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Sample records for alcohol dependence-a review

  1. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan JL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the B subunit of gaba-aminobutyric acid receptor, possesses pharmacologic properties that may confer utility for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Research suggests that not only can it be useful in promoting maintenance of alcohol abstinence but also it may play a key role in decreasing alcohol cravings and anxiety often associated with alcohol dependence. To assess the benefit of baclofen for alcohol dependence, a review of the literature was conducted to identify published data investigating this off-label treatment. Four randomized controlled trials to date have been published and were included in this review. Although primary outcomes differ between studies, patients randomized to baclofen experience higher rates of abstinence from alcohol than those taking placebo in two of the trials. Secondary analyses indicate that baclofen is safe in patients with alcohol dependence, including those with moderate to severe liver cirrhosis, and may provide beneficial anxiolytic effects. Despite some positive data, the largest available randomized controlled trial failed to find any differences between baclofen and placebo. In all studies, individuals with severe medical comorbidities, seizure disorders, and psychiatric disorders were excluded from trials, which may limit external validity. In summary, there may be beneficial effects from using baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence; however, limited conclusions can be drawn from the small number of studies

  2. The Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Dependence: A State of the Art Review

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    Avinash De Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychopharmacology of alcohol dependence is today poised at interesting crossroads. Three major drugs Naltrexone, Disulfiram and Acamprosate have been tried and tested in various trials and have many meta-analyses each to support them. While Naltrexone may reduce craving, Acamprosate scores on cost effectiveness worldwide with Disulfiram being an alcohol deterrent drug. Studies support, refute and criticize the use of each of these drugs. Combining one or more of them is also a trend seen. The most important factor in efficacy has been the combination of psychosocial treatment with medication. Studies from the early 1970s to date have been reviewed and the findings presented in a manner useful for the busy clinician to judge the best pharmacological option in the management of alcohol dependence. The role of depot disulfiram, naltrexone, and medications like Topiramate and SSRIs under research for alcohol dependence, are also addressed.

  3. [The effectiveness of psychosocial treatment approaches for alcohol dependence--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlender, M; Köhler, J; Soyka, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatment approaches which are used in the context of inpatient alcoholism treatment are frequently neither theoretically justified nor empirically examined. In view of the enormous method variety the necessity exists for the development of treatment guidelines in order to offer indicators of promising treatment achievement for practitioners and pension funds. In a first step, it must be examined which treatments are effective, which are ineffective and which are possibly even counter-productive. This article aims to give a comprehensive review of randomized-controlled studies/meta-analysis on the efficacy of different treatment approaches. This article reporting the literature review is part of a larger programme to develop clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitation which is supported in form, content and finance by the German Pension Institute for Salaried Employees (Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA). Summing up, treatment is effective compared to no treatment. Cognitive behavioural therapy included in a multimodal treatment program is effective. There are a number of treatment protocols for which controlled research has consistently found positive results like social skills training, community reinforcement approaches, behaviour contracting, motivation-enhancing treatment, and family/marital therapy. There is also a number of commonly used treatment approaches that brought neither a positive result or were counter productive like relapse prevention, non-behavioural marital therapy, and insight psychotherapy, confrontational counseling, education, relaxation training, and milieu therapy. Support for matching to a specific treatment is weak, but interventions against alcohol problems should be differentiated according to the severity of the alcohol problem. Since treatment evaluation is mainly accomplished in the US and supplying structures with respect to the US and Germany are substantially different, a generalized transmission of US

  4. The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Head, J.; Stansfeld, S A; Siegrist, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence.Methods: Alcohol dependence of participants in the Whitehall II occupational cohort of London based civil servants (1985-88) was measured in 1991-93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by self report questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. Potential mediators including physical illness and poor mental hea...

  5. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials.

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    Clément Palpacuer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853 to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication.Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA, and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1 health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications, (2 alcohol consumption outcomes, (3 biological outcomes, or (4 treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane's Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs, mean differences (MDs, or standardized mean differences (SMDs with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF; for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population defined by the EMA approval

  6. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

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    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  7. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Clément Palpacuer; Bruno Laviolle; Rémy Boussageon; Jean Michel Reymann; Eric Bellissant; Florian Naudet

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Many people enjoy an occasional alcoholic drink. But because alcohol is an addictive substance, some people (around one in 12 people in the US, for example) develop alcohol dependency (alcoholism). Such people have an excessive desire to drink or have lost control over their alcohol use, and may find it hard to relax or enjoy themselves without having a drink. As well as becoming psychologically dependent on alcohol, they can become physically dependent and may sho...

  8. Association of ADHIB and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms with alcohol dependence: A pilot study from India

    OpenAIRE

    Vaswani Meera; Prasad Pushplata; Kapur Suman

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Functional polymorphism in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 are considered most important among several genetic determinants of alcohol dependence, a complex disorder. There is no report on the widely studied Arg47His and Glu487Lys polymorphisms from Indian alcoholdependent populations. In this paper, we report, for the first time, allelic and genotypic frequencies of Arg47His and Glu487Lys single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...

  9. Fragrance material review on isodecyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of isodecyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Isodecyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659639

  10. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  11. Olfaction in alcohol-dependence: a neglected yet promising research field.

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    Pierre eMaurage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction research deeply renewed the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in various psychopathological states and showed that olfactory deficits might constitute an onset or trait marker in psychiatry. However, while alcohol-dependence is the most wide spread psychiatric disorder and while olfaction might be involved in its development and maintenance, olfactory abilities have been little explored in this population. The central aim of this paper is thus to underline the usefulness of olfaction research in alcohol-dependence. After reviewing the few olfaction studies available, a research agenda will be proposed, identifying the major challenges for future research, and particularly: (1 the identification of the origin, extent and cerebral correlates of olfaction deficits; (2 the links between olfaction and emotional-cognitive deficits, and the use of olfaction to understand the pathomechanisms of alcohol-dependence; (3 the interactions between olfaction and other sensory modalities; (4 the use of olfaction to predict the appearance and intensity of cognitive impairments; (5 the impact of olfaction deficits on everyday life in alcohol-dependence.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  13. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug. PMID:25578004

  14. REVIEW OF SOME REMEDIES OF ALCOHOLISM AS PER SIDDHA LITERATURE

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    Rajalakshmi. P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism, One getting habituated to the alcohol irrespective of socio- economic factors is one of the present burning problems of the society. Various factors will get affected with the intake of alcohol like health, social, mental and economical factors, which directly influences on the growth of the person as well as society. A review of the types of alcohol, the effect of them on health and their remedies as per Siddha literature is dealt in this context.

  15. Agonist Replacement for Stimulant Dependence: A Review of Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulant use disorders are an unrelenting public health concern worldwide. Agonist replacement therapy is among the most effective strategies for managing substance use disorders including nicotine and opioid dependence. The present paper reviewed clinical data from human laboratory self-administration studies and clinical trials to determine whether agonist replacement therapy is a viable strategy for managing cocaine and/or amphetamine use disorders. The extant literature suggests that ago...

  16. Rural, Pregnant, and Opioid Dependent: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumah, Naana Afua

    2016-01-01

    The nature, impact, and treatment of substance use during pregnancy are well described for women living in urban settings. Less is known about pregnant substance-using women living in rural communities. The objective of this review is to describe the existing evidence for the management of substance use in pregnant women living in rural areas. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Twenty-two articles that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Descriptive studies document high rates of smoking, marijuana, and polysubstance use among rural, substance-using pregnant women compared to their urban counterparts. Management of substance use disorders is limited by access to and acceptability of treatment modalities. Several innovative, integrated addiction and prenatal care programs have been developed, which may serve as models for management of substance use during pregnancy in rural settings. PMID:27375357

  17. Neurotransmitters in alcoholism: A review of neurobiological and genetic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Niladri Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of alcoholism have thrown light on the involvement of various neurotransmitters in the phenomenon of alcohol addiction. Various neurotransmitters have been implicated in alcohol addiction due to their imbalance in the brain, which could be either due to their excess activity or inhibition. This review paper aims to consolidate and to summarize some of the recent papers which have been published in this regard. The review paper will give an overview of the neurobio...

  18. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

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    Livingstone Charles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support.

  19. Association between insulin and executive functioning in alcohol dependence: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Han C; Bae H; Won SD; Lim J; Kim DJ

    2015-01-01

    Changwoo Han,1 Hwallip Bae,2 Sung-Doo Won,3 Jaeyoung Lim,3 Dai-Jin Kim41Department of Psychiatry, Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Seonam University, Goyang, 3Department of Clinical Psychology, Keyo Hospital, Keyo Medical Foundation, Uiwang, 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Alcohol dependence is a disorder ascribable ...

  20. Disulfiram efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a meta-analysis.

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    Marilyn D Skinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its success with compliant or supervised patients, disulfiram has been a controversial medication in the treatment of alcoholism. Often, study designs did not recognize a pivotal factor in disulfiram research, the importance of an open-label design. Our objectives are: (1 to analyze the efficacy and safety of disulfiram in RCTs in supporting abstinence and (2 to compare blind versus open-label studies, hypothesizing that blinded studies would show no difference between disulfiram and control groups because the threat would be evenly spread across all groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register for RCTs on disulfiram use with alcoholics in comparison to any alcoholic control group. The primary outcome was defined by the authors of each trial. Additional analyses included: blind vs. open-label, with or without supervision, cocaine study or not, and type of control. Overall, the 22 included studies showed a higher success rate of disulfiram compared to controls Hedges'g = .58 (95%CI = .35-.82. When comparing blind and open-label RCTs, only open-label trials showed a significant superiority over controls g = .70 (95%CI = .46-.93. RCTs with blind designs showed no efficacy of disulfiram compared to controls. Disulfiram was also more effective than the control condition when compared to naltrexone g = .77, 95%CI = .52-1.02, to acamprosate g = .76, 95%CI = .04-1.48, and to the no disulfiram groups g = .43, 95%CI = .17-.69. LIMITS INCLUDE: (1 a population of 89% male subjects and (2 a high but unavoidable heterogeneity of the studies with a substantial I-square in most subgroups of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Blinded studies were incapable of distinguishing a difference between treatment groups and thus are incompatible with disulfiram research. Based on results with open-label studies, disulfiram is a safe and efficacious treatment compared to other abstinence supportive

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. Comorbidade entre transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas: uma revisão da literatura Comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD with alcohol and drug abuse and dependency: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Souza Dantas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Pesquisas revelam uma alta comorbidade entre o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT e o abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas (ADAD. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a natureza da associação entre TEPT e ADAD, as diferenças entre os gêneros feminino e masculino, bem como os principais tratamentos utilizados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa bibliográfica entre os anos de 1995 e 2007 no PubMed, utilizando os termos "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "trauma" AND "drugs", "posttraumatic stress" AND "alcohol", posttraumatic stress" AND "substance abuse", "posttraumatic stress" AND "dependence", "posttraumatic stress" AND "drugs". RESULTADOS: As seguintes hipóteses foram identificadas: 1 o abuso de substâncias aumenta os riscos para a ocorrência de TEPT em virtude de estilos de vida que expõem mais o sujeito à ocorrência de traumas e pelo fato de as drogas potencializarem as seqüelas do trauma; 2 o TEPT levaria ao aumento do uso de álcool e drogas acompanhado de possível abuso com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas decorrentes do transtorno. Conclusões: A identificação precoce da comorbidade entre o TEPT e o ADAD é fundamental para o bom prognóstico do paciente, bem como o atendimento adequado às vítimas de situações traumáticas para que sejam minimizadas as chances da ocorrência do TEPT.BACKGROUND: The literature reveals high comorbidity rates between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and substance abuse and dependence (SAD. OBJECTIVES: This paper seeks to describe the relationship between the two disorders; the gender differences; and the primary treatments used to reduce PTSD as well as SAD symptoms. METHODS: A review of the literature between 1995 and 2007. A PubMed search was used to find articles with the key words: "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "trauma" AND "drugs", "post traumatic stress" AND "alcohol", post traumatic

  3. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

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    Penzlin AI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Isabel Penzlin,1 Timo Siepmann,2 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,3 Kerstin Weidner,4 Martin Siepmann4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany Background and objective: In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV. Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24 attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2. Results: Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05, whereas craving was unchanged at

  4. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Field; T. Schoenmakers; R.W. Wiers

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  5. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges : a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  6. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Ian R.

    1982-01-01

    At least 30 percent of newborn children of alcoholic mothers are affected severely by the fetal alcohol syndrome and 40-45 percent show some stigmata. Risks to offspring of mothers who drink occasionally or binge drink are not clear, but the danger is probably greatest in the first trimester of pregnancy. (CMG)

  8. Alcohol and cognition in the elderly: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Boung Chul; Jung, Myung Hun; Kim, Hano; Choi, Yong Sung; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2012-03-01

    Consumption of large amounts of alcohol is known to have negative effects, but consumption in smaller amounts may be protective. The effect of alcohol may be greater in the elderly than in younger adults, particularly with regard to cognition. However, the drinking pattern that will provide optimal protection against dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly has not been systematically investigated. The present paper is a critical review of research on the effect of alcohol on cognitive function and dementia in the elderly. Studies published from 1971 to 2011 related to alcohol and cognition in the elderly were reviewed using a PubMed search. Alcohol may have both a neurotoxic and neuroprotective effect. Longitudinal and brain imaging studies in the elderly show that excessive alcohol consumption may increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, but low to moderate alcohol intake may protect against cognitive decline and dementia and provide cardiovascular benefits. Evidence suggesting that low to moderate alcohol consumption in the elderly protects against cognitive decline and dementia exists; however, because of varying methodology and a lack of standardized definitions, these findings should be interpreted with caution. It is important to conduct more, well-designed studies to identify the alcohol drinking pattern that will optimally protect the elderly against cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:22396679

  9. A review of the relationship between alcohol and oral cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reidy, J

    2011-10-01

    This paper aims to review the current literature regarding the association between alcohol consumption and oral cancer. The authors have discussed the constituents of alcohol-containing beverages, the metabolism of ethanol and its effect on the oral microflora. The local and systemic carcinogenic effects of alcohol have been detailed. The beneficial effects of alcohol consumption on general health have also been considered. A possible relationship between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer has been suggested in the literature. The authors conclude that this relationship has not yet been firmly established. However, the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses in high-risk populations should be restricted, pending the outcome of further research.

  10. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

  11. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  12. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  13. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  14. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Post, Hans; Tarvainen, Mika; de Bruijn, Avalon; Perna, Elizabeth De Sousa Fernandes; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients' natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response to experimental exposure to alcohol and soft drink advertisements were measured during detoxification treatment using heart rate variability and subjective rating of craving. Following discharge, patients monitored exposure to alcohol advertisements for five consecutive weeks with a diary and were followed up with an assessment of relapse at 5 weeks and 3 months post-discharge. The results indicated that the presence of alcohol cues such as the portrayal of the drug and drinking behaviour induced physiological cue reactivity and craving. Additionally, cue reactivity and craving were positively correlated, and cue reactivity was larger for patients with shorter histories of alcohol dependence. Further, patients reported a substantial daily exposure to alcohol cues. The magnitude of cue reactivity and the craving response to alcohol cues at baseline and degree of exposure to alcohol cues in patients' natural environment did not predict relapse. It is concluded that the presence of alcohol cues such as portrayal of alcoholic beverages and drinking behaviour induces cue reactivity and craving in alcohol dependence through a conditioned appetitive response. PMID:26257163

  15. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study

    OpenAIRE

    Witteman, J.; H. Post; Tarvainen, M.; Bruijn, de, M.E.; De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E.; Ramaekers, J. G.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients’ natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response...

  16. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  17. Alcohol and the older adult: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle A

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol consumption in the older adult is of major concern with the advent of baby boomers coming into the over 65-age bracket. Alcohol consumption has been touted as beneficial for health, and while that may be accurate for moderate consumption in younger persons, there is considerable risk associated with increased alcohol intake in older adults. This increase is partially due to age-related physiological changes, existing diagnoses, number of comorbid conditions, and increased use of prescribed and/or over-the-counter medications, coupled with other concerns. This review addresses the current research regarding ethanol consumption in older adults and all-cause mortality as well as several conditions more frequently seen in the geriatric population. These conditions include vascular diseases, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic disorders, dental and oro-facial problems, bone density decline, and falls and fractures. In addition, drug interactions and recent research into select vitamin and mineral considerations with increased alcohol intake in older persons are addressed. While recommendations for alcohol intake have not been specifically established for age ranges within the 65-year-and-older bracket, and practitioners do not routinely assess alcohol intake or ethanol related adverse events in this population, common sense approaches to monitoring will become increasingly important as the generation of "boomers" who believe that alcohol intake improves health comes of age. PMID:21184367

  18. The association between alcohol use, alcohol use disorders and tuberculosis (TB. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, tuberculosis (TB was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8% and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%. The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. Methods A systematic review of existing scientific data on the association between alcohol consumption and TB, and on studies relevant for clarification of causality was undertaken. Results There is a strong association between heavy alcohol use/alcohol use disorders (AUD and TB. A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59. Numerous studies show pathogenic impact of alcohol on the immune system causing susceptibility to TB among heavy drinkers. In addition, there are potential social pathways linking AUD and TB. Heavy alcohol use strongly influences both the incidence and the outcome of the disease and was found to be linked to altered pharmacokinetics of medicines used in treatment of TB, social marginalization and drift, higher rate of re-infection, higher rate of treatment defaults and development of drug-resistant forms of TB. Based on the available data, about 10% of the TB cases globally were estimated to be attributable to alcohol. Conclusion The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. Consequences for prevention and clinical interventions are discussed.

