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Sample records for alcohol dependence results

  1. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Withdrawal-Related Insomnia among Adults with Alcohol Dependence: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Kirk J.; Perron, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Insomnia during acute alcohol withdrawal (AWD) as well as persisting insomnia during post-acute withdrawal is associated with relapse. Rates of insomnia in clinical samples of alcohol-dependent patients range from 36 to 91%, but the prevalence of AWD-related insomnia in the general population is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of insomnia as a symptom of acute AWD and its correlates in a general population of alcohol-dependent individuals. Data were analyzed ...

  3. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  4. Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2008-01-01

    Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of withdrawal symptoms may contribute to relapse after periods of absti...

  5. Identifying Genetic Variation for Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are using various strategies to identify the genes that may be associated with alcoholism. The initial efforts primarily relied on candidate gene and linkage studies; more recently, however, modern advances in genotyping have resulted in widespread use of genome-wide association studies for alcohol dependence. The key findings of the earlier studies were that variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the DNA sequences of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (i.e., the ADH1B gene)...

  6. [Influence of alcohol beverage vending machine on alcohol dependence syndrome].

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    Ino, A; Fujita, S

    1994-12-01

    The vending machines which sell alcohol beverages (AVM) can be found quite easily in front of shops or on the roadside in this country. Although it is easily supposed that these vending machines might have badly influenced on developing alcohol dependence syndrome, no scientific study has been reported in this regard so far. In this study, we analyzed the present status of alcoholics (n = 759) and their family members (n = 512) and of ordinary people (n = 334) in terms of their "relation" and "attitudes" to the vending machines by a questionnaire method. The results obtained show as follows: The majority of alcoholics (60%) had used AVM a couple of times or more often in a week, and 18% of alcoholics had not used AVM at all. It was found that the natures of AVM such as "machine," "long time operation," "easy accessibility," are closely related to the development of their alcohol seeking behavior, resulting in forming unfavorable drinking patterns such as concealed drinking, gulping, early morning drinking or binge drinking. Unusual patterns of using AVM were also noticed among them, such as, go to AVM before 5 a.m. and wait until it starts to work, go to a far away AVM deliberately, or, visiting AVM one after another. It was noticed that these drinking habits affected seriously not only the alcoholics but their families also. The number of the family members who insisted that AVM affected badly on the course of alcohol dependence syndrome is larger than that of alcoholics who admit the same thing. As for the future abolition of AVM, 91% of the family members, 70% of alcoholics and 39% of ordinary persons agreed with. The rate of "agreed with abolition" is higher than that of "disagreed with abolition" among ordinary persons. PMID:7695515

  7. Alcohol dependency prevention and early intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, P E

    1988-01-01

    Current data on efforts to prevent alcoholism indicate that we are better able to prevent some of the consequences of alcohol misuse, such as alcohol-related car crashes and fetal alcohol syndrome, than chronic alcohol dependence itself. A review of data on outcomes of treatment for long-term alcohol dependence indicates that 9 of 10 alcohol dependent persons receive no treatment for the disorder in any given year. When treatment is provided for long-term alcohol dependent persons, it has onl...

  8. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  9. [Dimensions of parental rearing styles in alcohol dependent patients: first results of the questionnaire on parental attitudes and rearing practices (FEPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Kriston, Levente; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Leichsenring, Irina; Ramsauer, Brigitte; Schäfer, Ingo

    2013-07-01

    To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: χ(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: χ(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826

  10. [Drugs, a current problem. Alcohol dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a socially accepted drug which is commercialized in multiple products including wine, cognac, gin, beer, anisette, vermouth, rum, etc. and which can be consumed in small quantities without producing harmful effects on one's health; nonetheless, women are more susceptible to alcohol's damages and an abusive consumption of alcohol creates dependence and chronic diseases. Ten percent of those people who consume alcohol develop dependency and comprise the leading group of drug addicts in many countries. PMID:16493852

  11. Correlates of baclofen effectiveness in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhansh Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201 or Baclofen (348. ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75 and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19; t (547 = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables - dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ′dose of baclofen′ and ′average alcohol intake′ explain a significant amount of variance in ′time to first drink′. [F (1, 345 = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2 adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier.

  12. Dihydrocodeine / Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

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    Albrecht eUlmer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients.Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC to 102 heavily alcohol addict-ed patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks, Baclofen and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DH, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC-treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-step scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details.Conclusions: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around ¼ of the patients already. Many further

  13. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general mass...

  14. Functional and Dysfunctional rumination in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Grynberg, Delphine; Briane, Yasmine; de Timary, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre; 16th International Society of Addiction Medicine Annual Meeting

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings have shown that rumination predicts alcohol abuse independently of depression. However, the literature does not inform about the relationships between alcohol dependence and functional and dysfunctional rumination. It has indeed been suggested that there exist a functional form of rumination(concrete thinking) and a dysfunctional form of rumination (abstract thinking). In this study, our aim is to evaluate if alcohol dependence is similarly associated with functional/constru...

  15. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

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    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  16. Socio-emotional factors in alcohol dependence

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    Deyashini Lahiri Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3 were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire, anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ′anger in′ and ′anger out,′ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ′anger out,′ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other.

  17. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist.

  18. Assessing Alcohol Dependence in Hospitalized Patients

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    Juliana Doering-Silveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol misuse is generally not detected in hospital settings. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in hospitalized patients in a university hospital in Sao Paulo (Brazil. Patients were randomly selected from all hospital admissions. The final sample consisted of 169 adult inpatients. Two screening tools were used: the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD and the CAGE questionnaires. In this sample, 25.4% of patients could be considered alcohol dependent according to the CAGE questionnaire, whereas 32.9% of patients fulfilled the criteria according to the SADD. The only predictor of alcohol dependence was gender; male inpatients were 3.2 times more prone to alcohol dependence with female inpatients. All inpatients should be systematically screened for alcohol use disorders. The choice of the screening tool will depend on whether the goal is to identify inpatients with hazardous drinking behaviors or with established alcohol-related problems. To maximize proper case identification, the CAGE questionnaire should be used as a first-step screening tool, and patients who screen positive on this scale should be subsequently administered the SADD questionnaire to assess the severity of the condition.

  19. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2010-01-01

    Danish birth cohort (N = 9,182). Two thirds of the subjects were high-risk biological sons of treated alcoholics. A large number of measures (361) were obtained at different periods before any subject had developed an alcohol-use disorder. At age 40, a psychiatrist provided mutually exclusive lifetime...... diagnoses of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence that were characterized as currently active or currently in remission according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, course specifiers. RESULTS: The majority of subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse were in...

  20. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  1. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE--NEUROBIOLOGY AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biała, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Chronic alcohol consumption, meanwhile, in order to restore equilibrium leads to neuroadaptive changes caus- ing both decreased GABAergic and increased glutamatergic activity. Also function of other neurotransmitters and modulators is modified by the presence of alcohol, including glycine, adenosine, serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, a significant impact of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system, nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the endocannabinoids system has been also established. At present, only four medications are approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Europe, that is naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram and the most recent nalmefene. Among other promising strategies the following drugs are mentioned: baclofen, topiramate, ondansetron, aripiprazole, rimonabant and varenicline. Additionally, the role of appetite-regulating hormones, neuroimmune modulators or the body's stress-response system modulators in reducing alcohol consumption is currently of great interest, however, further investigations are needed. PMID:27008795

  2. Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Choquet, Marie; Le Strat, Yann; Hassler, Christine; Gorwood, Philip

    2011-01-01

    International audience We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage exacerbates the intergenerational transmission of substance dependence. Among 3056 community-based young adults (18-22 years, 2007), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7.3%) was doubled in the presence of combined parental alcohol dependence and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  3. Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

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    Mannelli P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions

  4. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Lekhansh Shukla; Tulika Shukla; Spandana Bokka; Arun Kandasamy; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy; Prabhat Chand

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and ...

  5. Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2012-01-01

    Early-childhood trauma is strongly associated with developing mental health problems, including alcohol dependence, later in life. People with early-life trauma may use alcohol to help cope with trauma-related symptoms. This article reviews the prevalence of early-childhood trauma and its robust association with the development of alcohol use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. It also examines the potential biological mechanisms by which early adverse experiences can result in long-...

  6. The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Danielle M.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence and dependence on other drugs frequently co-occur, and strong evidence suggests that both disorders are, at least in part, influenced by genetic factors. Indeed, studies using twins suggest that the overlap between dependence on alcohol and on other drugs largely results from shared genetic factors. This common genetic liability, which also extends to antisocial behavior, has been conceptualized as a general predisposition toward a variety of forms of psychopathology charac...

  7. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Gabrielli, William F

    2010-01-01

    In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.......In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism....

  8. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  9. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  10. Differential Brain Response to Alcohol Cue Distractors across Stages of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, Susanna L.; Jorgensen, Kasper W.; Yetter, Elizabeth J.; Daurignac, Elsa C.; Watson, Todd D.; Shanbhag, Harshad; Krystal, John H.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Altered attention to alcohol-related cues is implicated in the craving and relapse cycle characteristic of alcohol dependence (ALC). Prior cue reactivity studies typically invoke explicit attention to alcohol cues, so the neural response underlying incidental cue exposure remains unclear. Here, we embed infrequent, task-irrelevant alcohol and non-alcohol cues in an attention-demanding task, enabling evaluation of brain responses to distracting alcohol cues. Alcohol dependent individuals, acro...

  11. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

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    Arash Mohagheghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1. The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV. All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence.

  12. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paille F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available François Paille, Hervé Martini Department of Addiction Treatment, University Hospital, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Abstract: Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence, reduction, consumption, damage reduction, drug therapy, nalmefene

  13. Treatment of Alcohol Dependence With Drug Antagonists of the Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Higley, Amanda E.; Koob, George F.; Mason, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by neuroadaptations that may result in the emergence of negative affective states and stress responses upon discontinuation of alcohol use. Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcohol-dependent people are more sensitive to relapse provoking cues such as alcohol, negative affect, and stress. Moreover, stress relief during protracted abstinence is thought to be a major motivation for excessive alcohol consumption. The relation...

  14. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John M.; Strong, David R.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relative untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n = 25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Further...

  15. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ronald G.; ALONZO, DANA; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems double...

  16. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that ar

  17. A genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J Bierut; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Laurie, Cathy; Pugh, Elizabeth; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Howells, William; Bertelsen, Sarah; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Almasy, Laura; Breslau, Naomi; Culverhouse, Robert C; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Approximately 14% of those who use alcohol meet criteria during their lifetime for alcohol dependence, which is characterized by tolerance, withdrawal, inability to stop drinking, and continued drinking despite serious psychological or physiological problems. We explored genetic influences on alcohol dependence among 1,897 European-American and African-American subjects with alcohol dependenc...

  18. Comorbidity of eating disorder and alcohol dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Olivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies suggest that a high prevalence of alcohol addiction exists in female patients diagnosed with eating disorder in comparison to general population. For the purpose of explanation of the relationship of these disorders many conceptual models have been proposed. Case report. We presented a female patient displaying a comorbidity of eating disorder and alcohol dependency. We analyzed phenomenological similarities, personal characteristics and bio-psychological predisposition in order to ensure better understanding of the nature of the correlation of the two mentioned disorders. Conclusion. Even though, these days we find the synonym for eating disorders in the phrase "food addiction", it is impossible to categorize such a complex group of disorders to an addictive process. Moreover, we could assume that there exists a common psychobiological vulnerability which predisposes the development of one and/or the other disorder. To date knowledge has a significant implication for the development of new strategy in treating this comorbidity.

  19. Individualised treatment in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl; Hermann, Derik

    2010-11-01

    Long-term relapse prevention is the biggest challenge in treating alcohol-dependent patients. It is equally based on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Psychotherapy includes motivational interviewing, community reinforcement, cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational enhancement, twelve-step facilitation, social network behaviour therapy, cue exposure, etc. For pharmacological treatment, we dispose of disulfiram, acamprosate and naltrexone. Reviews and meta-analyses reveal only modest effect sizes of these approaches probably because they are usually tested in large and heterogeneous samples where "one size does not fit all". However, attempts to form more homogeneous subgroups for which specific psychotherapies should be more effective ("matching") also failed. We suppose that this failure may have to do with the fact that these studies used only psychopathology and behavioural analyses as a basis for subtyping. Things look more promising once biologically defined endophenotypes are used as well in order to form more homogeneous subgroups. For example, naltrexone treatment seems more effective in carriers of a specific variant of the mu-opioid receptor gene. The same could be true for acamprosate if a newly found polymorphism was used to preselect potential responders. Very recently biological differences between patient groups are also being detected using functional imaging. Naltrexone is suggested to work better in a subgroup of patients with higher cue reactivity when shown appetitive alcohol pictures. MR spectroscopy of brain glutamate levels may detect potential acamprosate responders. On such a basis, an individualised approach in the treatment of alcoholism ("personalised medicine") seems to hold promise. PMID:20953618

  20. Dental Care and Oral Disease in Alcohol Dependent Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Khocht, Ahmed; Schleifer, Steven J.; Janal, Malvin N.; Keller, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Dental/oral health of alcoholics and substance abusers is often neglected. It is not clear that alcohol dependence has effects on oral health beyond those expected in non-alcoholic persons of similar socioeconomic status (SES). Study objectives were to examine the personal dental care habits, ability to access professional dental care and the types of services received, and examine their effect on the oral health of alcoholics and substance abusers. Forty DSM-III-R diagnosed alcoholics and a ...

  1. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2009-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I ...

  2. Evaluatin of the GGT levels in Alcohol dependence and correlation with biyochemical tests and clinical features

    OpenAIRE

    Salış, Osman; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the correlation between blood GGT levels and biochemical tests also sosyodemografic data who have alcohol dependence Materials and Methods: We intestigated a retrospective way for alcohol dependence patient records in Samsun Mental Hospital. We recorded patients GGT levels and other labarotory tests and sociodemografic data. We excluded other drug abuse or dependence. Results: The present analyses consisted of 83 participants who have alcohol dependence. ...

  3. Craving and Physiological Reactivity to Trauma and Alcohol Cues in PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Henslee, Amber M.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Landy, Noah

    2010-01-01

    The high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) has been firmly established. Although laboratory studies have examined self-reported craving in response to trauma and alcohol cues, no studies have reported on alcohol-related physiological responding in response to trauma cues in PTSD-AD individuals. Using a cue reactivity paradigm, this study examined the impact of personalized trauma-image cues and in vivo alcohol cues on alcohol-related responding (e...

  4. Nutritional intake and status in persons with alcohol dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Kondrup, Jens Christian; Becker, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency.......Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency....

  5. Suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent Danes attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk Petersen, Christina; Grønbæk, Morten; Bussey Rask, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    , were more often lowly educated, and had more physical and psychiatric problems. Traumatic childhood experience related to physical or sexual abuse was found as a major predictor for suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent patients. We found no significant difference in the effect of treatment in....... Characteristics of, predictors for and outcome among suicidal patients were studied. Alcohol-dependent patients with a history of suicide attempts were found to constitute a highly selected group in alcohol abuse treatment as they often had a more severe course of alcohol dependence, were unemployed, younger...... that suicidal patients in treatment for alcohol abuse are treated effectively within the present treatment settings....

  6. Interpersonal violence exposure and alcohol treatment utilization among medical inpatients with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Emily F.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Pedley, Alison; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Palfai, Tibor; Liebschutz, Jane; Saitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal violence exposure and utilization of alcohol treatment after medical hospitalizations among adults with alcohol dependence. We analyzed data collected from a prospective cohort of 238 adults with alcohol dependence who were inpatients in a large, urban hospital. Participants who reported interpersonal violence victimization had 1.6 times the odds (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI 0.92–2.91) of receiving alcohol treatment du...

  7. Association of gene polymorphisms encoding dopaminergic system components and platelet MAO-B activity with alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Jovanovic, Tanja; Pivac, Nela

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association of alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes with platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity, Val108/158Met of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the third exon of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, -1021C/T of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and MAO-B intron 13 polymorphisms. The study included 1270 Caucasian men and women of Croatian origin: 690 patients with alcohol dependence and 580 healthy controls. Patients with alcohol dependence were subdivided according to the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, aggressive behavior, severity of alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, comorbid depression, suicidal behavior, lifetime suicide attempt and early/late onset of alcohol abuse. The results, corrected for multiple testing, revealed increased platelet MAO-B activity in patients with alcohol dependence, subdivided into those with or without alcohol-related liver diseases, compared to control subjects (P<0.001). In addition, we found an increased frequency of the COMT Met/Met genotype among suicidal (P=0.002) and patients who attempted suicide (P<0.001) and an increased frequency of COMT Val/Val genotype in patients with an early onset of alcohol dependence (P=0.004). This study provides data from a sample of ethnically homogeneous unrelated Caucasian subjects for future meta-analyses and suggests that the increased platelet MAO-B activity might be used as independent peripheral indicator of alcohol dependence, while COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with increased suicidality and early onset of alcohol dependence. PMID:25035107

  8. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises wheth

  9. Impulsivity and response inhibition in alcohol dependence and problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Andrew J.; LUTY, JASON; Bogdan, Nadine A; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Clark, Luke

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Impulsivity is a central feature of drug addiction and may arise as a result of impaired inhibitory control. The extent to which inhibitory deficits arise as a consequence of drug exposure or relate to pre-existing addiction vulnerability is unknown. Materials and methods This study compared measures of impulsivity in outpatients with alcohol dependence (n = 23) and problem gambling (n = 21), a putative behavioural addiction where direct effects of drug exposure may be minimal. H...

  10. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  11. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  12. Family care to individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Keity Laís Siepmann Soccol; Marlene Gomes Terra; Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon-Perlini; Danilo Bertasso Ribeiro; Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva; Lucia Amabile Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, which aimed to describe the family care given to the individual dependent on alcohol and other drugs. For data collection we used the interview, open, free and recorded, which was performed in August and September 2011. The 11 subjects were relatives of the individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs, involved in family groups conducted at the Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. From the content analysis of these in...

  13. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of the study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. Stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Corr...

  14. Does Gender Contribute to Heterogeneity in Criteria for Cannabis Abuse and Dependence? Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has noted that a unidimensional latent construct underlies criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence. However, no study to date has explored whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the latent abuse and dependence construct and furthermore, whether after accounting for differences in the mean scores of abuse and dependence across genders, there is any evidence for heterogeneity in the individual abuse and dependence criteria. The present study utilizes data on criteri...

  15. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  16. Mindfulness is Inversely Associated with Alcohol Attentional Bias Among Recovering Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Gaylord, Susan; Chanon, Vicki West; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    Although mindfulness has been linked with salutary clinical outcomes, less is known about its relation to cognitive mechanisms implicated in the onset and maintenance of alcohol dependence. Because trait mindfulness is associated with attentional control and emotion regulation, we hypothesized that trait mindfulness would be inversely associated with attentional bias towards visual alcohol cues. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of alcohol-dependent adults residing in a treatment facility...

  17. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort:Alcohol dependence cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Henry R Kranzler; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Hall, Lynsey S.; Fernandez-pujals, Ana M.; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWA...

  18. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    OpenAIRE

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested th...

  19. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... struggling with a number of painful and conflicting emotions, including guilt, shame, fear and self-blame. And, because of their continued use of alcohol and drugs, it is easy to become frightened, ...

  20. Comparison of prefrontal cell pathology between depression and alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José J.; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2003-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is often co-morbid with depression symptoms and in many cases it appears to induce major depressive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging has provided evidence supporting some degree of neuropathological convergence of alcoholism and mood disorders. In order to understand the cellular neuropathology of alcohol dependence and mood disorders, postmortem morphometric studies have tested the possibility of alterations in the number and size of cells in the prefron...

  1. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACHES TO SYNDROME OF DEPENDENCY OF ALCOHOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joareis Fernandes de Azevedo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The harmful use of alcohol or the Syndrome of dependency of alcohol (SDA is considered a clinical situation of multiple causes in which are present factors of technical order, ethics, politics, economics, social and cultural, being characterized as one of the significant challenges from nowadays to the health professionals. Thereby, the treatment of SDA requests interventions that may deal with this diversity of intervening situations and offer to the dependents and those that present problems with the harmful ingestion of alcohol preventive alternatives to his/her own health and a better quality of life. This bibliography aims to check the main psychotherapeutic approaches indicated to this treatment and it was observed that the current most used models are the Cognitive-behavioral therapy by brief interventions pointing out the Transtheoretical model of stages of changes, Motivational interview, Training of social abilities, Relapses prevention and Harm reduction. Thereby, it is realized that it is not presented an isolated and efficient model in the treatment of SDA, but it is possible to obtain good results from an integrated intervention.

  2. Outcome of alcohol dependence: The role of continued care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Pratima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study attempted to determine the effects of continued care on subjects with alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: Study patients were recruited from a slum in Bangalore. The control group comprised individuals from a lower socio-economic status. Both groups received identical treatment from a specialised de-addiction facility. The study group also received weekly continued care in the community, either at a clinic located within the slum or through home visits. Those patients without stable jobs were referred for employment. The control group was given routine hospital follow-up visits. Both groups were evaluated on the Alcohol Problem Questionnaire and quantity/frequency of drinking at baseline and every 3 month interval for one year after discharge. Results: Both groups showed improvement in terms of reduction of drinking at 3 months, with the study group showing a 64% improvement with respect to the number of non drinking days and the control group showed a 50% improvement. However, at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months, the study group continued to maintain these gains while the control group showed a downward slide (differences significant at P < 0.05. At the end of 12 months, the study group maintained a 53% improvement with respect to the number of non drinking days as compared with baseline, while the control group had an improvement of only 28%. Conclusions: Follow-up support and continued care appear to significantly improve longer-term recovery in alcohol dependents.

  3. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Salujha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2FNx012 (0.50, ADH3FNx011 (0.67 and ALSH2FNx012 (0.09 were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence.

  4. [Cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-04-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces multiple brain damages. Secondary cognitive disorders include executive functions, episodic memory and visuospatial capacities. The severity of these alcohol induced disorders may vary between sub-clinical manifestations (that may, nevertheless, interfere with medical management) and more important ones like Korsakoff syndrome or dementia. The latter are usually irreversible but many of these manifestations are potentially reversible with persistent abstinence. It therefore appears of particular importance to clearly define neuropsychological management in order to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive disorders. The patients may then be offered rehabilitation for these cognitive impairments. This is the first step of a complete addiction program based especially on cognitive behavioral therapies. PMID:24855773

  5. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in alcohol dependents using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alternations in alcohol dependents ,comparing with normal subjects using statistical parametric mapping. Methods: 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain imaging were performed in 14 alcohol dependents diagnosed with SCID-AD, and 23 age matched normal controls for comparison situation of rCBF in alcohol dependents was analyzed by SPM. Results: The rCBF of bilateral frontal lobe, fight cingulate gyms, right caudate body , bilateral cerebellar tonsil were significantly decreased in alcohol dependents, and the rCBF of left inferior temporal gyms, left middle temporal gyms, bilateral precentral gyms, left thalamus, leftparahippocampal gyms, right lentiform nucleus was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: SPM analysis showed that significant rCBF change in alcohol dependents. (authors)

  6. Genes that modulate susceptibility for alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Cesar Silva de Cerqueira; Domingos Lázaro Souza Rios

    2008-01-01

    The pathways for the metabolism of the alcohol are complex and modulated by some genes that promote response to this substance. The genes that codify the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (os genes ADH1B or ADH2) act in the conversion of ethanol in acetaldehyde; the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) that converts the aldehyde into ascetic acid, and the gene that codifies the enzyme cytochrome P450, isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1), that acts generating free radicals of great importance in the induced hepa...

  7. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance.

  8. Trajectories of alcohol use over time among adults with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Krentzman, Amy R; Mowbray, Orion; Robinson, Elizabeth A R

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of drinking behavior change over time in a sample of adults with current alcohol use disorder (AUD). We conducted secondary analyses of seven waves of data from a prospective longitudinal study of 364 adults (mean age=44.0 years, SD=12.8 years) who met criteria for DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD), 74.4% of whom were entering alcohol treatment. Participants were followed for 2 1/2 to 3 years with in-person interviews every 6 months. Results from latent class growth analyses of drinks per drinking day over 3 years indicated five trajectory classes: 1) Moderate Baseline→Slow Decline; 2) Heavy Baseline→Stable Abstinent; 3) Heavy Baseline→Slow Decline; 4) Heaviest Baseline→Steep Decline, and 5) Heaviest Baseline→Stable Heavy. Findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that these trajectory classes might represent longitudinal phenotypes of alcohol involvement across diverse samples. Treatment modality, Alcoholics Anonymous involvement, and purpose in life were associated with diverse trajectories of drinking behavior among adults with AD. AA involvement was associated with higher odds of membership in trajectory classes that showed declines in drinking from baseline, and having higher purpose in life predicted lower odds of membership in the Heaviest Baseline→Stable Heavy class. AA involvement predicts different pathways of recovery characterized by stable abstinence, steep declines, and/or slower declines in drinking over time. Higher purpose in life may protect against chronic heavy drinking by strengthening motivations to pursue goals that are unrelated to substance use. PMID:24613058

  9. The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Head, J.; Stansfeld, S A; Siegrist, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence.Methods: Alcohol dependence of participants in the Whitehall II occupational cohort of London based civil servants (1985-88) was measured in 1991-93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by self report questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. Potential mediators including physical illness and poor mental hea...

  10. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview f...

  11. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Mohagheghi; Shahrokh Amiri; Seyedreza Mousavi Rizi; Salman Safikhanlou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview ...

  12. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism—antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  13. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C.; Hong, Kwangik A.; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  14. The clinical and demographic profile of male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pramod Kumar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the demographic factors associated with alcohol dependence syndrome so that the problems of alcohol related co morbidities can be prevented with appropriate preventive measures. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in De-Addiction Clinic of the Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh from July 2008 to February 2009. Patient who fulfills criteria for alcohol dependence, according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition were included. Results: Mean age (standard deviation at first drink was 18.93 (3.81 years and at onset of Alcohol dependence was 28.28 (6.55 years. The most common reason being given by the patients was financial strain (70% of the patients due to alcohol use and its consequences. Educational qualification of 12th standard or above was seen only in 7.5%. Alcohol dependence syndrome was more common in unemployed, unskilled and semi-skilled patients. Majority of patients (80% belonged to lower socio-economic class. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence syndrome and its related co morbidities can be minimized to a great extent if the educational and socio-economic standards are improved in countries like India where there is increase in alcohol consumption as a life style choice.

  15. Clinical management methods for out-patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulze Isabelle

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France outpatient centres for the care of alcoholics are healthcare establishments providing medical, psychological and social support. Although they meet the practical needs of these patients, their degree of use in each of these domains and the respective mobilisation of different skills by the care team are not well understood. Our aim was therefore to determine in detail the management involved as a function of the severity of alcohol dependence. For this purpose, all the procedures involved were compiled in a thesaurus describing its type (psychological, medical, social, reception, its scheduled or unscheduled nature, its method (face-to-face, telephone, letter and its duration. The severity of dependence was evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI. Results 45 patients were included and followed-up during 291 ± 114 days. The mean initial ASI scores (± SD were: medical (M = 0.39 ± 0.3, working-income (ER = 0.5 ± 0.3, alcohol (A = 0.51 ± 0.2, illicit drugs (D = 0.07 ± 0.08, legal (L = 0.06 ± 0.13, familial and social environment (FS = 0.34 ± 0.26, psychological (P = 0.39 ± 0.22. The total number of procedures was 1341 (29.8 per patient corresponding to 754.4 hours (16.7 per patient. The intensity of management peaked during the first month of treatment, and then declined rapidly; the maximum incidence of abstinence was observed during the 3rd month of management. Interviews with patients, group therapy and staff meetings represented 68.7%, 9.9% and 13.9% of all procedures, respectively. In patients with severe dependence, as compared to moderate, management was twice as intense in the psychological and social domains, but not in the medical domain. The ASI questionnaire was completed a second time by 24 patients, after an average of 3.2 months. The improvement was significant in the M, A, D and P domains only. Conclusion This study provided an overview of the methods employed in managing a sample of

  16. Assessment of lexical semantic judgment abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: An fMRI study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bagga; N Singh; S Modi; P Kumar; D Bhattacharya; M L Garg; S Khushu

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological studies have shown that alcohol dependence is associated with neurocognitive deficits in tasks requiring memory, perceptual motor skills, abstraction and problem solving, whereas language skills are relatively spared in alcoholics despite structural abnormalities in the language-related brain regions. To investigate the preserved mechanisms of language processing in alcohol-dependents, functional brain imaging was undertaken in healthy controls (=18) and alcohol-dependents (=16) while completing a lexical semantic judgment task in a 3 T MR scanner. Behavioural data indicated that alcohol-dependents took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. fMRI data analysis revealed that while performing the task, the alcoholics showed enhanced activations in left supramarginal gyrus, precuneus bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus as compared to control subjects. The extensive activations observed in alcoholics as compared to controls suggest that alcoholics recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioural demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance or decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks. However, on direct comparison of the two groups, the results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons; therefore, the present findings need further exploration.

  17. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Tamie Yoshimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 53 adults who were in treatment for alcohol dependence at a Brazilian public university outpatient service. Assessment instruments Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses between the categorical outcome (Probable SAD: SPIN ≥ 19 and explanatory variables were conducted. Correlates of SPIN total and subscales scores (dimensional outcomes were also investigated. Results The diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence occurred, on average, 30 years after the onset of alcohol use and 39.6% of the 53 patients (37 men and 16 women reported alleviation of social anxiety symptoms with alcohol use. Twenty-four (45.3% patients presented probable SAD. These patients differed from non-SAD alcohol-dependent individuals by having lower income and higher frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts. The SPIN subscales mostly associated with suicidal behaviors were social inadequacy and social inferiority. Conclusions SAD symptoms are common among help-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals and should be directly investigated and treated, since depression and suicidality are associated with this comorbidity. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of SAD treatment on the clinical course of alcohol dependence.

