alcohol craving was a full statistical mediator of this association (paffect and alcohol use after accounting for alcohol craving. These results are consistent with a negative reinforcement and relief craving models of alcohol use insofar as the experience of negative affect was associated with increased alcohol use, and the relationship was statistically mediated by alcohol craving, presumably to alleviate negative affect. Further longitudinal or experimental studies are warranted to enhance the causal inferences of this mediated effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Epidemiological data suggest that national levels of alcohol consumption have increased rapidly in contemporary Vietnam; concomitantly, social and public health harms associated with alcohol use are on the rise. Over the last decade, a research literature on alcohol use in Vietnam has begun to develop. A consideration of this literature indicates lines of analysis to be extended and gaps to be filled. This synopsis provides an overview of the major trends that studies have addressed, evaluates the state of research to date, and suggests avenues for further research on alcohol use in this newly middle-income nation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrey E. Ryabinin
Full Text Available Social factors have a tremendous influence on instances of heavy drinking and in turn impact public health. However, it is extremely difficult to assess whether this influence is only a cultural phenomenon or has biological underpinnings. Research in non-human primates demonstrates that the way individuals are brought up during early development affects their future predisposition for heavy drinking, and research in rats demonstrates that social isolation, crowding or low social ranking can lead to increased alcohol intake, while social defeat can decrease drinking. Neurotransmitter mechanisms contributing to these effects (i.e., serotonin, GABA, dopamine have begun to be elucidated. However, these studies do not exclude the possibility that social effects on drinking occur through generalized stress responses to negative social environments. Alcohol intake can also be elevated in positive social situations, for example, in rats following an interaction with an intoxicated peer. Recent studies have also begun to adapt a new rodent species, the prairie vole, to study the role of social environment in alcohol drinking. Prairie voles demonstrate a high degree of social affiliation between individuals, and many of the neurochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of these social behaviors (for example, dopamine, central vasopressin and the corticotropin releasing factor system are also known to be involved in regulation of alcohol intake. Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist approved as a pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients, has recently been shown to decrease both partner preference and alcohol preference in voles. These findings strongly suggest that mechanisms by which social factors influence drinking have biological roots, and can be studied using rapidly developing new animal models.
Istomin, A V; Rumiantseva, L A; Mikhaĭlov, I G; Novichkova, N I; Ponomarenko, I I; Kutakova, N S
The impact of the low-alcohol tonic (energizing) carbonated drinks on biochemical and hematological indices, on the functional state of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system was studied within the experiment over the outbred white male rats. The gained results were compared to indices of animals receiving the same concentrated solution of ethanol used for drinks preparation as well as to figures of intact group animals. The results gained from all compared animals groups had no significant differences.
Brett, Emma I; Leffingwell, Thad R; Leavens, Eleanor L
The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a model of PBS as a mediator of the effect of mindfulness on alcohol-related consequences. Additionally, mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and consequences was examined. College students (N=239) at a large South Central university completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and consequences, use of PBS, and trait mindfulness. Results indicated that both higher levels of mindfulness and using more PBS predicted decreased alcohol-related consequences and consumption, with PBS mediating both relationships (pmindfulness were more likely to use PBS, with individuals using more PBS experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences and consuming fewer drinks per week. Mindfulness moderated the relationship between PBS and consequences, with a significantly stronger negative relationship for those with lower levels of mindfulness. Individuals who are higher in trait mindfulness are more likely to use PBS, which leads to a decrease in the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, for individuals lower in mindfulness, low PBS use may lead to increased experience of alcohol consequences. Interventions that incorporate PBS may be most beneficial for students who are low in mindfulness and unlikely to engage in drinking control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sue, Stanley; And Others
This article suggests that there are genetic and cultural factors which account for the difference in drinking patterns between Caucasian and Asian Americans. It is also suggested that Asian acculturation has an influence on this difference. (EB)
Barry, Adam E; Howell, Steven M; Riplinger, Adam; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K
Varsity student athletes are a high-risk drinking group, exhibiting a greater propensity to binge drink than their non-sport peers. Moreover, as intercollegiate athletic involvement increases, so too does alcohol consumption. There is little research, however, which examines drinking behaviors of students who participate in nonvarsity athletics. Identify differences in alcohol-related behaviors and associated consequences among U.S. varsity, club, and intramural athletes, and nonathlete college students. Secondary data analysis of the 2011 National College Health Assessment (n = 29,939). Intramural athletes binge drank more frequently (M = 1.1, SD = 1.7) than club athletes (M = 1.0, SD = 1.6), intercollegiate athletes (M = 0.9, SD = 1.5), and nonathletes (M = 0.6, SD = 1.3) and also experienced greater alcohol-related consequences. Intramural athletes consumed the most during their last drinking episode (M = 4.1, SD = 4.0) and reached the highest blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (M = 0.062, SD = 0.09).Compared to club and varsity athletes [M = 0.8, SD = 1.4; t (8,131) = -9.6, p students. Future research should investigate factors contributing to drinking differences among different athlete groups.
Aira, Marja; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Sulkava, Raimo
Physicians often encounter patients using alcohol as self-medication, but studies on community level are scarce. Because of alcohol-medicine interactions, it is important to know also all self-medication used. To describe alcohol use as self-medication by people aged over 75 years. The home-dwelling elderly (n = 699) among a random sample of 1000 subjects from the total population of individuals aged 75 years or more in the city of Kuopio, Finland, were interviewed about their alcohol consumption and use as self-medication and also about their lifestyle habits, medicaments and diseases. A geriatrician checked their medical records for medical conditions. Half of the subjects consumed alcohol, and 40% of them used alcohol for medicinal purposes. This was equally common in females and males. The quantity used was half a unit or less in 68% of cases. Brandy and other spirits were the most commonly used beverages, and heart and vascular disorders (38%), sleep disorders (26%) and mental problems (23%) were the commonest reasons for use. The study found altogether 84 persons who responded negatively to the question about alcohol consumption but later reported using alcohol as self-medication. Drinking alcohol for medicinal purposes is common among the aged in Finland. Some people, especially older women, may find it easier to discuss their alcohol consumption in the context of medicinal use. Physicians have to consider the possible risks of alcohol associated with concomitant medical conditions and interactions of alcohol with medicines.
Norberg, Melissa M; Newins, Amie R; Mills, Llewellyn; Ham, Lindsay S
Young people are increasingly consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). As coingestion of these beverages results in greater adverse consequences than from drinking alcohol alone, we need to understand what factors contribute to and deter coingestion. Existing studies in this area have not utilized a theoretically based or empirically validated measure of outcome expectancies for drinking AmEDs. Our study modified Morean, Corbin, and Treat's (2012) Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale to assess the expected effects of drinking AmEDs. We evaluated the factor structure and concurrent validity of the Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks (AEAMEDS) among 549 university students, aged 18-25, who had a lifetime history of consuming alcohol (231 had consumed AmEDs in the past 90 days). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 4-factor structure. Consistent with hypotheses, stronger high arousal/positive expectancies and weaker low arousal/negative expectancies were associated with greater AmED use. At the bivariate level, stronger low arousal/positive expectancies were associated with greater quantities of AmED use, but this relationship disappeared when taking into account other outcome expectancies. Moreover, students expected low arousal/positive expectancies to be less intense when consuming AmEDs than alcohol alone, but ratings for all other AmED expectancies were equivalent to consuming alcohol alone. These findings contribute to our knowledge of risk and protective factors for AmED use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lee, Kyu-Won; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Yong-Jae
Alcohol consumption has been known to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Although some