  19. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, an

  20. Interventions in sports settings to reduce risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John H; Vashum, Khanrin P.; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm have been reported for sportspeople and supporters compared to non-sporting populations. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions targeting such behaviours. Methods A review was undertaken to determine if interventions implemented in sports settings decreased alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies were included that implemented interventions within sports settin...

  1. Interventions in sports settings to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption is a primary cause of physical, psychological and social harm to both the user and others. At both the professional and non-professional level, sports players and fans report consuming alcohol at greater levels than people not involved in sports. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted assessing interventions targeting alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms in the sporting context. Methods and analysis The review aims to determine if interventi...

  2. Comorbidade entre transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas: uma revisão da literatura Comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with alcohol and drug abuse and dependency: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa de Souza Dantas; Arthur Guerra de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXTO: Pesquisas revelam uma alta comorbidade entre o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) e o abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas (ADAD). OBJETIVOS: Descrever a natureza da associação entre TEPT e ADAD, as diferenças entre os gêneros feminino e masculino, bem como os principais tratamentos utilizados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa bibliográfica entre os anos de 1995 e 2007 no PubMed, utilizando os termos "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "tr...

  3. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence : a combined laboratory and field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, J.; Post, H.; Tarvainen, M.; Bruijn, de A.; De, Sousa Fernandes Perna E.; Ramaekers, J.G.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiol

  4. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Witteman; H. Post; M. Tarvainen; A. de Bruijn; E. De Sousa Fernandes Perna; J.G. Ramaekers; R.W. Wiers

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiol

  5. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Collegiate Women: A Review of Research on Alcohol Myopia Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2010-01-01

    A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…

  6. Alcohol-related brief intervention in patients treated for opiate or cocaine dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of heavy drinking and alcohol dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence, few studies have evaluated specific interventions within this group. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and of brief intervention (BI on alcohol use in a sample of patients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in a specialized outpatient clinic. Methods Adult outpatients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in Switzerland were screened for excessive alcohol drinking and dependence with the AUDIT. Patients with AUDIT scores that indicated excessive drinking or dependence were randomized into two groups--treatment as usual or treatment as usual together with BI--and assessed at 3 months and 9 months. Results Findings revealed a high rate (44% of problematic alcohol use (excessive drinking and dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence. The number of drinks per week decreased significantly between T0 (inclusion and T3 (month 3. A decrease in average AUDIT scores was observed between T0 and T3 and between T0 and T9 (month 9. No statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed. Conclusions In a substance abuse specialized setting, screening for alcohol use with the AUDIT, followed by feedback on the score, and use of alcohol BI are both possibly useful strategies to induce changes in problematic alcohol use. Definitive conclusions cannot, however, be drawn from the study because of limitations such as lack of a naturalistic group. An important result of the study is the excellent internal consistency of AUDIT in a population treated for opiate or cocaine dependence.

  7. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Ikeda; Yuzo Aikawa; Mitsuru Umeno; Susumu Higuchi; Eiichi Senoo; Ayako Haraguchi; Yasukazu Ogai; Nagisa Sugaya

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in...

  8. Efficacy of acupuncture for cocaine dependence: a systematic review & meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Acupuncture is a commonly used treatment option for the treatment of addictions such as alcohol, nicotine and drug dependence. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Methods Two reviewers independently searched 10 databases. Unpublished studies were sought using Clinicaltrials.gov, the UK National Research Register and contacting content experts. Eligible studies enrolled patients with the diagnosis of cocaine dependence of any duration or severity randomly allocated to either acupuncture or sham or other control. We excluded studies of acupuncture methods and trials enrolling patients with polysubstance use or dependence. We abstracted data on study methodology and outcomes. We pooled the studies providing biochemical confirmation of cocaine abstinence. Results Nine studies enrolling 1747 participants met inclusion criteria; 7 provided details for biochemical confirmation of cocaine abstinence. On average, trials lost 50% of enrolled participants (range 0–63%. The pooled odds ratio estimating the effect of acupuncture on cocaine abstinence at the last reported time-point was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.45 to 1.27, P = 0.30, I2 = 30%, Heterogeneity P = 0.19. Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis does not support the use of acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine dependence. However, most trials were hampered by large loss to follow up and the strength of the inference is consequently weakened.

  9. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ikeda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  10. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas. PMID:22073020

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Hepatitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashwani K; Kodali, Sudha; Vucovich, Lee A; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Schiano, Thomas D

    2016-07-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) occurs in about one-third of individuals reporting long-term heavy alcohol use. It is associated with high short-term mortality, economic burden, and hospital resources utilization. We performed this systematic review to (i) describe clinical characteristics and genomics associated with the risk of AH; (ii) discuss role and limitations of liver biopsy and prognostic scoring systems; (iii) summarize evidence regarding the currently available therapies including liver transplantation; and (iv) outline emerging therapies with areas of unmet need. Literature search was performed for studies published in English language (January 1971 through March 2016). The following search engines were used: PubMed, Elsevier Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library. For the treatment section, only randomized controlled studies were included for this review. A total of 138 studies (59 randomized, 22 systematic reviews or meta-analyses, 7 surveys or guidelines, 7 population-based, and 43 prospective cohorts) were cited. There are over 325,000 annual admissions with AH contributing to about 0.8% of all hospitalizations in the United States. Liver biopsy may be required in about 25 to 30% cases for uncertain clinical diagnosis. Corticosteroids with or without N-acetylcysteine remains the only available therapy for severe episodes. Data are emerging on the role of liver transplantation as salvage therapy for select patients. Abstinence remains the most important factor impacting long-term prognosis. Results from the ongoing clinical trials within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-funded consortia are awaited for more effective and safer therapies. AH is a potentially lethal condition with a significant short-term mortality. A high index of suspicion is required. There remains an unmet need for noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis, and predicting prognosis and response to therapy. PMID:27254289

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L Fitterer; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control des...

  14. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Laura Fitterer; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Timothy eStockwell

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control des...

  15. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  16. The Use of Very High-Doses of Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol-Dependence: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, which is to say, more than 300 mg/day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very hi...

  17. The use of very high-doses of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol-dependence: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud ede Beaurepaire

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, that is to say, more than 300mg per day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very high doses baclofen were justified in almost all the cases. Side effects are analyzed.

  18. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan JL; Leung JG; Gagliardi JP; Rivelli SK; Muzyk AJ

    2013-01-01

    Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the ...

  19. Online alcohol interventions, sexual violence and intimate partner violence: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Robert J; Simon Lenton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual and intimate partner violence (IPV) is a leading cause of disease burden, with alcohol use strongly related to these behaviors. Online interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing both alcohol use and some alcohol-related problems. These programs are widely available especially to university students, a particularly high-risk group for sexual or IPV. Aim: We aimed to systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions in ...

  20. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  1. A systematic review of physical activity correlates in alcohol use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; De Herdt, Amber; DETRAUX, JOHAN; Probst, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity might promote mental and physical health in persons with alcohol use disorder. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of participation in physical activity in persons with alcohol use disorder is an essential first step in order to devise effective physical activity interventions. Objective: The present review provides a systematic quantitative review of the correlates of physical activity in people with alcohol use disorder. Methods: Major...

  2. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  3. Pathophysiology Review Series: Alcohol Abuse, the Alveolar Macrophage, and Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Guidot, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use, and misuse, has been a part of human culture for thousands of years. In the modern medical era a great deal of attention has been justifiably focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the psychological and biological addiction to alcohol. However, a significant percentage, if not the majority, of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality occurs in individuals who do not meet the formal diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders. For example, many serious medical consequen...

  4. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  5. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  6. Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Male Mexican and Central American Im/migrant Laborers: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Paula A.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses a growing concern regarding alcohol use in adult male Latino im/migrant laborers in the United States. The review draws from alcohol studies focusing on "Hispanic" populations, and from health behavior studies of Latino im/migrant laborers, research that includes alcohol use. Specifically, this review addresses (a) alcohol…

  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis: prevalence of alcohol use among young people in eastern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, JM; Grosskurth, H; Changalucha, J; Kapiga, SH; Weiss, HA

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of alcohol use among young people (age 15-24 years) in eastern Africa to estimate prevalence of alcohol use and determine the extent of use of standardised screening questionnaires in alcohol studies. METHODS: Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Africa-wide, and PsycINFO) were searched for publications until 30th June 2013. Results were summarised using the guidelines on preferred reporting items for systematic re...

  8. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Anna B Gilmore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies...

  9. A review of the role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and the link between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reidy, John T

    2011-08-01

    This article will review the most recent literature on the effects of alcohol on the oral mucosa, and the possible mechanisms by which alcohol is thought to act as a carcinogen. The article will also consider the possible link between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer. The authors recommend that the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses in high-risk populations should be restricted, pending the outcome of further research.

  10. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use Among Patients with Hepatitis C: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Omar T; Maynard, Quentin R; Melton, Pam A

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol use is a barrier to pharmacologic treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is advantageous for medical and clinical social workers engaged in HCV care to be knowledgeable of behavioral interventions that can be used to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV. This article identifies and describes studies that designed and implemented behavioral interventions to reduce alcohol use among patients with HCV in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, this article conducts a rigorous systematic review to identify peer-reviewed articles, describes each behavioral intervention, and reports primary outcomes of each study included in the review. PMID:27295132

  11. Paleoethnobotany and Ancient Alcohol Production: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E Biwer; Amber M VanDerwarker

    2015-01-01

    The production and consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past is an important consideration when addressing issues involving ancient food. However, successfully demonstrating that alcoholic beverages were produced in prehistoric contexts is problematic.  As a result, archaeobotanists have developed a multi-scalar approach, incorporating multiple lines of evidence, to argue for the production of fermented beverages in the past.

  12. Impact of HIV infection and alcohol on cognition: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Selnes, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Ola A SelnesDepartment of Neurology, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Both alcohol and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) can affect the structure and function of the central nervous system. What they have in common is that the white matter of the brain is principally affected, and the direct neuronal injury does not appear to be a consequence of either HIV infection or alcohol use. There is evidence that the cognitiv...

  13. Epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Canadian Aboriginal peoples: a review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, L; Moffatt, M E

    1994-01-01

    A critical review of available reports on the epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome among American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Aboriginal peoples of Canada was completed. A search of Medline, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Database, and other relevant data bases was conducted. The reference lists of several publications on fetal alcohol syndrome were reviewed, and four prominent researchers and four government agencies were contacted to identify unpublished articles...

  14. Examining the pathways for young people with drug and alcohol dependence: a mixed-method design to examine the role of a treatment programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Rawstorne, Patrick; Hayen, Andrew; Bryant, Joanne; Baldry, Eileen; Ferry, Mark; Williams, Megan; Shanahan, Marian; Jayasinha, Ranmalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young people with drug and alcohol problems are likely to have poorer health and other psychosocial outcomes than other young people. Residential treatment programmes have been shown to lead to improved health and related outcomes for young people in the short term. There is very little robust research showing longer term outcomes or benefits of such programmes. This paper describes an innovative protocol to examine the longer term outcomes and experiences of young people referred to a residential life management and treatment programme in Australia designed to address alcohol and drug issues in a holistic manner. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study that will retrospectively and prospectively examine young people's pathways into and out of a residential life management programme. The study involves 3 components: (1) retrospective data linkage of programme data to health and criminal justice administrative data sets, (2) prospective cohort (using existing programme baseline data and a follow-up survey) and (3) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of the prospective cohort. The study will compare findings among young people who are referred and (a) stay 30 days or more in the programme (including those who go on to continuing care and those who do not); (b) start, but stay fewer than 30 days in the programme; (c) are assessed, but do not start the programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been sought from several ethics committees including a university ethics committee, state health departments and an Aboriginal-specific ethics committee. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research conferences, disseminated via a report for the general public and through Facebook communications. The study will inform the field more broadly about the value of different methods in evaluating programmes and examining the pathways and trajectories of vulnerable young people. PMID

  15. Does Alcohol Advertising Effect Young People’s Alcohol Consumption? – A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the claim that alcohol advertising has an effect on young people’s levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Studies were identified using a systematic search from September 2010 to December 2011. Wiley Interscience, Science Direct, Pubmed, Ovid Online and Google scholar were used to search studies that that were no older than 15years of age, participant age from 10 to 26years old and were of primary research design. Results: Six studies that followed up 9,750 young peopl...

  16. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Giancarlo Balercia; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used,its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial.Over the years,many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility.This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences.Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities,a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition,and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate.These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption.Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters.This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol.Nevertheless,alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies.Finally,the genetic background and other concomitant,alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage.In conclusion,alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.

  17. Colchicine for alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2000-01-01

    The majority of liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis cases in the Western World is caused by alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic medication. Several randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether colchicine has any efficacy in patients...

  18. The influence of gene-environment interactions on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Prescott, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    Since 2005, a rapidly expanding literature has evaluated whether environmental factors such as socio-cultural context and adversity interact with genetic influences on drinking behaviors. This article critically reviews empirical research on alcohol-related genotype-environment interactions (GxE) and provides a contextual framework for understanding how genetic factors combine with (or are shaped by) environmental factors to influence the development of drinking behaviors and alcohol use disorders. Collectively, evidence from twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies indicates that the degree of importance of genetic influences on risk for drinking outcomes can vary in different populations and under different environmental circumstances. However, methodological limitations and lack of consistent replications in this literature make it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the nature and effect size of alcohol-related GxE. On the basis of this review, we describe several methodological challenges as they relate to current research on GxE in drinking behaviors and provide recommendations to aid future research. PMID:21530476

  19. A review on alcohol: from the central action mechanism to chemical dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Vezali Costardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:alcohol is a psychotropic depressant of the central nervous system (CNS that promotes simultaneous changes in several neuronal pathways, exerting a profound neurological impact that leads to various behavioral and biological alterations.Objectives:to describe the effects of alcohol on the CNS, identifying the signaling pathways that are modified and the biological effects resulting from its consumption.Methods:a literature review was conducted and articles published in different languages over the last 15 years were retrieved.Results:the studies reviewed describe the direct effect of alcohol on several neurotransmitter receptors (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], glutamate, endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, among others, the indirect effect of alcohol on the limbic and opioid systems, and the effect on calcium and potassium channels and on proteins regulated by GABA in the hippocampus.Discussion and conclusion:the multiple actions of alcohol on the CNS result in a general effect of psychomotor depression, difficulties in information storage and logical reasoning and motor incoordination, in addition to stimulating the reward system, a fact that may explain the development of addiction. Knowledge on the neuronal signaling pathways that are altered by alcohol allows the identification of effectors which could reduce its central action, thus, offering new therapeutic perspectives for the rehabilitation of alcohol addicts.

  20. Executive Functioning in Alcohol Use Studies: A Brief Review of Findings and Challenges in Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ahern, David C.; Clark, Uraina S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alco...

  1. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Cherpitel; Joel Swendsen; Lucie Pennel; Maurice Dematteis; Françoise Carpentier; Georges Brousse; Laurent Bègue; Oulmann Zerhouni

    2013-01-01

    Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER) and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Col...

  2. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  3. Interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals: a review and critique of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; DeMartini, Kelly S; Sales, Jessica M; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use disorders are common among HIV-infected individuals and are associated with adverse physiological complications and increased engagement in other health risk behaviors. This paper provides a review and critique of interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, including a: (a) synthesis of core intervention components and trial designs; (b) summary of intervention efficacy to reduce alcohol use outcomes; and (c) methodological critique and guidance for future research. We reviewed 14 behavioral interventions that reported on alcohol use outcomes among HIV-infected individuals. Findings were mixed for intervention efficacy to reduce alcohol frequency and quantity. There was limited evidence that interventions reduced binge drinking frequency or alcohol abuse or dependence symptoms. Despite the prevalence of disordered alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, there is lack of efficacious intervention approaches. Efficacious intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals are urgently needed. PMID:23990322

  4. The effect of nonrecurring alcohol administration on pain perception in humans: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn-Hofmann C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Horn-Hofmann,1,2 Patricia Büscher,1 Stefan Lautenbacher,2 Jörg Wolstein1 1Pathosychology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany; 2Physiological Psychology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany Purpose: Alcohol is believed to have pain-dampening effects and is often used as self-medication by persons with pain problems; however, experimental evidence confirming this effect is scarce. We conducted a systematic review of experimental studies on the effects of nonrecurring alcohol administration on pain perception in healthy human subjects and the underlying mechanisms.Method: Three databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies using a predefined algorithm. In a next step, irrelevant articles were excluded by screening titles and abstracts. Finally, articles were checked regarding a set of methodological criteria; only publications meeting these criteria were selected for this review. A total of 14 experimental studies were identified.Results: Overall, most of the studies were able to show a pain-dampening effect of alcohol. However, many of them had methodological shortcomings (eg, lack of placebo control, insufficient blinding, or very small sample sizes. In addition, comparability is limited due to considerable variations in alcohol administration and pain measurement. More importantly, potential mechanisms of action and moderating variables have scarcely been investigated.Conclusion: Despite the frequent use of alcohol as self-medication by persons with pain problems, there are to date only a few experimental investigations of alcohol effects on pain perceptions. The results of these studies suggest that alcohol does in fact have pain-dampening effects. However, the mechanisms implicated in these effects are still unknown, and experimental research has been limited to pain-free subjects. Future research should provide more knowledge about alcohol effects on pain, especially in chronic pain

  5. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M F; Al-Mahtab, M; Rahman, S; Debnath, C R

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Hepatology clinics. It is closely related to the increased frequency of overweight or obesity. It has recognised association with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia are commonest risk factors. Association with hepatitis C genotype 3 is also recognised. NAFLD is an important cause of cyptogenic cirrhosis of liver. It affects all populations and all age groups. Most patients with NAFLD are asymptomatic or vague upper abdominal pain. Liver function tests are mostly normal or mild elevation of aminotranferases. Histological features almost identical to those of alcohol-induced liver damage and can range from mild steatosis to cirrhosis. Two hit hypothesis is prevailing theory for the development of NAFLD. Diagnosis is usually made by imaging tools like ultrasonogram which reveal a bright liver while liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis as well as differentiating simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Prognosis is variable. Simple hepatic steatosis generally has a benign long-term prognosis. However, one to two third of NASH progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis and may have a similar prognosis as cirrhosis from other liver diseases. Treatment is mostly control of underlying disorders and dietary advice, exercise, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, or cytoprotective agents. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing. So it needs more research to address this problem. PMID:26620035

  6. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Leenke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required.