  18. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya; Ozlem Aycan Kaya; Umit Sertan Copoglu; Sibel Elmacioglu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites found in humans and live on the pilosebaceous glands and hair follicles especially on the facial region. Chronic alcohol consumption can weaken immune system and cause more severe infections. Demodex spp is assumed to be more common in alcohol-dependent patients due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of Demodex spp. ectoparasite in alc...

  19. Vitamin-Dependent Methionine Metabolism and Alcoholic Liver Disease1

    OpenAIRE

    Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ethanol-induced alterations in hepatic methionine metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Because malnutrition is a universal clinical finding in this disease and hepatic methionine metabolism is dependent upon dietary folate and vitamins B-6 and B-12, ALD can be considered an induced nutritional disorder that is conditioned by alcohol abuse. The present review describes the etiologies of these 3 vitamin deficiencie...

  20. Metabolic syndrome in alcohol-dependent men: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context to mental illness metabolic syndrome (MS has gained significant attention in the last decade. The present research aimed to study the prevalence of MS and its correlates among the alcohol-dependent men at a deaddiction center in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was done for consecutive male subjects who met the diagnosis of alcohol-dependence syndrome currently using alcohol according to the International Clinical Diagnostic criteria- tenth revision mental and behavioral disorder- Clinical description and diagnostic guidelines criteria (ICD-10. The subjects were evaluated for alcohol consumption and the components of MS as per the International Diabetic Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP-III. Results: A total of 200 male subjects were studied: 100 subjects meeting ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence currently using alcohol; 50 each of genetically related controls and nongenetically related healthy controls. As per the IDF (with ethnicity specific modifications for waist circumference and NCEP ATP- III definitions, respectively, MS was found to be less prevalent in alcohol-dependent subjects (27% and 18% in comparison the healthy controls (30% and 20%. Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that irrespective of the amount the current alcohol intake is associated with a lower prevalence of MS and a favorable effect on serum high density lipoproteins and waist circumference. However, the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow any definitive causal inference.

  1. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  3. Impact of Exposure to Childhood Maltreatment on Transitions to Alcohol Dependence in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M.; Smith, Philip H.; Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment decreases age of first use and speeds the transition from first use to dependence (i.e., telescoping) for alcohol use, however, it is currently unknown whether this influence is the same for men and women. Method Analyses were conducted with the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653). Outcome variables included: age of alcohol initiation and time to onset of DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Predictor variables included: gender and childhood maltreatment. Linear and Poisson regression analyses were conducted. Results Results demonstrated that in regards to age of drinking initiation, individuals who experienced childhood maltreatment initiated 1 year earlier than those without maltreatment, however, there was no interaction of this relationship with gender. Regarding the time to dependence, it was found that women who experienced childhood maltreatment demonstrated telescoping (shorter time between onset and dependence) compared to women without maltreatment and men (both with and without maltreatment). Conclusion Women with a history of childhood maltreatment are particularly vulnerable to an accelerated time from initiation of alcohol use until dependence, a pattern indicative of increased negative alcohol related outcomes. Findings highlight the need for development of gender-specific prevention efforts and behavioral treatments to aid in early intervention of problematic alcohol use in women. PMID:26130105

  4. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Post, Hans; Tarvainen, Mika; de Bruijn, Avalon; Perna, Elizabeth De Sousa Fernandes; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients' natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response to experimental exposure to alcohol and soft drink advertisements were measured during detoxification treatment using heart rate variability and subjective rating of craving. Following discharge, patients monitored exposure to alcohol advertisements for five consecutive weeks with a diary and were followed up with an assessment of relapse at 5 weeks and 3 months post-discharge. The results indicated that the presence of alcohol cues such as the portrayal of the drug and drinking behaviour induced physiological cue reactivity and craving. Additionally, cue reactivity and craving were positively correlated, and cue reactivity was larger for patients with shorter histories of alcohol dependence. Further, patients reported a substantial daily exposure to alcohol cues. The magnitude of cue reactivity and the craving response to alcohol cues at baseline and degree of exposure to alcohol cues in patients' natural environment did not predict relapse. It is concluded that the presence of alcohol cues such as portrayal of alcoholic beverages and drinking behaviour induces cue reactivity and craving in alcohol dependence through a conditioned appetitive response. PMID:26257163

  5. Childhood Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Use and Abuse Across the Lifespan in Alcohol-Dependent Men

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Laura B.; Haber, John Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between childhood religious affiliation and alcohol use across the lifespan. A sample of 931 men (average age of 51) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, which includes an over-representation of alcohol-dependent men, completed the Lifetime Drinking History interview, which assessed drinking across the lifespan. Childhood religious affiliation was obtained from the men’s spouse/partner. Affiliations were subdivided into four categories: non-religious...

  6. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    OpenAIRE

    F. G. Moreira; Quintana, M. I.; W. Ribeiro; R. A. Bressan; Mello, M. F.; J.J. Mari; S.B. Andreoli

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminali...

  7. Central pontine myelinolysis in a case of alcohol dependence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Fernandes, Austin B; Goyal, Sunil; Shanker, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome includes Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Extrapontine Myelinolysis. This condition has been described in cases of chronic Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and in rapid correction of hyponatremia. Though we frequently see patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome presenting with complicated withdrawal, Central Pontine Myelinolysis remains largely undetected and under-reported in literature. We present here a case of protracted Delirium Tremens where MRI brain revealed Central Pontine Myelinolysis. Subsequently cognitive assessment revealed significant dysfunction and brain SPECT showed hypo-perfusion of the frontal lobes. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome should be suspected in protracted Delirium Tremens. PMID:27212829

  8. Central pontine myelinolysis in a case of alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome includes Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Extrapontine Myelinolysis. This condition has been described in cases of chronic Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and in rapid correction of hyponatremia. Though we frequently see patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome presenting with complicated withdrawal, Central Pontine Myelinolysis remains largely undetected and under-reported in literature. We present here a case of protracted Delirium Tremens where MRI brain revealed Central Pontine Myelinolysis. Subsequently cognitive assessment revealed significant dysfunction and brain SPECT showed hypo-perfusion of the frontal lobes. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome should be suspected in protracted Delirium Tremens.

  9. Social Pressure-Induced Craving in Patients with Alcohol Dependence: Application of Virtual Reality to Coping Skill Training

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung Suk; Namkoong, Kee; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Park, Ji Yeon; Choi, You Kyong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Sun I. Kim; Jung, Young-Chul

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the interaction between alcohol cues and social pressure in the induction of alcohol craving. Methods Fourteen male patients with alcohol dependence and 14 age-matched social drinkers completed a virtual reality coping skill training program composed of four blocks according to the presence of alcohol cues (×2) and social pressure (×2). Before and after each block, the craving levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. Results Patients wit...

  10. Developmental differences in childhood motor coordination predict adult alcohol dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim;

    2005-01-01

    hypothesized that developmental deficits in the cerebellar vermis may also play a role in the initiation of adult alcohol dependence. The present study evaluated whether measures of motor development in the first year of life predict alcohol dependence three decades later. METHODS: A total of 241 subjects of...... the original 330 infants who were entered into this study completed the 30-year follow-up (12 had died). The subjects were men who were drawn from a large birth cohort born in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 1959 to 1961. A comprehensive series of measures were obtained on each subject before, during, and...... alcoholism and early delays in motor development offer support for the theory that cerebellar deficits may play a causal role in the addiction process....

  11. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana dependence in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Aharonovich, Efrat; Strous, Rael; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance dependence is more common among trauma-exposed individuals; however, most studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) accounts for the link between trauma exposure (TE) and substance dependence. Objectives This study examined associations between TE and substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), and whether PTSD accounted for this association. Method 1,317 Jewish Israeli household residents completed in-person structured interviews assessing TE, PTSD, and substance (alcohol, nicotine, marijuana) dependence between 2007–2009. Regression analyses examined associations among TE, PTSD, and substance dependence. Results In the full sample, mean number of traumatic events was 2.7 (sd=2.2), with 83.7% experiencing at least one event. In the full sample, mean number of PTSD symptoms was 2.5 (sd=3.4), with 13.5% meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria. Prevalence of alcohol dependence was 13.4%; nicotine dependence 52.8%; and marijuana dependence 12.1%. Number of traumatic events was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2–1.4) and nicotine (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3) dependence. Similarly, any traumatic event exposure was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR= 3.1; 95% CI= 1.6–6.0) and nicotine (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2–2.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms were associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1–1.3), nicotine (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.1–1.2), and marijuana (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.04–1.2) dependence; similarly, a PTSD diagnosis was associated with increased odds of alcohol (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.1–5.5), nicotine (OR=2.2; 95% CI = 1.4–3.4), and marijuana (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2–5.9) dependence. PTSD symptoms accounted for a sizeable proportion of the TE effect on alcohol (46%) and nicotine dependence (31%). Conclusion Individuals with more traumatic events had heightened risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence, and PTSD symptoms partially accounted for this risk. However, marijuana

  12. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  13. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra S. Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overview of the preclinical procedures used to study drug abuse and dependence and describe recent progress that has been made in studying more specific aspects of addictive behavior in animals.

  14. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  15. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  17. Sexual dysfunction in patients with alcohol and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of studies which have evaluated the sexual dysfunction (SD in patients with alcohol and opioids dependence. This article reviews the existing literature. Electronic searches were carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect to locate the relevant literature. Subjects addicted to heroin or on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT show higher rates of SD in comparison to the general population. SD rates have ranged 34-85% for heroin addicts, 14-81% for MMT, 36-83% for BMT, and 90% for naltrexone maintenance. The rates of SD in alcohol-dependent population have ranged 40-95.2%, with rates being consistently much higher in alcohol-dependent population than in the healthy controls or social drinkers. The common SDs reported have been erectile dysfunction followed by premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation and decreased sexual desire among men, and dyspareunia and vaginal dryness among women. This review suggests that long-term use of alcohol and opioids are associated with SD in almost all domains of sexual functioning. There is a need to increase the awareness of clinicians about this association as many times SD in patients with substance abuse lead to poor treatment compliance and relapse. Further, there is a need to carry out more number of studies to understand the relationship in a better way.

  18. Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Dunn, Gerald; Bertelsen, Sarah; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Wang, Jen C.; Robert Cloninger, C.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2007-01-01

    Dependence on alcohol and illicit drugs frequently co-occur. Results from a number of twin studies suggest that heritable influences on alcohol dependence and drug dependence may substantially overlap. Using large, genetically informative pedigrees from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed quantitative linkage analyses using a panel of 1717 SNPs. Genome-wide linkage analyses were conducted for quantitative measures of DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria, c...

  19. Baclofen and severe alcohol dependence: an uncertain harm-benefit balance as of early 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severe, chronic illness. Even the best-assessed drugs used to maintain abstinence are poorly effective. Some patients remain dependent after several treatment attempts. Baclofen has been tested for its capacity to reduce craving for alcohol. We reviewed the data available as of early 2013, using the standard Prescrire methodology, in order to assess the harm-benefit balance of baclofen in maintaining abstinence or moderation in alcohol-dependent patients. Two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials conducted by the same team tested baclofen 30 mg/day in 123 alcohol-dependent patients referred to alcohol treatment centres. After 1 or 3 months of followup, more patients remained abstinent in the baclofen group than in the placebo group. In another double-blind, randomised trial, baclofen 30 mg/day was not more effective than placebo in 80 alcohol-dependent patients recruited through advertisements, many of whom were seeking treatment for the first time. Three uncontrolled retrospective series reported the results obtained in 300 alcohol-dependent patients, most of whom were in treatment failure. They were treated with high, escalating doses of baclofen (on average about 150 mg per day, up to 400 mg per day) with the intention of reducing their craving for alcohol. After 3 to 24 months of follow-up, about half of the patients reported moderate or zero alcohol consumption. At moderate doses, baclofen has been used since the 1970s in the treatment of certain forms of muscle spasticity. The main adverse effects reported in this setting were drowsiness (especially early during treatment) and various neuropsychiatric disorders such as dizziness, euphoria, depression, headache, paraesthesias, speech disorders, ataxia and insomnia. The adverse effects of high-dose baclofen are mainly based on monitoring of hundreds of alcohol-dependent patients, 69 reports to French pharmacovigilance centres in 2011, and cases of overdose or accidental

  20. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  1. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment, and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency.

  2. Criminal Justice and Alcohol Treatment: Results from a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug treatment and past year treatment utilization (versus neither) on past year legal involvement, demographic, and clinical information. In general, results found stronger associations between frequency of criminal justice involvement for treatment utilization compared to perceived need for treatment alone. Treatment utilization was also associated with being on probation, arrests for drug possession/sale and DUI but perceived need was not. Study results suggest opportunities for interventions to increase treatment rates or treatment need, a major correlate of treatment utilization. PMID:22954511

  3. Dependence Induced Increases in Intragastric Alcohol Consumption (IGAC) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, Tara L.; Powers, Matthew S.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Crane, Andrew; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Smitasin, Phoebe; Cunningham, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments used the Intragastric Alcohol Consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (a) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (3, 6 or 9 infusions/day), (b) varying the dose per infusion (Low, Medium or ...

  4. Positive Selection on Loci Associated with Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Brooke; Haller, Gabe; Edenberg, Howard; Tischfield, Jay; Brooks, Andy; Kramer, John; Schuckit, Marc; Nurnberger, John; Goate, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs) on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans) to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima's D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to test for evidence of natural selection. Our results provide evidence for strong selection in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 8, previously found to be significantly associated with both nicotine and cocaine dependence, as well as evidence selection acting on the region containing the CHRNA5 nicotinic receptor gene on chromosome 15, that is genome wide significant for risk for nicotine dependence. To examine the possibility that this selection is related to memory and learning, we utilized genetic data from the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to test variants within these regions with three tests of memory and learning, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design, WAIS Digit Symbol and WAIS Information tests. Of the 17 SNPs genotyped in COGA in this region, we find one significantly associated with WAIS digit symbol test results. This test captures aspects of reaction time and memory, suggesting that a phenotype relating to memory and learning may have been the driving force behind selection at these loci. This study could begin to explain why these seemingly deleterious SNPs are present at their current frequencies. PMID:26270548

  5. Positive Selection on Loci Associated with Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Sadler

    Full Text Available Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima's D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS to test for evidence of natural selection. Our results provide evidence for strong selection in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 8, previously found to be significantly associated with both nicotine and cocaine dependence, as well as evidence selection acting on the region containing the CHRNA5 nicotinic receptor gene on chromosome 15, that is genome wide significant for risk for nicotine dependence. To examine the possibility that this selection is related to memory and learning, we utilized genetic data from the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA to test variants within these regions with three tests of memory and learning, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS Block Design, WAIS Digit Symbol and WAIS Information tests. Of the 17 SNPs genotyped in COGA in this region, we find one significantly associated with WAIS digit symbol test results. This test captures aspects of reaction time and memory, suggesting that a phenotype relating to memory and learning may have been the driving force behind selection at these loci. This study could begin to explain why these seemingly deleterious SNPs are present at their current frequencies.

  6. ADDITIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EVIDENCES ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexinschi, Ovidiu; Chirita, Roxana; Manuela, Padurariu; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Romeo; Petrariu, F D; Timofte, Daniel; Chirita, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior. Thus, in the present paper we were interested in understanding the demographics of this systemic theory and how these aspects are influencing the final results of the therapy, as well as studying/confirming how relevant is this systemic approach on the management of alcohol dependence. Our results presented in this report bring additional evidences for the superiority of the systemic, multi-family approach of alcohol-related problems, as complemented to the standard medicinal therapy. Moreover, the data collected from patients in this study might suggest that patients with a higher educational level and therefore better capacity of understanding the information, with family support, and also with a better occupational insertion, have accepted to follow The Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment program, with a subsequently better evolution. PMID:26793858

  7. Computerized tomographic study on the brain of patients with alcohol dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred ten patients with alcohol dependence and 56 psychiatric patients with either senile dementia, amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or chronic schizophrenia were investigated with a CT scan of the brain. The maximum width of the 3rd ventricle was measured, and the presence/absence of enlargement of the lateral ventricle and of atrophy of the frontal lobe was determined independently by 3 physicians. The width of the 3rd ventricle in alcoholic and the other patients examined was gradually enlarged with aging, and the width in these patients was significantly larger than that in the age-matched control patients who were selected from the patients with amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or schizophrenia. The enlargement of the lateral ventricles observed in the alcoholic patients always accompanied the enlargement of the 3rd ventricle, but not vice versa. The alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy showed a higher incidence of withdrawal delirium than the patients without atrophy. These findings suggest that the chronic intake of alcohol might affect primarily the area around the 3rd ventricle, resulting in enlargement of this ventricle and consequential enlargement of the lateral ventricles and also that the alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy could have a high risk for a manifestation of alcoholic withdrawal delirium. (author)

  8. Biological and behavioral aspects regarding combined systemic management of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexinschi Ovidiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are numerous ideas on the management of alcohol dependence, ranging from various schemes of pharmacologic treatment to specific psychotherapeutic approaches, the reviews and meta-analyses reveal only modest effects of these approaches. Another approach regarding the problem of alcohol is based on the behavioral biology, specifying that consumption of alcohol is actually a type of behavior, a way of life. The results presented in this report provide evidence to support the idea that the systemic, ethological approach of alcohol-related and complex problems brings additional value when complementing the standard medicinal therapy, both in terms of achieving and maintaining abstinence, as well as in improving the quality of life for the patients.

  9. Defense Mechanisms in Alcohol Dependent Patients with Oral and Oropharinegal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Petrić, Daniela; Frančišković, Tanja; Juretić, Mirna; Šuković, Zoran; Graovac, Mirjana; Rački, Sanjin; Ružić, Tatjana; Britvić, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    The effects of psychological factors in alcoholics with malignant tumor of the oral cavity and oropharynx are scarcely explored. The aim of the research was to examine early family relations and investigate differences in the use of defense mechanisms in alcohol dependent patients suffering from malignant tumor of the oral cavity and oropharynx compared to alcohol dependent persons without malignant tumors and healthy controls. The research included 51 alcohol dependent patients t...

  10. Strain dependent neurochemical changes induced by embryonic alcohol exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disease of the child resulting from alcohol (ethanol) consumption by pregnant women. Despite being preventable, FASD represents a prevalent problem throughout the world. Embryonic alcohol induced abnormalities in behavioral responses to social stimuli have been shown in humans and zebrafish. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the abnormalities remain obscured. Here we start a mechanistic analysis by investigating the effect of embryonic alcohol exposure on the neurochemistry of zebrafish. The differing severity of symptoms seen in FASD may be partially due to genetic factors. To explore such genetic effects, here we analyzed two distinct zebrafish strains: AB and TU. Zebrafish were exposed to one of the following concentrations of alcohol, 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, or 1.00% (vol/vol %) at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) for 2h. From whole brain extracts we analyzed the amount of neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin and their metabolites across 4 different developmental time points: 15, 40, 70 and 102 days post-fertilization (dpf) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AB zebrafish exhibited a significant dose dependent embryonic alcohol exposure effect which increased in robustness with age. However, TU showed no such concentration effect: the levels of neurochemicals remained mainly unaltered by embryonic alcohol exposure in all age groups. We also analyzed the amount of alcohol reaching the embryo in the two strains and ruled out the possibility that TU has a more protective chorion. We conclude that the uncovered strain differences are due to genetic differences that protect TU from the deleterious effects of embryonic alcohol exposure. PMID:24225385

  11. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  12. THE IMPACT ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND NEURODEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENT FATHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koustubh R.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children of parents with alcohol dependence syndrome are particularly at high risk of emotional and behavioral problems such as learning disability, hyperactivity, psychomotor delays, somatic symptoms and emotional problems. Neuropsychological functions in these children have been the focus of attention over the last decade. AIM: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of behavioral and cognitive problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, with no known psychiatric illness; aged between 5 and 10 years (B oth male & female; with mother having GHQ scores less than 4, formed the study group and control group formed by the children of normal. 108 such Children (54 in Study group and 54 in Control group were evaluated for psychopathology, neuro development and cognitive functioning. Tools used were: DSM IV criteria for diagnosis of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 28, and Socio - demographic data sheet, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (WISC - IV, Trail Making Test (TMT and Neurodevelopment Scale. RESULTS: Behavioral, emotional difficulties and Neuro developmental deficits are commonly seen in children of alcohol - dependent parents as they scored statistically significant high scores on Neurodevelopmental Scale, Externalizing subscale and a marginal high score on Internalizing Subscale of CBCL. On the WISC - IV , there was a statistically significant difference in various subtests and indices including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and total intellectual quotient ; indicating a global dysfunction. On the TMT, children of alcohol - dependent parents took as much time to do the task as the control group but tended to make more errors and this difference is

  13. A STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND COMORBIDITY OF DEPRESSION IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Abdul; Kunwar, Arun Raj; Rajbhandari, K.C.; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Regmi, Shishir K.

    2000-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are wide spread in alcohol abusing patients of all ages and are much more common than diagnosable depressive disorder. Studies have reported that depression diagnosed in the current episode of alcoholism remits after two weeks of abstinence and detoxification from alcohol. Despite the high prevalence of depression in alcohol dependent individuals, the nature of the relationship between depressive disorder and alcohol abuse have been difficult to define. The present work wa...

  14. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Ipek; Yavuz; Ulusoy; Sahin,, M.Ö.; Kurt,

    2015-01-01

    Background Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), 44 patients with substance d...

  15. The Effect of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Consumption Among Individuals With Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among participants (N = 151) who were enrolled...

  16. P300 in alcohol dependence: Effects of TaqI-A genotype

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    M.A. Jiménez-Arriero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: TaqI-A polymorphism, related to D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2, and event-related P300 potentials have been considered markers of alcohol dependence. The effect of alcohol use variables and TaqI-A on P300 in a single sample have been hardly analysed previously. This study examined changes in P300 parameters after six months of abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects classified by their TaqI-A genotype. Methods: 102 men with alcohol dependence were studied at baseline and at 6 months of continued abstinence. P300 was recorded using an auditory paradigm. TaqI-A polymorphism was genotyped: 34.3% of sample was classified as A1[TaqI-A1/TaqI-A1and TaqI-A1/TaqI-A2] and 65.7% as A2 [TaqI-A2/TaqI-A2]. The association between P300 and TaqI-A and the correlation with age and alcohol consumption were considered. Results: The abstinence period was not associated to differences in neither P300 latency (F[1, 99] = 1.154 p = 0.285 nor amplitude (F[1, 99] = 1.453, p = 0.231. A1 subgroup was related to a longer latency (F[1, 99] = 5.055 p = 0.027, an early abuse age onset (F[1, 100] = 14.552 p <0.001 and close to be significant to an early dependence age onset (F[1, 100] = 3.868 p = 0.052. Other drinking pattern variables were not associated to p300 measures. Family history for alcoholism and TaqI-A were not related (X[1] = 0.327 p = 0.568 and no association was found with p300 measures. Current age correlated positively with P300 latency (F[1, 99] = 26.082, p <0,001 and negatively with amplitude (F[1, 99] = 5.297 p = 0.023. P300 amplitude was not influenced by alcohol use variables nor TaqI-A polymorphism. Conclusions: P300 latency could be a biological marker of vulnerability to alcohol dependence related to TaqI-A1 polymorphism, irrespective of alcohol use variables.

  17. Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from two Scandinavian case-control studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källberg, H; Jacobsen, Søren; Bengtsson, C;

    2009-01-01

    citrullinated peptide antigens, alcohol consumption reduced the risk most in smokers carrying HLA-DRB1 SE alleles. CONCLUSIONS: The observed inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of RA and the recent demonstration of a preventive effect of alcohol in experimental arthritis indicate that alcohol......OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and alcohol consumption in combination with smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). METHODS: Data from two independent case-control studies of RA, the Swedish EIRA (1204 cases and 871 controls) and the Danish...... CACORA (444 cases and 533 controls), were used to estimate ORs of developing RA for different amounts of alcohol consumed. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was significantly more common in controls (p<0.05) and dose-dependently associated with reduced risk of RA (p for trend <0.001) in both studies. Among...

  18. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

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    Gentili Claudio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT Unit – University of Pisa (Italy. We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol.

  19. EEG alpha phenotypes: linkage analyses and relation to alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

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    Phillips Evelyn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for a high degree of heritability of EEG alpha phenotypes has been demonstrated in twin and family studies in a number of populations. However, information on linkage of this phenotype to specific chromosome locations is still limited. This study's aims were to map loci linked to EEG alpha phenotypes and to determine if there was overlap with loci previously mapped for alcohol dependence in an American Indian community at high risk for substance dependence. Methods Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview using the Semi Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. Bipolar EEGs were collected and spectral power determined in the alpha (7.5-12.0 Hz frequency band for two composite scalp locations previously identified by principal components analyses (bilateral fronto-central and bilateral centro-parietal-occipital. Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 micro-satellite polymorphisms in 410 members of multiplex families using SOLAR. Results Sixty percent of this study population had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores, for the EEG alpha power phenotype, revealed two loci that had a LOD score of 3.0 or above for the fronto-central scalp region on chromosomes 1 and 6. Additionally, 4 locations were identified with LOD scores above 2.0 on chromosomes 4, 11, 14, 16 for the fronto-central location and one on chromosome 2 for the centro-parietal-occipital location. Conclusion These results corroborate the importance of regions on chromosome 4 and 6 highlighted in prior segregation studies in this and other populations for alcohol dependence-related phenotypes, as well as other areas that overlap with other substance dependence phenotypes identified in previous linkage studies in other populations. These studies additionally support the construct that EEG alpha recorded from fronto-central scalp areas may

  20. Suppression of Alcohol Dependence Using Baclofen: A 2-Year Observational Study of 100 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of baclofen in a large cohort of alcohol-dependent patients compliant to baclofen treatment. Methods: A hundred patients with alcohol dependence, resistant to usual treatments, were treated with escalating doses of baclofen (no superior limit). Alcohol consumption (in grams) and craving for alcohol were assessed before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Assessments were simply based on patients’ statements. The outcom...

  1. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  2. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEVERITY OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE WITH AGE OF ONSET AND FAMILY HISTORY AMONG URBAN ALCOHOLICS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A potentially powerful predictor of progression to alcohol-related harm is age at first use. Evidence suggests that the earlier the age at which young people take their first drink of alcohol, the greater the risk of abusive consumption and the development of alcohol related disorders. Equally important is the family history of alcoholism, which is associated with early age of drinking. AIM This study specifically aims to explore the relationship between severity of alcohol dependence with family history of alcoholism and age of onset of alcohol use. MATERIALS AND METHODS For a period of six months, we conducted a cross sectional study among 200 male subjects aged between 20–50 years who reported the alcohol and drug dependence clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, Tamilnadu State with problem drinking in the past one year. We used Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-AD, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ, Family History Method, and Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN for assessment. 123 subjects were Family History Positive (FHP and 77 were family history negative (FHN. The data was analysed using a computerized Statistical Software programme (SPSS version 20.0 for windows. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the socio-demographic variables. Student t-test was used to compare between ordinal groups. Pearson’s correlation was used for assessing the correlation between the variables. RESULTS The mean severity scores were significantly different between the early age of onset and late age of onset groups. The mean current age in the FHP was 38.61±8.59 and 42.12±6.90 in FHN. The Mean AOO in the FHP was 22.89±4.61 and in the FHN was 26.51±26.51 and was significantly different from each other (P<0.000. The Mean SADQ score were 44.59±10.79 in FHP and 38.96±11.50 in the FHN. This was also significantly

  4. Exposure to Traumatic Events Among Treatment-Seeking, Alcohol Dependent Women and Men without PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Candace S.; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Blom, Thomas J.; Anthenelli, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined lifetime exposure to a range of traumatic events in 106 abstinent, treatment-engaged (85% residential; 15% outpatient), alcohol dependent women (n = 53) and men without current or lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder. Alcohol dependent women reported greater severity of childhood trauma, but similar lifetime exposure to traumatic events compared with men. Alcohol dependent women without cocaine abuse or dependence (n = 10) reported greater severity of childhood trauma than women...

  5. The metabolic syndrome in patients with alcohol dependency: Current research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Kai G; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between alcohol dependency and disorders such as liver disease and cancer has been thoroughly researched. However, the effects of alcohol on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Several reports found low to moderate alcohol consumption to be associated with a lower risk for cardiometabolic disorders. In contrast, excessive alcohol consumption has been related to an increased risk. Most of these studies were performed in non-clinical populations, therefore limiting the explanatory power to non-dependent patients. Only a few studies examined cardiovascular disorders and cardiovascular risk factors, in particular the metabolic syndrome (MetS), in alcohol dependent patients. We here present a narrative review of studies performed so far on the MetS in alcohol dependency, and provide current hypotheses on the association of alcohol dependency, appetite regulation and the development of the MetS. PMID:27174541

  6. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndrewR.Tapper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused. As many as 80-95% of alcoholics are also smokers, suggesting that ethanol and nicotine, the primary addictive component of tobacco smoke, may functionally interact in the central nervous system and/or share a common mechanism of action. While nicotine initiates dependence by binding to and activating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, ligand-gated cation channels normally activated by endogenous acetylcholine (ACh, ethanol is much less specific with the ability to modulate multiple gene products including those encoding voltage-gated ion channels, and excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. However, emerging data indicate that ethanol interacts with nAChRs, both directly and indirectly, in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic reward circuitry to affect brain reward systems. Like nicotine, ethanol activates DAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Blockade of VTA nAChRs reduces ethanol-mediated activation of DAergic neurons, NAc DA release, consumption, and operant responding for ethanol in rodents. Thus, ethanol may increase ACh release into the VTA driving activation of DAergic neurons through nAChRs. In addition, ethanol potentiates distinct nAChR subtype responses to ACh and nicotine in vitro and in DAergic neurons. The smoking cessation therapeutic and nAChR partial agonist, varenicline, reduces alcohol consumption in heavy drinking smokers and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms in nAChR subunit genes are associated with alcohol dependence phenotypes and smoking behaviors in human populations. Together, results from preclinical, clinical, and genetic studies indicate that nAChRs may have an inherent role in the abusive properties of ethanol, as well as in nicotine and alcohol co-dependence.

  7. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men end...

  8. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  9. Alcohol-related brief intervention in patients treated for opiate or cocaine dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of heavy drinking and alcohol dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence, few studies have evaluated specific interventions within this group. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and of brief intervention (BI on alcohol use in a sample of patients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in a specialized outpatient clinic. Methods Adult outpatients treated for opioid or cocaine dependence in Switzerland were screened for excessive alcohol drinking and dependence with the AUDIT. Patients with AUDIT scores that indicated excessive drinking or dependence were randomized into two groups--treatment as usual or treatment as usual together with BI--and assessed at 3 months and 9 months. Results Findings revealed a high rate (44% of problematic alcohol use (excessive drinking and dependence among patients with opiate and cocaine dependence. The number of drinks per week decreased significantly between T0 (inclusion and T3 (month 3. A decrease in average AUDIT scores was observed between T0 and T3 and between T0 and T9 (month 9. No statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed. Conclusions In a substance abuse specialized setting, screening for alcohol use with the AUDIT, followed by feedback on the score, and use of alcohol BI are both possibly useful strategies to induce changes in problematic alcohol use. Definitive conclusions cannot, however, be drawn from the study because of limitations such as lack of a naturalistic group. An important result of the study is the excellent internal consistency of AUDIT in a population treated for opiate or cocaine dependence.

  10. Drosophila larvae as a model to study physiological alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Brooks G.; Khurana, Sukant; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a disease that includes a diverse set of phenotypes. Functional alcohol tolerance is an adaptation to the effects of alcohol that restores neuronal homeostatic balance while the drug is present. When the drug is suddenly withheld, these adaptations unbalance the nervous system and are thought to be the origin of some withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms, which can be a motivating factor for alcoholics to relapse, are taken as evidence of physiological ethanol dependen...

  11. Suicidal behavior among alcohol dependents: Relationship with anger and personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol dependents have high percentage of nonfatal suicidal behaviors. There is no substantial data on anger and personality correlates of suicidal behaviors among alcohol users. The present work explored the relationship of anger and personality with suicidal behaviors among alcohol-dependent individuals. Materials and Methods: Sociodemographic data sheet, State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI, and Neo Five-Factor Inventory (NFFI were administered on 30 subjects who had lifetime history of suicidal attempt. Results: A total of 80% attempted suicide in the intoxicated states, 56.7% were high on trait anger, and 60% were high on anger expression outward. A significant negative correlation was found between expressing feelings (verbally/physically openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. A significant positive correlation was found between anger expression inward and neuroticism. Conclusions: It helped in understanding the psychological variables associated with suicidal behavior among alcohol-dependent individuals and has implications for addressing neuroticism openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness for bringing change in anger expression.

  12. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD, 44 patients with substance dependence (SD, and 43 volunteers without AD or SD (control group were enrolled. Socio-demographic information form, Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS, and metacognitive questionaire-30 (MCQ-30 were used to evaluate the participants. Results Patients with AD had significantly lower “tolerance” subscale and total DTS scores than those with SD and control group(P = 0.008 for SD sample and P = 0.004 for control group. Patients with SD had significantly higher scores in “appraisal” subscale DTS than control group (P = 0.005. Patients of both AD and SD groups had significantly higher scores in “positive beliefs” subscale of MCQ-30 than control group (P = 0.012 for AD group and P = 0. 001 for SD group. There was no significant difference between AD and SD groups in any MCQ-30 subscale and total scores (P = 0.440. Conclusions Metacognitive regulation strategies are more considerable prediction than emotional regulation strategies in SD group than in AD group. Individuals with AD use alcohol as a means of both cognitive and emotional regulation strategy.

  13. Treatment in hospital for alcohol-dependent patients decreases attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaudias V

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Valentin Flaudias,1,2 Georges Brousse,1,2 Ingrid De Chazeron,1,2 François Planche,2 Julien Brun,2 Pierre-Michel Llorca1,2 1Clermont Université, EA 7280 NPsy-Sydo, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 2Pôle Psychiatrie B, CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background and objectives: Previous studies in alcohol-dependent patients have shown an attentional bias (AB under related substance cues, which can lead to relapse. This AB can be evaluated by the alcohol Stroop test (AST. The AST is a modified Stroop task in which participants have to name the color of an alcohol-related word or a neutral word. AB is the response-time difference between these two types of words. The goal of the current study was to examine modification of AB during specialized hospitalization for alcohol dependence, with the suppression of a training bias that could be present in within-subject design. Methods: Individuals with alcohol-dependence disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and admitted for withdrawal in the addiction unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (test group, n = 42 and persons with no alcohol or psychiatric disorder (control group, n = 16, recruited among colleagues and friends of the staff, performed the AST. A subgroup of the test group performed the AST in admission (admission group, n = 19, and another subgroup undertook the test immediately before discharge (discharge group, n = 23. Results: Results showed an AB only for patients seen at admission (F[1,55] = 3.283, P = 0.075. Moreover, we observed that the AB in the admission group (mean = 34 ms, standard deviation [SD] = 70.06 was greater than the AB in the control group (mean = 23 ms, SD = 93.42, itself greater than the AB in the discharge group (mean = −12 ms, SD = 93.55 (t[55] = −1.71; P = 0.09. Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, the present study provides evidence for changes in the AB during alcohol-addiction treatment

  14. Serum Levels of Growth Factors in Alcohol-dependent Patients according to Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Ahn, Donghyun; Hahm, Woong; Nam, Junghyun; Park, Yongchon; Lim, Seulgi; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to reveal the relationship of depression with growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in inpatients diagnosed with alcohol dependence, and to identify candidate growth factors as biological markers to indicate the comorbid of alcohol dependence and depression. Methods This study examined demographic factors in 45 alcohol-dependent patients. The ADS (Korean version of the Alco...

  15. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance use (N = 420). Results showed that opioid dependent women scored higher on 2 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, particularly the schemas of dependence and punitiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be largely consistent across women diagnosed with alcohol or opioid dependence. Implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:23494129

  16. Comparative study of marital adjustment and life satisfaction among spouses of patients with alcohol dependence and normal healthy control: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Results: There was significant difference in respect to life satisfaction among the spouses of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome and normal healthy control. Life satisfaction as well as marital adjustment was better in spouses of normal healthy control as compared to spouses of patients of alcohol dependence. Conclusions: There is significant difference in respect to life satisfaction among the spouses of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome and normal healthy control. Wives of normal healthy control had better marital adjustment as compared to spouses of alcohol dependence syndrome. There was positive co-relation between life satisfaction and marital adjustment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2246-2251

  17. Impact of social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available literature shows that studies with careful analysis of result were less in number, especially on impact of social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome. Aim: To study the influence of social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: A pre and post with control group design was adopted for the present study sampling design. Samples were selected by using the purposive sampling method, from the Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences. Ten caregivers in experimental and ten in control group were recruited. The researchers administered socio-demographic interview schedule and clinical data sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Result shows comparison of scores obtained after intervention in experimental group and control group. Social support mean was 45.60±4.14 and 41.60±3.56 in experimental and control group respectively. It shows there was significant difference between both groups, social support (Z=2.05, p<0.05. Conclusion: The finding indicates social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence plays pivotal role in improving the social support system of caregivers, protecting them from becoming prey of loneliness and aloofness.

  18. Gender Differences in Relationships among PTSD Severity, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol Use in a Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and PTSD Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lehavot, Keren; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinica...

  19. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathol...

  20. Temperature dependence studies on the electro-oxidation of aliphatic alcohols with modified platinum electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panadda Katikawong; Tanakorn Ratana; Waret Veerasai

    2009-05-01

    Temperature dependence on the electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol in 0.5 M H2SO4 were investigated with Pt and PtRu electrodes. Tafel slope and apparent activation energy were evaluated from the cyclic voltammetric data in the low potential region (0.3-0.5 V vs SHE). The CV results provided Tafel slopes for alcohols in the range of 200-400 mV dec-1 which indicated a difference in the rate determining step. The decrease in Tafel slope was only observed in the case of methanol for the Ru-modified Pt electrode. This indicates that Ru improves the rate of determining step for methanol while hindering it for the other alcohols. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the electro-oxidation mechanism of alcohols on these electrodes. The simulated EIS results provided two important parameters: charge transfer resistance () and inductance (). The $R^{-1}_{ct}$ and -1 represent the rate of alcohol electro-oxidation and rate of desorption of intermediate species, respectively. These values increased with the increasing of temperature. The results from two techniques were well agreed that the electro-oxidation of methanol was improved by raising the temperature and ruthenium modification.

  1. Criminal Justice and Alcohol Treatment: Results from a National Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Brenda M; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug tre...

  2. Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 alcohol-dependent patients (AD and 22 normal controls (NC. All participants were measured with BIS- 11, go/no-go task, WCST and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that BIS-11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients.

  3. Effects of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal on Stress Responsiveness and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2012-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body’s stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body’s neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produc...

  4. Gut region-dependent alterations of nitrergic myenteric neurons after chronic alcohol consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária; Bagyánszki; Nikolett; Bódi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse damages nearly every organ in the body. The harmful effects of ethanol on thebrain, the liver and the pancreas are well documented. Although chronic alcohol consumption causes serious impairments also in the gastrointestinal tract like altered motility, mucosal damage, impaired absorption of nu-trients and inflammation, the effects of chronically consumed ethanol on the enteric nervous system are less detailed. While the nitrergic myenteric neurons play an essential role in the regulation of gastrointestinal peristalsis, it was hypothesised, that these neurons are the first targets of consumed ethanol or its metabolites generated in the different gastrointestinal segments. To reinforce this hypothesis the effects of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract was investigated in different rodent models with quantitative immunohistochemistry, in vivo and in vitro motility measurements, western blot analysis, evaluation of nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity and bio-imaging of nitric oxide synthesis. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption did not result significant neural loss, but primarily impaired the nitrergic pathways in gut region-dependent way leading to disturbed gastrointestinal motility. The gut segment-specific differences in the effects of chronic alcohol consumption highlight the significance the ethanol-induced neuronal microenvironment involving oxidative stress and intestinal microbiota.

  5. Dependence induced increases in intragastric alcohol consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Tara L; Powers, Matthew S; Ramirez, Jason J; Crane, Andrew; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Smitasin, Phoebe; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments used the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine the effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (1) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (three, six or nine infusions/day); (2) varying the dose per infusion (low, medium or high); and (3) varying the duration of passive exposure (3, 5 or 10 days). All experiments included control groups passively exposed to water. B6 mice generally self-infused more ethanol than D2 mice, but passive ethanol exposure increased IGAC in both strains, with D2 mice showing larger relative increases during the first few days of ethanol access. Bout data supported the characterization of B6 mice as sippers and D2 mice as gulpers. Three larger infusions per day produced a stronger effect on IGAC than six or nine smaller infusions, especially in D2 mice. Increased IGAC was strongly predicted by cumulative ethanol dose and intoxication during passive exposure in both strains. Withdrawal during the passive exposure phase was also a strong predictor of increased IGAC in D2 mice. However, B6 mice showed little withdrawal, precluding analysis of its potential role. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that dependence-induced increases in IGAC are jointly determined by two processes that might vary across genotypes: (1) tolerance to aversive postabsorptive ethanol effects and (2) negative reinforcement (i.e. alleviation of withdrawal by self-administered ethanol). PMID:21955048

  6. The Factor Structure and Severity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms in Psychiatric Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure and estimated severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in a sample of treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. Participants (n = 1027, 51.2% women) met the screening criteria for the lifetime assessment of alcohol use disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I/P; First et al., 1995) and as a result completed an assessment of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The average a...

  7. Empirically Defined Subtypes of Alcohol Dependence in an Irish Family Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Sintov, Nicole D.; Kendler, Kenneth S; Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. The goal of this study was to explore AD subtypes among a sample of 1, 221 participants in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for AD. Variables used to identify the subtypes included major depressive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, illicit drug dependence (cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine, opioids, and hallucinogens), nicotine dependence, the personal...

  8. Haplotype-Based Study of the Association of Alcohol Metabolizing Genes with Alcohol Dependence in Four Independent Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jixia; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Mulligan, Connie J.; Wang, Alex; Gray, Rebecca R.; Roy, Alec; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David; Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethanol is metabolized by two rate limiting reactions: alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, subsequently metabolized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Approximately 50% of East Asians have genetic variants that significantly impair this pathway and influence alcohol dependence (AD) vulnerability. We investigated whether variation in alcohol metabolism genes might alter the AD risk in four non-East Asian populations by performing systematic haplotype association analyses in order to maximize the chances of capturing functional variation. Methods Haplotype-tagging SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Genotypes were available for 40 SNPs across the ADH genes cluster and 24 SNPs across the two ALDH genes in four diverse samples that included cases (lifetime AD) and controls (no Axis 1 disorders). The case, control sample sizes were: Finnish Caucasians: 232, 194; African Americans: 267, 422; Plains American Indians: 226, 110; Southwestern American (SW) Indians: 317, 72. Results In all four populations, as well as HapMap populations, five haplotype blocks were identified across the ADH gene cluster: (1) ADH5-ADH4; (2) ADH6-ADH1A-ADH1B; (3) ADH1C; (4) intergenic; (5) ADH7. The ALDH1A1 gene was defined by four blocks and ALDH2 by one block. No haplotype or SNP association results were significant after correction for multiple comparisons; however several results, particularly for ALDH1A1 and ADH4, replicated earlier findings. There was an ALDH1A1 block 1 and 2 (extending from intron 5 to the 3′ UTR) yin yang haplotype (haplotypes that have opposite allelic configuration) association with AD in the Finns driven by SNPs rs3764435 and rs2303317 respectively, and an ALDH1A1 block 3 (including the promoter region) yin yang haplotype association in SW Indians driven by 5 SNPs, all in allelic identity. The ADH4 SNP rs3762894 was associated with AD in Plains Indians. Conclusions The systematic evaluation of

  9. Alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol drinkers have a decreased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, whereas results for myeloid neoplasms are inconsistent. However, most of these studies have used retrospective data. We examined prospectively whether alcohol consumption decreases the ris

  10. Analysis of alcohol dependence in indigenous peoples in Northern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Savchenko

    2015-06-01

    More severe course of alcoholism among indigenous population of North of Siberia leads to the destruction of traditional lifestyles and reduction of the indigenous population in the northern territories of the Russian Federation.

  11. Fractional amplitude analysis of low frequency fluctuation in alcohol dependent individuals: a resting state functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore brain activity features during the resting state in alcohol dependent individuals, and study the relationship between the brain activity features and alcohol dependent individuals' clinical symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four alcohol dependent individuals and 22 healthy control subjects, well matched in gender, age, education and handedness, were enrolled as the alcohol dependent group and control group respectively. A GE 3.0 T MR scanner was used to acquire all the subjects' resting state data. DPARSF software was used to process resting functional MRI data, and then the whole brain fractional amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) data were acquired. Two-sample t test statistical analysis was made to access fALFF difference between the two groups. Results: In comparison with the control group, the alcohol dependent group showed reduced fALFF in bilateral medial prefrontal gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus, left precuneus,left inferior temporal gyrus, and left posterior lobe of cerebellum (0.64-1.69 vs. 0.87-1.78, t=-4.23- -2.79, P<0.05). fALFF was increased in the alcohol dependent group at the anterior cingulate,bilateral inferior frontal gyrus,right middle frontal gyrus,bilateral insular lobe,bilateral dorsal thalamus (0.86-1.82 vs. 0.76-1.58, t=3.56-3.96, P<0.05). Conclusion: Alcohol dependent individuals had abnormal activity at the bilateral prefrontal lobe,anterior cingulate, bilateral dorsal thalamus, bilateral insular lobe, left posterior lobe of cerebellum et al, during the resting state, and these abnormal activities might be related with clinical manifestation and pathophysiology. (authors)

  12. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, o...

  13. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ikeda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  14. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas. PMID:22073020

  15. Low digit ratio 2D:4D in alcohol dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Erhard, Gabriele; Lenz, Bernd; Kraus, Thomas; Sperling, Wolfgang; Bayerlein, Kristina; Biermann, Teresa; Stoessel, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth finger (2D∶4D) has been described as reflecting the degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. 2D∶4D is smaller for males than females and is associated with traits such as left-handedness, physical aggression, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and a genetic polymorphism of the androgen receptor. All of these traits are known to be correlated to the vulnerability for alcohol dependency. We therefore hypothesized low 2D∶4D in patients with alcohol dependency. In the present study on 131 patients suffering from alcohol dependency and 185 healthy volunteers, we found that alcohol dependent patients had smaller 2D∶4D ratios compared to controls with preserved sexual dimorphism but with reduced right-left differences. The detection of alcohol dependency based on 2D∶4D ratios was most accurate using the right hand of males (ROC-analysis: AUC 0.725, sensitivity 0.667, specificity 0.723). These findings provide novel insights into the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of alcohol dependency and for the use of 2D∶4D as a possible trait marker in identifying patients with alcohol dependency. PMID:21547078

  16. Low digit ratio 2D:4D in alcohol dependent patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kornhuber

    Full Text Available The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth finger (2D∶4D has been described as reflecting the degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. 2D∶4D is smaller for males than females and is associated with traits such as left-handedness, physical aggression, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and a genetic polymorphism of the androgen receptor. All of these traits are known to be correlated to the vulnerability for alcohol dependency. We therefore hypothesized low 2D∶4D in patients with alcohol dependency. In the present study on 131 patients suffering from alcohol dependency and 185 healthy volunteers, we found that alcohol dependent patients had smaller 2D∶4D ratios compared to controls with preserved sexual dimorphism but with reduced right-left differences. The detection of alcohol dependency based on 2D∶4D ratios was most accurate using the right hand of males (ROC-analysis: AUC 0.725, sensitivity 0.667, specificity 0.723. These findings provide novel insights into the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of alcohol dependency and for the use of 2D∶4D as a possible trait marker in identifying patients with alcohol dependency.

  17. Altering alcohol price by ethanol content: results from a Swedish tax policy in 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, W; Holder, H D; Gruenewald, P J; Romelsjö, A

    1997-07-01

    In July 1992, the Swedish alcohol retail monopoly reset the taxes for alcohol sold in state stores according to absolute alcohol content. This provided a unique opportunity to examine the effects on alcohol sales within the three beverage classes (beer, wine and spirits) in a situation where price is purposely linked to alcohol content. The most notable effects of the taxation change were a substantial compression of the range of prices for spirits and wine and a corresponding expansion of the price spectrum for beer. Consumers appear to have responded to these tax changes by shifting away from beverage brands that became relatively more expensive. These results suggest that alcohol policy strategies to reduce total alcohol consumption should consider the entire price/quality spectrum as well as differences in absolute alcohol per volume across the three alcohol beverage types. PMID:9293045

  18. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  19. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan JL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the B subunit of gaba-aminobutyric acid receptor, possesses pharmacologic properties that may confer utility for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Research suggests that not only can it be useful in promoting maintenance of alcohol abstinence but also it may play a key role in decreasing alcohol cravings and anxiety often associated with alcohol dependence. To assess the benefit of baclofen for alcohol dependence, a review of the literature was conducted to identify published data investigating this off-label treatment. Four randomized controlled trials to date have been published and were included in this review. Although primary outcomes differ between studies, patients randomized to baclofen experience higher rates of abstinence from alcohol than those taking placebo in two of the trials. Secondary analyses indicate that baclofen is safe in patients with alcohol dependence, including those with moderate to severe liver cirrhosis, and may provide beneficial anxiolytic effects. Despite some positive data, the largest available randomized controlled trial failed to find any differences between baclofen and placebo. In all studies, individuals with severe medical comorbidities, seizure disorders, and psychiatric disorders were excluded from trials, which may limit external validity. In summary, there may be beneficial effects from using baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence; however, limited conclusions can be drawn from the small number of studies

  20. SOME PERSONALITY FEATURES AS PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Butorac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other behavioural disorders, models of drug and alcohol abuse stem from interaction of several factors such as social settings, biological and psychological configuration, individual’s personality dimensions as well as psychoactive effect of drug. To-date research predominantly targeted consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, treatment, rehabilitation and the explanation of dependent person’s behaviour. Much less effort and research addressed the issue of personality as a potent predisposition risk factor and its effect on this phenomenon. Although personality does not develop as a separate entity, drug abuse, amongst other factors, is initiated by different personality traits, cognitive processes, person’s expectancies and psychopathology. In the light of that, this article contains results of psychological research which indicate risk factors and their interactive relationships within general personality construct. These findings therefore relevantly contribute to the development of effective prevention programmes, risk groups identification and early treatment interventions.

  1. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eBrevers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (AD and 32 controls performed an Ultimatum Game (UG, in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR. Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed are needed in order to examine whether - emotional and behavioral - reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD.

  2. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, C; Van den Brink, W; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large r

  3. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) of longitudinal brain structural and cognitive changes in alcohol-dependent individuals during sobriety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeh, P.H.; Gazdzinski, S.; Durazzo, T.C.; Sjöstrand, Karl; Meyerhoff, D.J.

    )-derived brain volume changes and cognitive changes in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals as a function of smoking status, smoking severity, and drinking quantities. Methods: Twenty non-smoking recovering alcoholics (nsALC) and 30 age-matched smoking recovering alcoholics (sALC) underwent quantitative MRI...... and cognitive assessments at 1 week, 1 month, and 7 months of sobriety. Eight non-smoking light drinking controls were studied at baseline and 7 months later. Brain and ventricle volumes at each time point were quantified using MRI masks, while the boundary shift integral method measured volume...... changes between time points. Using HLM, we modeled volumetric and cognitive outcome measures as a function of cigarette and alcohol use variables. Results: Different hierarchical linear models with unique model structures are presented and discussed. The results show that smaller brain volumes at baseline...

  4. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sertraline with naltrexone for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farren, Conor K

    2009-01-01

    Significant preclinical evidence exists for a synergistic interaction between the opioid and the serotonin systems in determining alcohol consumption. Naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, is approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This double-blind placebo-controlled study examined whether the efficacy of naltrexone would be augmented by concurrent treatment with sertraline, a selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitor (SSRI).

  5. Culture and Environment as Predictors of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms In American Indian Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-01-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spiri...

  6. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  7. Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effects in the nucleus accumbens relate to relapse in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbusow, Maria; Schad, Daniel J; Sebold, Miriam; Friedel, Eva; Bernhardt, Nadine; Koch, Stefan P; Steinacher, Bruno; Kathmann, Norbert; Geurts, Dirk E M; Sommer, Christian; Müller, Dirk K; Nebe, Stephan; Paul, Sören; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Walter, Henrik; Smolka, Michael N; Sterzer, Philipp; Rapp, Michael A; Huys, Quentin J M; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse. Pavlovian-to-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) may be one of those behavioral phenomena contributing to relapse, capturing how Pavlovian conditioned (contextual) cues determine instrumental behavior (e.g. alcohol seeking and intake). We used a PIT paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of classically conditioned Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental choices in n = 31 detoxified patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and n = 24 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Patients were followed up over a period of 3 months. We observed that (1) there was a significant behavioral PIT effect for all participants, which was significantly more pronounced in alcohol-dependent patients; (2) PIT was significantly associated with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in subsequent relapsers only; and (3) PIT-related NAcc activation was associated with, and predictive of, critical outcomes (amount of alcohol intake and relapse during a 3 months follow-up period) in alcohol-dependent patients. These observations show for the first time that PIT-related BOLD signals, as a measure of the influence of Pavlovian cues on instrumental behavior, predict alcohol intake and relapse in alcohol dependence. PMID:25828702

  8. Effects of Extinction Context and Retrieval Cues on Renewal of Alcohol-Cue Reactivity Among Alcohol-Dependent Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Bradizza, Clara M.

    2007-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning models have led to cue-exposure treatments for drug abuse. However, conditioned responding to drug stimuli can return (be renewed) following treatment. Animal research and a previous study of social drinkers indicated that extinction is highly context dependent but that renewal could be reduced by the inclusion of a cue from the extinction context. This study extends this research to a clinical sample. Alcohol-dependent outpatients (N = 143) completed an extinction tria...

  9. ADH1B is associated with alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in populations of European and African ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Bierut, Laura Jean; Goate, Alison M.; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric O.; Bertelsen, Sarah; Fox, Louis; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Grucza, Richard; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Saccone, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    A coding variant in ADH1B (rs1229984) that leads to the replacement of Arg48 with His48 is common in Asian populations and reduces their risk for alcoholism, but because of very low allele frequencies the effects in European or African populations have been difficult to detect. We genotyped and analyzed this variant in three large European and African-American case-control studies in which alcohol dependence was defined by DSM-IV criteria, and demonstrated a strong protective effect of the Hi...

  10. Gender differences in early maladaptive schemas in a treatment-seeking sample of alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  11. Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimkiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present current hypotheses on pathogenesis of dual diagnosis as well as recommendations for its treatment. The role of disturbances in functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathogenesis of co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with anxiety and affective disorders is presented. Researchers studying dual diagnosis underline the fact that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders increases the chance to improve patients` functioning. Inappropriate treatment without complete management of all existing problems may make full recovery impossible.

  12. A REVIEW OF CO - MORBID DEPRESSION AMONG THE PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co - morbidity is “the occurrence of 2 or more distinct psychiatric disorders at the same time”. Clinical and general population studies show that alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression often coexist. The presenc e of co - morbid conditions, such as alcohol dependence (AD and major depression, has important implications for patient functioning and prognosis, including difficulties in case identification, treatment effectiveness and compliance, altered pharmacokineti cs, and increased chronicity of both conditions. Although depression and alcohol dependence commonly coexist in community and treatment - seeking populations, there is no clear consensus on appropriate assessment and treatment of patients who present with sy mptoms of both disorders. To make appropriate treatment decisions, clinicians must know the likely effects of depression on drinking outcomes. This article reviews the relation between co - morbid depression and alcohol dependence.

  13. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention. PMID:26278235

  14. Dealing with Stress and Social Support of People with Alcohol Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ukalisz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the relationship between types of coping with stress and experiences of social support by persons addicted to alcohol who beginning their rehab. The study sample consisted group of 50 men and women participating in the basic fixed-line therapy program. Polish version of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations Questionnaire (CISS by N.S. Endler and D.J.A. Parker and Kmiecik-Baran scale were used. The results show a relevant dependence of low and medium potency of compound between coping style focused on the task and social support in the information, evaluative and emotional dimension.

  15. Disrupted Regulation of Social Exclusion in Alcohol-Dependence: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maurage, Pierre; Joassin, Frédéric; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mahau, Pierre; Delperdange, Christel; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants ...

  16. Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Klimkiewicz; Jakub Klimkiewicz; Andrzej Jakubczyk; Ilona Kieres-Salomoński; Marcin Wojnar

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present ...

  17. Decision making and impulsiveness in abstinent alcohol-dependent people and healthy individuals: a neuropsychological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Körner, Natalie; Schmidt, Peggy; Soyka, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in decision making and increased impulsiveness. Therefore, we compared decision making in abstinent alcohol-dependent people (“abstainers”) and matched healthy individuals (“comparison group”) to determine whether impulsiveness or personality traits play a role in decision making. Methods Abstainers (n = 40) were recruited from treatment facilities in and around Munich, Germany, and the comparison group (n = 40) through personal contac...

  18. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale ...

  19. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms Among Hospital Employees Exposed to a SARS Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fang, Yunyun; Fan, Bin; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Guan, Zhiqiang; Yao, Zhongling; Kong, Junhui; Lu, Jin; Litvak, Iva J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms among hospital employees exposed to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and the relationship between types of exposure to the SARS outbreak and subsequent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Methods: A survey was conducted among 549 randomly selected hospital employees in Beijing, China, concerning the psychological impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Subjects were assessed on sociodemographic factors a...

  20. A REVIEW OF CO - MORBID DEPRESSION AMONG THE PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Aman; Manjeera; Gopalkrishnan; Agrim; Ram

    2015-01-01

    Co - morbidity is “the occurrence of 2 or more distinct psychiatric disorders at the same time”. Clinical and general population studies show that alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression often coexist. The presenc e of co - morbid conditions, such as alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression, has important implications for patient functioning and prognosis, including difficulties in case identification, treatment effectiveness and compliance, altered pha...

  1. Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Maeng Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Suh, Tongwoo; Suh, Guk-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Chung Kyoon

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of alcohol disorder comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, using Korean nationwide epidemiological data. By two-stage cluster sampling, 5,176 adult household residents of Korea were interviewed using the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pat...

  2. Psychological risk factors of social maladjustment and protective factors in alcohol-dependent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshakova E.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychological characteristics of alcohol-dependent women, including the particularities of subjective psychological symptomatic status, psychological well-being, motivation, social desirability and self-esteem. We tested the hypothesis that: 1 alcohol-dependent women expressed less motivation of social desirability and expressed more subjectively perceived symptoms in comparison with normal; 2 alcohol-dependent women have lower levels of well-being, self-esteem and level of aspiration in comparison with the conventional norm. The experimental group consisted of 46 women (mean age 45 years who are dependent on alcohol. The comparison group included 33 women with normal behavior who are not dependent on alcohol (the average age 33 years. We have found that a statistically significant contribution to the classification of women in a group of alcohol-dependent is made by low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, low real self-evaluation of their success in business, willpower and mental health, low ideal self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and mind, achievable self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and visual attractiveness, the average level of the personal growth as basic component of well-being.

  3. An ongoing process: A qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hui-Lian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. Results We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. Conclusion This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services.

  4. The Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Dependence: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychopharmacology of alcohol dependence is today poised at interesting crossroads. Three major drugs Naltrexone, Disulfiram and Acamprosate have been tried and tested in various trials and have many meta-analyses each to support them. While Naltrexone may reduce craving, Acamprosate scores on cost effectiveness worldwide with Disulfiram being an alcohol deterrent drug. Studies support, refute and criticize the use of each of these drugs. Combining one or more of them is also a trend seen. The most important factor in efficacy has been the combination of psychosocial treatment with medication. Studies from the early 1970s to date have been reviewed and the findings presented in a manner useful for the busy clinician to judge the best pharmacological option in the management of alcohol dependence. The role of depot disulfiram, naltrexone, and medications like Topiramate and SSRIs under research for alcohol dependence, are also addressed.