  7. A REVIEW OF CO - MORBID DEPRESSION AMONG THE PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co - morbidity is “the occurrence of 2 or more distinct psychiatric disorders at the same time”. Clinical and general population studies show that alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression often coexist. The presenc e of co - morbid conditions, such as alcohol dependence (AD and major depression, has important implications for patient functioning and prognosis, including difficulties in case identification, treatment effectiveness and compliance, altered pharmacokineti cs, and increased chronicity of both conditions. Although depression and alcohol dependence commonly coexist in community and treatment - seeking populations, there is no clear consensus on appropriate assessment and treatment of patients who present with sy mptoms of both disorders. To make appropriate treatment decisions, clinicians must know the likely effects of depression on drinking outcomes. This article reviews the relation between co - morbid depression and alcohol dependence.

  8. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  9. Meta-analysis of propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease--a Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease.......The aim of this review was to determine the benefits and adverse effects of propylthiouracil for patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  10. Use (and Misuse) of the Responsible Drinking Message in Public Health and Alcohol Advertising: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries…

  11. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cherpitel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  12. Alcohol counter-advertising and the media. A review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel W

    2002-01-01

    Counter-advertising commonly is used to balance the effects that alcohol advertising may have on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Such measures can take the form of print or broadcast advertisements (e.g., public service announcements [PSAs]) as well as product warning labels. The effectiveness of both types of counter-advertising is reviewed using the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical framework. For print and broadcast counter-advertisements, such factors as their emotional appeal and the credibility of the source, as well as audience factors, can influence their effectiveness. Further, brewer-sponsored counter-advertisements are evaluated and received differently than are the more conventional PSA counter-advertisements. For warning labels, both the content and design of the label influence their effectiveness, as do audience factors. The effectiveness of those labels is evaluated in terms of the extent to which they impact cognitive and affective processes as well as drinking behavior. PMID:12154647

  13. Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use among HIV-Infected Individuals: A Review and Critique of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jennifer L; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Sales, Jessica M.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are common among HIV-infected individuals and are associated with adverse physiological complications and increased engagement in other health risk behaviors. This paper provides a review and critique of interventions to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected individuals, including a: (a) synthesis of core intervention components and trial designs; (b) summary of intervention efficacy to reduce alcohol use outcomes; and (c) methodological critique and guidance for future ...

  14. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  16. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  17. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  18. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  19. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  20. Screening for alcohol and drug use disorders among adults in primary care: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilowsky DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky1, Li-Tzy Wu21Departments of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Columbia University, and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 supports integration of substance abuse interventions and treatments into the mainstream health care system. Thus, effective screening and intervention for substance use disorders in health care settings is a priority.Objective: This paper reviews the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders (abuse or dependence in primary care settings and emergency departments, as well as current screening tools and brief interventions.Methods: MEDLINE was searched using the following keywords: alcohol use, alcohol use disorder, drug use, drug use disorder, screening, primary care, and emergency departments. Using the related-articles link, additional articles were screened for inclusion. This review focuses on alcohol and drug use and related disorders among adults in primary care settings.Conclusion: Screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment are feasible and effective in primary care settings, provided that funding for screening is available, along with brief interventions and treatment facilities to which patients can be referred and treated promptly.Keywords: brief intervention, emergency departments

  1. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bower Carol; Rhys-Jones Biarta; Peadon Elizabeth; Elliott Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electron...

  2. The effect of nonrecurring alcohol administration on pain perception in humans: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Horn-Hofmann C; Büscher P.; Lautenbacher S; Wolstein J

    2015-01-01

    Claudia Horn-Hofmann,1,2 Patricia Büscher,1 Stefan Lautenbacher,2 Jörg Wolstein1 1Pathosychology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany; 2Physiological Psychology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany Purpose: Alcohol is believed to have pain-dampening effects and is often used as self-medication by persons with pain problems; however, experimental evidence confirming this effect is scarce. We conducted a systematic review of experimental studies on the effects of nonrecurring ...

  3. A Literature Review of Cost-Benefit Analyses for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Mohapatra; Jayadeep Patra; Amy Duhig; Jürgen Rehm; Svetlana Popova

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review of cost-benefit studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments of alcohol dependence (AD). A literature search was performed in multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search identified seven psychotherapy studies from the USA and two pharmacotherapy studies from Europe. In the psychotherapy studies, major benefits are typically seen within the first six months of treatment. The benefit-cost ratio ranged from 1.89 ...

  4. Alcohol consumption and hormonal alterations related to muscle hypertrophy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Thomas, Ewan; Pomara, Francesco; Tabacchi, Garden; Karsten, Bettina; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Detrimental effects of acute and chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption on human physiology are well documented in the literature. These adversely influence neural, metabolic, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory functions. However, the side effects of ethanol consumption on hormonal fluctuations and subsequent related skeletal muscle alterations have received less attention and as such are not entirely understood. The focus of this review is to identify the side effects of ethanol consumption...

  5. Estimates of alcohol-related oesophageal cancer burden in Japan: systematic review and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roerecke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To refine estimates of the burden of alcohol-related oesophageal cancer in Japan. Methods We searched PubMed for published reviews and original studies on alcohol intake, aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms, and risk for oesophageal cancer in Japan, published before 2014. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses, including subgroup analyses by aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. We estimated deaths and loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs from oesophageal cancer using exposure distributions for alcohol based on age, sex and relative risks per unit of exposure. Findings We identified 14 relevant studies. Three cohort studies and four case-control studies had dose-response data. Evidence from cohort studies showed that people who consumed the equivalent of 100 g/day of pure alcohol had an 11.71 fold, (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.67-51.32 risk of oesophageal cancer compared to those who never consumed alcohol. Evidence from case-control studies showed that the increase in risk was 33.11 fold (95% CI: 8.15-134.43 in the population at large. The difference by study design is explained by the 159 fold (95% CI: 27.2-938.2 risk among those with an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme variant. Applying these dose-response estimates to the national profile of alcohol intake yielded 5279 oesophageal cancer deaths and 102 988 DALYs lost - almost double the estimates produced by the most recent global burden of disease exercise. Conclusion Use of global dose-response data results in an underestimate of the burden of disease from oesophageal cancer in Japan. Where possible, national burden of disease studies should use results from the population concerned.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents and identify higher-risk subgroups. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Searches were performed using four databases (LILACS, MEDLINE /PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, specialized websites and the references cited in retrieved articles. The search was done in English and Portuguese and there was no limit on the year of publication (up to June 2011. From the search, 59 studies met all the inclusion criteria: to involve Brazilian adolescents aged 10-19 years; to assess the prevalence of alcohol and/or tobacco use; to use questionnaires or structured interviews to measure the variables of interest; and to be a school or population-based study that used methodological procedures to ensure representativeness of the target population (i.e. random sampling. RESULTS: The prevalence of current alcohol use (at the time of the investigation or in the previous month ranged from 23.0% to 67.7%. The mean prevalence was 34.9% (reflecting the central trend of the estimates found in the studies. The prevalence of current tobacco use ranged from 2.4% to 22.0%, and the mean prevalence was 9.3%. A large proportion of the studies estimated prevalences of frequent alcohol use (66.7% and heavy alcohol use (36.8% of more than 10%. However, most studies found prevalences of frequent and heavy tobacco use of less than 10%. The Brazilian literature has highlighted that environmental factors (religiosity, working conditions, and substance use among family and friends and psychosocial factors (such as conflicts with parents and feelings of negativeness and loneliness are associated with the tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco among adolescents has reached alarming prevalences in various localities in Brazil. Since unhealthy behavior tends to continue from adolescence into adulthood

  7. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eGaume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  8. Alcohol marketing and young people's drinking: a review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Gerard; Anderson, Susan; Cooke, Emma; Gordon, Ross

    2005-09-01

    The influence of alcohol advertising on young people continues to be the subject of much debate. This paper presents a review of the literature showing that, while many econometric studies suggest little effect, more focused consumer studies, especially recent ones with sophisticated designs, do show clear links between advertising and behaviour. Furthermore, these effects have to be viewed in combination with the possible impact of other marketing activities such as price promotions, distribution, point of sale activity and new product development. Here, the evidence base is less well developed, but there are indications of effects. It must be acknowledged that categorical statements of cause and effect are always difficult in the social sciences; marketing is a complex phenomenon involving the active participation of consumers as well as marketers and more research is needed on its cumulative impact. Nonetheless, the literature presents an increasingly compelling picture that alcohol marketing is having an effect on young people's drinking. PMID:16167558

  9. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the effect of alcohol consumption on the developing brain.

  10. Harmful lifestyles on orthopedic implantation surgery: a descriptive review on alcohol and tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Salamanna, Francesca; Veronesi, Francesca; Martini, Lucia; De Mattei, Monica; Tschon, Matilde

    2011-11-01

    Alcohol abuse and smoking habits have adverse effects on bone health and are a risk factor for osteoporosis, fractures and impaired fracture repair. Osteointegration processes around implanted biomaterials involve a coordinated cascade of complex events that are very similar to those occurring during fracture repair and require a suitable microenvironment and the coordinated action of cells and signal molecules. Therefore, diseases and harmful lifestyles that impair the normal bone healing process can reduce the success of implant surgery and may negatively influence the osteointegration of prostheses and implant devices for fracture fixation such as screws, nails and plates. Understanding the effects of harmful lifestyles on bone implant osteointegration is important for successful implant therapy, orthopedic reconstructive surgery and tissue-engineered-based therapies. However, the mechanisms by which smoking and alcoholism affect bone metabolism, bone mass and the balance of bone resorption and formation, also in the presence of an orthopedic implant, are not completely understood and remain inadequately elucidated. This review aims to analyze in vitro and in vivo studies regarding orthopedic implant integration in the presence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption with a focus on pathophysiology and local or systemic mechanisms of action on bone. PMID:21898177

  11. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  12. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  14. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sect...

  15. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Foxcroft David R; Smith Lesley A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal) studies. Methods studies were identified in October 2006 by searches of electronic databases, with no date restriction, supplemented with hand searches of reference lis...

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  17. Prevention of alcohol and drug misuse in adolescents: An overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmers Elke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Systematic reviews have evaluated a wide variety of programmes aiming to prevent, reduce or delay substance use in adolescents. This paper presents an overview of recent systematic reviews, summarising the evidence on the effectiveness of prevention strategies which target adolescents misusing alcohol and/or drugs. METHODS - We performed a comprehensive search in major electronic databases, consulted websites and checked reference lists of relevant articles. Studies that met our inclusion criteria were critically appraised using the AMSTAR instrument. The findings from the included systematic reviews were synthesised using a vote counting procedure. RESULTS - Twenty-one systematic reviews were identified. Ten of these were rated as of high quality. There was little overlap between reviews in terms of the target group, intervention, setting and outcome measures. The components or mechanisms of the prevention programmes were poorly described. Ten reviews evaluated school-based prevention. The effects of these prevention programmes are promising, while effects of community-based, family-based and multifaceted programmes were less convincing. CONCLUSION - Based on the current evidence, there is a small but consistent positive effect of school-based prevention programmes, but it is less clear what the “active ingredient” is. For example, which group should one target, in which setting and in which circumstances? A set of standardised process and outcome measures would allow us to better compare and statistically pool the results of original studies and reviews. This overview of reviews, like similar other overviews, should encourage researchers to increase uniformity and consistency between studies. This would improve the comparability of evidence, which is needed to formulate valid recommendations for practice

  18. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment - A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children's psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children's intelligence quotient (IQ), mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children's development. PMID:26190723

  19. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment – A review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children’s psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children’s intelligence quotient (IQ, mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children’s development.

  20. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Brown, Kyle G.; King, Sarah E.; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Methods Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised,...

  1. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, K.; Brown, K G; King, S. E.; Shemilt, I.; Marteau, T M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. METHODS: Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomise...

  2. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  3. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Bon-Martens, M.J.H.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Garretsen, H F L

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchan...

  4. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy; Meredith,Steven; Alessi,Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Steven E Meredith, Sheila M Alessi, Nancy M Petry Calhoun Cardiology Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA Abstract: Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applic...

  5. Chitosan functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) for prospects biomedical and industrial applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Ammara; Mahmood Zia, Khalid; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Rehman, Saima

    2016-06-01

    Chitin and chitosan are amino polysaccharides having multidimensional properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, antibacterial properties and non-toxicity, muco-adhesivity, adsorption properties, etc., and thus they can be widely used in variety of areas. Although human history mainly relies on the biopolymers, however synthetic materials like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have good mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Functionalization of PVA with chitin and chitosan is considered very appropriate for the development of well-designed biomaterials such as biodegradable films, for membrane separation, for tissue engineering, for food packaging, for wound healing and dressing, hydro gels formation, gels formation, etc. Considering versatile properties of the chitin and chitosan, and wide industrial and biomedical applications of PVA, this review sheds a light on chitin and chitosan based PVA materials with their potential applications especially focusing the bio-medical field. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed highlighting the recent advancement. PMID:26893051

  6. Da cervejinha com os amigos à dependência de álcool: uma síntese do que sabemos sobre esse percurso From one beer with friends to alcohol dependence: a synthesis about our knowledge of this path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Paula Ramos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Artigo de revisão sobre os estudos prospectivos a respeito da história natural do alcoolismo, com ênfase na contribuição de Vaillant, que discorre sobre o impacto de seus achados na evolução dos conceitos de uso nocivo e dependência, bem como suas principais implicações terapêuticas. É salientado o fato de as taxas de abstinência não terem aumentado no tratamento de dependentes graves nos últimos 25 anos.Review paper about prospective studies concerning the natural history of alcoholism. Emphasizing Vaillant and the impact of his contribution to the evolution of the concepts of harmful use and dependence, as well as its most important therapeutic implications. The fact that the abstinence rates, in the treatment of a severe dependence, almost remaining the same in the last twenty-five years is highlighted.

  7. Effects of Ayahuasca and its Alkaloids on Drug Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Studies in Animals and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Amanda A; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Osório, Flávia L; Sanches, Rafael F; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the anti-addictive potential of ayahuasca, a dimethyltryptamine(DMT)- and β-carboline-rich hallucinogenic beverage traditionally used by indigenous groups of the Northwest Amazon and currently by syncretic churches worldwide, has received increased attention. To better evaluate this topic, we performed a systematic literature review using the PubMed database to find quantitative studies (using statistical analysis) that assessed the effects of ayahuasca or its components in drug-related symptoms or disorders. We found five animal studies (using harmaline, harmine, or ayahuasca) and five observational studies of regular ayahuasca consumers. All animal studies showed improvement of biochemical or behavioral parameters related to drug-induced disorders. Of the five human studies, four reported significant reductions of dependence symptoms or substance use, while one did not report significant results. The mechanisms responsible for the anti-addictive properties of ayahuasca and its alkaloids are not clarified, apparently involving both peripheral MAO-A inhibition by the β-carbolines and central agonism of DMT at 5-HT2A receptors expressed in brain regions related to the regulation of mood and emotions. Although results are promising, controlled studies are needed to replicate these preliminary findings. PMID:27230395

  8. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    TANNER-SMITH, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19...