  5. Using a factor mixture modeling approach in alcohol dependence in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with drinking problems and the refinement of the diagnostic criteria are inter-related research goals. They have the potential to improve our knowledge of etiology and treatment effects, and to assist in the identification of risk factors or specific genetic factors. Mixture modeling has advantages over traditional modeling that focuses on either the dimensional or categorical latent structure. The mixture modeling combines both latent class and latent trait models, but has not been widely applied in substance use research. The goal of the present study is to assess whether the AD criteria in the population could be better characterized by a continuous dimension, a few discrete subgroups, or a combination of the two. More than seven thousand participants were recruited from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry, and were interviewed to obtain DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, version IV) symptoms and diagnosis of AD. We applied factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture models for symptom items based on the DSM-IV criteria. Our results showed that a mixture model with 1 factor and 3 classes for both genders fit well. The 3 classes were a non-problem drinking group and severe and moderate drinking problem groups. By contrast, models constrained to conform to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were rejected by model fitting indices providing empirical evidence for heterogeneity in the AD diagnosis. Classification analysis showed different characteristics across subgroups, including alcohol-caused behavioral problems, comorbid disorders, age at onset for alcohol-related milestones, and personality. Clinically, the expanded classification of AD may aid in identifying suitable treatments, interventions and additional sources of comorbidity based on these more homogenous subgroups of alcohol use

  6. Chronic alcohol-induced microRNA-155 contributes to neuroinflammation in a TLR4-dependent manner in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Lippai

    lipopolysaccharide in primary or immortalized mouse microglia resulted in increased miR-155. CONCLUSION: Chronic alcohol induces miR-155 in the cerebellum in a TLR4-dependent manner. Alcohol-induced miR-155 regulates TNFα and MCP1 expression but not caspase-dependent IL-1β increase in neuroinflammation.

  7. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene. PMID:20648910

  8. STRAIN DEPENDENT NEUROCHEMICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY EMBRYONIC ALCOHOL EXPOSURE IN ZEBRAFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disease of the child resulting from alcohol (ethanol) consumption by pregnant women. Despite being preventable, FASD represents a prevalent problem throughout the world. Embryonic alcohol induced abnormalities in behavioral responses to social stimuli have been shown in humans and zebrafish. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the abnormalities remain obscured. Here we start a mechanistic analysis by investigating the effect of emb...

  9. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  10. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  11. Association of ADHIB and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms with alcohol dependence: A pilot study from India

    OpenAIRE

    Vaswani Meera; Prasad Pushplata; Kapur Suman

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Functional polymorphism in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 are considered most important among several genetic determinants of alcohol dependence, a complex disorder. There is no report on the widely studied Arg47His and Glu487Lys polymorphisms from Indian alcoholdependent populations. In this paper, we report, for the first time, allelic and genotypic frequencies of Arg47His and Glu487Lys single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...

  12. Evidence for Genes on Chromosome 2 Contributing to Alcohol Dependence With Conduct Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Danielle M; Meyers, Jacquelyn; Aliev, Fazil; Nurnberger, John; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Sam; Porjesz, Bernice; Tischfield, Jay; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Schuckit, Marc; Goate, Alison; Hesselbrock, Victor; Bierut, Laura,

    2010-01-01

    Twin studies provide strong evidence that there is a shared genetic liability that predisposes to a number of different psychiatric outcomes related to behavioral disinhibition. Further, alcohol dependence comorbid with other disinhibitory disorders is particularly heritable. Chromosome 2p14–2q14.3 has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions related to behavioral undercontrol. In the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we previously reported linkage to this region...

  13. Individualised Treatment of Alcohol Dependent Patients with Baclofen: A Clinical Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Martin; Boesch, Lukas; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Johnson, David; Stohler, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this observational study was to investigate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of baclofen in individualised doses for the treatment of alcohol dependence in a sample of patients suffering from additional co-occurring mental disorders. Methods: Fifteen subjects requesting baclofen treatment to achieve abstinence from, or reduction of, alcohol consumption, were included in the study. Baclofen was titrated individually responding to the participants' reports ...

  14. Genome-wide linkage scans for major depression in individuals with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Neale, Michael C.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Riley, Brien; Prescott, Carol A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Major depression is more prevalent among individuals with alcoholism than in the general population. Twin studies have found a moderate degree of genetic correlation for alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD), suggesting the existence of loci that confer susceptibility to both disorders. The aim of the present study was to conduct genome-wide linkage analyses to identify loci and to replicate prior evidence for linkage to MD, and to search for linkage regions that may confer risk t...

  15. Variations in response to citalopram in men and women with alcohol dependence.

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, C A; Knoke, D M; Bremner, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the differential effects of citalopram on alcohol consumption in nondepressed women and men with mild to moderate alcohol dependence. DESIGN: Prospective, placebo-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one subjects (34 men and 27 women). INTERVENTIONS: After a 2-week baseline, subjects were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of citalopram (40 mg per day) (n = 15 women, 16 men) or placebo (n = 12 women, 18 men). All received brief standard psychosocial interventions. OUTCOME ME...

  16. Thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and Addiction-Stroop predict affect-modulated cue-reactivity among alcohol dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Carter, Kristin; Ropes, Katie; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Abstinent alcohol dependent individuals commonly employ thought suppression to cope with stress and intrusive cognitions about alcohol. This strategy may inadvertently bias attention towards alcohol-related stimuli while depleting neurocognitive resources needed to regulate urges, manifested as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) responsivity to alcohol cues. The present study tested the hypothesis that trait and state thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and alcohol attentional bias as measured by the Addiction-Stroop would have significant effects on the HRV responsivity of 58 adults in residential treatment for alcohol dependence (mean age=39.6 ± 9.4, 81% female) who participated in an affect-modulated cue-reactivity protocol. Regression analyses controlling for age, level of pre-treatment alcohol consumption, and baseline HRV indicated that higher levels of trait thought suppression, impaired regulation of alcohol urges, and attentional fixation on alcohol cues were associated with lower HRV responsivity during stress-primed alcohol cue-exposure. Moreover, there was a significant state × trait suppression interaction on HRV cue-responsivity, such that alcohol dependent persons reporting high levels of state and trait suppression exhibited less HRV during cue-exposure than persons reporting low levels of state and trait suppression. Results suggest that chronic thought suppression taxes regulatory resources reflected in reduced HRV responsivity, an effect that is particularly evident when high trait suppressors engage in intensive suppression of drinking-related thoughts under conditions of stress. Treatment approaches that offer effective alternatives to the maladaptive strategy of suppressing alcohol urges may be crucial for relapse prevention. PMID:21967855

  17. The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Wills, Thomas A.; Neal, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms. PMID:24933278

  18. Alcohol and drug dependence in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Data from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D. Ohlmeier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to obtain information about the prevalence of addiction disorders in ADHD patients in a German study population, to compare the prevalence of addiction disorders in ADHD patients to that in the normal population according to the German Epidemiological Addiction Survey, and to determine which drugs are consumed most by ADHD patients. Participants: The sample consisted of 61 patients (average age 35.11 ± 9.33 years from our ADHD consultation who were consecutively included in our study over a period of 12 months. Measurements: We diagnosed ADHD according to DSM-IV-R and by assessing the WURS-k, CAARS and BROWN ADD scales. For diagnosing addiction we conducted the EuropASI, the IDCL, the QOD and the FTNA. For differential diagnosis we assessed the SCL-K. Results: About half of our study population of ADHD patients were diagnosed with a dependence disorder (50.8%, n = 31. Twenty one dot three percent (n = 13 were suffering from an alcohol dependence, 13.1% (n = 8 from a substance use disorder (SUD and 18% (n = 11 from a combination of both addictions. The drug consumed most commonly by ADHD patients was cannabis. Alcohol and substance abuse commenced significantly earlier in patients with ADHD than in patients with addiction disorders without comorbid ADHD. Conclusions: Our data show that the risk of developing a dependence disorder is elevated in ADHD patients. Clinicians should bear in mind that the characteristics of a dependence in ADHD patients are clinically more pronounced and that an addiction in ADHD patients starts earlier than usually expected.

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  20. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  1. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; P. Philippot; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, U.; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol ...

  2. Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of aggression in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Koller, Gabi; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, violence and antisocial behavior are common in alcoholism, but their biological basis is poorly understood. Several studies and recent meta-analyses indicate that in schizophrenia the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype may be associated with aggression, most often in methionine allele carriers. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent in-patients (293 German patients and 499 controls, and additional 190 Polish patients as replication sample). As expected, patients with a history of violent or non-violent crime were more often male, had an earlier onset of alcoholism and more withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens, and were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts. COMT genotype was not associated with a history of violent or non-violent crime. More studies are needed on the neurobiological basis of aggression and violence in alcoholism. PMID:24118473

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE RANGE OF MEDICINES FOR THE PHARMACEUTICAL CORRECTION OF THE ALCOHOL TREMOR IN THE STRUCTURE OF ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov V.V. (Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Established that the use of psychoactive substances may lead to premature death. The most commonly used psychoactive substance is alcohol. The authors had previously been justified and suggested for implementation in the practice of medicine cupping method alcoholic tremor in the structure of withdrawal symptoms in alcohol dependence. The article presents an analysis of drugs for the pharmaceutical correction of the alcoholic tremor in the structure of withdrawal symptoms, which are included in the patent of the pharmaceutical correction for the alcohol dependence. According to the international ATC classification included 5 ATC codes clinical and pharmacological groups: "A", "B", "C», «N», «S». The analysis found that in circulation in the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine for the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are mainly domestic remedies (23 pharmaceutical manufacturer that provide the range of nosology at 88.0%. The next step in the analysis was to determine the types of dosage forms used for the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence. Found that the dosage means presented in the form of injection solutions and infusion (36.0%, powders for the preparation of solution (suspension for ingestion (36.0% in the form of tablets or capsules (28.0%. At the last stage analyzed registration certificates and found that the registration for the medicines for pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are 2015 four international nonproprietary names (8 drugs until 2019 in 4 international nonproprietary names (11 drugs.

  4. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  5. The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Sonmez

    Full Text Available The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01. The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations.

  6. Optical isopropanol biosensor using NADH-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Po-Jen; Ye, Ming; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    Isopropanol (IPA) is an important solvent used in industrial activity often found in hospitals as antiseptic alcohol rub. Also, IPA may have the potential to be a biomarker of diabetic ketoacidosis. In this study, an optical biosensor using NADH-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) for IPA measurement was constructed and evaluated. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED, λ=340nm) was employed as the excitation light to excite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). A photomultiplier tube (PMT) was connected to a two-way branch optical fiber for measuring the fluorescence emitted from the NADH. S-ADH was immobilized on the membrane to catalyze IPA to acetone and reduce NAD(+) to be NADH. This IPA biosensor shows highly sensitivity and selectivity, the calibration range is from 500 nmol L(-1) to 1mmolL(-1). The optimization of buffer pH, temperature, and the enzyme-immobilized method were also evaluated. The detection of IPA in nail related cosmetic using our IPA biosensor was also carried out. The results showed that large amounts of IPA were used in these kinds of cosmetics. This IPA biosensor comes with the advantages of rapid reaction, good reproducibility, and wide dynamic range, and is also expected to use for clinical IPA detections in serum or other medical and health related applications. PMID:27474326

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  8. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R. de; Lankveld, C.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in othe

  9. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Lankveld, C.A.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in other

  10. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positi...

  11. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Motaghinejad; Majid Asadi Ghaleni; Ozra Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of po...

  12. Neural substrates involved in anger induced by audio-visual film clips among patients with alcohol dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-Sook; Lee, Bae Hwan; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the neural circuitry underlying anger processing among alcoholics. The purpose of this study was to examine the altered brain activity of alcoholic individuals during transient anger emotion. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 18 male patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence in an inpatient alcohol treatment facility and 16 social drinkers with similar demographics were scanned during the viewing of anger-provoking film clips. R...

  13. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study

    OpenAIRE

    Witteman, J.; H. Post; Tarvainen, M.; Bruijn, de, M.E.; De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E.; Ramaekers, J. G.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients’ natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response...

  14. GABA Receptors Genes Polymorphisms and Alcohol Dependence: No Evidence of an Association in an Italian Male Population

    OpenAIRE

    Terranova, Claudio; Tucci, Marianna; Di Pietra, Laura; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2014-01-01

    Objective The genes encoding for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A and B receptors may be considered as candidates for alcoholism; genetic alterations at this level may produce structural and functional diversity and thus play a role in the response to alcohol addiction treatment. To investigate these aspects further, we conducted a preliminary genetic association study on a population of Italian male alcohol addicts, focusing on GABA A and B receptors. Methods A total of 186 alcohol-dependent...

  15. Topography, Power and Current Source Density of Theta Oscillations during Reward Processing as Markers for Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Roopesh, Bangalore N; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task which involv...

  16. Temporal dynamics and determinants of whole brain tissue volume changes during recovery from alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, Stefan; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2005-06-01

    Brain shrinkage and its partial reversibility with abstinence is a common neuroimaging finding in alcohol dependent individuals. We used an automated three-dimensional whole brain magnetic resonance imaging method (boundary shift integral) in 23 alcohol dependent individuals to measure the temporal dynamics of cerebral tissue and spinal fluid volume changes over a 12-month interval and to examine the major determinants of brain tissue change rates during abstinence and non-abstinence. We found more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. The most rapid volume recovery was observed in abstinent individuals with the greatest baseline brain shrinkage and drinking severity. The rapid reversal of brain volume gains in non-abstinent individuals and tissue volume changes are modulated by duration of abstinence and non-abstinence periods, as well as recency of non-abstinence. Age, family history density of alcoholism, relapse severity, and duration or age of onset of heavy drinking were not major determinants of brain shrinkage and brain volume recovery rates. Treatment providers may use this tangible information to reinforce the biomedical benefits of sobriety. Previous quantitative measurements of brain volumes in alcohol dependent individuals performed after several weeks of abstinence likely underestimated the full extent of chronic alcohol-associated brain shrinkage. PMID:15893157

  17. Lack of association between alcohol-dependence and D3 dopamine receptor gene in three independent samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorwood, P.; Feingold, J. [Universite Paris VII (France); Ades, J. [Paris Hospital Louis Mourier (France)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Numerous studies on the involvement of dopamine receptors in the genetics of alcoholism focused on associations between a polymorphism of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene and alcohol dependence. However, the results of these studies are conflicting. Another receptor, the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3), may be of additional interest since it is specifically located in the limbic area, and in particular in the nucleus accumbens which plays a significant role in the reward process of addiction behavior. We thus tested the association in three independent samples of alcoholic patients, with different origins and various inclusion criteria. No difference in the DRD3 gene polymorphism emerged between controls and alcoholic patients, regardless of their origin, inclusion criteria, or presence or absence of the DRD2 TaqI A1-allele. Despite the fact that more information could have been considered and that association studies provide limited information, there is good evidence that this DRD3 polymorphism does not play a major role in the genetic component of alcoholism. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. A review on alcohol: from the central action mechanism to chemical dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Vezali Costardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:alcohol is a psychotropic depressant of the central nervous system (CNS that promotes simultaneous changes in several neuronal pathways, exerting a profound neurological impact that leads to various behavioral and biological alterations.Objectives:to describe the effects of alcohol on the CNS, identifying the signaling pathways that are modified and the biological effects resulting from its consumption.Methods:a literature review was conducted and articles published in different languages over the last 15 years were retrieved.Results:the studies reviewed describe the direct effect of alcohol on several neurotransmitter receptors (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], glutamate, endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, among others, the indirect effect of alcohol on the limbic and opioid systems, and the effect on calcium and potassium channels and on proteins regulated by GABA in the hippocampus.Discussion and conclusion:the multiple actions of alcohol on the CNS result in a general effect of psychomotor depression, difficulties in information storage and logical reasoning and motor incoordination, in addition to stimulating the reward system, a fact that may explain the development of addiction. Knowledge on the neuronal signaling pathways that are altered by alcohol allows the identification of effectors which could reduce its central action, thus, offering new therapeutic perspectives for the rehabilitation of alcohol addicts.

  19. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  20. Disulfiram efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn D Skinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its success with compliant or supervised patients, disulfiram has been a controversial medication in the treatment of alcoholism. Often, study designs did not recognize a pivotal factor in disulfiram research, the importance of an open-label design. Our objectives are: (1 to analyze the efficacy and safety of disulfiram in RCTs in supporting abstinence and (2 to compare blind versus open-label studies, hypothesizing that blinded studies would show no difference between disulfiram and control groups because the threat would be evenly spread across all groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register for RCTs on disulfiram use with alcoholics in comparison to any alcoholic control group. The primary outcome was defined by the authors of each trial. Additional analyses included: blind vs. open-label, with or without supervision, cocaine study or not, and type of control. Overall, the 22 included studies showed a higher success rate of disulfiram compared to controls Hedges'g = .58 (95%CI = .35-.82. When comparing blind and open-label RCTs, only open-label trials showed a significant superiority over controls g = .70 (95%CI = .46-.93. RCTs with blind designs showed no efficacy of disulfiram compared to controls. Disulfiram was also more effective than the control condition when compared to naltrexone g = .77, 95%CI = .52-1.02, to acamprosate g = .76, 95%CI = .04-1.48, and to the no disulfiram groups g = .43, 95%CI = .17-.69. LIMITS INCLUDE: (1 a population of 89% male subjects and (2 a high but unavoidable heterogeneity of the studies with a substantial I-square in most subgroups of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Blinded studies were incapable of distinguishing a difference between treatment groups and thus are incompatible with disulfiram research. Based on results with open-label studies, disulfiram is a safe and efficacious treatment compared to other abstinence supportive

  1. Fatores de risco para dependência de álcool em adolescentes Factores de riesgo en adolescentes con dependencia al alcohol Risk factors for alcohol dependence in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rozin

    2012-01-01

    preventivas de identificación de riesgos para la dependencia, control y acompañamiento específicos al grupo de adolescentes dependientes.OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for alcohol dependence during adolescence. METHODS: Integrative review of 21 articles published between 2000 and 2009, captured in the LILACS, BVS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE and IBECS databases, with keywords: adolescence, risk for dependence, and alcohol . RESULTS: There is evidence that alcohol is the most consumed drug by adolescents, with initiation between 14 and 16 years. Risk factors for dependency are related to early onset of use, media influence, troubled relationship with parents, use by family member, sexual abuse, domestic violence, low self-esteem, curiosity, and peer pressure, among others. The articles pointed to genetic vulnerability to alcohol dependence and controversies in relation to gender and social class. CONCLUSION: Health services should incorporate preventive strategies for identifying risk for dependency, control and monitoring specific to the group of dependent adolescents.

  2. Stress Moderates the Effect of Childhood Trauma and Adversity on Recent Drinking in Treatment-seeking Alcohol-dependent Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Sarah F.; Businelle, Michael S.; Suris, Alina; Walker, Robrina; Rao, Uma; North, Carol S.; Xiao, Hong; Adinoff, Bryon

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to clarify the relationship between childhood trauma and adversity with later alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of adult psychosocial stress. Method Seventy-seven recently abstinent alcohol-dependent men attending residential treatment programs were assessed. Childhood trauma/adversity was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), drinks per drinking day (DDD) with the TimeLine Follow Back, and chronic psychosocial stress with the UCLA Stress Interview. Drinking and stress were retrospectively assessed for six months prior to the present treatment episode. Direct associations between childhood trauma/adversity and alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of recent psychosocial stress were assessed. All measures were considered as continuous variables. Results Pretreatment drinking severity (DDD) was associated with CTQ Total score (p = .009) and the Emotional Abuse (p < .001) and Physical Abuse (p < .01) subscales. UCLA Total Stress significantly moderated the effects of CTQ Total score on drinking severity (p = .04). Whereas higher CTQ scores were significantly associated with a greater amount of pretreatment drinking in participants with high UCLA stress scores (p = .01), CTQ scores were not associated with the amount of drinking in those with low UCLA stress scores (p = .63). Conclusions Childhood trauma predicts drinking severity in alcohol-dependent men and this effect is stronger in participants with ongoing stress in adult life. These findings suggest that early childhood trauma/adversity may sensitize stress-response systems. PMID:24635549

  3. Nucleotide sequence variation within the human tyrosine kinase B neurotrophin receptor gene: association with antisocial alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K; Anderson, T R; Neyer, K M; Lamparella, N; Jenkins, G; Zhou, Z; Yuan, Q; Virkkunen, M; Lipsky, R H

    2007-12-01

    To identify sequence variants in genes that may have roles in neuronal responses to alcohol, we resequenced the 5' region of tyrosine kinase B neurotrophin receptor gene (NTRK2) and determined linkage disequilibrium (LD) values, haplotype structure, and performed association analyses using 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the entire NTRK2 region in a Finnish Caucasian sample of 229 alcohol-dependent subjects with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and 287 healthy controls. Individually, three SNPs were associated with alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse (AD) (P-value from 0.0019 to 0.0059, significance level was set at Presults support a role for the NTRK2 gene in addiction in a Caucasian population with AD and a subtype of ASPD. PMID:17200667

  4. Nucleotide sequence variation within the human tyrosine kinase B neurotrophin receptor gene (NTRK2): association with antisocial alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Anderson, T. R.; Neyer, K. M.; Lamparella, N.; Jenkins, G.; Zhou, Z.; Yuan, Q.; Virkkunen, M.; Lipsky, R. H.

    2006-01-01

    To identify sequence variants in genes that may have roles in neuronal responses to alcohol, we resequenced the 5′ region of NTRK2 and determined linkage disequilibrium (LD) values, haplotype structure, and performed association analyses using 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the entire NTRK2 region in a Finnish Caucasian sample of 229 alcohol dependent subjects with antisocial personality disorder and 287 healthy controls. Individually, three SNPs were associated with alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse (AD)(P-value from 0.0019 to 0.0059, significance level was set at P ≤ 0.01 corrected for multiple testing), while a common eighteen-locus haplotype within the largest LD block of NTRK2, a 119 kb region containing the 5′ flanking region and exons 1 through 15, was marginally overrepresented in control subjects compared to AD individuals (global P = 0.057). Taken together, these results support a role for the NTRK2 gene in addiction in a Caucasian population with AD and a subtype of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17200667

  5. Neurostimulation in alcohol dependence: The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive functioning and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Jansen

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to assess whether there are behavioural and neural differences related to (1) emotion regulation and (2) cognitive flexibility between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls, and if rTMS can (3) improve emotion regulation, (4) change related brain functi

  6. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  7. Olfaction in alcohol-dependence: a neglected yet promising research field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eMaurage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction research deeply renewed the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in various psychopathological states and showed that olfactory deficits might constitute an onset or trait marker in psychiatry. However, while alcohol-dependence is the most wide spread psychiatric disorder and while olfaction might be involved in its development and maintenance, olfactory abilities have been little explored in this population. The central aim of this paper is thus to underline the usefulness of olfaction research in alcohol-dependence. After reviewing the few olfaction studies available, a research agenda will be proposed, identifying the major challenges for future research, and particularly: (1 the identification of the origin, extent and cerebral correlates of olfaction deficits; (2 the links between olfaction and emotional-cognitive deficits, and the use of olfaction to understand the pathomechanisms of alcohol-dependence; (3 the interactions between olfaction and other sensory modalities; (4 the use of olfaction to predict the appearance and intensity of cognitive impairments; (5 the impact of olfaction deficits on everyday life in alcohol-dependence.

  8. THE IMPACT ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND NEURODEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENT FATHER

    OpenAIRE

    Koustubh R.; Ashish; Monika K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children of parents with alcohol dependence syndrome are particularly at high risk of emotional and behavioral problems such as learning disability, hyperactivity, psychomotor delays, somatic symptoms and emotional problems. Neuropsychological functions in these children have been the focus of attention over the last decade. AIM: Aim of th...

  9. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.H.D.A.; Kendler, K.S.; Moor, de M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; Vink, J.M.; Berg, van den S.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AA

  10. Puberty-dependent sleep regulation and alcohol use in early-adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pieters; H. van der Vorst; W.J. Burk; R.W. Wiers; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Background:  Research has shown a bi-directional relation between alcohol use and sleep regulation in adults. Much less is known about this association in early adolescents, while profound puberty-dependent transitions regarding sleep patterns take place in early adolescence. Moreover, puberty has b

  11. Puberty-Dependent Sleep Regulation and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Vorst, H. van der; Burk, W.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research has shown a bi-directional relation between alcohol use and sleep regulation in adults. Much less is known about this association in early adolescents, while profound puberty-dependent transitions regarding sleep patterns take place in early adolescence. Moreover, puberty has be

  12. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  13. Determinants of improvement in quality of life of alcohol-dependent patients during an inpatient withdrawal programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lahmek, Ivan Berlin, Laurent Michel, Chafia Berghout, Nadine Meunier, Henri-Jean Aubin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the improvement in quality of life (QoL of alcohol-dependent patients during a 3-week inpatient withdrawal programme, and to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and alcohol-related variables associated with baseline QoL on admission and with improvement of QoL during residential treatment. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 414 alcohol-dependent patients, hospitalised for a period of 3 weeks. QoL was measured on admission and at discharge using the French version of the Medical Outcome Study SF-36. The mean scores for each dimension and for the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were calculated. Results: The mean scores per dimension and the mean Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were significantly lower on admission than at discharge; the lowest scores being observed for social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems. At discharge, the mean scores per dimension were similar to those observed in the French general population. Female gender, age >45 years, living alone, working as a labourer or employee, somatic comorbidity, and the existence of at least five criteria for alcohol dependence according to the DSM-IV classification were associated with a low Physical Component Summary score on admission; psychiatric comorbidity, the presence of at least five DSM-IV dependence criteria, smoking and suicidality were associated with a low Mental Component Summary score on admission. The increase in Physical and Mental Component Summary scores during hospitalisation was more marked when the initial scores were low. Apart from the initial score, the greatest improvement in Physical Component Summary score was seen in patients with a high alcohol intake and in those without a somatic comorbidity; the increase in Mental Component Summary score was greatest in patients without psychotic symptoms and in those who abused or were dependent on illegal drugs. Conclusion

  14. Genome-wide association study knowledge-driven pathway analysis of alcohol dependence implicates the calcium signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Danni; Li Jinming; Guo Yanfang

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) is a serious and common public health problem.The identification of genes that contribute to the AD variation will improve our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying this complex disease.Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene genetic association studies identified individual genes as candidates for alcohol phenotypes,but efforts to generate an integrated view of accumulative genetic variants and pathways under alcohol drinking are lacking.Methods We applied enrichment gene set analysis to existing genetic association results to identify pertinent pathways to AD in this study.A total of 1 438 SNPs (P <1.0×10-3) associated to alcohol drinking related traits have been collected from 31 studies (10 candidate gene association studies,19 GWAS of SNPs,and 2 GWAS of copy number variants).Results Among all of the KEGG pathways,the calcium signaling pathway (hsa04020) showed the most significant enrichment of associations (21 genes) to alcohol consumption phenotypes (P=5.4×10-5).Furthermore,the calcium signaling pathway is the only pathway that turned out to be significant after multiple test adjustments,achieving Bonferroni P value of 0.8×10-3 and FDR value of 0.6×10-2,respectively.Interestingly,the calcium signaling pathway was previously found to be essential to regulate brain function,and genes in this pathway link to a depressive effect of alcohol consumption on the body.Conclusions Our findings,together with previous biological evidence,suggest the importance of gene polymorphisms of calcium signaling pathway to AD susceptibility.Still,further investigations are warranted to uncover the role of this pathway in AD and related traits.

  15. The Key Proteins of Dopaminergic Neurotransmission of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes: Changed mRNA Level in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraskina, A E; Grunina, M N; Zabotina, A M; Nasyrova, R F; Ivanov, M V; Krupitsky, E M; Schwartzman, A L

    2015-12-01

    The expression of dopamine receptor (DRD), Nurr1 transcription factor (NR4A2), and α-sinucleine (SNCA) genes in peripheral blood lymphocytes is evaluated. The results indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with high expression of SNCA and DRD4 (signifi cantly higher than in the control group) and is not associated with changes in the work of NR4A2 and DRD3 genes. The levels of DRD3 and DRD4 mRNA form a positive linear correlation (p≤0.05). The expression of SNCA and DRD4 genes can serve as an important peripheral marker of alcohol dependence development, which is essential for antipsychotic therapy. PMID:26621272

  16. Tratamento farmacológico da dependência do álcool The pharmacologic treatment of the alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Castro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available As intervenções farmacológicas podem ter um papel crucial na redução do craving, consumo de álcool e manutenção da abstinência. Este artigo revisa a farmacoterapia para a dependência de álcool com ênfase na naltrexona, dissulfiram e acamprosato. O antagonista opióide naltrexona diminui taxas de recaída, reduz dias de consumo e prolonga períodos de abstinência. Acamprosato restaura a atividade normal dos sistemas glutamato e GABA. Dissulfiram tem demonstrado ser mais efetivo para pacientes que acreditam em sua eficácia e permaneçam aderentes ao tratamento. Ondansetron tem-se mostrado promissor na dependência de álcool de início precoce, mas necessita estudos mais extensivos. Topiramato (até 300 mg/dia foi mais eficaz do que placebo no tratamento da dependência de álcool.The pharmacological intervention can play a crucial role in the reduction of craving and drinking and the maintenance of abstinence. This article reviews pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence with an emphasis on the naltrexone, dissulfiram and acamprosate. The opioid antagonist naltrexone lowers relapse rate, reduces drinking days and prolongs periods of abstinence. Acamprosate restores the normal activity of glutamate and GABA systems. Disulfiram has been shown to be most effective for patients who believe in its efficacy and remain compliant with the treatment. Ondansetron, has shown promise in the early-onset alcohol dependence but needs more extensive study. Topiramate (up to 300 mg per day was more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  17. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power. PMID:21526390

  18. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  19. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance...

  20. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Ikeda; Yuzo Aikawa; Mitsuru Umeno; Susumu Higuchi; Eiichi Senoo; Ayako Haraguchi; Yasukazu Ogai; Nagisa Sugaya

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in...

  1. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healt...

  2. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Macgregor, Stuart; Lind, Penelope A; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Richter, Melinda M; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.; John B Whitfield

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic origins. The role of two genetic variants in ALDH2 and ADH1B in AD risk has been extensively investigated. This study tested for associations between nine polymorphisms in ALDH2 and 41 in the seven ADH genes, and alcohol-related flushing, alcohol use and dependence symptom scores in 4597 Australian twins. The vast majority (4296) had consumed alcohol in the previous year, with 547 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for AD. Th...

  3. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD, emotional intelligence (EI, and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  4. Resting-state functional connectivity and presynaptic monoamine signaling in Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Dutta, Nisha; Helton, Sarah G; Schwandt, Melanie; Yan, Jia; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Cortes, Carlos R; Kerich, Mike; Hall, Samuel; Sun, Hui; Phillips, Monte; Momenan, Reza; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol Dependence (AD) is a chronic relapsing disorder with high degrees of morbidity and mortality. While multiple neurotransmitter systems are involved in the complex symptomatology of AD, monoamine dysregulation and subsequent neuroadaptations have been long postulated to play an important role. Presynaptic monoamine transporters, such as the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1), are likely critical as they represent a key common entry point for monoamine regulation and may represent a shared pathway for susceptibility to AD. Excessive monoaminergic signaling as mediated by genetic variation in VMAT1 might affect functional brain connectivity in particular in alcoholics compared to controls. We conducted resting-state fMRI functional connectivity (FC) analysis using the independent component analysis (ICA) approach in 68 AD subjects and 72 controls. All subjects were genotyped for the Thr136Ile (rs1390938) variant in VMAT1. Functional connectivity analyses showed a significant increase of resting-state FC in 4 networks in alcoholics compared to controls (P Mode Network, Prefrontal Cortex Network, and Executive Control Network in alcohol dependent participants (P < 0.05, corrected), but not in controls. Our data suggest that increased FC might represent a neuroadaptive mechanism relevant to AD that is furthermore mediated by genetic variation in VMAT1. The hyperfunction allele Thr136Ile might have a protective effect that is, in particular, relevant in AD by mechanism of increased monoamine transport into presynaptic storage vesicles. PMID:26368063

  5. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Noori, Hamid R; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C

    2016-03-15

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  6. Variables predicting elevated portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease. Results of a multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Christensen, E; Gluud, C;

    1987-01-01

    In 46 alcoholic patients the association of wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure with other variables (clinical, histologic, hemodynamic, and liver function data) was studied by means of multiple regression analysis, taking the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure as the dependent variable. Four...

  7. Neonatal Binge Alcohol Exposure Produces Dose Dependent Deficits in Interstimulus Interval Discrimination Eyeblink Conditioning in Juvenile Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kevin L.; Burman, Michael A.; Duong, Huan B.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in neonatal rats produces cerebellar damage and is widely used to model 3rd-trimester human fetal alcohol exposure. Neonatal “binge-like” exposure to high doses of alcohol (5 g/kg/day or more) impairs acquisition of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC), a cerebellar-dependent Pavlovian motor learning task. We have recently found impairments in interstimulus interval (ISI) discrimination – a complex task variant of EBC - in adult rats following postnatal day (PD) 4–9 alcoh...

  8. A genome wide association study of alcohol dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jen-Chyong; Foroud, Tatiana; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Le, Nhung XH; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Harari, Oscar; Koller, Daniel L.; Wetherill, Leah; Agrawal, Arpana; Almasy, Laura; Brooks, Andrew I; Bucholz, Kathleen; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol use disorders, but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence. To maximize the power of the extended family design we used a quantitative endophenot...

  9. ALIENATION, SENSATION SEEKING AND MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE PROFILE IN MEN BEING TREATED FOR ALCOHOL AND/OR OPIOID DEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoo, Surendra K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Singh, Ram Avatar; Khurana, Hitesh; Kaur, Rajinder; Suresh K. Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty men, being treated for ICD-10 diagnosed dependence on alcohol, opioids or both, were studied 2-4 weeks after the last use of alcohol or opioids. Alienation Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and Muliphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and selected sociodemographic and family history data were studied. All three groups showed high alienation (more in opioid cases), high sensation seeking (more in alcohol cases, more for boredom susceptibility), and a disturbed MPQ profil...

  10. Dendritic spine changes in the development of alcohol addiction regulated by α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    OpenAIRE

    Zofia Mijakowska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol has many adverse effects on the brain. Among them are dendritic spine morphology alterations, which are believed to be the basis of alcohol addiction. Autophosphorylation of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) has been shown to regulate spine morphology in vitro. Here we show that αCaMKII can also regulate addiction related behaviour and dendritic spine morphology changes caused by alcohol consumption in vivo. Method 12 αCaMKII-autophosphorylatio...

  11. Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Dependence: The 2015 Recommendations of the French Alcohol Society, Issued in Partnership with the European Federation of Addiction Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Benjamin; Paille, François; Gillet, Claudine; Rigaud, Alain; Moirand, Romain; Dano, Corine; Dematteis, Maurice; Mann, Karl; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The latest French good practice recommendations (GPRs) for the screening, prevention, and treatment of alcohol misuse were recently published in partnership with the European Federation of Addiction Societies (EUFAS). This article aims to synthesize the GPRs focused on the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence.METHODS: A four-member European steering committee defined the questions that were addressed to an 18-member multi-professional working group (WG). The WG developed the GPRs...

  12. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Alcohol Dependence: Therapeutic Mechanisms and Intervention Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric L; SCHWARZ, NOAH M.; KELLY, AMBER; WHITT, AHMED; Howard, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions may decrease addictive behaviors while promoting non-reactivity to stressors. This study employed qualitative methods to enhance understanding of mindfulness-related treatment effects. Study participants were eighteen alcohol dependent adults residing in a therapeutic community who had participated in a Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) intervention. Interviews were conducted to elicit participant narratives. Responses to open-ended questions wer...

  13. Neurostimulation in alcohol dependence: The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive functioning and craving

    OpenAIRE

    Goudriaan, A.E.; Brink, van den, A Arno; Jansen, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to assess whether there are behavioural and neural differences related to (1) emotion regulation and (2) cognitive flexibility between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls, and if rTMS can (3) improve emotion regulation, (4) change related brain function and (5) reduce craving. Finally, we assess (6) differences in pre-frontal resting state networks and (7) the effects of rTMS on these resting state networks. In order to evaluate and answer thes...

  14. Are visual impairments responsible for emotion decoding deficits in alcohol-dependence?

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien eD'Hondt; Franco eLepore; Pierre eMaurage

    2014-01-01

    Emotional visual perception deficits constitute a major problem in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, the ability to assess the affective content of external cues is a key adaptive function, as it allows on the one hand the processing of potentially threatening or advantageous stimuli, and on the other hand the establishment of appropriate social interactions (by enabling rapid decoding of the affective state of others from their facial expressions). While such deficits have been classically conside...

  15. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a ...

  16. Specificity of Social Anxiety Disorder as a Risk Factor for Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Lang, Alan R.; Small, Jason W.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cannabis dependence. However, the temporal sequencing of these disorders has not been extensively studied to determine whether SAD serves as a specific risk factor for problematic substance use. The present study examined these relationships after controlling for theoretically-relevant variables (e.g., gender, other Axis I pathology) in a longitudinal cohort over approximately 14 years. The sample was drawn...

  17. A Literature Review of Cost-Benefit Analyses for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Mohapatra; Jayadeep Patra; Amy Duhig; Jürgen Rehm; Svetlana Popova

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review of cost-benefit studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments of alcohol dependence (AD). A literature search was performed in multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search identified seven psychotherapy studies from the USA and two pharmacotherapy studies from Europe. In the psychotherapy studies, major benefits are typically seen within the first six months of treatment. The benefit-cost ratio ranged from 1.89 ...

  18. Association between insulin and executive functioning in alcohol dependence: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Han C; Bae H; Won SD; Lim J; Kim DJ

    2015-01-01

    Changwoo Han,1 Hwallip Bae,2 Sung-Doo Won,3 Jaeyoung Lim,3 Dai-Jin Kim41Department of Psychiatry, Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Seonam University, Goyang, 3Department of Clinical Psychology, Keyo Hospital, Keyo Medical Foundation, Uiwang, 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Alcohol dependence is a disorder ascribable ...

  19. Personality Pathology and Alcohol Dependence at Midlife in a Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54 – 65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections...

  20. Are visual impairments responsible for emotion decoding deficits in alcohol-dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eD'Hondt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional visual perception deficits constitute a major problem in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, the ability to assess the affective content of external cues is a key adaptive function, as it allows on the one hand the processing of potentially threatening or advantageous stimuli, and on the other hand the establishment of appropriate social interactions (by enabling rapid decoding of the affective state of others from their facial expressions. While such deficits have been classically considered as reflecting a genuine emotion decoding impairment in alcohol-dependence, converging evidence suggests that underlying visual deficits might play a role in emotional alterations. This hypothesis appears to be relevant especially as data from healthy populations indicate that a coarse but fast analysis of visual inputs would allow emotional processing to arise from early stages of perception. After reviewing those findings and the associated models, the present paper underlines data showing that rapid interactions between emotion and vision could be impaired in alcohol-dependence and provides new research avenues that may ultimately offer a better understanding of the roots of emotional deficits in this pathological state.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Paula

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods

  2. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence : a combined laboratory and field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, J.; Post, H.; Tarvainen, M.; Bruijn, de A.; De, Sousa Fernandes Perna E.; Ramaekers, J.G.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiol

  3. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Witteman; H. Post; M. Tarvainen; A. de Bruijn; E. De Sousa Fernandes Perna; J.G. Ramaekers; R.W. Wiers

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiol

  4. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzlin AI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Isabel Penzlin,1 Timo Siepmann,2 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,3 Kerstin Weidner,4 Martin Siepmann4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany Background and objective: In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV. Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24 attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2. Results: Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05, whereas craving was unchanged at

  5. Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder – predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, we compared in alcohol-dependent patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor escitalopram to a compound that acts on different transporter system and may reduce craving, the glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. Methods Eighty alcohol-dependent patients comorbid with major depressive disorder in municipal alcohol clinics were randomized 1:1 to receive memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg in a double-blind manner. During the 26-week study period patients continued their routine treatment at the clinics. Abstinence was not required but encouraged. The patients attended visits weekly during the first month, and then at 3 and at 6 months. Outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS and Drinking Diary. Results The completion rate was high in both groups, especially among the patients who had been abstinent at the beginning of the study. However, among those patients who were not abstinent at baseline, 47% in both groups discontinued the study. Numbers of abstinent days were high in both groups throughout the study. Alcohol consumption measured by the AUDIT QF (quantity-frequency score was significantly reduced in both groups, as was the craving for alcohol measured by the OCDS. Early age at first alcohol intoxication predicted poor treatment outcomes in patients treated with escitalopram, and the same was seen with the early onset of the first depressive episode. The same predictive effects were not found in patients treated with memantine. Conclusion Our results indicate that both memantine and escitalopram are useful adjunct medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence co-morbid with major

  6. Research of microRNAs on alcohol dependence%MicroRNA在酒精依赖机制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛凤; 刘丽萍; 胡建

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the microRNA role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence.Methods By computer retrieval Medline,mirbase,PubMed,Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI),ten thousand database and VIP database,manual retrieval relevant references.Literature retrieval time limit are built from the library until July 2014.English database to "Alcoholism,Alcohol Dependence,Alcohol Abstinence,Alcohol Amnestic Disorder Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders,mirna" as keywords retrieval;Chinese database to "Alcoholism,Alcohol Dependence,Alcohol Abstinence,Alcohol Amnestic Disorder Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders,microRNA,etc".Retrieved from the database to the related literature in July 2014.Results A total of 26 studies were recruited including 8 Chinese literatures and 18 English literatures.Conclusion Abnormal expression of miRNAs will become the next research direction.MicroRNAs may become new biomarker of alcohol dependence on diagnosis,may also makes the molecular drug targets,or the molecular simulation for new drug research and development,this could be for the treatment of alcohol dependence provides a new means.%目的 系统评价microRNA在酒精依赖发病机制中的作用.方法 用计算机检索Medline,mirbase,PubMed,中文期刊全文数据库(CNKI),万方数据库和维普数据库,手工检索相关参考文献.文献检索时限均从建库至2014年7月.英文数据库以“Alcoholism、Alcohol Dependence、Alcohol Abstinence、Alcohol Amnestic Disorder Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders、microRNA”等作为关键词检索;中文数据库以“酒中毒、酒依赖、胎儿酒精谱群障碍、酒精戒断、酒精性遗忘症、miRNA”等作为关键词检索.检索从建库至2014年7月的相关文献.结果 最终纳入英文文献18条,中文文献8条.结论 miRNA在酒精依赖的发生发展过程中发挥重要作用,异常表达的miRNAs的作用将成为下一步研究方向.miRNA可能成为酒精依赖诊断的新的生物学标记,

  7. Mediators of Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.

    2007-01-01

    A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…

  8. Paternal alcoholism predicts the occurrence but not the remission of alcoholic drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, J; Penick, E C; Nickel, E J;

    2007-01-01

    examinations were performed at age 40 (n = 202) by a psychiatrist using structured interviews and DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: HR subjects were significantly more likely than LR subjects to develop alcohol dependence (31% vs. 16%), but not alcohol abuse (17% vs. 15%). More subjects with alcohol...... abuse were in remission at age 40 than subjects with alcohol dependence. Risk did not predict remission from either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: Familial influences may play a stronger role in the development of alcoholism than in the remission or recovery from alcoholism....

  9. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcoholdependent families.

  10. Dendritic spine changes in the development of alcohol addiction regulated by α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Mijakowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Alcohol has many adverse effects on the brain. Among them are dendritic spine morphology alterations, which are believed to be the basis of alcohol addiction. Autophosphorylation of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII has been shown to regulate spine morphology in vitro. Here we show that αCaMKII can also regulate addiction related behaviour and dendritic spine morphology changes caused by alcohol consumption in vivo. Method 12 αCaMKII-autophosphorylation deficient female mice (T286A and 12 wild type littermates were used in the study. T286A strain was created by Giese et al. (1998. Mice were housed and tested in two IntelliCages from NewBehavior (www.newbehavior.com. IntelliCage is an automated learning system. After 95 days of alcohol drinking interrupted by tests for motivation, persistence in alcohol seeking and probability of relapse, mice were ascribed to ‘high’ or ‘low’ drinkers group according to their performance in the tests. Additional criterion was the amount of alcohol consumed during the whole experiment. Result of each test was evaluated separately. 1/3 of the mice that scored highest in each criterion were considered ‘positive’ for this trait. ‘Positive’ animals were given 1 point, negative 0 points. Mice that were positive in at least 2 criteria were ascribed to ‘high’ drinkers (‘+’ group. Remaining mice – to ‘low’ drinkers (‘–‘. This method of behavioral phenotyping, developed by Radwanska and Kaczmarek (2012, is inspired by DSM-IV. Since the results of this evaluation are discrete (i.e. by definition all the animals score between 0 to +4, we developed also a continuous method of addiction rating, which we call ‘addiction index’. The result of the second method is a sum of the standardized (z-score results of the above mentioned tests. We use it to examine the correlations between addiction-like behavior and spine parameters. Control group (12 WT, 8

  11. The efficacy of electroencephalogram neurofeedback training in cognition, anxiety, and depression in alcohol dependence syndrome: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tulika Ghosh; Masroor Jahan; Singh, Amool R.

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback's efficacy in reducing the symptoms of patients with alcohol dependence syndrome is well-documented in previous literature. Here, a case is being described who presented with alcohol dependence syndrome was given EEG neurofeedback training. After 10 sessions of EEG neurofeedback training program, a significant reduction was found in the cognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression of the patient. Furthermore, noticeable improvement was found in his memo...

  12. Validation of the MINI (DSM IV Tool for the Assessment of Alcohol Dependence among Young People in Northern Tanzania Using the Alcohol Biomarker Phosphatidylethanol (PEth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Francis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The alcohol dependence section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire (MINI has not been evaluated in young Africans. We applied the MINI in a cross-sectional study of 202 alcohol users from northern-Tanzania, aged 18–24 years (103 male casual workers and 99 students, and validated it against phophatidylethanol (PEth at a cut-off suggesting heavy chronic alcohol use (≥0.30 µmol/L. Blood was assayed for PEth (16:0/18:1-subform by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The MINI dependence criteria (≥3 positive responses were met by 39% participants although their PEth levels were low. Contrary, many young people with high PEth levels were not classified as dependent. The sensitivity of the MINI ranged from 0% to 69% (female students and male workers, respectively and specificity from 52% to 85% (workers and female students, respectively. The highest AUROC (0.68 occurred with a cut-off of ≥4 positive responses. A modified MINI with three affirmative responses to five questions increased specificity to 92%–97%; however, sensitivity remained low. The performance of the MINI in detecting dependence among young people from northern-Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Specificity was improved using a modified version but sensitivity remained low. An accurate tool for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence is needed for epidemiological and clinical purposes.

  13. [Normative definition of staff requirement for a guideline-adherent inpatient qualified detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, F; Koopmann, A; Godemann, F; Wolff, J; Batra, A; Mann, K

    2016-03-01

    The central element of the "qualified withdrawal treatment" of alcohol dependence is - in addition to physical withdrawal treatment - psychotherapy. The treatment of the underlying addictive disorder that is displayed by intoxication, harmful behaviour and withdrawal symptoms is only possible with a combination of somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment elements. The successfully established multimodal therapy of the "qualified alcohol withdrawal treatment", postulated in the current S3-Treatment Guidelines, requires a multi-disciplinary treatment team with psychotherapeutic competence. The aim of the present work is to calculate the normative staff requirement of a guideline-based 21-day qualified withdrawal treatment and to compare the result with the staffing regulations of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. The present data support the hypothesis that even in the case of a hundred per cent implementation of these data, adequate therapy of alcohol-related disorders, according to the guidelines, is not feasible. This has to be considered when further developing the finance compensation system based on the described superseded elements of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. PMID:26842899

  14. AUDIT-C Alcohol Screening Results and Postoperative Inpatient Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili; Blough, David K;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol screening scores ≥5 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) up to a year before surgery have been associated with postoperative complications, but the association with postoperative health care use is unknown. This study evaluated whether AUDIT...... September 2006) and were hospitalized for nonemergent noncardiac major operations in the following year. Postoperative health care use was evaluated across 4 AUDIT-C risk groups (scores 0, 1 to 4, 5 to 8, and 9 to 12) using linear or logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, smoking status...... surgery, but not increased hospital readmission within 30 days postdischarge, relative to the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-C screening results could be used to identify patients at risk for increased postoperative health care use who might benefit from preoperative alcohol interventions....

  15. Motorcycle riding under the influence of alcohol: results from the SARTRE-4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George; Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami

    2014-09-01

    Riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol is a dangerous activity, especially considering the high vulnerability of motorcyclists. The present research investigates the factors that affect the declared frequency of drink-riding among motorcyclists in Europe and explores regional differences. Data were collected from the SARTRE-4 (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) survey, which was conducted in 19 countries. A total sample of 4483 motorcyclists was interviewed by using a face-to-face questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of multilevel ordered logit models. The results revealed significant regional differences (between Northern, Eastern and Southern European countries) in drink-riding frequencies in Europe. In general, declared drinking and riding were positively associated with gender (males), increased exposure, underestimation of risk, friends' behaviour, past accidents and alcohol ticket experience. On the other hand, it was negatively associated with underestimation of the amount of alcohol allowed before driving, and support for more severe penalties. PMID:24713220

  16. Experimental and clinical usefulness of crossmodal paradigms in psychiatry: An illustration from emotional processing in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eMaurage

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal processing (i.e., the construction of a unified representation stemming from distinct sensorial modalities inputs constitutes a crucial ability in humans’ everyday life. It has been extensively explored at cognitive and cerebral levels during the last decade among healthy controls. Paradoxically however, and while difficulties to perform this integrative process have been suggested in a large range of psychopathological states (e.g., schizophrenia and autism, these cross-modal paradigms have been very rarely used in the exploration of psychiatric populations. The main aim of the present paper is thus to underline the experimental and clinical usefulness of exploring cross-modal processes in psychiatry. We will illustrate this proposal by means of the recent data obtained in the cross-modal exploration of emotional alterations in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, emotional decoding impairments might have a role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-dependence, and have been extensively investigated by means of experiments using separated visual or auditory stimulations. Besides these unimodal explorations, we have recently conducted several studies using audio-visual cross-modal paradigms, which has allowed us to improve the ecological validity of the unimodal experimental designs and to offer new insights on the emotional alterations among alcohol-dependent individuals. We will show how these preliminary results can be extended to develop a coherent and ambitious research program using cross-modal designs in various psychiatric populations and sensory modalities. We will finally end the paper by underlining the various potential clinical applications and the fundamental implications that can be raised by this emerging project.

  17. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; De Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by self-report questionnaires for 8,398 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register aged between 15 and 32 years. Longit...

  18. Flavin-dependent alcohol oxidase from yeast : Studies on the catalytic mechanism and inactivation during turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Geissler, Johanna; Ghisla, Sandro; Kroneck, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic course of the reaction of methanol and deutero-methanol with FAD-dependent alcohol oxidase was investigated under single-turnover conditions [kred ≈ 15000 min−1 (1H3COH) and ≈ 4300 min−1 (2H3COH)] and multiple-turnover conditions [TNmax ≈ 6000 min−1 (1H3COH) and ≈ 3100 min−1 (2H3COH)]. A kinetic scheme for the overall catalytic mechanism is proposed, which is characterized by (1) formation of a Michaelis complex between enzyme and substrate, (2) the reductive step involving partly...

  19. Development, Validation, and Implementation of an Innovative Mobile App for Alcohol Dependence Management: Protocol for the SIDEAL Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lluisa; Bona, Xavier; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become one of the main pathways to the new paradigm of increased self-management of chronic conditions such as alcohol dependence. Validation of some mobile phone apps has begun, while validation of many others is forthcoming. Objective To describe the protocol for validation of a new app called SIDEAL (an acronym of the Spanish name “Soporte Innovador a la persona con DEpendencia del ALcohol,” or innovative support for people with alcohol dependence). Methods The project consists of 3 complementary, consecutive studies, including a pilot feasibility study, a qualitative study using focus groups, and, finally, a randomized controlled trial where patients will be randomized to standard treatment or standard treatment plus SIDEAL. During the pilot study, feasibility, usability, and acceptance by users will be the main outcomes explored. An electronic questionnaire will be sent to patients asking for their opinions. Focus groups will be the next step, after which improvements and refinements will be implemented in the app. During the final phase, consumption variables (heavy drinking days per month, mean standard drinks per day) will be investigated, in order to test app efficacy. Results Because of the encouraging results with previous similar apps, we expect patients to widely accept and incorporate SIDEAL into their therapeutic options. Significant reductions in drinking-related variables are also expected. The pilot study has concluded with the inclusion of 29 patients. Results are expected to be available soon (expected mid-2016). Conclusions SIDEAL may represent a useful, reliable, effective, and efficient tool to complement therapeutic options available to both patients and professionals. PMID:26888196

  20. Thought Suppression, Impaired Regulation of Urges, and Addiction-Stroop Predict Affect-Modulated Cue-Reactivity among Alcohol Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric L.; Carter, Kristin; Ropes, Katie; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    Abstinent alcohol dependent individuals commonly employ thought suppression to cope with stress and intrusive cognitions about alcohol. This strategy may inadvertently bias attention toward alcohol-related stimuli while depleting neurocognitive resources needed to regulate urges, manifested as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) responsivity to alcohol cues. The present study tested the hypothesis that trait and state thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and alcohol attention...

  1. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  2. Parental alcohol use and adolescent school adjustment in the general population: Results from the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røysamb Espen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the relationship between parental drinking and school adjustment in a total population sample of adolescents, with independent reports from mothers, fathers, and adolescents. As a group, children of alcohol abusers have previously been found to exhibit lowered academic achievement. However, few studies address which parts of school adjustment that may be impaired. Both a genetic approach and social strains predict elevated problem scores in these children. Previous research has had limitations such as only recruiting cases from clinics, relying on single responders for all measures, or incomplete control for comorbid psychopathology. The specific effects of maternal and paternal alcohol use are also understudied. Methods In a Norwegian county, 88% of the population aged 13-19 years participated in a health survey (N = 8984. Among other variables, adolescents reported on four dimensions of school adjustment, while mothers and fathers reported their own drinking behaviour. Mental distress and other control variables were adjusted for. Multivariate analysis including generalized estimation equations was applied to investigate associations. Results Compared to children of light drinkers, children of alcohol abusers had moderately elevated attention and conduct problem scores. Maternal alcohol abuse was particularly predictive of such problems. Children of abstainers did significantly better than children of light drinkers. Controlling for adolescent mental distress reduced the association between maternal abuse and attention problems. The associations between parental reported drinking and school adjustment were further reduced when controlling for the children's report of seeing their parents drunk, which itself predicted school adjustment. Controlling for parental mental distress did not reduce the associations. Conclusions Parental alcohol abuse is an independent risk factor for attention and conduct

  3. Postoperative risks associated with alcohol screening depend on documented drinking at the time of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Bishop, Michael J; Maynard, Charles;

    2013-01-01

    Both AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores up to a year before surgery and clinical documentation of drinking over 2 drinks per day immediately prior to surgery ("documented drinking >2d/d") are associated with increased postoperative complications and health care utilization. The purpose of this study...... was to evaluate whether documented drinking >2d/d contributed additional information about postoperative risk beyond past-year AUDIT-C screening results....

  4. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  5. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Hondt F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabien D’Hondt,1 Salvatore Campanella,2 Charles Kornreich,2 Pierre Philippot,1 Pierre Maurage1 1Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Medical Psychology and Addictology, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-dependence have, up to now, been mainly focused on the exploration of emotional facial expressions (EFE decoding. In the present paper, we provide some complements to the recent systematic literature review published by Donadon and de Lima Osório on this crucial topic. We also suggest research avenues that must be, in our opinion, considered in the coming years. More precisely, we propose, first, that a battery integrating a set of emotional tasks relating to different processes should be developed to better systemize EFE decoding measures in alcohol-dependence. Second, we propose to go below EFE recognition deficits and to seek for the roots of those alterations, particularly by investigating the putative role played by early visual processing and vision–emotion interactions in the emotional impairment observed in alcohol-dependence. Third, we insist on the need to go beyond EFE recognition deficits by suggesting that they only constitute a part of wider emotional deficits in alcohol-dependence. Importantly, since the efficient decoding of emotions is a crucial ability for the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, we suggest that disruption of this ability in alcohol-dependent individuals may have adverse consequences for their social integration. One way to achieve this research agenda would be to develop the field of affective and social neuroscience of alcohol-dependence, which could ultimately lead to major advances at both theoretical

  6. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  7. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  8. Neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity as marker and mediator of alcohol and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva R. Zamora-Martinez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early pioneering work in the field of biochemistry identified phosphorylation as a crucial post-translational modification of proteins with the ability to both indicate and arbitrate complex physiological processes. More recent investigations have functionally linked phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK to a variety of neurophysiological mechanisms ranging from acute neurotransmitter action to long-term gene expression. ERK phosphorylation serves as an intracellular bridging mechanism that facilitates neuronal communication and plasticity. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol and opioids, act as artificial yet powerful rewards that impinge upon natural reinforcement processes critical for survival. The graded progression from initial exposure to addiction (or substance dependence is believed to result from drug- and drug context-induced adaptations in neuronal signaling processes across brain reward and stress circuits following excessive drug use. In this regard, commonly abused drugs as well as drug-associated experiences are capable of modifying the phosphorylation of ERK within central reinforcement systems. In addition, chronic drug and alcohol exposure may drive ERK-regulated epigenetic and structural alterations that underlie a long-term propensity for escalating drug use. Under the influence of such a neurobiological vulnerability, encountering drug-associated cues and contexts can produce subsequent alterations in ERK signaling that drive relapse to drug and alcohol seeking. Current studies are determining precisely which molecular and regional ERK phosphorylation-associated events contribute to the addiction process, as well as which neuroadaptations need to be targeted in order to return dependent individuals to a healthy state.

  9. The Salivary β-HEX A% Index as an Excellent Marker of Periodontitis in Smoking Alcohol-Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5–15% of most populations worldwide. Aim. The applicability of salivary β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Methods. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS and 32 healthy controls (C were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. Results. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF, in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96% and specificity (91%; the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937. There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI, and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Conclusion. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  10. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol.

  11. Patterns of Use and Their Relationship to DSM-IV Abuse and Dependence of Alcohol among Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Holly, Alexandra; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    First use and initiation of regular alcohol use has been frequently found to start in adolescence. However, only few studies have also investigated how many adolescents proceed during ages 14–24 to harmful drinking or even develop alcohol use disorders. This paper – using the EDSP baseline sample of 3,021 community respondents from the Munich area – examines the prevalence of use, abuse and dependence and investigates the dose/disorder relationship. Alcohol abuse was reported by 9.7% of respo...

  12. Nucleotide sequence variation within the human tyrosine kinase B neurotrophin receptor gene (NTRK2): association with antisocial alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, K; Anderson, T. R.; Neyer, K. M.; Lamparella, N.; Jenkins, G.; Zhou, Z; Yuan, Q.; Virkkunen, M; Lipsky, R H

    2007-01-01

    To identify sequence variants in genes that may have roles in neuronal responses to alcohol, we resequenced the 5′ region of NTRK2 and determined linkage disequilibrium (LD) values, haplotype structure, and performed association analyses using 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the entire NTRK2 region in a Finnish Caucasian sample of 229 alcohol dependent subjects with antisocial personality disorder and 287 healthy controls. Individually, three SNPs were associated with alcoh...

  13. Tamoxifen represses alcohol-induced transcription of RNA polymerase III-dependent genes in breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Qian; Shi, Ganggang; Zhang, Qingsong; Lu, Lei; Levy, Daniel; Zhong, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in women has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particular in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cases. Deregulation of RNA polymerase III-dependent (Pol III) transcription enhances cellular tRNAs and 5S rRNA production, leading to an increase in translational capacity to promote cell transformation and tumor formation. Our recent studies demonstrated that alcohol induces Brf1 expression and Pol III gene transcription via ER. Here, we report that Tamoxi...