  9. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerecke Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies have suggested a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke, dependent on sex, type of stroke and outcome (morbidity vs. mortality. We undertook a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between levels of average alcohol consumption and relative risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes separately by sex and outcome. This meta-analysis is the first to explicitly separate morbidity and mortality of alcohol-attributable stroke and thus has implications for public health and prevention. Methods Using Medical Subject Headings (alcohol drinking, ethanol, cerebrovascular accident, cerebrovascular disorders, and intracranial embolism and thrombosis and the key word stroke, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science databases between 1980 to June 2009 was performed followed by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles. From twenty-six observational studies (cohort or case-control with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes the relative risk or odds ratios or hazard ratios of stroke associated with alcohol consumption were reported; alcohol consumption was quantified; and life time abstention (manually estimated where data for current abstainers were given was used as the reference group. Two reviewers independently extracted the information on study design, participant characteristics, level of alcohol consumption, stroke outcome, control for potential confounding factors, risk estimates and key criteria of study quality using a standardized protocol. Results The dose-response relationship for hemorrhagic stroke had monotonically increasing risk for increasing consumption, whereas ischemic stroke showed a curvilinear relationship, with a protective effect of alcohol for low to moderate consumption, and increased risk for higher exposure. For more than 3 drinks on average/day, in general women had

  10. Association between alcohol consumption and cancers in the Chinese population--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and is associated with numerous cancers. This systematic review examined the role of alcohol in the incidence of cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and VIP were searched to identify relevant studies. Cohort and case-control studies on the effect of alcohol use on cancers in Chinese were included. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were independently abstracted by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR or relative risks (RR were pooled using RevMan 5.0. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Q test and I-squared statistic. P<.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Pooled results from cohort studies indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with gastric cancer, esophageal cancers (EC or lung cancer. Meta-analysis of case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for five cancers; the pooled ORs were 1.79 (99% CI, 1.47-2.17 EC, 1.40 (99% CI, 1.19-1.64 gastric cancer, 1.56 (99% CI, 1.16-2.09 hepatocellular carcinoma, 1.21 (99% CI, 1.00-1.46 nasopharyngeal cancer and 1.71 (99% CI, 1.20-2.44 oral cancer. Pooled ORs of the case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was protective for female breast cancer and gallbladder cancer: OR 0.76 (99% CI, 0.60-0.97 and 0.70 (99% CI, 0.49-1.00 respectively. There was no significant correlation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, prostate cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Combined results of case-control and cohort studies showed that alcohol consumption was associated with 1.78- and 1.40-fold higher risks of EC and gastric cancer but was not significantly associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Health programs focused on limiting alcohol intake may be important for cancer control in China. Further studies are needed to examine the

  11. A Review of Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Based Composites: Application and Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Khoon Tan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are fine examples of renewable resources that play an important role in the composites industry, which produces superior strength comparable to synthetic fibers. Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA composites in particular have attracted enormous interest in view of their satisfactory performance, properties and biodegradability. Their performance in many applications such as consumer, biomedical, and agriculture is well defined and promising. This paper reviews the utilization of natural fibers from macro to nanoscale as reinforcement in PVA composites. An overview on the properties, processing methods, biodegradability, and applications of these composites is presented. The advantages arising from chemical and physical modifications of fibers or composites are discussed in terms of improved properties and performance. In addition, proper arrangement of nanocellulose in composites helps to prevent agglomeration and results in a better dispersion. The limitations and challenges of the composites and future works of these bio-composites are also discussed. This review concludes that PVA composites have potential for use in numerous applications. However, issues on technological feasibility, environmental effectiveness, and economic affordability should be considered.

  12. Propofol for Treatment of Refractory Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Amy L; Hamilton, Eric P; Kloss, H Grace; Hammond, Drayton A

    2016-04-01

    The authors evaluated all available evidence on the use of propofol as an adjuvant for the treatment of resistant alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in comparison to other therapies. A comprehensive PubMed search (1966-December 2015) was conducted using the search terms propofol, alcohol withdrawal, and drug therapy. Articles were cross-referenced for other citations. Clinical studies, case series, and case reports published in the English language assessing the use of propofol in adult patients for treatment of AWS were reviewed for inclusion. Propofol is a sedative-hypnotic that exerts its actions through agonism of GABAA receptors at a different binding site than benzodiazepines and reduces glutamatergic activity through N-methyl-d-aspartase (NMDA) receptor blockade. Dosages from 5 to 100 μg/kg/minute reduced AWS symptoms with frequent development of hypotension and requirement for mechanical ventilation. Patients on propofol often experienced longer durations of mechanical ventilation and length of stay, which may be attributed to more-resistant cases of AWS. When propofol was compared with dexmedetomidine as adjuncts in AWS, both agents showed similar benzodiazepine- and haloperidol-sparing effects. Dexmedetomidine was associated with more numerical rates of bradycardia, while propofol was associated with more numerical instances of hypotension. Dexmedetomidine was used more frequently in nonintubated patients. The available data assessing the utility of propofol for AWS exhibited significant heterogeneity. Propofol may be useful in a specific population of patients with AWS, limited to those who are not clinically responding to first-line therapy with benzodiazepines. Specifically, propofol should be considered in patients who are refractory to or not candidates for other adjuvant therapies, patients already requiring mechanical ventilation, or those with seizure activity or refractory delirium tremens. In severe, refractory AWS, adjuvant therapy with

  13. A systematic review of the effectiveness of naltrexone in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, Hendrik G; de Waart, Ranne; van der Windt, Danielle A W M; van den Brink, Wim; de Jong, Cor A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2006-07-01

    This systematic review summarises evidence of the effectiveness of naltrexone (NTX) and the added value of psychosocial treatment in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence. Studies were selected through a literature search conducted in March 2004. Seven opioid and seventeen alcohol studies were identified. When possible, meta-(regression) analyses were performed. There is lack of evidence about the effectiveness of NTX in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. There is evidence for the effectiveness and applicability of NTX in the management of alcohol dependence. The opioid studies combined NTX with a variety of psychosocial interventions, which plagued the evaluation of their value. Concomitant psychosocial interventions used in the alcohol studies were mainly cognitive behavioural, which seems to be more effective than NTX combined with supportive therapy. Available data do not allow firm conclusions regarding the added effect of psychosocial interventions. However, the data suggest that a combination of naltrexone with cognitive behavioural relapse prevention therapy is beneficial in alcohol dependent patients. PMID:16361086

  14. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize...

  15. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analys...

  16. Role of diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An updatednarrative review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitrios Papandreou; Eleni Andreou

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article review is to update whatis known about the role of diet on non-alcoholic fattyliver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is the most commoncause of chronic liver disease in the developed worldand is considered to be a spectrum, ranging from fattyinfiltration of the liver alone (steatosis), which may leadto fatty infiltration with inflammation known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis While the majority of individualswith risk factors like obesity and insulin resistance havesteatosis, only few people may develop steatohepatitis.Current treatment relies on weight loss and exercise,although various insulin-sensitizing medications appearpromising. Weight loss alone by dietary changeshas been shown to lead to histological improvementin fatty liver making nutrition therapy to become acornerstone of treatment for NAFLD. Supplementationof vitamin E, C and omega 3 fatty acids are underconsideration with some conflicting data. Moreover,research has been showed that saturated fat, trans-fattyacid, carbohydrate, and simple sugars (fructose andsucrose) may play significant role in the intrahepatic fataccumulation. However, true associations with specificnutrients yet to be clarified.

  17. Systematic review of interventions for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bower Carol

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for clinical studies (Randomized controlled trials (RCT, quasi RCT, controlled trials and pre- and post-intervention studies which evaluated pharmacological, behavioural, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychosocial and educational interventions and early intervention programs. Participants were aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of a FASD. Selection of studies for inclusion and assessment of study quality was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was not possible due to diversity in the interventions and outcome measures. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological weaknesses were common, including small sample sizes; inadequate study design and short term follow up. Pharmacological interventions, evaluated in two studies (both RCT showed some benefit from stimulant medications. Educational and learning strategies (three RCT were evaluated in seven studies. There was some evidence to suggest that virtual reality training, cognitive control therapy, language and literacy therapy, mathematics intervention and rehearsal training for memory may be beneficial strategies. Three studies evaluating social communication and behavioural strategies (two RCT suggested that social skills training may improve social skills and behaviour at home and Attention Process Training may improve attention. Conclusion There is limited good

  18. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foxcroft David R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of alcohol portrayals and advertising on the drinking behaviour of young people is a matter of much debate. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on subsequent drinking behaviour in young people by systematic review of cohort (longitudinal studies. Methods studies were identified in October 2006 by searches of electronic databases, with no date restriction, supplemented with hand searches of reference lists of retrieved articles. Cohort studies that evaluated exposure to advertising or marketing or alcohol portrayals and drinking at baseline and assessed drinking behaviour at follow-up in young people were selected and reviewed. Results seven cohort studies that followed up more than 13,000 young people aged 10 to 26 years old were reviewed. The studies evaluated a range of different alcohol advertisement and marketing exposures including print and broadcast media. Two studies measured the hours of TV and music video viewing. All measured drinking behaviour using a variety of outcome measures. Two studies evaluated drinkers and non-drinkers separately. Baseline non-drinkers were significantly more likely to have become a drinker at follow-up with greater exposure to alcohol advertisements. There was little difference in drinking frequency at follow-up in baseline drinkers. In studies that included drinkers and non-drinkers, increased exposure at baseline led to significant increased risk of drinking at follow-up. The strength of the relationship varied between studies but effect sizes were generally modest. All studies controlled for age and gender, however potential confounding factors adjusted for in analyses varied from study to study. Important risk factors such as peer drinking and parental attitudes and behaviour were not adequately accounted for in some studies. Conclusion data from prospective cohort studies suggest there is an association between

  19. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…

  20. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Haug S.

    2013-01-01

    Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness...

  1. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin

    2013-01-01

    Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness...

  2. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  3. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits.

    OpenAIRE

    Rimm, E. B.; Klatsky, A.; Grobbee, D.; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the effect of specific types of alcoholic drink on coronary risk. DESIGN: Systematic review of ecological, case-control, and cohort studies in which specific associations were available for consumption of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of coronary heart disease. SUBJECTS: 12 ecological, three case-control, and 10 separate prospective cohort studies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alcohol consumption and relative risk of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. RESU...

  4. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Ramamoorthi; Rama Jayaraj; Leonard Notaras; Mahiban Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as “Indigenous”) is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have...

  5. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. PMID:24384752

  6. Factors Associated with Youth Alcohol Consumption: A Review from a Psychosocial and Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abusive alcohol consumption in adolescence is currently an important problem of public health, to the point that prevention has become a priority in health policies. Also, in the field of social intervention, the psychosocial factors involved in that consumption has been studied in the last years. In the present work a revision of those factors is carried out from the ecological perspective, in which psychological, relational and sociocultural variables are integrated. Alcohol consumption is analyzed as part of the youth culture, rejecting explanations of pathological or moralistic content, and following an approach in which alcohol consumption is understood as a mean used by the adolescent in order to achieve adjustment in a society characterized by complexity. First, individual dispositional variables are analysed; following this, variables from the family context are examined, and finally the relationship between alcohol consumption and factors of the sociocultural context are explored.

  7. Early mortality of alcoholic hepatitis: A review of data from placebo-controlled clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the early mortality of placebo-treated alcoholic hepatitis patients. METHODS: Mortality data about alcoholic hepatitis patients who participated in randomized placebo-controlled trials were searched from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 661 placebo-treated patients in 19 trials were included. The overall mortality rate was 34.19% with a median observation time of 160 d (range 21-720 d). Hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding and infect...

  8. A REVIEW OF CO - MORBID DEPRESSION AMONG THE PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Aman; Manjeera; Gopalkrishnan; Agrim; Ram

    2015-01-01

    Co - morbidity is “the occurrence of 2 or more distinct psychiatric disorders at the same time”. Clinical and general population studies show that alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression often coexist. The presenc e of co - morbid conditions, such as alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression, has important implications for patient functioning and prognosis, including difficulties in case identification, treatment effectiveness and compliance, altered pha...

  9. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  10. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  11. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  12. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  13. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  14. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  16. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  17. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. A Review of the Statistical and Quantitative Methods Used to Study Alcohol-Attributable Crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fitterer

    Full Text Available Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78 though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media, increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point. Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks.

  19. Adult Consequences of Late Adolescent Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jim McCambridge; John McAlaney; Richard Rowe

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The effects of alcohol intoxication (drunkenness), dependence (habitual, compulsive, and long-term drinking), and the associated biochemical changes, have wide-ranging health and social consequences, some of which can be lethal. Worldwide, alcohol causes 2.5 million deaths (3.8% of total) and 69.4 million (4.5% of total) of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Unintentional injuries alone account for about one-third of the 2.5 million deaths, whereas neuro-psych...

  20. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  1. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  2. HIV-Alcohol Risk Reduction Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for a Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria A; Esser, Marissa B; Sparks, Alicia; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2016-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears 69 % of the global burden of HIV, and strong evidence indicates an association between alcohol consumption, HIV risk behavior, and HIV incidence. However, characteristics of efficacious HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions are not well known. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the characteristics and synthesize the findings of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions implemented in the region and reported in peer-reviewed journals. Of 644 citations screened, 19 met the inclusion criteria for this review. A discussion of methodological challenges, research gaps, and recommendations for future interventions is included. Relatively few interventions were found, and evidence is mixed about the efficacy of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions. There is a need to further integrate HIV-alcohol risk reduction components into HIV prevention programming and to document results from such integration. Additionally, research on larger scale, multi-level interventions is needed to identify effective HIV-alcohol risk reduction strategies. PMID:26511865

  3. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  4. [Neurocognitive anomalies associated with the binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents and young people: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Velasquez, Teresa; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is the most common problematic drinking pattern during adolescence and youth. At the same time, it is a period marked by profound structural and functional brain changes, which may be affected by heavy alcohol consumption. In recent years, a considerable number of studies that attempt to characterize the effects of BD on the brain has been published. However, to date there is not any critical review in Spanish language on neurostructural, neurophysiological and cognitive consequences that may result from the maintenance of a BD pattern of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth. The purpose of this review is to critically summarize the main research results on the effects of BD on the brain. To this end, a literature search in databases Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycINFO for the period 2000-2013 was performed. In general, studies agree that BD is associated with 1) lower performance on tasks assessing cognitive processes such as attention, memory and executive functions, 2) structural changes (in white matter and gray matter) in different brain regions and 3) neurophysiological abnormalities (hyper/hypoactivation) linked to different cognitive processes. These results, although still need to be contrasted, warn about important consequences that could result from the persistence of BD on a young and still maturing brain. PMID:25578003

  5. Safety and Tolerability of Pharmacological Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: Comprehensive Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Julia M A; Chambers, Sophia E; Shiles, Celia J; Baldwin, David S

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but pharmacological treatments for them are underused, despite evidence of efficacy. Acamprosate, naltrexone, nalmefene and disulfiram are all approved in one or more region for the treatment of AUD. Baclofen currently has a temporary indication in France. Safety considerations for using psychopharmacological treatments in this patient group include the impact of concurrent alcohol consumption at high levels; multiple physical comorbidities that may interfere with pharmacological effects, distribution and metabolism; and concomitant medication for the treatment of comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions. The five drugs, including an extended-release injectable suspension of naltrexone, have different safety profiles that need to be balanced with the treatment objective (initiation or continuation of abstinence, or reduction of drinking), individual patient preferences and comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment will be based on the unique risk-benefit profile in each case. PMID:27023898

  6. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remi...

  7. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in e...

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  9. Recurrent hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in transplanted patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, G; Sumberaz, A; Leone, S; Borro, P

    2013-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common occurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The association steatosis/HCV determines important implications for clinical practice: steatosis accelerates the progression of fibrosis and reduces the likelihood of obtaining a sustained virological response (SVR) with antiviral therapy. In post-transplant HCV patients we have evidenced a strong correlation between body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, triglycerides (TGC) and hepatic percentage of steatosis. In subjects with BMI hepatitis C and how the management of dismetabolism, diet and exercise therapy can improve BMI, liver histology and the response to antiviral therapy. PMID:23514999

  10. Recognition of facial expressions by alcoholic patients: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Donadon MF; Osório FL

    2014-01-01

    Mariana Fortunata Donadon,1,2 Flávia de Lima Osório1,3,41Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 2Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel-CAPS, 3Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Agency of São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Alcohol abuse and de...

  11. Prescription for antidepressant in reducing future alcohol-related readmission in patients suffering from depression and alcohol use disorder: a retrospective medical record review

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Patrick; Yomen, Katie; Turcios, Jennifer; Richman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from major depressive disorder are more likely to suffer from alcohol use disorder. The data is inconclusive for the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from both illnesses in regards to improving sobriety and reducing alcohol-related healthcare expenses such as hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to determine if a new prescription of an antidepressant upon inpatient discharge is associated with a reduction in the number o...

  12. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  13. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  14. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  15. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  16. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  17. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  18. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  19. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  20. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  1. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  2. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  3. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Scientific Review Officer, National Inst on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  4. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  5. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  6. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  7. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  8. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  9. Phosphatidylethanol in Blood as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Davide Ferrara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at a systematic review of the current knowledge on phosphatidylethanol (PEth in blood as a direct marker of chronic alcohol use and abuse. In March 2012, the search through “MeSH” and “free-text” protocols in the databases Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Ovid/Embase, combining the terms phosphatidylethanol and alcohol, provided 444 records, 58 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the current evidence on the formation, distribution and degradation of PEth in human blood: (1, the presence and distribution of different PEth molecular species (2, the most diffused analytical methods devoted to PEth identification and quantization (3, the clinical efficiency of total PEth quantification as a marker of chronic excessive drinking (4, and the potential utility of this marker for identifying binge drinking behaviors (5. Twelve papers were included in the meta-analysis and the mean (M and 95% confidence interval (CI of total PEth concentrations in social drinkers (DAI ≤ 60 g/die; M = 0.288 µM; CI 0.208–0.367 µM and heavy drinkers (DAI > 60 g/die; M = 3.897 µM; CI 2.404–5.391 µM were calculated. The present analysis demonstrates a good clinical efficiency of PEth for detecting chronic heavy drinking.

  10. Does Childhood Use of Stimulant Medication as a Treatment for ADHD Affect the Likelihood of Future Drug Abuse and Dependence? A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the disparate research findings regarding the effects of stimulant medication in subsequent substance abuse and dependence. A minimum of 4 to 5% of children in the United States will be diagnosed with ADHD; thus it is important for parents to be informed when making decisions about the use of stimulant medication to treat…

  11. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational

  12. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  13. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  14. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  15. Effectiveness of exercise in hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Pegah; Locklear, Cameron T; Austin, Patrick; Afdhal, Sophie; Byrns, Melinda; Gerber, Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of exercise interventions on hepatic fat mobilization in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. METHODS: Ovid-Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database were searched for randomized trials and prospective cohort studies in adults aged ≥ 18 which investigated the effects of at least 8 wk of exercise only or combination with diet on NAFLD from 2010 to 2016. The search terms used to identify articles, in which exercise was clearly described by type, duration, intensity and frequency were: “NASH”, “NAFLD”, “non-alcoholic steatohepatitis”, “non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, “fat”, “steatosis”, “diet”, “exercise”, “MR spectroscopy” and “liver biopsy”. NAFLD diagnosis, as well as the outcome measures, was confirmed by either hydrogen-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) or biopsy. Trials that included dietary interventions along with exercise were accepted if they met all criteria. RESULTS: Eight studies met selection criteria (6 with exercise only, 2 with diet and exercise with a total of 433 adult participants). Training interventions ranged between 8 and 48 wk in duration with a prescribed exercise frequency of 3 to 7 d per week, at intensities between 45% and 75% of VO2 peak. The most commonly used imaging modality was H-MRS and one study utilized biopsy. The effect of intervention on fat mobilization was 30.2% in the exercise only group and 49.8% in diet and exercise group. There was no difference between aerobic and resistance exercise intervention, although only one study compared the two interventions. The beneficial effects of exercise on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) were seen even in the absence of significant weight loss. Although combining an exercise program with dietary interventions augmented the reduction in IHTG, as well as improved measures of glucose control and/or insulin sensitivity, exercise only significantly decreased hepatic lipid contents

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through Biomarkers International Research National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect Training & Education Past Activities ... review the research and develop guidelines for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) . The guidelines were developed for FAS only. ...

  17. Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kauko K

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol >/= xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  18. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  19. Theory content of digital interventions for reducing alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of theory in design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Aim: To assess the extent to which digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption have used theory in their design and evaluation. Method: Use of theory within the digital interventions evaluated in randomised controlled trials was investigated using an amended Theory Coding Scheme developed by Michie and Prestwich (2010. Composite scores were calculated for six different areas of theory use. Frequency counts and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: Of 53 interventions reported in 55 trials, a theory or model was mentioned in 27 (51%, theory or theoretical predictors were used to select or develop intervention techniques in only 21 (40%, and targeted constructs were mentioned as a predictor of behaviour in 20 (36%. The two most commonly mentioned theories or models were the Transtheoretical model (8/27 and Social Norms theory (8/27. No studies used the results of the intervention to refine theory and only one study used theory to select recipients or tailor the intervention. Conclusions: There is very limited use of theory in the development or evaluation of current digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption and its reporting is often unclear when it is present. Almost half of all interventions made no reference to any theories or models of behaviour and only a little over a third used them to develop the intervention.

  20. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALK-negative clinically mimicking alcoholic hepatitis – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, described less than 30 years ago by Karl Lennert and Herald Stein in Kiel, West Germany, is a T-cell or null non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with distinctive morphology (hallmark cells, prominent sinus and/or perivascular growth pattern, characteristic immunophenotype (CD30+, cytotoxic granules protein+, CD3–/+ and specific genetic features as translocations involving the receptor tyrosine kinase called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK on 2p23 and variable partners genes, which results in the expression of ALK fusion protein. The absence of ALK expression is also observed and is associated with poorer prognosis that seen with ALK expression. ALK-negative ALCL is more frequent in adults, with both nodal and extra nodal clinical presentation and includes several differential diagnoses with other CD30+ lymphomas. Liver involvement by ALCL is rare and is generally seen as mass formation; the diffuse pattern of infiltration is even more unusual. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented clinical symptoms of acute hepatic failure. The patient had a long history of alcohol abuse and the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis was highly considered, although the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH value was highly elevated. The clinical course was fulminant leading to death on the fourth day of hospitalization. Autopsy demonstrated diffuse neoplastic hepatic infiltration as well as splenic, pulmonary, bone marrow, and minor abdominal lymph nodes involvement by the tumor. Based on morphological, immunophenotypical, and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of ALK- negative ALCL was concluded. When there is marked elevation of LDH the possibility of lymphoma, ALCL and other types, should be the principal diagnosis to be considered.

  1. The Forgotten Role of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Perceived Role of Chlorhexidine in Skin Antisepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald, Matthias; Chan, Edwin S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin antisepsis is a simple and effective measure to prevent infections. The efficacy of chlorhexidine is actively discussed in the literature on skin antisepsis. However, study outcomes due to chlorhexidine-alcohol combinations are often attributed to chlorhexidine alone. Thus, we sought to review the efficacy of chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis and the extent of a possible misinterpretation of evidence. Methods We performed a systematic literature review of clinical trials and s...

  2. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  3. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study.The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3% and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2% in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%. There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  5. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  6. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  7. A Review of Computer-based Alcohol Problem Services Designed for the General Public

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on computer-based drinking assessment and intervention programs evaluated using members of the general public. The primary aims were to summarize the demand, usage, and effectiveness of these services. A systematic search of the literature identified seven on-line drinking assessments and eight computerized interventions that were evaluated using members of the general public. Internet assessment users tend to be in their early thirties, are more often ma...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  10. Physical activity as a treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review the effectiveness of exercise as atherapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)and potential benefits in treating insulin resistance andatherosclerosis.METHODS: Medline (EBSCOhost) and PubMed weresearched for English-language randomized controlledtrials and prospective cohort studies in human adultsaged ≥ 18 which investigated the various effects ofexercise alone, a combination of exercise and diet, orexercise and diet coupled with behavioral modificationon NAFLD from 2010 to Feburary 2015.RESULTS: Eighteen of 2298 available studies werechosen for critical review, which included 6925 patients.Nine (50%) studies were randomized controlled trials.Five (27.8%) studies utilized biopsy to examine theeffects of physical activity on hepatic histology. The mostcommonly employed imaging modality to determinechange in hepatic steatosis was hydrogen-magneticresonance spectroscopy. Only two studies examined theeffects of low impact physical activity for patients withsignificant mobility limitations and one compared theefficacy of aerobic and resistance exercise. No studiesexamined the exact duration of exercise required forhepatic and metabolic improvement in NAFLD.CONCLUSION: While exercise improved hepaticsteatosis and underlying metabolic abnormalities inNAFLD, more studies are needed to define the mostbeneficial form and duration of exercise treatment.

  11. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...). Contact Person: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol...

  13. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  14. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, Md...

  15. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  16. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  17. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  18. The more you drink, the harder you fall: a systematic review and meta-analysis of how acute alcohol consumption and injury or collision risk increase together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, B; Irving, H M; Kanteres, F; Room, R; Borges, G; Cherpitel, C; Greenfield, T; Rehm, J

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol consumption causes injury in a dose-response manner. The most common mode of sustaining an alcohol-attributable injury is from a single occasion of acute alcohol consumption, but much of the injury literature employs usual consumption habits to assess risk instead. An analysis of the acute dose-response relationship between alcohol and injury is warranted to generate single occasion- and dose-specific relative risks. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to fill this gap. Linear and best-fit first-order model were used to model the data. Usual tests of heterogeneity and publication bias were run. Separate meta-analyses were run for motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle injuries, as well as case-control and case-crossover studies. The risk of injury increases non-linearly with increasing alcohol consumption. For motor vehicle accidents, the odds ratio increases by 1.24 (95% CI: 1.18-1.31) per 10-g in pure alcohol increase to 52.0 (95% CI: 34.50-78.28) at 120 g. For non-motor vehicle injury, the OR increases by 1.30 (95% CI: 1.26-1.34) to an OR of 24.2 at 140 g (95% CI: 16.2-36.2). Case-crossover studies of non-MVA injury result in overall higher risks than case-control studies and the per-drink increase in odds of injury was highest for intentional injury, at 1.38 (95% CI: 1.22-1.55). Efforts to reduce drinking both on an individual level and a population level are important. No level of consumption is safe when driving and less than 2 drinks per occasion should be encouraged to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:20236774

  19. The Need for Psychosocial Interventions to Facilitate the Transition to Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) Treatment for Opioid Dependence: A Concise Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Susan E.; Rounsaville, Dan; Hoskinson, Randall; Park, Tae Woo; Ames, Evan G.; Neirinckx, Victor D.; Friedmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given the increase of opioid dependence and opioid-related morbidity and mortality, improving treatment options for individuals with opioid dependence warrants increased attention. This article provides a concise review of work in this area. Remission from opioid dependence can be very difficult to sustain, particularly in the absence of opioid replacement or opioid antagonist therapy. For those who wish to transition from opioid use or opioid replacement therapy to opioid antagonist therapy, a significant challenge can be the period of withdrawal symptoms that must be endured prior to the initiation of opioid antagonist therapy. Studies that have incorporated psychosocial interventions into detoxification protocols have found that they can result in improved treatment outcomes. Interventions based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy have shown promise in the treatment of clinical disorders that present with symptoms similar to those of opioid withdrawal and have been found to positively impact outcomes among those tapering from methadone. However, the use of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based intervention has yet to be studied among opioid-dependent patients transitioning to XR-NTX, and its value to those transitioning to XR-NTX is currently unknown. PMID:27512336

  20. TOTAL NUMBER: A BRIEF REVIEW OF ITS IMPORTANCE AND ITS USE IN ASSESSING CEREBELLAR DAMAGE IN THE RAT FOLLOWING EARLY POSTNATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MA Napper

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the total number of structural components that make up the various neural networks within the central nervous system is fundamental to our understanding of its normal function and of dysfunction that may accompany injury and disease. This paper briefly reviews the methodology currently used to estimate number and discusses the importance of unbiased estimates of total number in determining changes in brain structure that may underlie dysfunction. An example from the olfactory bulb is used to demonstrate the potential invalidity of using estimates of total number of objects per single section. Exposure to alcohol during the early postnatal period results in motor dysfunction in adult rats. This paper presents data on the extent and magnitude of cell loss within the cerebellar network of the rat following alcohol exposure during postnatal days 4 to 9. High transient blood alcohol concentrations result in a Purkinje cell of 27% across the entire cerebellum but with regional variabiltiy, vermal lobule X has a 43% Purkinje cell deficit. This alcohol regimen also results in a neuronal loss of 28% and 25% within the deep cerebellar nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus respectively. Consistency of overall neuronal loss across diverse neuronal populations within the cerebellar network is discussed in the context of the maintenance of cerebellar connectivity.

  1. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  2. Alcohol dependency prevention and early intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, P E

    1988-01-01

    Current data on efforts to prevent alcoholism indicate that we are better able to prevent some of the consequences of alcohol misuse, such as alcohol-related car crashes and fetal alcohol syndrome, than chronic alcohol dependence itself. A review of data on outcomes of treatment for long-term alcohol dependence indicates that 9 of 10 alcohol dependent persons receive no treatment for the disorder in any given year. When treatment is provided for long-term alcohol dependent persons, it has onl...

  3. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r + = .62), followed by subjective norms (r + = .47) and perc...

  4. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours. PMID:25089611

  5. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  6. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Musso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a frequent, under-recognized condition and a risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD to CKD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the presence and severity of NAFLD are associated with the presence and severity of CKD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: English and non-English articles from international online databases from 1980 through January 31, 2014 were searched. Observational studies assessing NAFLD by histology, imaging, or biochemistry and defining CKD as either estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria were included. Two reviewers extracted studies independently and in duplicate. Individual participant data (IPD were solicited from all selected studies. Studies providing IPD were combined with studies providing only aggregate data with the two-stage method. Main outcomes were pooled using random-effects models. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity and the effect of potential confounders. The influences of age, whole-body/abdominal obesity, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and duration of follow-up on effect estimates were assessed by meta-regression. Thirty-three studies (63,902 participants, 16 population-based and 17 hospital-based, 20 cross-sectional, and 13 longitudinal were included. For 20 studies (61% of included studies, 11 cross-sectional and nine longitudinal, 29,282 participants, we obtained IPD. NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (odds ratio [OR] 2.12, 95% CI 1.69-2.66 and incident (hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.65-1.95 CKD. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.58-4.05 and incidence (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.42-3.17 of CKD than simple steatosis. Advanced fibrosis was associated with a higher prevalence (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3

  7. O impacto da publicidade de bebidas alcoólicas sobre o consumo entre jovens: revisão da literatura internacional Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among youngsters: review of the international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pinsky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Problemas relacionados ao consumo de álcool são freqüentes, especialmente entre a população jovem. A publicidade de bebidas alcoólicas é um dos fatores passíveis de modificação com impacto no aumento do consumo de álcool. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica de trabalhos que investigaram de diversos pontos de vista o impacto da publicidade do álcool sobre o consumo. A busca foi feita nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO, PsychoInfo e Google Scholar no período entre 1990 e 2008 e utilizou-se a técnica de " bola de neve" para a indicação de autores mais profícuos na área. Obtiveram-se mais de uma centena de artigos. RESULTADOS: O conjunto de trabalhos aponta que fatores como exposição à publicidade e atratividade da publicidade de bebidas alcoólicas estão relacionados com uma maior expectativa de consumo futuro e com um consumo maior e mais precoce, principalmente entre adolescentes e adultos jovens. Apesar das dificuldades metodológicas, estudos econométricos mais recentes consideram que a redução e/ou banimento de publicidade teria efeito de redução do consumo de álcool. Questões referentes às bases neurofisiológicas do processo de tomada de decisões e da liberdade de escolha no contexto da exposição à publicidade também são discutidas. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento atual sobre o tema indica que a redução da exposição à publicidade tem impacto sobre o consumo de álcool, principalmente entre os mais jovens.OBJECTIVE: Problems related to alcohol consumption are frequent, especially among the youth population. We analyzed advertisement as one of several modifiable factors with impact over alcohol consumption. METHOD: The authors carried out a literature review within Medline, SciELO, PsychoInfo and Google Scholar databases between 1990 and 2008, retrieving studies with different approaches of the alcohol advertisement impact on consumption. Besides, a " snowball" technique was applied

  8. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  9. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  10. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  11. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  12. Pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Priya Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socioeconomic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented.

  13. A Systematic Literature Review of Alcohol Education Programmes in Middle and High School Settings (2000-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Connor, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing benchmark criteria were used to understand the extent to which single-substance alcohol education programmes targeting adolescents in middle and high school settings sought to change behaviour, utilised theory, included audience research and applied the market segmentation process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.…

  14. The Role of Gender in Adolescents' Social Networks and Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…

  15. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  16. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  17. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  18. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  19. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  20. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  1. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) caused by Bacillus Cereus in an Alcoholic Patient: Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Ansari, Mohammad Aftab Alam; Sarfraz, Asim; Jaiswal, Nitesh; Singh, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is infection of peritoneal covering of the abdomen caused by bacteria, without any known etiology. Common known predisposing factors are cirrhosis of liver and old age among others. Bacillus cereus is an uncommon cause of SBP and often wrongly interpreted as a contaminant. We hereby report a case of peritonitis in chronic alcoholic, elderly male patient presenting in the outpatient department. Bacillus cereus is often regarded as contaminant but must be...

  2. Inefficacy of self-regulation of alcohol advertisements: a systematic review of the literature Ineficácia da autorregulamentação das propagandas de bebidas alcoólicas: uma revisão sistemática da literatura internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Vendrame; Ilana Pinsky

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The most recent scientific literature indicates that alcohol advertising influences behavior, particularly early and higher alcohol consumption by children and adolescents. From a public health perspective, alcohol advertising should be restricted. In many countries, as well as in Brazil, limits to alcohol advertising are established by industry self-regulation (e.g. controlled by the advertising community itself). We examined in this review all articles on the subject of industry ...