  14. Variables predicting elevated portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease. Results of a multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Christensen, E; Gluud, C;

    1987-01-01

    variables showed significant independent association with the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure: indocyanine green clearance (p = 0.031), degree of necrosis (p = 0.023), degree of hepatic architectural destruction (graded as: preserved architecture, nodules alternating with preserved architecture......In 46 alcoholic patients the association of wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure with other variables (clinical, histologic, hemodynamic, and liver function data) was studied by means of multiple regression analysis, taking the wedged-to-free hepatic-vein pressure as the dependent variable. Four...... in these four variables....

  15. The interplay between the hippocampus and the amygdala in regulating aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis during protracted abstinence from alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra D Mandyam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of alcohol dependence involves elevated anxiety, low mood, and increased sensitivity to stress, collectively labeled negative affect. Particularly interesting is the recent accumulating evidence that sensitized extrahypothalamic stress systems (e.g., hyperglutamatergic activity, blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] hormonal levels, altered corticotropin-releasing factor signaling, and altered glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the extended amygdala are evident in withdrawn dependent rats, supporting the hypothesis that pathological neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala contribute to the negative affective state. Notably, hippocampal neurotoxicity observed as aberrant dentate gyrus (DG neurogenesis (neurogenesis is a process where neural stem cells in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone generate DG granule cell neurons and DG neurodegeneration are observed in withdrawn dependent rats. These correlations between withdrawal and aberrant neurogenesis in dependent rats suggest that alterations in the DG could be hypothesized to be due to compromised HPA axis activity and associated hyperglutamatergic activity originating from the basolateral amygdala in withdrawn dependent rats. This review discusses a possible link between the neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala stress systems and the resulting pathological plasticity that could facilitate recruitment of new emotional memory circuits in the hippocampus as a function of aberrant DG neurogenesis.

  16. Verification of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J as a Treatment-Customization, Prediction, and Comparison Tool for Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Higuchi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals. The ASI is a frequently used clinical and research instrument that measures severities in seven functional domains in people with substance abuse disorders. Methods: A total of 370 male inpatients with a history of alcohol dependence participated in the study. Forty-nine participants were excluded in the final analysis due to lack of reliability (i.e., patient misrepresentation or inability to understand. We used the ASI-J and a series of indexes that determined patient states during and post-treatment. Results: The correlations between ASI Composite Scores (CSs, which were calculated through a weighted formula and indicated the severity of each problem area, were significant but low in eight relations and not significant in 13 relations, indicating substantial independence of the problem areas. Significant differences were found in Family/Social CSs between abstinent and relapsed alcohol-dependent individuals. The questions of undesirable attitude were significantly related to the CSs of Employment, Drug use, Family/Social, and Psychiatric sections. Significant differences were observed in patient demographics, CS, and ASI Severity Rating (SR and interviewer’s subjective scoring between alcohol-dependent individuals and drug abusers. CSs in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals were generally similar to corresponding CSs in individuals from other countries, with the exception of The Netherlands. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the ASI-J is useful for understanding individual profiles of problems for each patient and planning customized treatment. The ASI-J served as a predictive tool for relapse and compliance to treatment afterward and was shown to be useful as a comparison tool in clarifying similarities and differences between substance abuser groups.

  17. A systematic review of the effectiveness of naltrexone in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, Hendrik G; de Waart, Ranne; van der Windt, Danielle A W M; van den Brink, Wim; de Jong, Cor A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2006-07-01

    This systematic review summarises evidence of the effectiveness of naltrexone (NTX) and the added value of psychosocial treatment in the maintenance treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence. Studies were selected through a literature search conducted in March 2004. Seven opioid and seventeen alcohol studies were identified. When possible, meta-(regression) analyses were performed. There is lack of evidence about the effectiveness of NTX in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. There is evidence for the effectiveness and applicability of NTX in the management of alcohol dependence. The opioid studies combined NTX with a variety of psychosocial interventions, which plagued the evaluation of their value. Concomitant psychosocial interventions used in the alcohol studies were mainly cognitive behavioural, which seems to be more effective than NTX combined with supportive therapy. Available data do not allow firm conclusions regarding the added effect of psychosocial interventions. However, the data suggest that a combination of naltrexone with cognitive behavioural relapse prevention therapy is beneficial in alcohol dependent patients. PMID:16361086

  18. Similar withdrawal severity in adolescents and adults in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, S.A.; Kelso, M.L.; Liput, D.J.; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent’s unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study i...

  19. [The effectiveness of psychosocial treatment approaches for alcohol dependence--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlender, M; Köhler, J; Soyka, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatment approaches which are used in the context of inpatient alcoholism treatment are frequently neither theoretically justified nor empirically examined. In view of the enormous method variety the necessity exists for the development of treatment guidelines in order to offer indicators of promising treatment achievement for practitioners and pension funds. In a first step, it must be examined which treatments are effective, which are ineffective and which are possibly even counter-productive. This article aims to give a comprehensive review of randomized-controlled studies/meta-analysis on the efficacy of different treatment approaches. This article reporting the literature review is part of a larger programme to develop clinical practice guidelines for rehabilitation which is supported in form, content and finance by the German Pension Institute for Salaried Employees (Bundesversicherungsanstalt für Angestellte, BfA). Summing up, treatment is effective compared to no treatment. Cognitive behavioural therapy included in a multimodal treatment program is effective. There are a number of treatment protocols for which controlled research has consistently found positive results like social skills training, community reinforcement approaches, behaviour contracting, motivation-enhancing treatment, and family/marital therapy. There is also a number of commonly used treatment approaches that brought neither a positive result or were counter productive like relapse prevention, non-behavioural marital therapy, and insight psychotherapy, confrontational counseling, education, relaxation training, and milieu therapy. Support for matching to a specific treatment is weak, but interventions against alcohol problems should be differentiated according to the severity of the alcohol problem. Since treatment evaluation is mainly accomplished in the US and supplying structures with respect to the US and Germany are substantially different, a generalized transmission of US

  20. Hippocampal volume MRI and 1H-MRS study in chronic alcohol dependent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the changes of the bilateral hippocampal volume (BHV) and 1H- MRS appearance of chronic alcohol dependent (CAD) patients and to provide quantitative information for the clinical diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The conventional MR imaging including three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-FSPGR) and 1H-MRS were performed on 16 patients with CAD (CAD group) and 18 cases of volunteer (control group). The BHV were measured in both groups and the standardized BHV in CAD group and control group were compared. 1H-MRS metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline compounds (Cho), Creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) of the bilateral cephalic hippocampus were acquired. The ratios of Cho/Ci, Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and mI/Ci within the bilateral cephalic hippocampus of the two groups were compared. The t test was used to compare the BHV and the ratios of 1H-MRS in the bilateral cephalic hippocampus between the two groups. Results: In CAD group, the left and the right hippocampal volume were 1.881±0.292, 2.139±0.328 respectively while they were 2.106±0.245 and 2.267±0.271 respectively in the control group. The BHV had no significant difference between the left and the right in either the CAD group or the control group (t=0.232, 0.147 respectively, P>0.05). The BHV had no significant difference between the CAD group and control group (t=0.424, 0.131 respectively, P>0.05). The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in the right cephalic hippocampus of the CAD group were 1.225±0.210 and 1.145±0.034 respectively, while they were 1.429±0.286, 1.612±0.444 respectively in the control group (t=0.321, 0.408, P1H-MRS could potentially provide early diagnostic evidence for CAD patients before the onset of cerebral morphological changes. (authors)

  1. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was...

  2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder in patients being treated for alcohol dependence: Moderating effects of alcohol outcome expectancies☆

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, Matt G.; Sletten, Sandra; Donahue, Christopher; Thuras, Paul; Maurer, Eric; Schneider, Antonina; Frye, Brenda; Van Demark, Joani

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders commonly co-occur with alcohol use disorders and reliably mark a poor response to substance abuse treatment. However, treating a co-occurring anxiety disorder does not reliably improve substance abuse treatment outcomes. Failure to account for individual differences in the functional dynamic between anxiety symptoms and drinking behavior might impede the progress and clarity of this research program. For example, while both theory and research point to the moderating role of...

  3. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rüütel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  4. Comparative study of marital adjustment and life satisfaction among spouses of patients with alcohol dependence and normal healthy control: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nazish Fatima; Rishi Panday; Abid Rizvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol dependence is associated with domestic violence, which in turn aggravates the physical and emotional distress of the family. Alcohol dependence also leads to decrease in social support not just for the affected individual but for the family. Various studies revealed low level of life satisfaction and among the family members of patients with alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to compare marital adjustment and life satisfaction among the spouses of patients with a...

  5. Analysis of correlation between personality characteristics of patients with alcohol dependence and the severity of alcohol dependence%酒依赖患者人格特征及酒依赖程度的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾霞; 刘华清; 杨甫德; 张东; 刘红侠

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索酒依赖患者的人格特征,以及酒依赖程度的影响因素。方法:运用明尼苏达多相人格调查表( MMPI)和酒依赖筛查量表( MAST)测查150例住院酒依赖患者(研究组)进行评估并与正常人(对照组)进行比较。以年龄、受教育年限、病程、发病年龄、饮酒时间、每日饮酒量以及MMPI 10个临床量表分作自变量,依次将酒依赖患者MAST 5个因子分作为因变量,进行多元逐步回归分析。结果:研究组的校正量表分低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义( P<0.05),诈病、疑病、抑郁、癔症、精神病态、偏执、神经衰弱、精神分裂、轻躁狂量表分均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。多元逐步回归分析显示,对饮酒问题的认识分与Pa、Pt、饮酒时间、受教育年限存在相关性( P均<0.05);工作社会分与Hy、Pt存在相关性(P均<0.05);肝脏疾患分与D、受教育年限存在相关性(P均<0.05)。结论:酒依赖患者有明显的人格偏离,某些人格特质、受教育时间和持续饮酒时间影响患者酒依赖程度。%Objective:To explore the personality characteristics of patients with alcohol dependence as well as the correlation with the severity of alcohol dependence. Method:Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory( MMPI)and Michigan alcohol screening test( MAST)were administered to 150 patients hospitalized for alcohol dependence( experimental group). The results were compared with those of the control. Age,years of education,course of disease,age of onset,time of drinking,daily alcohol intake and ten clinical scales of MMPI were selected as independent variables. In the meantime,five factors of MAST were treated as dependent variables to perform multiple stepwise regression,respectively. Results:The scores of corrected scales in the experimental group were lower than those of the control with statistical

  6. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Clément Palpacuer; Bruno Laviolle; Rémy Boussageon; Jean Michel Reymann; Eric Bellissant; Florian Naudet

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Many people enjoy an occasional alcoholic drink. But because alcohol is an addictive substance, some people (around one in 12 people in the US, for example) develop alcohol dependency (alcoholism). Such people have an excessive desire to drink or have lost control over their alcohol use, and may find it hard to relax or enjoy themselves without having a drink. As well as becoming psychologically dependent on alcohol, they can become physically dependent and may sho...

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  8. Shared psychological characteristics that are linked to aggression between patients with Internet addiction and those with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Gwak, Ah Reum; Jung, Dawn; Choi, Sam-Wook; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kim, Dai Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet addiction (IA) is considered as one of behavioral addictions. Although common neurobiological mechanisms have been suggested to underlie behavioral addiction and substance dependence, few studies have directly compared IA with substance dependence, such as alcohol dependence (AD). Methods We compared patients with IA, AD, and healthy controls (HC) in terms of the Five Factor Model of personality and with regard to impulsiveness, anger expression, and mood to explore psycho...

  9. The impact of cognitive impairment and impulsivity on relapse of alcohol-dependent patients: implications for psychotherapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, Marta; Simon, Joe J; Richter, Barbara; Kluge, Matthias; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Herpertz, Stephan; Mann, Karl; Herpertz, Sabine C; Loeber, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Recent models of the development of addiction propose a transition from a pleasure-driven to a heavily automatized behaviour, marked by a loss of cognitive control. This study investigated the deficits in different components of cognitive functions including behavioural inhibition in response to alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and healthy controls (HC). The aims of the study were to identify which particular cognitive functions are impaired in ADP. Furthermore, we analysed the association between cognitive deficits and relapse rates and the reversibility of cognitive deficits under abstinence in a 6-month follow-up period. Ninety-four recently detoxified ADP and 71 HC completed the cognitive tasks as well as questionnaire measures assessing drinking behaviour and personality traits. Compared with HC, ADP showed poorer performance in response initiation, response inhibition, complex-sustained attention and executive functions. Impairment in response inhibition was a significant predictor for relapse, yet the strongest predictor was the interaction between the number of previous detoxifications and response-inhibition deficits. The results of a moderation analysis showed that patients with many previous detoxifications and large deficits in response inhibition showed the highest relapse risk. These findings indicate that interventions should take into account inhibitory deficits especially in ADP with a high number of previous detoxifications. PMID:25678237

  10. Improved production of isoamyl acetate by a sake yeast mutant resistant to an isoprenoid analog and its dependence on alcohol acetyltransferase activity, but not on isoamyl alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tsutsui, Nobuo; Tanaka, Toshio

    2005-02-01

    1-Farnesylpyridinium (FPy), an analog of isoprenoid farnesol, strongly inhibited the growth of sake yeast at 120 microM in YPD medium, whereas at 30 microM it reduced cellular production of isoamyl acetate to 20% of the control level despite the absence of inhibitory effect on CO2 evolution. The FPy-resistant mutant A1 was characterized by the high production of flavor compounds represented by a nearly threefold increase in the level of isoamyl acetate in YPD medium in which the level of isoamyl alcohol as its precursor remained almost unchanged. The FPy resistance phenotype of strain A1 was not accompanied by cellular resistance to either the L-leucine analog or L-canavanine, which alters yeast amino acid metabolism in favor of isoamyl alcohol production. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) activity was high in strain A1, which further increased in response to isoamyl alcohol accumulation in medium. Flavor compound production in sake brewing could be improved using strain A1, resulting in a 1.4-fold increase in isoamyl acetate production in spite of a limited production of isoamyl alcohol. PMID:16233768

  11. Evaluation of Relationships among Occupational Stress, Alcohol Dependence and Other Factors in Male Personnel in a Japanese Local Fire Fighting Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Takenobu; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Okamoto, Hiroteru; Wada, Takako; Otani, Shinji; Mu, Haosheng; Yokoyama, Yae; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Recent large-scale disasters have made middle-ranked fire defense officers responsible for routine fire fighting activities, and a tendency of alcohol dependence associated with other stressful problems is noted in Japan. We assessed the alcohol dependence tendency with the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in firefighters. Occupational stress, depression and other factors were evaluated with the brief job stress questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale, K10 and a face sheet. Subjects were 294 male personnel in a local fire defense headquarters, and 246 of them (83.4%) answered effectively. Data were analyzed first with univariate analysis between the AUDIT score and other items, and then with multivariate analysis of the AUDIT score as a dependent variable and other items as independent variables. The AUDIT score (mean ± SD) in the 246 respondents classified by age ranges was 7.9 ± 5.4 points (the lowest, 0 points; the highest, 27 points). The multivariate analysis showed significant correlations of the AUDIT score with the workplace environment (P = 0.003) and the rank of work (P = 0.019). The present survey was cross-sectional, and we could not clarify the subjects’ past drinking states and applicability of the results to the whole Japan personnel. It is necessary to further investigate the relationship between alcoholism and depression in the present subjects. As a pilot study, we first clarified the state of alcohol dependence in personnel in a Japanese local fire fighting organization, and examined related factors. PMID:24031141

  12. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus;

    2012-01-01

    antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1(NestinCre) mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1(NestinCre) mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress......Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...... conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1...

  13. Dissociable patterns in the control of emotional interference in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in adults with alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Marx

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To effectively manage current task demands, attention must be focused on task-relevant information while task-irrelevant information is rejected. However, in everyday life, people must cope with emotions, which may interfere with actual task demands and may challenge functional attention allocation. Control of interfering emotions has been associated with the proper functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. As DLPFC dysfunction is evident in subjects with ADHD and in subjects with alcohol dependence, the current study sought to examine the bottom-up effect of emotional distraction on task performance in both disorders. METHODS: Male adults with ADHD (n = 22, male adults with alcohol dependence (n = 16, and healthy controls (n = 30 performed an emotional working memory task (n-back task. In the background of the task, we presented neutral and negative stimuli that varied in emotional saliency. RESULTS: In both clinical groups, a working memory deficit was evident. Moreover, both clinical groups displayed deficient emotional interference control. The n-back performance of the controls was not affected by the emotional distractors, whereas that of subjects with ADHD deteriorated in the presence of low salient distractors, and that of alcoholics did not deteriorate until high salient distractors were presented. Subsequent to task performance, subjects with ADHD accurately recognized more distractors than did alcoholics and controls. In alcoholics, picture recognition accuracy was negatively associated with n-back performance, suggesting a functional association between the ability to suppress emotional distractors and successful task performance. In subjects with ADHD, performance accuracy was negatively associated with ADHD inattentive symptoms, suggesting that inattention contributes to the performance deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with ADHD and alcoholics both display an emotional interference control

  14. Two-year prognosis after residential treatment for patients with alcohol dependence: three chief guidelines for sobriety in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tetsuji; Negoro, Hideki; Saka, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the three chief traditional guidelines for sobriety (3CGS) are regular medical checkups, participation in self-help groups, and pharmacotherapy with antidipsotropics. However, the official record of the origins of 3CGS is not clear. The aim of this current study was to assess 3CGS by an examination of the prognosis of patients with alcohol dependence 2 years after their discharge from a residential treatment program. Subjects and methods The association between subjects’ abstinence from alcohol and their regular medical checkups, participation in self-help groups, and treatment with antidipsotropics were prospectively examined. Two years after discharge, the relationship between the 3CGS compliance and abstinence rates was investigated as the primary outcome. In addition, the following were examined as secondary outcomes: the time taken till the first drink after discharge, whether the participants were readmitted to residential treatment, the number of days to readmission, the number of heavy drinking days, and recovery. Results A total of 98 patients participated. The perfect and partial abstinence rates for patients who followed all the principles of 3CGS were significantly higher than those for patients who followed no guidelines (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The perfect abstinence rates for patients who had continued attending checkup sessions (P<0.001) and who were taking antidipsotropics (P<0.05) were significantly higher than those for patients who did not follow these components of 3CGS. However, the perfect abstinence rates were not higher for patients who had continued to participate in self-help groups. In addition, the perfect abstinence rate was statistically associated with regular medical checkups (adjusted odds ratio =5.33, 95% confidence interval =1.35–21.0) and participation in self-help groups (adjusted odds ratio =3.79, 95% confidence interval =1.17–12.3). Conclusion This study, reports the effectiveness of 3CGS

  15. Clinico-demographic profile, sexual dysfunction and readiness to change in male alcohol dependence syndrome inpatients in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Sapkota, N; Tambi, A; Shyangwa, P M

    2012-03-01

    Persons with prolonged and heavy alcohol use generally suffer from alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) and develop physical, sexual as well as psychiatric co-morbidity. Successful recovery to normalcy depends on multiple factors including patient's motivation. To study clinico-demographic profile, reasons for initiating alcohol use, sexual and psychiatric disorders and eagerness for treatment and quitting alcohol in ADS inpatients. Fifty consecutive ADS inpatients with matching controls were enrolled. Clinico-demographic profile, factors for initiating alcohol use, psychiatric and sexual co-morbidity and want for treatment and being abstinent was studied applying relevant scales. All subjects were males with a mean age of 37.5 years, 80% were married, majority were Hindu (88%) and from nuclear families (56%). Fifty two percent had an education level of Graduation or more and 68% of patients reported peer pressure to be the initiating factor for alcohol use. Seventy six percent had psychiatric co-morbidity including personality Problems and other Psychiatric disorders 19(38%), delirium tremens 14 (28.00%) and Mood disorders 12(24%).Depression being most common mood disorder (14%). Nicotine was the most common other substance of use 32 (64%). Sixty eight percent of the patient reported one or another sexual dysfunction. 68% of ADS inpatients acknowledged of having problems related to their drinking, expressed desire for change and were eager to avail treatment and to remain abstinent. ADS patients commonly suffer from psychiatric co-morbidity and sexual dysfunctions. They also wish to have effective treatment and to quit alcohol. PMID:23441492

  16. Histamine H3 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in alcohol dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti ePanula

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain histaminergic system is one of the diffuse modulatory neurotransmitter systems which regulate neuronal activity in many brain areas. Studies on both rats and mice indicate that histamine H3 receptor antagonists decrease alcohol drinking in several models, like operant alcohol administration and drinking in the dark paradigm. Alcohol-induced place preference is also affected by these drugs. Moreover, mice lacking H3R do not drink alcohol like their wild type littermates, and they do not show alcohol-induced place preference. Although the mechanisms of these behaviors are still being investigated, we propose that H3R antagonists are promising candidates for use in human alcoholics, as these drugs are already tested for treatment of other disorders like narcolepsy and sleep disorders.

  17. Suicidal Behavior and Haplotypes of the Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Alcohol Dependence – Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Małecka, Iwona; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,- we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects) including a subgroup of individuals (n ...

  18. Association Splitting: A randomized controlled trial of a new method to reduce craving among inpatients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C; Moritz, Steffen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Reimer, Jens; Andreou, Christina; Jelinek, Lena

    2016-04-30

    Association Splitting, a novel cognitive intervention, was tested in patients with alcohol dependence as an add-on intervention in an initial randomized controlled trial. Preliminary support for Association Splitting has been found in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as in an online pilot study of patients with alcohol use disorders. The present variant sought to reduce craving by strengthening neutral associations with alcohol-related stimuli, thus, altering cognitive networks. Eighty-four inpatients with verified diagnoses of alcohol dependence, who were currently undergoing inpatient treatment, were randomly assigned to Association Splitting or Exercise Therapy. Craving was measured at baseline, 4-week follow-up, and six months later with the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (primary outcome) and the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire. There was no advantage for Association Splitting after three treatment sessions relative to Exercise Therapy. Among Association Splitting participants, 51.9% endorsed a subjective decline in craving and 88.9% indicated that they would use Association Splitting in the future. Despite high acceptance, an additional benefit of Association Splitting beyond standard inpatient treatment was not found. Given that participants were concurrently undergoing inpatient treatment and Association Splitting has previously shown moderate effects, modification of the study design may improve the potential to detect significant effects in future trials. PMID:27086250

  19. A Randomized Trial of Extended Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol Dependence: Within-Treatment Substance Use Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James R.; Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Oslin, David W.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Ivey, Megan; Ward, Kathleen; Drapkin, Michelle L.; Becher, Julie R.; Coviello, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study tested whether adding up to 18 months of telephone continuing care, either as monitoring and feedback (TM) or longer contacts that included counseling (TMC), to intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) improved outcomes for alcohol-dependent patients. Method: Participants (N = 252) who completed 3 weeks of IOP were randomized to…

  20. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Casement, Melynda D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of ma...

  1. Time-dependent micro-Raman scattering studies of polyvinyl alcohol and silver nitrate thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Shadak Alee; D Narayana Rao

    2014-02-01

    In-situ monitoring of silver nanoparticle formation was studied in thin films of polyvinyl alcohol and silver nitrate. We proposed the observation of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a novel and simple technique to record the growth of silver nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol thin films. Observed enhancement in the Raman bands of polyvinyl alcohol is explained through the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. Influence of temperature generated by silver nanoparticles on the formation of nanoparticles is also discussed.

  2. Use of hair cortisol analysis to detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinze, Kareen; Steudte, Susann; Foley, Paul; Tietze, Antje; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of cortisol levels in human hair has recently been suggested to provide a retrospective index of cumulative cortisol exposure over periods of up to 6 months. The current study examined the utility of hair cortisol analysis to retrospectively detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcoholics in acute withdrawal (n=23), the normalisation of cortisol output in abstinent alcoholics (n=25) and cortisol levels in age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). Scalp-near 3-cm hair segments were sampled and analysed for cortisol content. Results showed three to fourfold higher cortisol levels in hair samples of alcoholics in acute withdrawal than in those of abstinent alcoholics (p<.001) or controls (p<.001), with no differences between the latter two groups. The current hair cortisol findings closely mirror results of previous research using well-established measures of systemic cortisol secretion and thus provide further validation of this novel method. PMID:20727937

  3. Evaluation of Relationships among Occupational Stress, Alcohol Dependence and Other Factors in Male Personnel in a Japanese Local Fire Fighting Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoda, Takenobu; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Okamoto, Hiroteru; Wada, Takako; Otani, Shinji; Mu, Haosheng; Yokoyama, Yae; Okamoto,Mikizo; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Recent large-scale disasters have made middle-ranked fire defense officers responsible for routine fire fighting activities, and a tendency of alcohol dependence associated with other stressful problems is noted in Japan. We assessed the alcohol dependence tendency with the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in firefighters. Occupational stress, depression and other factors were evaluated with the brief job stress questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale...

  4. Effect of Alcohol Withdrawl on Glutathione S-transferase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Amylase in Blood and Saliva of Alcohol-Dependent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Neethumol; Chiramel, Kevin J.; A.R., Shivashankara

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol biomarkers help in the early detection of alcoholism and its complications. There is a paucity of studies in India on the salivary markers of systemic diseases in general and on salivary alcohol biomarkers in particular.

  5. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(meth

  6. Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skochilov Roman V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse has been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV. However, this association is not usually examined in Russia. Moreover, more investigation is required as to whether specific drinking contexts are also associated with IPV. The objectives of this study are: to investigate whether alcohol misuse is associated with IPV and to further examine whether specific drinking contexts among drinkers are associated with IPV. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04 as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90 were more likely to perpetrate IPV. Conclusions Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.

  7. Reduced Dopamine Receptor Sensitivity as an Intermediate Phenotype in Alcohol Dependence and the Role of the COMT Val158Met and DRD2 Taq1A Genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Franke, B.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Alcohol dependence is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with high heritability. However, genetic association studies on alcohol dependence are often troubled by nonreplication. The use of intermediate phenotypes may help make clear the mode of action of various candidate genes and improve

  8. Reduced dopamine receptor sensitivity as an intermediate phenotype in alcohol dependence and the role of the COMT Val158Met and DRD2 Taq1A genotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Franke, B.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Alcohol dependence is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with high heritability. However, genetic association studies on alcohol dependence are often troubled by nonreplication. The use of intermediate phenotypes may help make clear the mode of action of various candidate genes and improve

  9. Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dufour, Brett D; Smith, Monique L; Cocking, Davelle L; Li, Ju; Young, Larry J; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-04-22

    Alcohol use and abuse profoundly influences a variety of behaviors, including social interactions. In some cases, it erodes social relationships; in others, it facilitates sociality. Here, we show that voluntary alcohol consumption can inhibit male partner preference (PP) formation (a laboratory proxy for pair bonding) in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Conversely, female PP is not inhibited, and may be facilitated by alcohol. Behavior and neurochemical analysis suggests that the effects of alcohol on social bonding are mediated by neural mechanisms regulating pair bond formation and not alcohol's effects on mating, locomotor, or aggressive behaviors. Several neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of social behavior (especially neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor) are modulated by alcohol drinking during cohabitation. These findings provide the first evidence to our knowledge that alcohol has a direct impact on the neural systems involved in social bonding in a sex-specific manner, providing an opportunity to explore the mechanisms by which alcohol affects social relationships. PMID:24711424

  10. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  11. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet. PMID:23396051

  12. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide. PMID:26784730

  13. Association Analysis of Symptoms of Alcohol Dependence in the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS2) Control Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kalsi, Gursharan; Holmans, Peter A.; Sanders, Alan R.; Aggen, Steven H.; Dick, Danielle M.; Aliev, Fazil; Shi, Jianxin; Levinson, Douglas F.; Gejman, Pablo V.