  3. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  4. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) caused by Bacillus Cereus in an Alcoholic Patient: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Ansari, Mohammad Aftab Alam; Sarfraz, Asim; Jaiswal, Nitesh; Singh, Siddharth

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is infection of peritoneal covering of the abdomen caused by bacteria, without any known etiology. Common known predisposing factors are cirrhosis of liver and old age among others. Bacillus cereus is an uncommon cause of SBP and often wrongly interpreted as a contaminant. We hereby report a case of peritonitis in chronic alcoholic, elderly male patient presenting in the outpatient department. Bacillus cereus is often regarded as contaminant but must be carefully identified and correlated clinically in case of isolation from peritoneal fluid. PMID:25859458

  5. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  6. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  8. 纤维素原料制取燃料酒精的研究概述%Review of the Production of Fuel Alcohol from Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛晓晓; 周如金; 唐玉斌

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose is a renewable resource that is abundant on the earth.At present,fuel alcohol produced by pretreatment,saccharification and fermentation from cellulosic materials is more economical and environmentally friendly than gasoline or other traditional energy types.Therefore,cellulose alcohol is being developed into a new kind of renewable energy.The adoption of cellulose alcohol production technology makes the utilization of many cellulose materials from agriculture and forestry waste easy and comprehensive.It not only establishes a sustainable biological energy development model,eases the growing energy demand,but also benefits the bio-energy development,economic construction and environmental protection.This paper will present a review concerning the present technology stages of cellulose alcohol and the future development trends at home and abroad.%纤维素是地球上含量丰富的一种可再生资源,目前以其为原料经预处理、糖化、发酵等工艺得到的燃料酒精,相比汽油等传统能源,有经济、环保等优势,正在发展成为一种新型可再生能源。通过综合利用国内大量农林废弃物的纤维素原料制取燃料酒精的技术,不仅可以建立可持续生物能源发展模式,缓解日益紧张的能源需求,还可以使生物能源开发、经济建设和环境保护皆赢共益。该文以国内外纤维素制取燃料酒精的技术现状,和今后的发展方向为内容做一综述。

  9. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of m...

  10. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  11. Measuring Performance of Brief Alcohol Counseling in Medical Settings: A Review of the Options and Lessons from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine A.; Williams, Emily C.; Achtmeyer, Carol E.; Hawkins, Eric J.; Harris, Alex H. S.; Frey, Madeleine S.; Craig, Thomas; Kivlahan, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling is a top US prevention priority but has not been widely implemented. The lack of an easy performance measure for brief alcohol counseling is one important barrier to implementation. The purpose of this report is to outline important issues related to measuring performance of brief alcohol counseling in health care…

  12. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  13. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  14. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14466 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  15. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  16. The review of pathogeny of alcoholic liver disease%酒精性肝病发病机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迪波; 彭景

    2009-01-01

    @@ 酒精性肝病(alcoholic liver disease,ALD)是指由于长期大量摄入酒精而导致肝脏损害的一系列病变,其包括酒精性脂肪肝(alcoholic fatty liver,AFL)、酒精性肝炎(alcoholic hepatitis,AH)、酒精性肝纤维化(alcoholic hepatic fibrosis,AHF)、酒精性肝硬化(alcoholic cirrhosis,AC).

  17. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  18. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders. PMID:27304953

  19. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  20. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  1. Consumo de alcohol y salud laboral: Revisión y líneas de actuación Alcohol consumption and occupational health: Review and lines of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol tiene una elevada prevalencia en la sociedad en general, y también entre la población trabajadora, repercutiendo sobre el medio laboral. La repercusión del consumo de alcohol en el medio laboral es muy importante (enfermedades, accidentes laborales, absentismo, incapacidades laborales, disminución de la productividad.... Se describen los aspectos fundamentales de la psicofarmacología del alcohol, del diagnóstico de su dependencia y de los tratamientos para la dependencia de alcohol. Se valora la necesidad de una política en el medio laboral encaminada a prevenir o minimizar los riesgos laborales derivados del consumo de alcohol, con programas de prevención y apoyo que aporten información básica de referencia y orienten al abordaje asistencial de los trabajadores afectados.The consumption of alcohol and other drugs has high prevalence in the society in general, and in working population especially, affecting the occupational area. The repercussion of the consumption of these substances in the working environment is very important (diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities, decrease of the productivity.... We describe the fundamental aspects of the psychopharmacology of alcohol, diagnosis of dependence and the treatment for alcohol dependence. Political measurements are necessary in the occupational area to prevent and minimize the risks derived from the consumption of these substances. Programs of prevention and support which offer basic information and orientation to the medical approach of the affected workers should be included.

  2. Alcoholic beverages, obesity, physical activity and other nutritional factors, and cancer risk: a review of the evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Latino-Martel, Paule; Cottet, Vanessa; Druesne Pecollo, Nathalie; Pierre, Fabrice; Touillaud, Marina; Touvier, Mathilde; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Le Merdy, Julie; Barrandon, Emilie; Ancellin, Raphaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : Prevention is a priority in the fight against cancers, especially nutritional prevention. To update the levels of evidence of relationships between 10 nutritional factors and cancer risk, the scientific literature published from 2006 to 2014 was reviewed by an expert group.[br/] Methods : Data from 133 meta-analyses, pooled analyses or intervention trials were examined. Nearly 150 relationships between nutritional factors and cancer at various sites were evaluated.[br/] Result...

  3. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  4. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies

    OpenAIRE

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the ‘juridification’ of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of ‘negative integration’ (the removal of trade-distorting ...

  5. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  6. Phenprobamate dependence: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Bahadir; Demir, Yasemin; Aksoy, Ihsan; Kilic, Osman Hasan Tahsin; Gucyetmez, Volkan; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-06-01

    Phenprobamate (3-phenylpropylcarbamate) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant with mild sedative and anticonvulsant effects. Muscle relaxants can enhance and prolong the effect of narcotic drugs and enable to obtain same effect with a smaller amount of alcohol or illicit substance. Almost all of the centrally acting muscle relaxants have varying sedative effects on which their abuse potential mainly depends. Data related to abuse of carisoprodol, meprobamate, baclofen takes place in the literature. However, to our knowledge this is the first case report about abuse of and tolerance to phenprobamate. We aimed to attract attention to important points of prescribing drugs that have abuse potential like in our case who was using up to 16000 mg/day phenprobamate. PMID:25727392

  7. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  8. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem.

  9. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Blaner, William S.; Clugston, Robin D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as r...

  10. The effects of alcohol in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Maria Dos Anjos

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a review of the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers on their newborn. Definitions, prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, follow-up, treatment and prevention were discussed. A search was performed in Medline, LILACS, and SciELO databases using the following terms: "fetus", "newborn", "pregnant woman", "alcohol", "alcoholism", "fetal alcohol syndrome", and "alcohol-related disorders". Portuguese and English articles published from 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. The effects of alcohol consumed by pregnant women on newborns are extremely serious and occur frequently; it is a major issue in Public Health worldwide. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cause harm to individuals, their families, and the entire society. Nevertheless, diagnostic difficulties and inexperience of healthcare professionals result in such damage, being remembered rarely or even remaining uncovered. Alcohol-related injury to the fetus is fully avoidable; all it takes is for women not to drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. Therefore, detecting women who consume alcohol during pregnancy is paramount, as are specific programs to educate people about the consequences of alcohol use during pregnancy and breastfeeding. PMID:26760157

  11. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  12. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in a baby born to a mother whose pregnancy was complicated by alcohol consumption. A broader term ...

  15. Novel anti-diabetic agents in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease:a mini-review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhal Olaywi; Taruna Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic  fatty  liver  disease  (NAFLD) encompasses  a  spectrum  that  ranges  from  simple  steatosis  to non-alcoholic  steatohepatitis  (NASH)  and  to  cirrhosis.  The recommended  treatment  for  this  disease  includes  measures that target obesity and insulin resistance. The present review summarizes the role of newer anti-diabetic agents in treatment of NAFLD. DATA  SOURCES: PubMed,  MEDLINE  and  Ovid  databases were searched to identify human studies between January 1990 and January 2013 using specified key words. Original studies that  enrolled  patients  with  a  diagnosis  of  NAFLD  or  NASH and involved use of newer classes of anti-diabetic agents for a duration of at least 3 months were included. RESULTS: Out  of  the  screened  articles,  four  met  eligibility criteria and were included in our review. The classes of newer anti-diabetic medications described were dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. CONCLUSIONS: Liraglutide and Exenatide showed improvement in  transaminases  as  well  as  histology  in  patients  with  NASH. Sitagliptin showed improvement in transaminases but limited studies are there to access its effect on histology. Further studies are needed to support use of newer anti-diabetic medications in patients with NAFLD.

  16. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Wigglesworth, Christina; Takeuchi, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research. PMID:27159810

  17. The effects of alcohol in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Maria dos Anjos Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a review of the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers on their newborn. Definitions, prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, follow-up, treatment and prevention were discussed. A search was performed in Medline, LILACS, and SciELO databases using the following terms: “fetus”, “newborn”, “pregnant woman”, “alcohol”, “alcoholism”, “fetal alcohol syndrome”, and “alcohol-related disorders”. Portuguese and English...

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pompili

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.

  19. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods: This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions: A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  1. Peripherally Circulating Ghrelin Does Not Mediate Alcohol‐Induced Reward and Alcohol Intake in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Ivanoff, Lisa; Vater, Axel; Engel, Jörgen A

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of alcohol dependence, a chronic and relapsing disease, largely depends on the effects of alcohol on the brain reward systems. By elucidating the mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, novel treatment strategies may be developed. Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, acts as an important regulator of energy balance. Recently ghrelin and its receptor were shown to mediate alcohol reward and to control alcohol consumption in...

  2. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among Latino Adolescents: A Strategy for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Aquirre-Molina, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a prevention program funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1978 for Latino youth in East Harlem. Literature on Latino youth and alcohol use is reviewed, followed by a description of the program, its setting, and its evaluative methodology. (Author/JAZ)

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, Ann

    The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the…

  4. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)

  5. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    of coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation, liver cirrhosis and pancreatitis, and more specifically, to review the data for differential effects of alcohol according to modifying factors on these diseases. The thesis is based on the results from 10 epidemiological studies, conducted...... in young adults than in older individuals, hence, for young adults, the absolute beneficial effect of alcohol is small. Alcohol has differential effects on the risk of mortality and CHD according to drinking pattern. In the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, we found that for the same weekly amount of alcohol...... with risk of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. The beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD is observed among both young adults, middle-aged and elderly, but the magnitude of the absolute beneficial effect is least among the young adults. Both alcohol and smoking are associated with increased risk...

  6. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Choudhary, Mona; Chandra, Mina

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on 'Alcohol withdrawal syndrome' in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  8. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  9. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  10. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  11. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  12. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  15. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  16. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  17. Marital and Family Processes in the Context of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is often part of the fabric of marriage and family life, and although it is associated with certain positive effects, excessive drinking and alcohol disorders can exert a negative effect on the marital development and on the development of children in the context of the family. This review considers evidence that alcohol influences and is influenced by marital/family processes, including transitions into marriage and parenthood, marital satisfaction, marital violence, parenting, a...

  18. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  19. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    OpenAIRE

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see C...

  20. 酒精性脑损伤的突触机制及其修复策略述评%Synaptic Mechanism and Repairing Strategies for Alcoholic Recognition Impairment (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德峰; 赵谋明; 马忠华; 苏国万; 张婷

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic dementia is increasingly becoming both a severe medical issue and a social problem;the unknown overall mecha-nism is the bottleneck for effective intervention and treatment of alcoholic brain injury. As the primary structure for the release, transmission of neurotransmitter and information integration between neurons, synapse plays a significant role in performing the advanced function of brain, such as learning and memory. Based on the neurobiological principles of synaptic structure and function, the changes in process and efficiency of synaptic transmission and information integration stressed by alcoholic molecular were reviewed in comparison with the nor-mal process. The molecular mechanisms for alcoholic brain damage in learning and memory abilities were systematically discussed from the levels of synaptic morphology, material components, and signal transduction, respectively, and the repairing strategies for the damaged syn-aptic structure were proposed accordingly. Hopefully, this review could provide a deep insight into understanding the molecular mechanism of alcoholic brain damage, and draw ideas for the memory-enhancing peptides development.%酒精性痴呆日益成为严峻的医学和社会问题,整体机制不明是目前酒精性脑损伤干预和治疗的瓶颈。突触作为神经元之间递质释放与跨膜信息传递及整合的核心结构,对于学习记忆等脑的高级功能具有决定性作用。本文基于突触传递的神经生物学基础,围绕酒精分子胁迫下突触传递过程和效率的变化,分别从突触形态结构、物质基础、信号转导等层面,系统评述了酒精性脑损伤的突触机制及其修复策略,以期为酒精性脑损伤的深入研究和益智类保健食品开发提供思路借鉴。

  1. Alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas and alcohol use of young people: Current status and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R. C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on alcohol portrayals on-screen and the associated gaps and challenges in alcohol media research. Results: Thirteen longitudinal studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 6 experimental studies examined ...

  2. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  3. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  4. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  5. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  6. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Richard A. Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD... the meeting due to the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects-- Support for Teachers and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions. (DLH)

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications and Assurance for Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…

  9. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation....... In total, 3676 studies were identified and reviewed for eligibility, and data were extracted. Forest plots and pooled relative risks (RRs), including 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated for several complication types. RESULTS:: Fifty-five studies provided data for estimates. Preoperative alcohol...

  10. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  11. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  12. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  13. Current concepts and controversies in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Rongey; Neil Kaplowitz

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of alcoholic hepatitis remains one of the most debated topics in medicine and a field of continued research. In this review, we discuss the evolution of scoring systems, including the recent development of the Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, role of liver biopsy and current treatment interventions. Studies of treatment interventions with glucocorticoids, pentoxifylline,infliximab, s-adenosyl-methionine, and colchicine are reviewed with discussion on quality. Glucocorticoids currently remain the mainstay of treatment for severe alcoholic hepatitis.

  14. Alcoholic liver injury:Influence of gender and hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; K; Eagon

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses several subjects pertinent to a consideration of the role of gender and hormones in alcoholic liver injury (ALI). Beginning with an overview of factors involved in the pathogenesis of ALI, we review changes in sex hormone metabolism resulting from alcohol ingestion, summarize research that points to estrogen as a cofactor in ALI, consider evidence that gut injury is linked to liver injury in the setting of alcohol, and briefly review the limited evidence regarding sex hormones and gut...

  15. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  17. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  19. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    OpenAIRE

    Campanella, Salvatore; Petit, Géraldine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Cimochowska, Agnieska

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods: This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent d...

  20. Jigten Gönpo on meat and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism.......A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism....

  1. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  2. Liver scintigraphic features associated with alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between scintigraphic features and clinical alcoholism were studied by review of 2406 liver scintiphotos. Two distinct patterns were significantly associated with alcoholism: heterogeneous distribution of radiocolloid in the liver, and jointly increased uptake of tracer by the spleen and vertebral bone marrow. A total of 13 overall patterns were found to distinguish, with considerable reliability, alcoholics from all other patients. This finding reflects the frequency with which alcohol abuse is associated with hepatic dysfunction in hospital patients. These observations indicate an important role for the nuclear medicine physician in detection of alcoholism among patients referred for liver-spleen imaging, and they form a basis for comparison with the diagnostic efficacy of other methods of evaluating diffuse liver diseases

  3. Alcoholic pancreatitis:A tale of spirits and bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alain; Vonlaufen; Laurent; Spahr; Minoti; V; Apte; Jean-Louis; Frossard

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of chronic pancreatitis.About5%of alcoholics will ever suffer from pancreatitis,suggesting that additional co-factors are required to trigger an overt disease.Experimental work has implicated lipopolysaccharide,from gut-derived bacteria,as a potential co-factor of alcoholic pancreatitis.This review discusses the effects of alcohol on the gut flora,the gut barrier,the liver-and the pancreas and proposes potential interventional strategies.A better understanding of the interaction between the gut,the liver and the pancreas may provide valuable insight into the pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  4. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  5. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.

  6. Epigenetic regulation in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranoti Mandrekar

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by steatosis or fat deposition in the liver and inflammation, which leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Induction of target genes without involving changes in DNA sequence seems to contribute greatly to liver injury. Chromatin modifications including alterations in histones and DNA, as well as post-transcriptional changes collectively referred to as epigenetic effects are altered by alcohol. Recent studies have pointed to a significant role for epigenetic mechanisms at the nucleosomal level influencing gene expression and disease outcome in ALD. Specifically, epigenetic alterations by alcohol include histone modifications such as changes in acetylation and phosphorylation, hypomethylation of DNA, and alterations in miRNAs. These modifications can be induced by alcohol-induced oxidative stress that results in altered recruitment of transcriptional machinery and abnormal gene expression. Delineating these mechanisms in initiation and progression of ALD is becoming a major area of interest. This review summarizes key epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated by alcohol in the liver. Alterations by alcohol in histone and DNA modifications, enzymes related to histone acetylation such as histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases and sirtuins, and methylation enzymes such as DNA methyltransferases are discussed. Chromatin modifications and miRNA alterations that result in immune cell dysfunction contributing to inflammatory cytokine production in ALD is reviewed. Finally, the role of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress in epigenetic regulation in ALD is described. A better understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for designing novel epigenetic based therapies to ameliorate ALD.

  7. Fetal alcohol syndrome: a cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L

    2006-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of anomalies occurring in children born to alcoholic women. The main features of this pattern are pre and/or postnatal growth retardation, characteristic facial abnormalities, and central nervous system dysfunction, including mental retardation. Since its clinical recognition in 1973 it has progressed from an unrecognized condition to a major public health concern with exaggerated and unfounded claims as to causality and impact. This review summarizes some of the basic facts about fetal alcohol syndrome with respect to terminology, prevalence, and mechanisms, in the context of exposure risk. PMID:16611132

  8. Alcohol and Stress in the Military

    OpenAIRE

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Although research has independently linked stress experienced by military personnel to both alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder, more recently researchers have noted that there also is a significant overlap between stress reactions and alcohol use in veterans and active-duty service members. This overlap seems to be most understood in individuals who have experienced combat or military sexual trauma. This article will provide a brief review of some potential causal mechanisms underl...