    2011-01-01

    Background While genetic influences on Alcohol Dependence (AD) are substantial, progress in the identification of individual genetic variants that impact on risk has been difficult. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study on 3,169 alcohol consuming subjects from the population-based Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS2) control sample. Subjects were asked 7 questions about symptoms of AD which were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Three sets of analyses were conducted separately for European American (EA, n=2,357) and African-American (AA, n=812) subjects: individual SNPs, candidate genes and enriched pathways using Gene Ontology (GO) categories. Results The symptoms of AD formed a highly coherent single factor. No SNP approached genome-wide significance. In the EA sample, the most significant intragenic SNP was in KCNMA1, the human homolog of the slo-1 gene in C. Elegans. Genes with clusters of significant SNPs included AKAP9, PIGG and KCNMA1. In the AA sample, the most significant intragenic SNP was CEACAM6 and genes showing empirically significant SNPs included KCNQ5, SLC35B4 and MGLL. In the candidate gene based analyses, the most significant findings were with ADH1C, NFKB1 and ANKK1 in the EA sample, and ADH5, POMC, and CHRM2 in the AA sample. The ALIGATOR program identified a significant excess of associated SNPs within and near genes in a substantial number of GO categories over a range of statistical stringencies in both the EA and AA sample. Conclusions While we cannot be highly confident about any single result from these analyses, a number of findings were suggestive and worthy of follow-up. Although quite large samples will be needed to obtain requisite power, the study of AD symptoms in general population samples is a viable complement to case-control studies in identifying genetic risk variants for AD. PMID:21314694

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  15. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD. PMID:26990264

  16. One more beer? Serving alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated guests in bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordy F.; Hoof, van Joris J.; Goverde, Martine M.; Jong, de Menno D.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consuming large quantities of alcohol might result in negative consequences for both individual drinkers (alcohol dependency and addiction) and society (violence, traffic crashes). In order to decrease the prevalence of alcohol abuse, many countries have adopted regulations prohibiting th

  17. Attempted Training of Alcohol Approach and Drinking Identity Associations in US Undergraduate Drinkers: Null Results from Two Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Wiers, Reinout W; Teachman, Bethany A; Gasser, Melissa L; Westgate, Erin C; Cousijn, Janna; Enkema, Matthew C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1) and at-risk drinkers (Study 2). Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT) were tested. The first adaptation - the approach avoid training - was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations - the general identity and personalized identity trainings - targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor-intensive. Future research

  18. Attempted Training of Alcohol Approach and Drinking Identity Associations in US Undergraduate Drinkers: Null Results from Two Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P Lindgren

    Full Text Available There is preliminary evidence that approach avoid training can shift implicit alcohol associations and improve treatment outcomes. We sought to replicate and extend those findings in US undergraduate social drinkers (Study 1 and at-risk drinkers (Study 2. Three adaptations of the approach avoid task (AAT were tested. The first adaptation - the approach avoid training - was a replication and targeted implicit alcohol approach associations. The remaining two adaptations - the general identity and personalized identity trainings - targeted implicit drinking identity associations, which are robust predictors of hazardous drinking in US undergraduates. Study 1 included 300 undergraduate social drinkers. They were randomly assigned to real or sham training conditions for one of the three training adaptations, and completed two training sessions, spaced one week apart. Study 2 included 288 undergraduates at risk for alcohol use disorders. The same training procedures were used, but the two training sessions occurred within a single week. Results were not as expected. Across both studies, the approach avoid training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. The general identity training also yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes with one exception; individuals who completed real training demonstrated no changes in drinking refusal self-efficacy whereas individuals who completed sham training had reductions in self-efficacy. Finally, across both studies, the personalized identity training yielded no evidence of training effects on implicit alcohol associations or alcohol outcomes. Despite having relatively large samples and using a well-validated training task, study results indicated all three training adaptations were ineffective at this dose in US undergraduates. These findings are important because training studies are costly and labor

  19. Sector-dependent framing effects of corporate social responsibility messages: An experiment with non-alcoholic and alcoholic drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Steltenpool; P. Verhoeven

    2012-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications can be paradoxical in their effect on consumers attitudes and skepticism toward an organization, buying intentions and the organization's reputation. In this research, we investigated the effects of sector dependence and the framing of CSR message

  20. Growing Up With An Alcohol-Dependent Father: Understanding Lived Experience Through Intepretative Phenomenological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McNaught, Kirsty, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses IPA (interpretative phenomenological analysis) to explore how paternal alcoholism impacts the child’s experience of life. Due to an abundance of quantitative research on ACOAs (adult children of alcoholics), this study aims to bring meaningful, real-life accounts to the current literature. Five ACOAs were interviewed and the subsequent analyses found three consistent themes across all the transcripts: Grieving lost identity of father and lost father-child relationship throug...

  1. On the dependence of HCDA- analysis results on computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) analysis of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) involves solving of reactor kinetics equations simultaneously with energy balance equations, equation of state providing internal pressure, hydrodynamic equations providing material displacement and reactivity feedback (Doppler and displacement) equations. VENUS-II computer code developed at ANL is one of the codes that solves such equations and provides results for time history of power, energy release, pressures and temperature buildups during the disassembly of the reactor core. A study was undertaken to ascertain whether the results of the code VENUS-II are computing-system dependent. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Achim; Spadaro, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  3. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@hs-aalen.de; Spadaro, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.spadaro@hs-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), Aalen University (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  4. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development

  5. Cortical metabolite alterations in abstinent cocaine and cocaine/alcohol-dependent subjects: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerhoff, D. J.; BLOOMER, C.; Schuff, N.; Ezekiel, F.; Norman, D.; Clark, W; Weiner, M W; Fein, G.

    1999-01-01

    Chronic abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with structural, neuropathological and cognitive impairments that have been documented extensively. Little is known, however, about neurobiochemical changes in chronic substance abusers. We performed MRI and multi-slice brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to assess neuronal viability (via N-acetylaspartate (NAA)) and white matter metabolite status in 22 4-months-abstinent individuals dependent on crack cocaine only and...

  6. Alcohol dependence and treatment utilization in Europe – a representative cross-sectional study in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Manthey, Jakob; Probst, Charlotte; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Della Vedova, Roberto; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) in Europe is prevalent and causes considerable health burden. Recognition by general practitioners (GPs) and provision of or referral to treatment may contribute to reduce this burden. This paper studied AD prevalence in varying European primary care settings and examined who received treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional multi-centre study in six European countries, 358 general practitioners assessed 13,003 primary care patients between January 2013 and J...

  7. Alcohol consumption in elderly people across European countries: Results from the Food in Later Life project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living ...

  8. Alcohol detoxification in Ysbyty Gwynedd: Two small sips or one big gulp? Two-step screening more reliable for identification of alcohol dependency syndrome at risk of delirium tremens for routine care

    OpenAIRE

    Salman, Muhammad; Subbe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with pathways for hospitalised patients with alcohol dependency syndrome is often poor. A pathway for recognition and treatment of alcohol dependency was redesigned as part of a 12 month service improvement project in the acute medical unit using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. A needs assessment was undertaken: Audit data from 2013 showed over-prescription of chlordiazepoxide for detoxification treatment (DT) leading to prolonged hospital admissions with an average length of s...

  9. Epistasis between IL1A, IL1B, TNF, HTR2A, 5-HTTLPR and TPH2 Variations Does Not Impact Alcohol Dependence Disorder Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kalofoutis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed a set of biological (HDL, LDL, SGOT,SGPT, GGT, HTc, Hb and T levels and psychometric variables (investigated through HAM-D, HAM-A, GAS, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Mark & Mathews Scale, Leyton scale, and Pilowski scale in a sample of 64 alcohol dependent patients, at baseline and after a detoxification treatment. Moreover, we recruited 47 non-consanguineous relatives who did not suffer alcohol related disorders and underwent the same tests. In both groups we genotyped 11 genetic variations (rs1800587; rs3087258; rs1799724; 5-HTTLPR; rs1386493; rs1386494; rs1487275; rs1843809; rs4570625; rs2129575; rs6313 located in genes whose impact on alcohol related behaviors and disorders has been hypothesized (IL1A, IL1B, TNF, 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 and HTR2A. We analyzed the epistasis of these genetic variations upon the biological and psychological dimensions in the cases and their relatives. Further on, we analyzed the effects of the combined genetic variations on the short – term detoxification treatment efficacy. Finally, being the only not yet investigated variation within this sample, we analyzed the impact of the rs6313 alone on baseline assessment and treatment efficacy. We detected the following results: the couple rs6313 + rs2129575 affected the Leyton -Trait at admission (p = 0.01 (obsessive-compulsive trait, whilst rs1800587 + 5-HTTLPR impacted the Pilowski test at admission (p = 0.01 (hypochondriac symptoms. These results did not survive Bonferroni correction (p ≤ 0.004. This lack of association may depend on the incomplete gene coverage or on the small sample size which limited the power of the study. On the other hand, it may reflect a substantial absence of relevance of the genotype variants toward the alcohol related investigated dimensions. Nonetheless, the marginal significance we detected could witness an informative correlation worth investigating in larger samples.

  10. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  11. Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at midlife in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Narayanan, Gitanjali; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the association between personality pathology (PP) and alcohol dependence (AD; both lifetime and in the past 12 months) among middle-aged to older adults incorporating three sources of assessment, specifically, diagnostic interviews as well as self- and informant reports. We collected data from a representative sample of community participants (N = 1,630; ages 54-65 years) and their informants (N = 1,462). Measures employed were the substance use disorder sections of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Schedule for Mental Disorders, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR SIDP) and the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., Revised NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual, 1992, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources; self-report and informant versions). To complement the diagnostic interview for personality disorders (PDs), we utilized a PD-count technique derived from the five-factor model (FFM), which provided an index of PP liability. Factors representing lifetime and past-12 month AD were regressed on each of the 10 PP factors constructed from the SIDP interview, as well as self-report and informant FFM-count scores. Lifetime diagnosis of AD was positively associated with higher scores on several PP measures, including paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP. There was an inverse relation between lifetime AD and the factor score for obsessive-compulsive PP. With regard to AD in the past 12 months, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PP factors were significantly associated with increased risk for AD, whereas the obsessive-compulsive and schizoid PP factors were associated with decreased risk for AD. The present data indicate that features of antisocial and

  12. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; van Berkel, Willem J. H.

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyph...

  13. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. PMID:27107672

  14. O papel da genética na dependência do álcool The role of genetics in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Peres Messas

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura examinar a questão da herdabilidade na dependência do álcool. Através da revisão de estudos em famílias, em gêmeos e de adoção, encontramos evidências para afirmar a importância dos fatores genéticos na transmissão da vulnerabilidade a esta dependência. Essa transmissão pode ser melhor compreendida através de um modelo epigenético de desenvolvimento do transtorno, no qual condições biológicas hereditárias associem-se a situações ambientais ao longo da vida para a produção da dependência. Neste artigo, apresentamos essas condições biológicas intermediárias vinculadas ao alto risco para dependência do álcool. Por fim, descrevemos os estudos moleculares que vêm estabelecendo associações entre polimorfismos e a dependência do álcool, com relevo para o sistema dopaminérgico.In this article we examined the heritability of alcohol dependence. A review of family, twin and adoption studies, allowed us to support the thesis of an important genetic component in this dependence. The transmission of this heritability occurs through a biological vulnerability associated to environmental factors, in a model called epigenetic. We also discussed the relationship between biological vulnerability and high-risk phenotypes for alcohol dependence. In the end, we briefly comment on the molecular genetic studies associated with this disorder.

  15. Ethyl glucuronide, a new biochemical marker for acute alcohol intake : Studies on possible causes for false-negative or false-positive results

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Helen

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in various biochemical markers for detecting acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Biochemical markers for acute and chronic drinking play important roles in detecting alcohol use, abuse and dependence in hospital settings, work place settings, traffic medicine and in forensic toxicology examinations. The alcohol biomarkers can be distinguished into two main classes: 1) tests that are sensitive enough to detect a single int...

  16. Un-health promotion: results of a survey of alcohol promotion on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R; Godfrey, S

    1988-06-01

    To estimate how widely and to whom alcoholic drinks are promoted 1258 television advertisements were studied over a 10 week period that included the Christmas and New Year holidays in 1986-7. A total of 156 advertisements (12%) promoted alcohol, and this percentage increased significantly over the holiday period to 17%. These advertisements were longer than those advertising other products, and just over half (56%) occupied the first position in commercial breaks. During sports programmes and between the hours of 1800 and 1900 there was an increase in the number of advertisements for alcohol, but there was no difference before and after 2100. It was found that the extent and influence of the promotion of alcohol were great and that such advertising is seen by many children and adolescents. PMID:3395835

  17. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  18. Characteristics of adults involved in alcohol-related intimate partner violence: results from a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Connell, Nadine M; Businelle, Michael S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Chartier, Karen G.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 12 million women and men are victims of partner violence each year. Although the health outcomes of partner violence have been well documented, we know very little about specific event-level characteristics that may provide implications for prevention and intervention of partner violence situations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate substance abuse and dependence as risk factors for event-level alcohol-related intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods Dat...

  19. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  20. Pharmacological features of naltrexone and its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence [Zastosowanie naltreksonu w terapii uzależnienia od alkoholu – aspekty farmakologiczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies performed over the last decades have indicated that combined therapy, involving pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is an optimal approach to alcohol dependence. Both pharmaco- and psychotherapy should be personalised with a careful balance between patient’s needs and his/her clinical characteristics. The aim of the present article is to review the basic pharmacological features of naltrexone and its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  1. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Makara-Studzińska; Agnieszka J. Kowalska; Danuta Podstawka; Aneta Pyłypczuk; Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors ...

  2. Verification of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J) as a Treatment-Customization, Prediction, and Comparison Tool for Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Higuchi; Toru Ishikawa; Masanobu Murayama; Masaru Murakami; Mitsuru Hasegawa; Kenji Yanbe; Aro Ino; Aihide Yoshino; Yoshihiro Suzuki; Satoru Saito; Eiichi Senoo; Yasukazu Ogai; Ayako Haraguchi; Kazutaka Ikeda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J) in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals. The ASI is a frequently used clinical and research instrument that measures severities in seven functional domains in people with substance abuse disorders. Methods: A total of 370 male inpatients with a history of alcohol dependence participated in the study. Forty-nine participants were excluded in the final analysis due to lack of reliability (i.e., p...

  3. DETERMINATION OF GENOTYPE COMBINATIONS THAT CAN PREDICT THE OUTCOME OF THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE USING THE 5-HT3 ANTAGONIST ONDANSETRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bankole A.; Seneviratne, Chamindi; Wang, Xin-Qun; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Li, Ming D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previously, we reported that the 5′-HTTLPR-LL and rs1042173-TT (SLC6A4-LL/TT) genotypes in the serotonin transporter gene predicted a significant reduction in the severity of alcohol consumption among alcoholics receiving the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron. In this study, we explored additional markers of ondansetron treatment response in alcoholics by examining polymorphisms in the HTR3A and HTR3B genes, which regulate directly the function and binding of 5-HT3 receptors to ondansetron. Method We genotyped 1 rare and 18 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HTR3A and HTR3B in the same sample that we had genotyped for SLC6A4-LL/TT in the previous randomized, double-blind, 11-week clinical trial. Participants were 283 European Americans who received oral ondansetron (4 μg/kg twice daily) or placebo along with weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. Associations of individual and combined genotypes with treatment response on drinking outcomes were analyzed. Results Individuals carrying one or more of genotypes rs1150226-AG and rs1176713-GG in HTR3A and rs17614942-AC in HTR3B showed a significant overall mean difference between ondansetron and placebo in drinks per drinking day (−2.50; effect size (ES)=0.867), percentage of heavy drinking days (−20.58%; ES=0.780), and percentage of days abstinent (18.18%; ES=0.683). Combining these HTR3A/HTR3B and SLC6A4-LL/TT genotypes increased the target cohort from approaching 20% (identified in our previous study) to 34%. Conclusions We present initial evidence suggesting that a combined 5-marker genotype panel can be used to predict the outcome of treatment of alcohol dependence with ondansetron. Additional, larger pharmacogenetic studies would help to validate our results. PMID:23897038

  4. [AGE-SPECIFIC METABOLIC THERAPY FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR AKMEOLOGICAL FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplutanov, V A; Spikina, A A; Belov, V G; Parfyonov, U A; Ermishin, Ye V

    2015-01-01

    Aocoholism in the elderly determines tne protracted nature or tne pathological craving for etnanol in post-abstinence syndrome period, restricts arsenal of active pharmacotherapy and updates the search for new pharmacological therapeutic strategies. The results showed that the inclusion of the drug "Remaxol" in the treatment of clinical manifestations of craving for ethanol in post-abstinence syndrome period of associated forms of alcoholism in the elderly provides better in relation to conventional therapy dynamics of reduction of somatovegetative and neurological manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as well as the main components of craving for alcohol, will increase the efficiency of outpatient treatment at the stage of remission. The duration of remission of mental and behavioral disorders caused by alcohol use in elderly patients is, apart from pharmacotherapy, due to such social and psychological factors and akmeological features as education, leadership potential, high social activity, a high level of social intelligence and its implementation, lack of intense intrapersonal conflict, high ductility and activity. PMID:26856103

  5. Safety and Tolerability of Pharmacological Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: Comprehensive Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Julia M A; Chambers, Sophia E; Shiles, Celia J; Baldwin, David S

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but pharmacological treatments for them are underused, despite evidence of efficacy. Acamprosate, naltrexone, nalmefene and disulfiram are all approved in one or more region for the treatment of AUD. Baclofen currently has a temporary indication in France. Safety considerations for using psychopharmacological treatments in this patient group include the impact of concurrent alcohol consumption at high levels; multiple physical comorbidities that may interfere with pharmacological effects, distribution and metabolism; and concomitant medication for the treatment of comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions. The five drugs, including an extended-release injectable suspension of naltrexone, have different safety profiles that need to be balanced with the treatment objective (initiation or continuation of abstinence, or reduction of drinking), individual patient preferences and comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment will be based on the unique risk-benefit profile in each case. PMID:27023898

  6. The Relationship of Alexithymia to Emotional Dysregulation Within an Alcohol Dependent Treatment Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; BRADIZZA, CLARA M.; Gudleski, Gregory D.; Coffey, Scott F.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bailey, Sydney T.; Bole, Christopher W.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties regulating emotions have implications for the development, maintenance, and recovery from alcohol problems. One construct thought to impede the regulation of emotion is alexithymia. Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying, differentiating and expressing feelings, a limited imagination and fantasy life, and an externally-oriented thinking style (e.g., prefer talking about daily activities rather than feelings). Given that poor emotion regulation skills have been f...

  7. Effects of school district factors on alcohol consumption: results of a multi-level analysis among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde;

    2011-01-01

    of housing and land use characteristics. RESULTS: About 40% of all respondents (45.8% males and 35.2% females) had ever drunk more than one glass of alcoholic beverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that significant individual level predictors for drinking initiation were male gender, a lower......BACKGROUND: Area-level socio-economic factors are significantly related to a population's health. This study investigates how school district-level factors affect the initiation of alcohol drinking of Danish adolescents. METHODS: A survey sample of 11,223 female and male pupils in the 7th grade...... performance at school, perceived peer group drinking and the perceived daily drinking of the father. On school district level, adolescents were more likely to initiate alcohol consumption in school districts with higher farming land use and less likely in those with higher proportion of private apartment...

  8. The Use of Very High-Doses of Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol-Dependence: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, which is to say, more than 300 mg/day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very hi...

  9. The use of very high-doses of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol-dependence: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud ede Beaurepaire

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, that is to say, more than 300mg per day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very high doses baclofen were justified in almost all the cases. Side effects are analyzed.

  10. The Effect of Alcohols on Red Blood Cell Mechanical Properties and Membrane Fluidity Depends on Their Molecular Size

    OpenAIRE

    Melda Sonmez; Huseyin Yavuz Ince; Ozlem Yalcin; Vladimir Ajdžanović; Ivan Spasojević; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

    2013-01-01

    The Effect of Alcohols on Red Blood Cell Mechanical Properties and Membrane Fluidity Depends on Their Molecular Size Melda Sonmez1, Huseyin Yavuz Ince1, Ozlem Yalcin1, Vladimir Ajdžanović2, Ivan Spasojević3, Herbert J. Meiselman4*, Oguz K. Baskurt1 1 Koc University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey, 2 University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, Belgrade, Serbia, 3 University of Belgrade, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade...

  11. Actual Energetic Dependencies - Result of Economic Global Strategies -

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU; Sorin BULAGEA

    2014-01-01

    The situation on the energy market has suddenly entered a period of turbulence. Prices are at reach of energy suppliers which means an increased vulnerability of countries depending on partners with problems with no alternative. But for those who do have an alternative, the lack of clear strategy equals deepening dependence. Global interests have made the price of gas to no longer comply with the general principles of the market, but to follow the strategic policies of strengthening globaliza...

  12. Alcohol consumption in patients with cardiovascular diseases (results of the survey of cardiac patients in outpatient practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the frequency and characteristics of alcohol use in outpatients with cardiovascular diseases and to determine their preferences regarding the help in limiting alcohol consumption.Material and methods. Voluntary and anonymous survey using AUDIT-C and CAGE questionnaires was conducted in 199 patients. The data of 182 patients (82 women and 100 men, mean age 56.4±5.8 years was included in the analysis.Results. Arterial hypertension (70%, heart rhythm disorders (25%, ischemic heart disease (20%, functional class I-II chronic heart failure (21% predominated among all clinical entities. Positive AUDIT-C test was found in 30% of men and 7.3% of women. 17% of men and 23.2% of women did not use alcohol at all. Positive responses to all 4 questions of the CAGE test were given by 3% of men and none of women, positive answers to 3 questions – by 15% of men and none of women, to 2 questions - by 17% of men and 11% of women. Positive answer to the question about the need to reduce alcohol consumption was given by 36% of men and 13.4% of women.Conclusion. Simultaneous testing using AUDIT-C and CAGE questionnaires in outpatients with cardiovascular diseases allows identifying a subgroup of patients (more in men who have a potential problem with an excessive alcohol consumption and need to reduce the intake of alcoholic beverages.

  13. Characteristics of Alcoholism among Catholic Sisters: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Virginia M.

    1989-01-01

    Obtained information on addiction history, intervention and treatment, and family and community patterns from 221 Catholic Sisters in residential treatment for alcoholism. Findings suggest that, although respondents were similar to other women in their vulnerability to addiction, they carried added burdens because of societal expectations of…

  14. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c

  15. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post

  16. The complex interplay of genetics, epigenetics, and environment in the predisposition to alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Díaz-Anzaldúa; Alejandro Díaz-Martínez; Leonila Rosa Díaz-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    La dependencia al alcohol es un problema mundial grave, que se asocia con mucho sufrimiento, problemas de salud mental y física, una elevada tasa de mortalidad y un costo social y familiar muy alto. Es por esto que las estrategias de prevención y el tratamiento de la enfermedad resultan cruciales. Se ha reportado que programas psicosociales y tratamientos farmacológicos son hasta cierto punto exitosos actualmente. Sin embargo, se requiere conocer más profundamente la etiología de la enfermeda...

  17. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  18. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  19. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  20. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent women: exploratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions

  1. Degradation of Swainsonine by the NADP-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase A1R6C3 in Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid that has been found in locoweeds and some fungi. Our previous study demonstrated that Arthrobacter sp. HW08 or its crude enzyme extract could degrade swainsonie efficiently. However, the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we used label-free quantitative proteomics method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to dissect the mechanism of swainsonine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. HW08. The results showed that 129 differentially expressed proteins were relevant to swainsonine degradation. These differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to the biological process of metabolism and the molecular function of catalytic activity. Among the 129 differentially expressed proteins, putative sugar phosphate isomerase/epimerase A1R5X7, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase A0JZ95, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase A1R6C3 were found to contribute to the swainsonine degradation. Notably, NADP-dependent alcohol dehyrodgenase A1R6C3 appeared to play a major role in degrading swainsonine, but not as much as Arthrobacter sp. HW08 did. Collectively, our findings here provide insights to understand the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria.

  2. Degradation of Swainsonine by the NADP-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase A1R6C3 in Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, A’guan; Zhang, Yanqi; Qiu, Kai; Wang, Jianhua; Li, Qinfan

    2016-01-01

    Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid that has been found in locoweeds and some fungi. Our previous study demonstrated that Arthrobacter sp. HW08 or its crude enzyme extract could degrade swainsonie efficiently. However, the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we used label-free quantitative proteomics method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to dissect the mechanism of swainsonine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. HW08. The results showed that 129 differentially expressed proteins were relevant to swainsonine degradation. These differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to the biological process of metabolism and the molecular function of catalytic activity. Among the 129 differentially expressed proteins, putative sugar phosphate isomerase/epimerase A1R5X7, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase A0JZ95, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase A1R6C3 were found to contribute to the swainsonine degradation. Notably, NADP-dependent alcohol dehyrodgenase A1R6C3 appeared to play a major role in degrading swainsonine, but not as much as Arthrobacter sp. HW08 did. Collectively, our findings here provide insights to understand the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria. PMID:27196926

  3. Alcohol Induces RNA Polymerase III-dependent Transcription through c-Jun by Co-regulating TATA-binding Protein (TBP) and Brf1 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Shuping; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hide; Johnson, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, enhancing the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a variety of small, untranslated RNAs, including tRNAs and 5S rRNAs, which determine the biosynthetic capacity of cells. Increased RNA pol III-dependent transcription, observed in transformed cells and human tumors, is required for oncogenic transformation. Given that alcohol consumption increases risk for liver cancer, we examined...

  4. Content and Functionality of Alcohol and Other Drug Websites: Results of an Online Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Britt; White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Shandley, Kerrie; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judith; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Young, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing trend for individuals to seek health information from online sources. Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is a significant health problem worldwide, but access and use of AOD websites is poorly understood. Objective To investigate content and functionality preferences for AOD and other health websites. Methods An anonymous online survey examined general Internet and AOD-specific usage and search behaviors, valued features of AOD and health-related websites (general ...

  5. The effects of social anxiety on alcohol and cigarette use across adolescence: Results from a longitudinal twin study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Verhulst, Brad; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting reports exist on the direction of the relationship between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol/cigarette use (AU/CU) and alcohol/nicotine dependence (AD/ND), with both positive and negative associations reported. A prospective, longitudinal sample of Finnish twins (n = 1,906) was used to test potential explanations for these discrepancies. Specifically, this study used peer, parent, and teacher ratings of SA, and a clinical interview screening item for social anxiety disorder (SAD-Sc) to examine associations between SA and AU/CU and AD/ND from early adolescence into young adulthood. Peer-rated SA was negatively associated with AU, CU, and AD from age 14 through age 22, implying a protective effect (β = -0.01 to -.03). Teacher- and parent-rated SA associations were in the same directions but weaker or nonsignificant, indicating that aspects of SA that are recognizable by peers may be most relevant to AU/CU. Self-reported SAD-Sc was also negatively associated with AU, but positively associated with AD symptoms in young adulthood (β = 0.38). Our findings partially support the existence of different associations between SA and AU versus AD, but only in the context of SAD-Sc rather than trait SA. Neither trait SA nor SAD-Sc significantly predicted ND symptoms, although SAD-Sc was associated with both cigarette abstinence and daily smoking. These findings suggest that adolescent SA is modestly associated with lower AU/CU, although there may be some individuals with more severe SA who develop alcohol problems later in life. There was little evidence of a common underlying liability contributing to both SA and alcohol/cigarette use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322804

  6. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  7. Pedofilia, transtorno bipolar e dependência de álcool e opioides Paedophilia, bipolar disorder and alcohol and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fabiane Machado Gomes Marsden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos investigaram a relação entre psicopatologia e parafilias, especialmente pedofilia. Transtornos de humor e ansiedade, seguidos de transtornos relacionados ao uso de substâncias, são as comorbidades mais prevalentes em pacientes com parafilias. Apresentou- se o caso de um paciente em tratamento para dependência de substâncias (álcool e heroína, transtorno bipolar e pedofilia. É importante frisar que poucos casos relatando comorbidades como essas foram descritos na literatura.Many studies have investigated the relationship between psychopathology and paraphilias, specifically paedophilia. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, followed by substance use were the most prevalent disorders comorbid in these patients. We present the case of a patient in treatment for substance misuse (alcohol and heroin, bipolar disorder and paedophilia. To our knowledge few cases were reported describing cases of comorbidity such as this.

  8. The association between depression and craving in alcohol dependency is moderated by gender and by alexithymia factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Fantini, Carole; de Timary, Philippe

    2016-05-30

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation. We first found an interaction between depression and gender in the prediction of craving in the sense that only for women an increase in depressive mood was related to an increase in total craving. When examining gender separately, we found that alexithymia factors acted as moderators. For women, the link between depression and craving was strengthened for the ones scoring higher on "difficulties describing feelings". But for men, the link between depression and craving was reduced for the ones scoring higher on "externally-oriented thinking". These findings suggest that in some cases that need to be identified more systematically in the future, the "externally-oriented thinking" alexithymia factor can exert - at least in the short term - some protective effects. PMID:27137959

  9. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part I: General results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René; Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Janstrup, Kira; Linden, Trudy Vander; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Verstraete, Alain

    2011-01-01

    countries are members of the European Union (EU) except for Norway, which is associated with the European Union as a member of the European Economic Area (EEA). Participants, i.e. drivers of passenger cars and vans, were randomly selected using a stratified multistage sampling design. In the first stage......DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble a...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of home visits in the outpatient treatment of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Edilaine; Campos, Geraldo M; Figlie, Neliana B; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of conventional outpatient treatment for alcoholic patients (CT) with this same conventional treatment plus home visits (HV), a new proposal for intervention within the Brazilian outpatient treatment system. A cost-effectiveness evaluation alongside a 12-week randomized clinical trial was performed. We identified the resources utilized by each intervention, as well as the cost according to National Health System (SUS), Brazilian Medical Association (AMB) tables of fees, and others based on 2005 data. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated as the main outcome measure - abstinent cases at the end of treatment. There were 51.8% abstinent cases for HV and 43.1% for CT, a clinically relevant finding. Other outcome measures, such as quality of life, also showed significant improvements that favored HV. The baseline scenario presented an ICER of USD 1,852. Sensitivity analysis showed an ICER of USD 689 (scenario favoring HV) and USD 2,334 (scenario favoring CT). The HV treatment was found to be cost-effective according to the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. PMID:20029212

  11. Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sjoerds; S. de Wit; W. van den Brink; T.W. Robbins; A.T.F. Beekman; B.W.J.H. Penninx; D.J. Veltman

    2013-01-01

    Substance dependence is characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite negative consequences. Animal research suggests an underlying imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action control with chronic drug use. However, this imbalance, and its associated neurophysiological mechanisms, has not

  12. The concept of alcohol craving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Agnieszka Iwanicka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only in the clinical practice but also as a concept inherently associated with alcohol dependence. However, among experts and researchers, there was no consensus about the etiology of this phenomenon and its development. Some emphasize the emotional – motivational aspect of it, while in the literature also its cognitive – behavioral nature is highlighted. Craving as a symptom has been recognized as a diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems – ICD 10. In the year 2013, it was also indicated as a symptom of disorder resulting from alcohol abuse in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM 5. It seems to be significant also to discuss the tools used to measure craving, both in clinical trials and therapeutic practice, among them: the Alcohol Specific Role Play Test, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS Lubeck Craving Scale (LCRR and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ.

  13. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Results Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (prelatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24–26) at baseline (prelatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Conclusions Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. PMID:27118285

  14. Analyzing Interaction of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid Receptor Gene Variants on Alcohol or Drug Dependence Using a Pattern Discovery-based Method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhong; Zhang, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptor genes (OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1) have been reported to be associated with substance (alcohol or drug) dependence. The influence of an individual gene on a disease trait should be more evident when analyzed in the context of gene-gene interactions. Thus, we assessed the joint effect of variants in these three opioid receptor genes on alcohol, cocaine, or opioid dependence. Methods Genotype data for 13 OPRM1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphi...