  9. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Lekhansh Shukla; Tulika Shukla; Spandana Bokka; Arun Kandasamy; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy; Prabhat Chand

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and ...

  10. Alcohol Advertising and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effect of alcohol advertising on motor vehicle fatalities. The concept of an industry level advertising response function is developed and other empirical issues in estimating the effects of advertising are reviewed. The data set consists of quarterly observations, from 1986 to 1989, for 75 advertising markets in the United States and includes 1200 observations. Since motor vehicle fatalities and alcohol advertising are jointly determin...

  11. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  12. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  13. Disulfiram-induced reversible hypertension: A prospective case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath R Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disulfiram (DSF is one of the recommended aids in the management of selected patients with alcohol dependence. Hypertension (HTN as an adverse effect of DSF therapy is less understood. In our prospective case series of 7 subjects with co-morbid alcohol and nicotine dependence, a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible grade 1-3 HTN within 1-6 weeks of initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of HTN was noted. Challenges and strategies surrounding diagnosis and treatment along with mean change and percentage rise in blood pressure are described. Literature review and clinical description of case series may suggest neurobiological role in its causation. HTN may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy, especially in co-morbid alcohol and nicotine-dependent patients. Awareness amongst clinicians may render better health care delivery to subjects with alcohol dependence.

  14. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  15. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  16. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  17. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  18. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  19. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  20. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  1. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  2. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  3. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  4. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  8. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while ...

  9. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  11. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  12. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  13. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  14. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Valcin, Jennifer A.; Gamble, Karen L.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases. PMID:26473939

  15. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  16. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  17. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant ... birth defects. Learn about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Stanford Prematurity Research Center Launch 3:25 Newborn ...

  18. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  19. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pridemore William

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships

  20. Naltrexone: a review of existing sustained drug delivery systems and emerging nano-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2014-06-10

    Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence. PMID:24704710

  1. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  2. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Ganeshalingam; Epa Dhanesha; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayasinghe Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literatur...

  3. Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2012-01-01

    Early-childhood trauma is strongly associated with developing mental health problems, including alcohol dependence, later in life. People with early-life trauma may use alcohol to help cope with trauma-related symptoms. This article reviews the prevalence of early-childhood trauma and its robust association with the development of alcohol use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. It also examines the potential biological mechanisms by which early adverse experiences can result in long-...

  4. Adolescents and Alcohol: Acute Sensitivities, Enhanced Intake, and Later Consequences*

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental period characterized by notable maturational changes in brain along with various age-related behavioral characteristics, including the propensity to initiate alcohol and other drug use and consume more alcohol per occasion than adults. After a brief review of adolescent neurobehavioral function from an evolutionary perspective, the paper will turn to assessment of adolescent alcohol sensitivity and consequences, with a focus on work fro...

  5. Stadium Alcohol Management: A Best Practices Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Filce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sport managers have expressed the concern that the largest threat to fan safety emanates from alcohol overuse. A Turnkey Sports & Entertainment (2009 study asked 1,100 senior sport executives in the United States to rank various threats to fan safety. Alcohol abuse by unruly fans was listed by 62% of respondents, easily outpacing the next highest response of terrorism (18.73%. Previous studies have also identified an increase in violence and criminal activity relating to alcohol consumption at sporting events (Erickson et al., 2011; Menaker & Chaney, 2014. Intoxicated fans have been the source of numerous documented tort claims against vendors and facility owners (Bearman, 1983; Verni, 2006. Despite the known tort liability risk, administrators continue to make decisions without real evidence due to a lack of literature on alcohol policies at sporting events (Oster-Aaland & Neighbors, 2007. This paper will document the problems associated with alcohol consumption at sporting events, review current alcohol policies and barriers to the implementation of stricter policies, and conclude with research-based suggestions for best practices in stadium alcohol management relative to: policy and training, sales and marketing, tailgating, and detection and enforcement.

  6. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (269) The Science of Imaging - An Introduction Northern Lights Vacuum Bazookas, Electric Rainbow Jelly, and 27 other Saturday Science Projects Physics and Engineering in Medicine in the New Millennium CD-ROM REVIEWS (272) I fell in love with a STARBase trooper Aber - greatest hits... WEB WATCH (273) 'Here is the guess of their true strength and forces' Gary Williams EDITOR'S NOTE (275) Reviews of Christopher Bishop's Astrophysics (John Murray, 2000) PHYSICS TEASER (276) Why or How, Sophistry and Guestimation

  7. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  8. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V;

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  9. Psychological characteristics of children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J

    1997-01-01

    More than 20 years ago, researchers first noted that children of alcoholics (COA's) appeared to be affected by a variety of problems over the course of their life span. Such problems include fetal alcohol syndrome, which is first manifested in infancy; emotional problems and hyperactivity in childhood; emotional problems and conduct problems in adolescence; and the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Although much has been learned over the ensuing two decades, a number of controversial research areas remain. In particular, debate stems from the fact that despite a common interest in COA's, clinically focused literature and research-focused literature have resulted in two distinct bodies of knowledge. This article reviews important research results, with emphasis on findings generated by the alcohol-research community. Attention also is given to examining the empirical validity of concepts that have been advanced by several influential clinicians from the COA field. PMID:15706777

  10. The role of alcohol in deaths presenting to the coroner's service in Cork City and County.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bellis, M

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in post-mortem blood samples sent for toxicological analysis in Cork City and County in 2003 and 2004. Post mortem reports of these deaths were reviewed for the presence or absence of alcohol at the time of autopsy, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of death, age and sex of the decedents. Of samples sent for blood alcohol analysis (BAA), 38.4% were positive for alcohol. Significant differences were found between the proportions of alcohol positive cases by cause of death. Alcohol positive cases were significantly younger (44.3 +\\/- 17.8 years) than alcohol negative cases (51.9 +\\/- 19.4 years) and fifty two percent of drivers were positive for alcohol at the time of death. Awareness of the harmful and potentially fatal effects of alcohol should continue to be raised within the community, so as to prevent future fatalities.

  11. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  12. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  13. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  14. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  15. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  16. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome--Recent International Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Richard

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores incidence rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and describes physical and cognitive impairments exhibited by FAS children. It examines program strategies for prevention of FAS in the United States and reviews research undertaken at the Edinburgh University Medical School, Scotland, concerning alcohol effects on the ovum before…

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Developmental Characteristics and Directions for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betty Fry; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is identified, a review of theories on how alcohol acts to produce FAS, and a summary of the impact of the early and long-term effects of FAS. Issues that are particularly pertinent to children with FAS and their caregivers are raised. (DB)

  18. American Indians' Knowledge about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.

    1995-01-01

    A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…

  19. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  20. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Alcoholism: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the history and theory of alcoholism and hypnosis and proposes a theoretical model of alcholism based on self-esteem. Suggets that hypnosis may be an effective tool in the treatment of alcoholism with cure as the goal, and calls for more consistency in theory and practice. (JAC)

  1. Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Adewale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion or obesity (US$133 billion. Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol.

  2. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  3. Alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas and alcohol use of young people: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on

  4. Alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas and alcohol use of young people: Current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on

  5. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; Lallukka, Tea; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference......OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  7. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  8. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  9. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  10. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  12. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  13. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  14. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  15. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  16. Understanding and treating patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Russell, Marcia; Albano, Emanuele; Haber, Paul S; Wands, Jack R; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2009-07-01

    Alcoholic cirrhosis represents the terminal stage of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and one of the main causes of death among alcohol abusers. The aim of this review was to provide an update on alcoholic cirrhosis, with an emphasis on recent findings. Increased alcohol consumption in developing countries is expected to increase cirrhosis mortality. There is a need, therefore, to develop new approaches to the prevention of ALD, including more attention to co-factors that may increase risk of ALD (i.e., obesity and diabetes, chronic HCV infection, and smoking). Furthermore, a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms on the basis of alcohol cirrhosis represents a cornerstone in order to develop new pharmacological treatments. Inflammatory and immune responses along with oxidative stress and alterations in adipokine secretion might contribute in different ways to the evolution of alcohol-induced fibrosis/cirrhosis. As of this date, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis with a Maddrey Discriminant Factor (MDF) 32 should be offered pentoxifylline and/or corticosteroids unless contraindications exist. For ambulatory patients, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) may be considered in a motivated patient with nutritional support. Current studies do not support use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antibody. Finally, achieving total alcohol abstinence should represent the main aim in the management of patients affected by any stage of cirrhosis. In the last decades, several drugs able to increase abstinence and prevent alcohol relapse have been evaluated and some of them have obtained approval for alcohol dependence. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis; however, are usually excluded from such treatments. A recent study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of baclofen in inducing and maintaining alcohol abstinence in cirrhotic alcohol-dependent patients with cirrhosis. All together the information available suggests the need of a multimodal approach in the clinical

  17. The Role of Race/Ethnicity in Alcohol-attributable Injury in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Liu, Xianfang C.; Cerda, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of injuries worldwide are attributable to alcohol consumption, and US estimates indicate that the drinking patterns of racial/ethnic groups vary considerably. The authors reviewed evidence from 19 publications regarding racial/ethnic differences in overall alcohol-attributable injury as well as percent blood alcohol content positivity for injury deaths in the United States. They found that Native Americans evidence higher rates of alcohol-attributable motor vehicle crash fatality, suicide, and falls compared with other racial/ethnic groups; conversely, Asians evidence lower rates of alcohol-attributable injury than other racial/ethnic groups. The rate of alcohol positivity and intoxication among Hispanics is disproportionately high relative to estimates of alcohol use. Black subgroups also evidence higher rates of alcohol positivity than would be expected given estimates of alcohol use, including for alcohol positivity among drivers of fatally injured black children and homicide. These findings highlight the continued need for public health focus on Native American populations with respect to alcohol consumption and injury. Further, the disparity in alcohol-attributable injury mortality among black and Hispanic groups relative to their reported rates of alcohol consumption is an overlooked area of research. The authors review potential social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-attributable injuries and identify directions for further research on these patterns. PMID:21930592

  18. Alcohol Drinking does not Affect Postoperative Surgical Site Infection or Anastomotic Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse appears to increase postoperative complications, but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify how alcohol drinking affects postoperative surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage and to determine...... the impact of perioperative alcohol intervention....

  19. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. PMID:25293549

  20. Biology of Addiction: Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Biology of Addiction Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your ... scientists are working to learn more about the biology of addiction. They’ve shown that addiction is ...

  1. Bone changes in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with growth impairment,osteomalacia, delayed fracture healing, and asepticnecrosis (primarily necrosis of the femoral head), butthe main alterations observed in the bones of alcoholicpatients are osteoporosis and an increased risk offractures. Decreased bone mass is a hallmark of osteoporosis,and it may be due either to decreased bone synthesis and/or to increased bone breakdown. Ethanolmay affect both mechanisms. It is generally acceptedthat ethanol decreases bone synthesis, and most authorshave reported decreased osteocalcin levels (a "marker" ofbone synthesis), but some controversy exists regardingthe effect of alcohol on bone breakdown, and, indeed,disparate results have been reported for telopeptideand other biochemical markers of bone resorption.In addition to the direct effect of ethanol, systemicalterations such as malnutrition, malabsorption, liverdisease, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines,alcoholic myopathy and neuropathy, low testosteronelevels, and an increased risk of trauma, play contributoryroles. The treatment of alcoholic bone disease should beaimed towards increasing bone formation and decreasingbone degradation. In this sense, vitamin D and calciumsupplementation, together with biphosphonates areessential, but alcohol abstinence and nutritional improvementare equally important. In this review we study thepathogenesis of bone changes in alcoholic liver diseaseand discuss potential therapies.

  2. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2014-05-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  3. Biomarkers of alcohol misuse: recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Iwona; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Szczyrek, Michał; Wawryniuk, Agnieszka; Skrzydło-Radomańska, Barbara; Daniluk, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are highly prevalent in many cultures and contribute considerably to the global burden of health and social issues. The current inability to accurately characterise long-term drinking behaviours is a major obstacle to alcoholism diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective diagnostic tools to discern subjects with excessive alcohol use and alcoholism or to confirm abstinence. Research over past years has revealed several biochemical compounds with considerable potential for accurate reflection of alcohol intake. This review will address the issue of alcohol biomarker definition, the types of molecules used as so-called traditional biomarkers, and the compounds that can serve as novel biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels. PMID:27350834

  4. The Socio - cultural Factors of Alcohol Intake among undergraduate students and their KAP in China and Ghana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ofori; -; Koree; Isaac; Aizhong; Liu; Huaxian; He

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is likely to have negative effects on in takers,especially on undergraduate students who are not fully matured. To improve prevention strategies,the review describes the history and current use of alcohol and trends of alcoholic intake in China and Ghana. It also focuses on knowledge,attitudes and practices ( KAP) towards alcoholic intake in both China and Ghana,and put forward some alcohol usage reduction interventions.

  5. Inpatient treatment of the psychiatric patient with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean-Bayog, M

    1987-05-01

    Patients with both alcoholism and mental illness, or the one masquerading as the other, are very common and often puzzling and discouraging to clinicians. This article reviews several aspects of these problems: epidemiologic studies show that substantial proportions of mentally ill people suffer from alcoholism, and these disorders interlock in complex ways, each exacerbating the other. Many physicians feel uncomfortable working with alcoholic people, mostly because of poor training, and this impinges on difficulties of giving excellent care to these taxing patients. Complexities and resistances to interviewing obstruct evaluation. Interviewing and history taking techniques and the reason for them are discussed. The decision whether a patient needs medical or psychiatric hospitalization, alcoholism rehabilitation, or outpatient psychiatric or alcoholism treatment is reviewed along with the management and sequencing of treatment for primary and secondary alcoholism with concomitant psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and adult attention deficit disorder. Clinical intervention and referral for the patient on a medical or surgical floor who may have alcoholism is discussed. Two special clinical problems, the differential diagnosis of postdetoxification depression and the risks of using alcohol cross-tolerant drugs, are also reviewed. PMID:2884166

  6. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  7. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  8. Role of alcohol in the regulation of iron metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease frequently exhibit increased body iron stores, as reflected by elevated serum iron indices (transferrin saturation, ferritin) and hepatic iron concentration. Even mild to moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to increase the prevalence of iron overload. Moreover, increased hepatic iron content is associated with greater mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis, suggesting a pathogenic role for iron in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol increases the severity of disease in patients with genetic hemochromatosis,an iron overload disorder common in the Caucasian population. Both iron and alcohol individually cause oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, which culminates in liver injury. Despite these observations, the underlying mechanisms of iron accumulation and the source of the excess iron observed in alcoholic liver disease remain unclear. Over the last decade, several novel iron-regulatory proteins have been identified and these have greatly enhanced our understanding of iron metabolism. For example, hepcidin, a circulatory antimicrobial peptide synthesized by the hepatocytes of the liver is now known to play a central role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review attempts to describe the interaction of alcohol and iron-regulatory molecules. Understanding these molecular mechanisms is of considerable clinical importance because both alcoholic liver disease and genetic hemochromatosis are common diseases, in which alcohol and iron appear to act synergistically to cause liver injury.

  9. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  10. Alcohol, head injury, and pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M A; Janson, S; Seago, J A

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in rates of pulmonary complications (e.g., aspiration, pneumonia) in head-injured patients with and without concomitant alcohol intoxication. The records of 98 consecutive patients admitted over a 1-year period to a Level I Trauma Center were reviewed. The patients were grouped into three subsets: acutely intoxicated (n = 26), acutely intoxicated with a diagnosis of chronic alcoholism (n = 14), and non-intoxicated (n = 58). Alcohol intoxication was defined as a blood alcohol level (BAL) > or = 0.08 mg/dl. Admission BALs and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were tabulated at admission. Frequency of arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements, need for an artificial airway/mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance. Intergroup differences in breath sounds were compared by using the nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis technique. We found no statistical difference between groups in terms of pulmonary sequelae despite the remarkably high BALs observed in the study groups. Similarly, there was no statistically greater LOS in the groups with alcohol intoxication than in alcohol-free cohorts. Despite a great deal of BAL science research to support our hypothesis, we failed to demonstrate a significantly higher rate of pulmonary problems in inebriated individuals with head injuries. We found that our strict exclusion criteria (no concomitant chest, abdominal, or pelvic trauma) limited the sample to only those patients without significant intracranial bleeding, whereas most complications in blood alcohol neuroscience research have been associated with much larger mass lesions (e.g., epidural or subdural hematomas). In addition, we found the characterizations of patients as chronically alcoholic were cumbersome and inaccurate in many cases. Future research should allow for a greater range of concomitant injuries that might suggest a positive or negative relationship to acute

  11. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  12. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  13. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  14. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Nicole J; Draper, Brian; Withall, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  15. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  16. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  17. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  18. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  19. Australian alcohol policy 2001–2013 and implications for public health

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Steven J.; Gordon, Ross; Jones, Sandra C

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a complex and multi-faceted alcohol policy environment in Australia, there are few comprehensive reviews of national and state alcohol policies that assess their effectiveness and research support. In mapping the Australian alcohol policy domain and evaluating policy interventions in each of the core policy areas, this article provides a useful resource for researchers. The implications for protecting public health emanating from this mapping and evaluation of alcohol polic...

  20. Trends in Alcohol Use among Hawai‘i Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ta, Van M; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Pham, Linda A; Williams, Rebecca J; Eller, LaShanda N; Nigg, Claudio R

    2010-01-01

    It is important to review trends in youth alcohol use over time in order to effectively tailor prevention programs to address those trends. This article reviews data on alcohol use behaviors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Hawai‘i from 1993 to 2007. Five alcohol use indicators were examined and stratified by grade level, from 9th grade through 12th grade. Significant drops in nearly all indicators are seen among 9th through 11th graders, but...

  1. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption & Fostering, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 17 publications covering a variety of topics including abused disabled children; child placement; helping attachment disordered children; open adoption; family empowerment; teenage fostering; the Children Act of 1989 (Great Britain); family law; social services and child care law; and challenging racism in the early years. (TJQ)

  2. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  3. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  4. Multicausality in fatty liver disease: Is there a rationale to distinguish between alcoholic and non-alcoholic origin?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry V(o)lzke

    2012-01-01

    Apart from alcohol,there are other factors that may induce complications,which resemble alcohol-related liver disorders.In particular,obesity has been brought into focus as a risk factor for fatty liver disease.The term "non-alcoholic" fatty liver disease is commonly used to distinguish between obesity-related and alcohol-related hepatic steatosis.This review uses the epidemiological perspective to critically assess whether it is necessary and useful to differentiate between alcoholic and "non-alcoholic" fatty liver disease.The MEDLINE database was searched using the PubMed search engine,and a review of reference lists from original research and review articles was conducted.The concept to distinguish between alcoholic and "non-alcoholic" fatty liver disease is mainly based on specific pathomechanisms.This concept has,however,several limitations including the common overlap between alcohol misuse and obesityrelated metabolic disorders and the non-consideration of additional causal factors.Both entities share similar histopathological patterns.Studies demonstrating differences in clinical presentation and outcome are often biased by selection.Risk factor reduction is the main principle of prevention and treatment of both disease forms.In conclusion,alcoholic and "non-alcoholic" fatty liver diseases are one and the same disease caused by different risk factors.A shift from artificial categories to a more general approach to fatty liver disease as a multicausal disorder may optimize preventive strategies and help clinicians more effectively treat patients at the individual level.

  5. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Brand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg to 67.3 (Norway. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = -0.57; p = 0.001: a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5 l. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.

  6. Ultrasonography for diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Semenistaia, Marianna;

    2016-01-01

    cirrhosis, but people in whom hepatocellular carcinoma has developed are often co-infected with hepatitis B or C virus.Abstinence from alcohol may help people with alcoholic disease in improving their prognosis of survival at any stage of their disease; however, the more advanced the stage, the higher the...... a person with alcoholic liver disease; however, besides the difficulties of finding a suitable liver transplant organ, there are many other factors that may influence a person's survival.Ultrasound is an inexpensive method that has been used for years in clinical practice to diagnose alcoholic...... Library (Wiley), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), and the Science Citation Index Expanded to 8 January 2015. We applied no language limitations.We screened study references of the retrieved studies to identify other potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review and read abstract and poster...

  7. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  8. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  9. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  10. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. Alcohol intoxication and mental health among adolescents – a population review of 8983 young people, 13–19 years in North-Trøndelag, Norway: the Young-HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmen Turid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to describe alcohol use among Norwegian teenagers and investigate the associations between mental health problems and alcohol intoxications with focus on age and gender. Methods Population based, cross-sectional survey addressing all adolescents aged 13–19 years, attending secondary or high school in North – Trøndelag County, Norway. 8983 youths (91% answered the Young-HUNT questionnaire in the 1995–1997 survey. Logistic regression models were used to study associations. Results 80% of the respondents reported that they had tried drinking alcohol, and 57% had been intoxicated at least once. The proportion of the students, which had tried alcohol, was equal in both genders and increased with age. Attention problems and conduct problems were strongly associated with frequent alcohol intoxications in both genders. Anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls were also related to high numbers of intoxications Conclusion Gender differences in number of alcohol intoxications were small. There was a close association between both conduct and attention problems and high alcohol consumption in both genders. Girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression reported more frequent alcohol intoxications.

  12. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  13. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments of the...... vacuolar proteolysis are described. Substrates of the vacuolar proteases are mostly imported via endocytosis or autophagocytosis, and vacuolar proteolysis appears to be mainly important under nutritional stress conditions and sporulation....

  14. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  15. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  16. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, whi...

  17. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  18. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  19. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  20. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  1. Radiology of the foot in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reviewed the radiographic patterns of the foot in 28 patients affected by neuropathic joint disease complicating alcoholism, out of a series of 82 chronic ethylic patients. Sixteen of them were also affected by diabetes mellitus. On the basis of X-ray findings, lesion were divided into tree groups, reflecting the evolution of the disease: 1) early changes, especially affecting the soft tissue and joints;2) definite lesions, consisting of fractures, osteolysis, bone destruction and amputation, periarticulardebris; 3)''healing'' signs, simulating degenerative joint disease, which cause severe and weakening deformities. Tabe dorsalis and diabetic osteoarthropathy must be differentiated from alcohol-induced syndrome. Even though a correct differential diagnosis is often difficult to reach, it must be kept in mind that focal/diffuse osteopenia is the most characteristic manifestation of alcoholic osteopathy, whereas different radiographic findings simulate chronic degenerative arthropathies

  2. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  3. The Neighborhood Alcohol Environment and Alcohol-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Theall, Katherine P.; Scribner, Richard; Cohen, Deborah; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Schonlau, Matthias; Lynch, Sara; Farley, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and individual self-reported alcohol-related health outcomes in the last year—sexually transmitted infections (STI), motor vehicle accidents, injury, liver problems, hypertension and experienced violence; (2) to determine whether the relationship between morbidity and alcohol outlet density is mediated by individual alcohol consumption; and (3) to explore the role of alcohol outlet den...

  4. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic. PMID:26802685

  5. Alcohol-induced hypertension: an important healthcare target in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, F; de Timary, P; Dom, G; Dor, B D; Duprez, D; Lengelé, J-P; Matthys, F; Peuskens, H; Rehm, J; Stärkel, P

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol intake is one of the leading causes of premature death in Europe and particularly in Belgium. Belgian people are consuming more alcohol per year than the European average. It is well established that excessive alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of the development of hypertension (HTN). Two million adults in Belgium suffer from HTN and this number will increase to three million by 2025. Less than 50% of Belgian people treated for HTN are well-controlled. Alcohol reduction in patients with HTN can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After reviewing the epidemiology of HTN and alcohol disorders in Belgium, this paper will focus on the rationale for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. It will also describe the barriers to alcohol screening, and what could be the benefits of alcohol screening for our healthcare system. The authors believe that early identification through alcohol screening and brief intervention in general practice can help to improve the management of patients with HTN, to reach the targets of the WHO Global Action Plan, i.e., a 25% relative reduction in the risk of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases. They are also convinced that this would allow achieving major healthcare savings. PMID:26135944

  6. Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D; Hipskind, Philip A; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T; Hunt, Stephen P; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" in Volterra, Italy, May 6-9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol-related behaviors in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory, indicating a role of the urocortin 1 receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropeptide Y receptor system in the modulation of behaviors associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192

  7. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  8. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  9. Novel Approaches to Individual Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Efficacious alcohol interventions for college students and young adults have been developed but produce small effects of limited duration. This paper provides a review and critique of novel (e.g., a significant deviation from a traditional, brief, and motivational intervention) interventions published between 2009 and 2014 to reduce alcohol use in this population and covers intervention format/components and efficacy on alcohol outcomes. We reviewed 12 randomized controlled trials of novel, i...

  10. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  11. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  12. Alcohol and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, the combined use of alcohol and tobacco greatly increases the risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Written January 2016 ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  13. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  15. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  16. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  17. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  18. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  20. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lead and pregnancy Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  1. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are trying to lose weight, you can boost your efforts by cutting back on alcoholic drinks. ... goes in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra ...

  2. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant again? Preterm labor and premature birth Lead and ... pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can cause your baby to be born with ...

  3. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  4. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  5. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  6. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause......-specific mortality data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol. Of the...

  7. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  8. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases--a systematic Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Jacobs, Bradly P; Iaquinto, Gaetano;

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle (MT) or MT constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and/or hepatitis B and/or C liver diseases....

  9. Alcohol consumption by aging adults in the United States: health benefits and detriments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Weems, M K Suzy

    2008-10-01

    The most rapidly growing segment of the US population is that of older adults (> or =65 years). Trends of aging adults (those aged > or =50 years) show that fewer women than men consume alcohol, women consume less alcohol than men, and total alcohol intake decreases after retirement. A U- or J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and mortality exists among middle-aged (age 45 to 65 years) and older adults. Thus, alcohol can be considered either a tonic or a toxin in dose-dependent fashion. Active areas of research regarding the possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption among aging individuals include oxidative stress, dementia, psychosocial functioning, dietary contributions, and disease prevention. Yet, due to the rising absolute number of older adults, there may be a silent epidemic of alcohol abuse in this group. Dietary effects of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption are reviewed along with mechanisms by which alcohol or phytochemicals modify physiology, mortality, and disease burden. Alcohol pharmacokinetics is considered alongside age-related sensitivities to alcohol, drug interactions, and disease-related physiological changes. International guidelines for alcohol consumption are reviewed and reveal that many nations lack guidelines specific to older adults. A review of national guidelines for alcohol consumption specific to older adults (eg, those offered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse) suggests that they may be too restrictive, given the current literature. There is need for greater quantification and qualification of per capita consumption, consumption patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations), and types of alcohol consumed by older adults in the United States. PMID:18926132

  10. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Deshpande, Smita N. [Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, {sup 1}H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  11. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  12. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  13. Understanding Korean Families With Alcoholic Fathers in a View of Confucian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sihyun; Schepp, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the dynamics of Korean alcoholic family through the lens of Confucianism, using research conducted in South Korea. To gain an in-depth understanding of the family dynamics and the lived experiences of a certain alcoholic family having a specific ethnicity, health professionals must first understand the uniqueness of their own cultural bases and how those cultural components can shape dynamics of alcoholic family. Thus, we reviewed qualitative studies of Korean families with alcoholic fathers to investigate the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic families in terms of Confucian thoughts and values and discuss how the Confucian thoughts affect family dynamics in those Korean alcoholic families. Relevant literature was found through Korean database Research Information Sharing Service by using several (Korean) searching terms: alcoholic, home, spouse, wife, children, and family. Articles were included if they were studies of a Korean alcoholic family and used qualitative methodology. If the studies did not include familial perspectives or not focused on alcoholism issues, those studies were excluded. Eleven qualitative studies of alcoholic family were searched. The members of alcoholic families in South Korea, including the alcoholic member, have expected roles and duties because of the influence of Confucian thoughts and values. By associating with family member's alcoholism, those expectations are a big burden on those family members. Therefore, future plans for community interventions and programs for this population should incorporate the findings from this study. PMID:26340569

  14. Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...

  15. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine...

  16. Alcohol misuse in the general hospital: some hard facts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradshaw, P

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To examine (1) the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in adult general hospital inpatients; (2) the accuracy of documentation in relation to alcohol use. METHODS: A total of 210 random patients were interviewed out of 1,448 consecutive new admissions to CUH over 7 days. Case notes were reviewed for 206 (98%). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) and weekly drinking diary. FAST-positive (and a random sample of FAST-negative) patients then had a standardized interview. RESULTS: A total of 82% admitted for drinking alcohol. Among them 22% were drinking in excess of guidelines, 9% had DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and 7% dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the FAST for detecting those drinking above guidelines were 89 and 94% and for detecting a DSM-IV diagnosis was 100 and 73%. The majority of case notes contained inadequate information about alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common and often undetected in the general hospital setting.

  17. Energy Drinks Mixed with Alcohol: What are the Risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. ...

  18. The effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time

    OpenAIRE

    Grange, JA; Stephens, R.; Jones, K; Owen, L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alcohol hangover on cognitive processing has received little attention. We explored the effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time (RT), a dominant dependent variable (DV) in cognitive research. Prior research of the effect of hangover on RT has produced mixed findings; all studies reviewed relied exclusively on estimates of central tendency (e.g. mean RT), which has limited information value. Here we present novel analytical methods by going beyond mean RT analysis. Spe...

  19. Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking env...

  20. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Lang, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse, either by acute intoxication or prolonged excessive consumption, leads to pathological changes in many organs and tissues including skeletal muscle. As muscle protein serves not only a contractile function but also as a metabolic reserve for amino acids, which are used to support the energy needs of other tissues, its content is tightly regulated and dynamic. This review focuses on the etiology by which alcohol perturbs skeletal muscle protein balance and thereby over time prod...

  1. How the quality of peer relationships influences college alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Borsari, Brian; Carey, Kate B.

    2006-01-01

    Peer relationships are consistently linked to alcohol use in college students. However, this disparate literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of peer influence. In this review, we use an organisational framework based on social learning theory (SLT) to demonstrate how the quality of peer relationships may influence personal alcohol use. We propose that the quality of peer relationships enhance the influence of social reinforcement, modelling and cogni...

  2. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age...

  3. Vitamin-Dependent Methionine Metabolism and Alcoholic Liver Disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ethanol-induced alterations in hepatic methionine metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Because malnutrition is a universal clinical finding in this disease and hepatic methionine metabolism is dependent upon dietary folate and vitamins B-6 and B-12, ALD can be considered an induced nutritional disorder that is conditioned by alcohol abuse. The present review describes the etiologies of these 3 vitamin deficiencie...

  4. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  5. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  7. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  8. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  9. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  10. Nutritional therapy in cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fialla, Annette D; Israelsen, Mads; Hamberg, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis are often malnourished and have a superimposed stress metabolism, which increases nutritional demands. We performed a systematic review on the effects of nutritional therapy vs. no intervention for patients with cirrhosis or alcoh......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis are often malnourished and have a superimposed stress metabolism, which increases nutritional demands. We performed a systematic review on the effects of nutritional therapy vs. no intervention for patients with cirrhosis...... or alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: We included trials on nutritional therapy designed to fulfil at least 75% of daily nutritional demand. Authors extracted data in an independent manner. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were performed and the results expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...... analysis. Fixed-effect analysis suggested that nutrition prevented overt hepatic encephalopathy (0.73; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.96) and infection (0.66; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.98, respectively), but the results were not confirmed in random-effects analyses. CONCLUSION: Our review suggests that nutritional therapy may...

  11. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  12. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  13. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  14. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  15. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  17. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993...

  18. Genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats: an animal model to study the neurobiology of alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Cucculelli, Marino; Ubaldi, Massimo; Soverchia, Laura; Anbarasu, Lourdusami; Massi, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    The present article provides an up-to-date review that summarize almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking leading to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock s...

  19. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology 39th Annual Meeting Symposium: Alcohol and Development: Beyond Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.; Spear, Linda P.; Mennella, Julie A.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    As has been repeatedly demonstrated, alcohol can exert deleterious morphological and physiological effects during early stages in development. The present review examines nonteratological links existing between alcohol and ontogeny. Human and animal studies are taken into consideration for the analysis of fetal, neonatal, infantile, adolescent, and adult responsiveness to the drug. Sensitivity to alcohol’s chemosensory and postabsorptive properties, as well as learning and memory processes me...

  20. Inefficacy of self-regulation of alcohol advertisements: a systematic review of the literature Ineficácia da autorregulamentação das propagandas de bebidas alcoólicas: uma revisão sistemática da literatura internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vendrame

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The most recent scientific literature indicates that alcohol advertising influences behavior, particularly early and higher alcohol consumption by children and adolescents. From a public health perspective, alcohol advertising should be restricted. In many countries, as well as in Brazil, limits to alcohol advertising are established by industry self-regulation (e.g. controlled by the advertising community itself. We examined in this review all articles on the subject of industry self-regulation of alcohol advertising published in the international literature. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted on articles investigating the effectiveness of self-regulation of alcohol advertisings. The search was conducted in Medline, SciELO, Camy and Google Scholar, between the years of 1991 and 2010. In addition, the "snowball" technique for the indication of the main authors on the subject was employed. From the articles found, 11 focused on the subject discussed here. DISCUSSION: The set of articles obtained indicates that industry self-regulation of alcohol advertising does not show evidence of efficacy. In other words, such a regulation does not prevent, for instance, alcohol advertising directed at children and adolescents. CONCLUSION: Further measures should be considered for the control and the broadcast of alcohol advertising, such as independent monitoring, legal control.OBJETIVO: A literatura científica mais recente aponta que a publicidade de bebidas alcoólicas influencia o comportamento, particularmente o consumo precoce e em grandes quantidades por crianças e adolescentes. Da perspectiva da saúde pública, a publicidade de bebidas alcoólicas deve ser restringida. Em muitos países, assim como no Brasil, os limites são estabelecidos pela autorregulamentação (ou seja, controlados pela própria comunidade publicitária. Analisou-se na presente revisão o conjunto dos trabalhos publicados na literatura internacional