  15. Ondansetron reduces naturalistic drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent individuals with the LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Vuittonet, Cynthia; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background One hypothesis suggests that the differential response to ondansetron and serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5′-HTTLPR promoter region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The LL 5′-HTTLPR genotype is postulated to be specifically sensitive to the effects of ondansetron with SS/SL 5′-HTTLPR genotypes sensitive to SSRIs. This study tests this hypothesis by matching non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals with LL genotype to ondansetron and SS/SL genotypes to the SSRI sertraline, and mis-matching them assessing naturalistic and bar-laboratory alcohol drinking. Methods Seventy-seven AD individuals were randomized to one of two counterbalanced arms to receive sertraline 200mg/day or ondansetron 0.5 mg/day for three weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE. Individuals then received the alternate drug for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Drinks per drinking day (DDD with drinks in SDUs) for 7 days prior to each ASAE and milliliters consumed during each ASAE were the primary outcomes. Results Fifty-five participants completed the study. The genotype x order interaction was significant [F(1,47) = 8.42, p = .006] for DDD. Three ANCOVAs were conducted for DDD during the week before each ASAE. Ondansetron compared to sertraline resulted in a significant reduction in DDD during the week before the first [F(1,47) = 7.64, p = .008] but not the third ASAE. There was no difference in milliliters consumed during each ASAE. Conclusion This study modestly supports the hypothesis that ondansetron may reduce DDD in AD individuals with the LL genotype as measured naturalistically. By contrast there was no support that ondansetron reduces drinking during the ASAEs or that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have SS/SL genotypes. We provide limited

  16. Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: A comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Goudriaan, A.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Beurs, de, E.; Brink, van den, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Aims Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling have relevance for the aetiology and treatment of this disorder, yet are poorly understood. This study therefore investigated neurocognitive impairments of executive functions in a group of carefully screened Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV-TR) pathological gamblers. Performance was compared to a group of normal control participants. To study the specificity of these neurocognitive deficits, a substance dependence gro...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  18. Electromechanical behavior of polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under static, dynamic and time-dependent strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the experimentally observed electrical conductivity enhancement in polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under uniaxial tensile loading. Polyaniline (PANI) is an intrinsically conducting polymer, which does not form stretchable free-standing films easily and hence its electromechanical characterization is a challenge. Blending of PANI with other insulating polymers is a good choice to overcome the processability problem. We report the electromechanical response of solution blended and HCl doped PANI/PVA blends subjected to uniaxial, static, dynamic and time-dependent tensile loading. The demonstrated viscoelastic and morphological contributions of the component polymers to the electrical conductivity behavior in these blends could lead to interesting applications in strain sensors and flexible electronics. The reversibility of the electromechanical response under dynamic strain is found to increase in blends with higher PANI content. Time-dependent conductivity studies during mechanical stress relaxation reveal that variations in the micro-domain ordering and the relative relaxation rate of the individual polymer phases can give rise to interesting electrical conductivity changes in PANI blends. From morphological and electrical conductivity studies, we show that PANI undergoes primary and secondary agglomeration behavior in these blends that contributes to the changes in conductivity behavior during the deformation. A 3D variable range hopping (VRH) process, which uses a deformable core and shell concept based on blend morphology analysis, is used to explain the experimentally observed electromechanical behavior. (papers)

  19. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  20. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D’Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two a...

  1. Mapping Self-Confidence Levels of Nurses in Their Provision of Nursing Care to Others with Alcohol and Tobacco Dependence, Using Rasch Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ian; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Parker, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to identify factors that influence the perceived complexity of providing nursing care to others (who are dependent on alcohol and tobacco) and the confidence of undergraduate student nurses to carry out this care. The research project is designed to explore whether there is a difference between the perceived complexities of 57…

  2. Combining cognitive bias modification training with motivational support in alcohol dependent outpatients : study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Boffo, M.; Pronk, T.; Wiers, R.W.; Mannarini, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Addiction research has hypothesised that automatic and reflective cognitive processes play an important role in the onset and maintenance of alcohol (ab)use, wherein automatic reactions to drug-related cues steer the drug user towards consuming before reflective processes can get over and steer towards a different behavioural response. These automatic processes include the tendency to attend and approach alcohol cues. These biases may be trained away from alcohol via computerised c...

  3. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  5. Picosecond-resolved fluorescent probes at functionally distinct tryptophans within a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase: relationship of temperature-dependent changes in fluorescence to catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Corey W; Ou, Ryan; Klinman, Judith P

    2014-06-12

    Two single-tryptophan variants were generated in a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase with the goal of correlating temperature-dependent changes in local fluorescence with the previously demonstrated catalytic break at ca. 30 °C (Kohen et al., Nature 1999, 399, 496). One tryptophan variant, W87in, resides at the active site within van der Waals contact of bound alcohol substrate; the other variant, W167in, is a remote-site surface reporter located >25 Å from the active site. Picosecond-resolved fluorescence measurements were used to analyze fluorescence lifetimes, time-dependent Stokes shifts, and the extent of collisional quenching at Trp87 and Trp167 as a function of temperature. A subnanosecond fluorescence decay rate constant has been detected for W87in that is ascribed to the proximity of the active site Zn(2+) and shows a break in behavior at 30 °C. For the remainder of the reported lifetime measurements, there is no detectable break between 10 and 50 °C, in contrast with previously reported hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments that revealed a temperature-dependent break analogous to catalysis (Liang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004, 101, 9556). We conclude that the motions that lead to the rigidification of ht-ADH below 30 °C are likely to be dominated by global processes slower than the picosecond to nanosecond motions measured herein. In the case of collisional quenching of fluorescence by acrylamide, W87in and W167in behave in a similar manner that resembles free tryptophan in water. Stokes shift measurements, by contrast, show distinctive behaviors in which the active-site tryptophan relaxation is highly temperature-dependent, whereas the solvent-exposed tryptophan's dynamics are temperature-independent. These data are concluded to reflect a significantly constrained environment surrounding the active site Trp87 that both increases the magnitude of the Stokes shift and its temperature-dependence. The results are discussed in the context

  6. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Dickerson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (b=0.31, P=0.001, referral to a hospital by a physician (b=0.35, P=0.014, and increasing age (b= 0.01, P=0.001 were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62. Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  7. Picosecond-Resolved Fluorescent Probes at Functionally Distinct Tryptophans within a Thermophilic Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Relationship of Temperature-Dependent Changes in Fluorescence to Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Corey W.; Ou, Ryan; Klinman, Judith P.

    2014-01-01

    Two single-tryptophan variants were generated in a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase with the goal of correlating temperature-dependent changes in local fluorescence with the previously demonstrated catalytic break at ca. 30 °C (Kohen et al., Nature 1999, 399, 496). One tryptophan variant, W87in, resides at the active site within van der Waals contact of bound alcohol substrate; the other variant, W167in, is a remote-site surface reporter located >25 Å from the active site. Picosecond-resolv...

  8. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Mamdani; Vernell Williamson; McMichael, Gowon O.; Tana Blevins; Fazil Aliev; Amy Adkins; Laura Hack; Tim Bigdeli; Andrew D van der Vaart; Bradley Todd Web; Silviu-Alin Bacanu; Gursharan Kalsi; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Miles, Michael F.; Danielle Dick

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to b...

  9. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR... by the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials incorporated by reference are available...

  10. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  11. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  12. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  13. Low compliance with alcohol gel compared with chlorhexidine for hand hygiene in ICU patients: results of an alcohol gel implementation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Aranha Camargo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the introduction of alcohol based products have increased compliance with hand hygiene in intensive care units (ICU, no comparative studies with other products in the same unit and in the same period have been conducted. We performed a two-month-observational prospective study comparing three units in an adult ICU, according to hand hygiene practices (chlorhexidine alone-unit A, both chlorhexidine and alcohol gel-unit B, and alcohol gel alone-unit C, respectively. Opportunities for hand hygiene were considered according to an institutional guideline. Patients were randomly allocated in the 3 units and data on hand hygiene compliance was collected without the knowledge of the health care staff. TISS score (used for measuring patient complexity was similar between the three different units. Overall compliance with hand hygiene was 46.7% (659/1410. Compliance was significantly higher after patient care in unit A when compared to units B and C. On the other hand, compliance was significantly higher only between units A (32.1% and C (23.1% before patient care (p=0.02. Higher compliance rates were observed for general opportunities for hand hygiene (patient bathing, vital sign controls, etc, while very low compliance rates were observed for opportunities related to skin and gastroenteral care. One of the reasons for not using alcohol gel according to health care workers was the necessity for water contact (35.3%, 12/20. Although the use of alcohol based products is now the standard practice for hand hygiene the abrupt abolition of hand hygiene with traditional products may not be recommended for specific services.

  14. Alcohol and brief intervention for trauma victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARINA DINIZ OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective:to describe the causes and severities of trauma in patients who met the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence according to Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and to display the pattern of alcohol consumption and subsequent changes one year after trauma.Methods:a transversal and longitudinal quantitative study carried out between November 2012 and September 2013 in the ED. Medical and nursing students collected blood samples, applied the J section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI and submitted alcohol abusers and dependents to BI. One year after admission, patients were contacted and asked about their patterns of alcohol use and their reasons for any changes.Results:from a sample of 507 patients admitted to the ED for trauma, 348 responded to MINI, 90 (25.9% being abusers and 36 (10.3% dependent on alcohol. Among the abusers, the most frequent cause of injury was motorcycle accident (35.6% and among the dependents it was predominantly interpersonal violence (22.2%. Positive blood samples for alcohol were identified in 31.7% of the abusers and 53.1% of the dependents. One year after trauma, 66 abusers and 31 dependents were contacted, and it was ascertained that 36.4% of the abusers and 19.4% of the dependents had decreased alcohol consumption. The main reported reason for the reduction was the experienced trauma.Conclusion:the motorcycle accident was the most common cause of injury. The detection of problematic alcohol use and implementation of BI are important strategies in the ED, however for alcohol abusers and dependents, BI was not the most reported reason for any changes in patterns of alcohol use.

  15. The genetics of alcohol dependence: Twin and SNP-based heritability, and genome-wide association study based on AUDIT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Hamdi; Milaneschi, Yuri; Fedko, Iryna O; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Moor, Marleen H M; Jansen, Rick; Gelernter, Joel; Sherva, Richard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Penninx, Brenda W; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is among the most common and costly public health problems contributing to morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In this study, we investigate the genetic basis of AD in a Dutch population using data from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The presence of AD was ascertained via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) applying cut-offs with good specificity and sensitivity in identifying those at risk for AD. Twin-based heritability of AD-AUDIT was estimated using structural equation modeling of data in 7,694 MZ and DZ twin pairs. Variance in AD-AUDIT explained by all SNPs was estimated with genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 7,842 subjects. GWAS SNP effect concordance analysis was performed between our GWAS and a recent AD GWAS using DSM-IV diagnosis. The twin-based heritability of AD-AUDIT was estimated at 60% (55-69%). GCTA showed that common SNPs jointly capture 33% (SE = 0.12, P = 0.002) of this heritability. In the GWAS, the top hits were positioned within four regions (4q31.1, 2p16.1, 6q25.1, 7p14.1) with the strongest association detected for rs55768019 (P = 7.58 × 10(-7) ). This first GWAS of AD using the AUDIT measure found results consistent with previous genetic studies using DSM diagnosis: concordance in heritability estimates and direction of SNPs effect and overlap with top hits from previous GWAS. Thus, the use of appropriate questionnaires may represent cost-effective strategies to phenotype samples in large-scale biobanks or other population-based datasets. PMID:26365420

  16. Can Brief Alcohol Interventions for Youth Also Address Concurrent Illicit Drug Use? Results from a Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    TANNER-SMITH, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alc...

  17. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mamdani

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18 and of matched controls (N = 18, six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05. Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05. In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001. Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA. In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD.

  18. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamdani, Mohammed; Williamson, Vernell; McMichael, Gowon O; Blevins, Tana; Aliev, Fazil; Adkins, Amy; Hack, Laura; Bigdeli, Tim; van der Vaart, Andrew D; Web, Bradley Todd; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Kalsi, Gursharan; Kendler, Kenneth S; Miles, Michael F; Dick, Danielle; Riley, Brien P; Dumur, Catherine; Vladimirov, Vladimir I

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05). In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001). Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively) in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA). In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL) analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD. PMID:26381263

  19. Depression, alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence among patients at a general hospital Depressão, transtornos decorrentes do uso de álcool e dependência de nicotina no hospital geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neury José Botega

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence rates and identify patient characteristics associated with depression, alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence among individuals admitted to a general teaching hospital. METHOD: Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, we assessed 4,352 consecutive medical and surgical patients admitted over a 13-month period. The patients were also asked to report their daily cigarette smoking habits during the last month. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and odds ratios (ORs were calculated. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 49.3 years, and 56.6% were male. Prevalence rates of depression, alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence were, respectively, 14%, 9.8% and 16.9%. In the multivariate analysis, depression was associated with previous suicide attempts (OR = 8.7, lower level of education (OR = 3.6, prior use of psychotropic medications (OR = 3.1, cancer (OR = 1.7 and pain (OR = 1.7. Alcohol use disorders were associated with male sex (OR = 6.3, smoking (OR = 3.5, admission for an external cause of injury, such as a traffic accident (OR = 2.4, and previous suicide attempts (OR = 2.3. Nicotine dependence was associated with alcohol use disorders (OR = 3.4, young adulthood (OR = 2.3, widowhood (OR = 2.2 and previous suicide attempts (OR = 1.8. CONCLUSION: This is the largest sample of medical and surgical patients ever surveyed with standardized screening instruments in a general hospital in Brazil. The high prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and the profiles of the patients evaluated in this study underscore the need to develop methods that are more effective for detecting and managing such disorders. Hospital admission should be considered a major opportunity for the detection of psychiatric disorders and the subsequent implementation of the appropriate specific treatment strategies.OBJETIVO: Identificar taxas de prevalência e

  20. Histamine is required for H3 receptor-mediated alcohol reward inhibition, but not for alcohol consumption or stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, J; Nuutinen, S; Lintunen, M; Mäki, T; Rämö, J; Karlstedt, K; Panula, P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Conflicting data have been published on whether histamine is inhibitory to the rewarding effects of abused drugs. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of neuronal histamine and, in particular, H3 receptors in alcohol dependence-related behaviours, which represent the addictive effects of alcohol. Experimental Approach Alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (alcohol-CPP) was used to measure alcohol reward. Alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, alcohol consumption and kinetics were also assessed. mRNA levels were quantified using radioactive in situ hybridization. Key Results Low doses of H3 receptor antagonists, JNJ-10181457 and JNJ-39220675, inhibited alcohol reward in wild-type (WT) mice. However, these H3 receptor antagonists did not inhibit alcohol reward in histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC KO) mice and a lack of histamine did not alter alcohol consumption. Thus H3 receptor antagonists inhibited alcohol reward in a histamine-dependent manner. Furthermore, WT and HDC KO mice were similarly stimulated by alcohol. The expression levels of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, STEP61 and DARPP-32 mRNA in striatal subregions were unaltered in HDC KO mice. No differences were seen in alcohol kinetics in HDC KO compared to WT control animals. In addition, JNJ-39220675 had no effect on alcohol kinetics in WT mice. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that histamine is required for the H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of alcohol-CPP and support the hypothesis that the brain histaminergic system has an inhibitory role in alcohol reward. Increasing neuronal histamine release via H3 receptor blockade could therefore be a novel way of treating alcohol dependence. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23489295

  1. Prevalência do abuso e da dependência de álcool em Rio Grande (RS: um estudo transversal de base populacional Prevalencia del abuso y de la dependencia de alcohol en Rio Grande (RS: un estudio transversal de base poblacional Prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul: a cross-sectional, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Luiz Numa Peixoto Primo

    2004-12-01

    efecto de factores de confusión, se hizo un análisis multivariado por regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 5,5% de los individuos abusaban del alcohol, siendo el 2,5% dependientes. Después del control por posibles factores de confusión, se identificó una asociación significativa entre el alcoholismo y las siguientes variables: sexo masculino (razón de chances - RC = 6,28, tabaquismo (RC = 5,42 y clase social E (RC = 5,37. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados identificaron las dificultades de realizar un estudio de base poblacional sobre alcoholismo y revelaron que hombres que fuman y pertenecen a clases sociales más bajas tienen una mayor posibilidad de presentar problemas vinculados al alcohol.INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consumption is serious public health issue. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of alcohol consumption in a southern Brazilian municipality and at investigating associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out in the municipality of Rio Grande, southern Brazil, with a sample of 1,044 people, both male and female, aged 12 to 75 years. Alcohol dependence was defined according to the CAGE questionnaire, and alcohol abuse was defined as the daily consumption of at least 30 grams of alcohol for men and 24 grams for women. Potential confounding factors were controlled in the multivariate analysis (logistic regression. RESULTS: Alcohol abuse was found in 5.5% of the sample, and dependence in 2.5%. After adjusting for confounding factors, a significant association was observed between alcohol consumption and the following variables: male gender (odd ratio - OR = 6.28, smoking (OR = 5.42, and social class E (OR = 5.37. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed the difficulties involved in the performance of a population-based study to assess alcohol consumption and showed that men who smoke and come from lower-income groups have greater chances of presenting alcohol-related problems. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in Rio Grande

  2. Temperature dependent dielectric and conductivity studies of polyvinyl alcohol-ZnO nanocomposite films by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric and conductivity behaviors of nano ZnO doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites for various concentrations of dopant were investigated using impedance spectroscopy for a wide range of temperatures (303 K–423 K) and frequencies (5 Hz–30 MHZ). The dielectric properties of host polymer matrix have been improved by the addition of nano ZnO and are found to be highly temperature dependent. Anomalous dielectric behavior was observed in the frequency range of 2.5 MHz–5 MHz. Increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss was observed with respect to temperature. The Cole-Cole plot could be modeled by low resistance regions in a high resistance matrix and the lowest resistance was observed for the 10 mol. % films. The imaginary part of the electric modulus showed asymmetric peaks with the relaxation following Debye nature below and non-Debye nature above the peaks. The ac conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's power law, whereas the variation of dc conductivity with temperature was found to follow Arrhenius behavior. Two different activation energy values were obtained from Arrhenius plot indicating that two conduction mechanisms are involved in the composite films. Fitting the ac conductivity data to Jonscher's law indicates that large polaron assisted tunneling is the most likely conduction mechanism in the composites. Maximum conductivity is observed at 423 K for all the samples and it is optimum for 10 mol. % ZnO doped PVA composite film. Significant increase in dc and ac conductivities in these composite films makes them a potential candidate for application in electronic devices

  3. Temperature dependent dielectric and conductivity studies of polyvinyl alcohol-ZnO nanocomposite films by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemalatha, K. S.; Damle, R.; Rukmani, K., E-mail: rukmani9909@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Sriprakash, G. [Department of Physics, Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560001 (India); Ambika Prasad, M. V. N. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106 (India)

    2015-10-21

    Dielectric and conductivity behaviors of nano ZnO doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites for various concentrations of dopant were investigated using impedance spectroscopy for a wide range of temperatures (303 K–423 K) and frequencies (5 Hz–30 MHZ). The dielectric properties of host polymer matrix have been improved by the addition of nano ZnO and are found to be highly temperature dependent. Anomalous dielectric behavior was observed in the frequency range of 2.5 MHz–5 MHz. Increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss was observed with respect to temperature. The Cole-Cole plot could be modeled by low resistance regions in a high resistance matrix and the lowest resistance was observed for the 10 mol. % films. The imaginary part of the electric modulus showed asymmetric peaks with the relaxation following Debye nature below and non-Debye nature above the peaks. The ac conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's power law, whereas the variation of dc conductivity with temperature was found to follow Arrhenius behavior. Two different activation energy values were obtained from Arrhenius plot indicating that two conduction mechanisms are involved in the composite films. Fitting the ac conductivity data to Jonscher's law indicates that large polaron assisted tunneling is the most likely conduction mechanism in the composites. Maximum conductivity is observed at 423 K for all the samples and it is optimum for 10 mol. % ZnO doped PVA composite film. Significant increase in dc and ac conductivities in these composite films makes them a potential candidate for application in electronic devices.

  4. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Palpacuer

    2015-12-01

    of nalmefene, i.e., adults with alcohol dependence who consume more than 60 g of alcohol per day (for men or more than 40 g per day (for women. No RCT compared nalmefene with another medication. Mortality at 6 mo (RR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.08; 2.01] and 1 y (RR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.04; 23.95] and quality of life at 6 mo (SF-36 physical component summary score: MD = 0.85, 95% CI [-0.32; 2.01]; SF-36 mental component summary score: MD = 1.01, 95% CI [-1.33; 3.34] were not different across groups. Other health outcomes were not reported. Differences were encountered for alcohol consumption outcomes such as monthly number of heavy drinking days at 6 mo (MD = -1.65, 95% CI [-2.41; -0.89] and at 1 y (MD = -1.60, 95% CI [-2.85; -0.35] and total alcohol consumption at 6 mo (SMD = -0.20, 95% CI [-0.30; -0.10]. An attrition bias could not be excluded, with more withdrawals for nalmefene than for placebo, including more withdrawals for safety reasons at both 6 mo (RR = 3.65, 95% CI [2.02; 6.63] and 1 y (RR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.72; 28.63]. Sensitivity analyses showed no differences for alcohol consumption outcomes between nalmefene and placebo, but the weight of these results should not be overestimated, as the BOCF approach to managing withdrawals was used.The value of nalmefene for treatment of alcohol addiction is not established. At best, nalmefene has limited efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption.

  5. The effect of exposure to alcohol-associated cues on the psychological craving and physiological changes after discontinuation of alcohol drinking in alcohol dependence patients%酒环境线索暴露对酒依赖者停止饮酒后心理渴求及生理活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学义; 张云淑; 姚绍敏; 金圭星; 罗金菊; 刘小玉; 陆林

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨酒环境暴露对酒依赖者心理渴求及生理活动的影响.方法 选择停止饮酒40 d的64例酒依赖患者和32名正常受试者(正常对照组)为研究对象,将患者分为试验组(暴露于酒环境)和患者对照组(暴露于牛奶环境),每组各32例,分别暴露于相关环境线索,于暴露前、暴露后的第1天、第1周和第4周测试三组的心理渴求以及心率、血压、血氢化可的松水平的变化.结果 (1)患者试验组和患者对照组的血浆氢化可的松水平于暴露前[分别为(77±40)μg/L和(75±40)μg/L]、暴露后第1天[分别为(123±56)μg/L和(77±40)μg/L]均高于正常对照组[(47±26)μg/L和(47±31)μg/L;P<0.05].(2)患者试验组暴露于酒环境后,第1天的心理渴求程度及心率、收缩压、舒张压及血氢化可的松水平均较暴露前增高(P<0.05),而第1周和第4周与暴露前比较的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 酒环境暴露后酒依赖者的心理渴求及心率、血压、血氢化可的松水平增高,减少酒环境线索的暴露是降低复饮的重要因素.%Objective To explore the effects of exposure to alcohol-related environment on the psychologial craving and physiological activities in alcohol dependent patients.Methods The 64 alcohol dependence patients with 40-day discontinuation of alcohol drinking were divided into patient experiment group (exposed to alcohol-related environment)and patient control group(exposed to milk),and 32 healthy adults were involved as normal controls.After exposure to the alcol-related clue,the craving index.heart rate,blood pressure(BP)and serum hydrocortisone level were tested. Results The serum hydrocortisone level in the-Patient experiment group and the patient control group[(77±40)μg/L and,(75±40)μg/L respectively] were higher than that in healthy controls[(47±26)μg/L and(47±31)μg/L respectively]before and on the 1st day after exposure[(123±56)μg/L and(77±40)μg/L;P<0.05].0n

  6. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  7. Radiotracer transit measurements as an index of regional cerebral blood flow. Pt. 2. Results in acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained in 72 male chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndroms give evidence that there is a significant correlation between the numerical value of the cerebral radiorheographic index and the severity of the psychopathological syndrome (especially of the clouding of sensorium) in these patients. (author)

  8. Trajectories and Determinants of Alcohol Use among LGB Young Adults and Their Heterosexual Peers: Results from a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGBs) are at increased risk for alcohol use during young adulthood, but the mechanisms remain inadequately understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults who were sampled prospectively. The sample included 111 LGB individuals (47 women…

  9. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IgorSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  10. Neural mechanisms of pain and alcohol dependence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Neugebauer, Volker; Koob, George; Edwards, Scott; Levine, Jon D.; Ferrari, Luiz; Egli, Mark; Regunathan, Soundar

    2013-01-01

    An association between chronic pain conditions and alcohol dependence has been revealed in numerous studies with episodes of alcohol abuse antedating chronic pain in some people and alcohol dependence emerging after the onset of chronic pain in others. Alcohol dependence and chronic pain share common neural circuits giving rise to the possibility that chronic pain states could significantly affect alcohol use patterns and that alcohol dependence could influence pain sensitivity. The reward an...

  11. Association study of a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met polymorphism and suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Nedić, Gordana; Nikolac, Matea; Nenadić Šviglin, Korona; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Borovečki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently associated with aggressive and suicidal behavior. Genetic factors contribute to both behaviors. Candidate genes, related to suicide and aggression, include genes involved in serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine pathways. The enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) degrades dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. The functional polymorphism (COMT Val108/158Met) affects COMT activity, with the Valine (Val) variant associated with higher and the Methionin...

  12. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression by dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) through the AMPK–Nrf2 dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Sunyoung, E-mail: sunyoung@snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-15

    Oxidative stress is induced by the accumulation of free radicals, resulting in an imbalanced cellular redox state, which has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan compound isolated from Cucurbita moschata, has previously been reported to contain anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells and primary MEFs (Abraham and Kappas, 2008). In this study, it was tested whether DHCA could affect the expression of HO-1, using Raw264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. DHCA increased the protein and RNA levels of HO-1 and upregulated its promoter activity. Data from transient transfection assays indicated that ARE located in the E1 region of the HO-1 promoter are important in this DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1 expression. DHCA was also shown to enhance the nuclear translocation and binding of Nrf2 to the respective DNA sequences. The upregulation of HO-1 expression by DHCA was also observed in primary macrophages derived from wild type animals, but not in those from Nrf2 KO mice. Effects of DHCA on HO-1 and Nrf2 were reduced when cells were treated with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, but not by PI3K/Akt or MAPK inhibitors. Data from an experiment using a specific siRNA or chemical inhibitor for HO-1 suggested that the DHCA-mediated induction of the HO-1 protein could suppress the LPS-stimulated production of NO. Taken together, our data suggest that DHCA induces the expression of HO-1 by controlling its promoter activity through the AMPK–Nrf2 pathway, eventually leading to the reduction of NO production, and may thus have potential as an effective antioxidant. - Highlights: • Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. • The AMPK–Nrf2 pathway is critically involved in the DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1. • DHCA increased the expression of HO-1, Gclc and Gclm in primary macrophages. • DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1 contributed to the suppression of NO production.

  13. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism. PMID:22937578

  14. Chronic Alcohol-Induced microRNA-155 Contributes to Neuroinflammation in a TLR4-Dependent Manner in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lippai, Dora; Bala, Shashi; Csak, Timea; Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) pathway induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Inflammation is a highly regulated process. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial role in fine tuning gene e...

  15. Determination of glass transition temperature of reduced graphene oxide-poly(vinyl alcohol) composites using temperature dependent Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendia, Suman; Heena; Kandhol, Geeta; Deshpande, Uday P.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, structural properties of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) synthesized using modified Hummer's method and its composites with Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fabricated using solution-cast method have been studied. The structural properties of prepared samples have been systematically studied through UV-Visible absorption, Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy indicates the grafting of PVA chains with graphene layer through the formation of H-bonding linkage in the composites. Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra of PVA-RGO composite films were recorded to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg) and to study its molecular origin. From these spectra the values of Tg were obtained using two-dimensional (2D) mapping of the first derivative of the absorbance intensity with respect to temperature (dA/dT), over the space of wavenumber and temperature. The value of Tg obtained for pure PVA increases from 78 °C to 92 °C after loading 0.5 wt.% of RGO in PVA and can be attributed to the strong H-bonding interaction between polymer chains and grafted solid surface of RGO. These results are in good agreement with those obtained from DSC analysis. This clearly indicates that the thermal behavior of PVA gets modified with loading of RGO.

  16. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  17. Neuropsychological assessment of impulsive behavior in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects Avaliação neuropsicológica do comportamento impulsivo de sujeitos dependentes de álcool em abstinência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vinicius Salgado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Poor impulse control is thought to be one of the characteristics of alcohol addiction. The capacity to remain abstinent may be linked to cognitive bias related to three dimensions of impulsivity: motor, non-planning, and attentional impulsivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuropsychological profile related to these impulsivity dimensions in alcohol-dependent patients within 15 -120 days of abstinence. METHOD: We compared 31 alcohol-dependent patients to 30 matched healthy controls regarding their performances on the Continuous Performance Task, the Iowa Gambling Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, each of which is thought to tax primarily one of the three dimensions of impulsivity just outlined. RESULTS: When compared to controls, alcohol-dependent patients presented more commission errors on the Continuous Performance Task; made more disadvantageous choices on the Iowa Gambling Test; and made more perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was no significant correlation between performance on these tests and the length of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that deficits related to motor, non-planning and attentional components of impulsivity exist in alcohol-dependent patients, in the period immediately after acute alcohol withdrawal. These results may help guide interventions designed to prevent the risk of relapse in alcohol-abstinent patients.OBJETIVO: O controle deficiente dos impulsos é considerado uma das características da dependência do álcool. A capacidade de permanecer abstinente pode estar ligada a viés cognitivo relacionado a três dimensões da impulsividade: motora, de atenção e por falta de planejamento. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o perfil neuropsicológico relacionado a estas dimensões da impulsividade em pacientes dependentes de álcool em 15 a 120 dias de abstinência. MÉTODO: Nós comparamos o desempenho de 31 pacientes dependentes de álcool a

  18. Medicine and the Media: Un-health promotion: results of a survey of alcohol promotion on television

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Roger; Godfrey, Sally

    1988-01-01

    To estimate how widely and to whom alcoholic drinks are promoted 1258 television advertisements were studied over a 10 week period that included the Christmas and New Year holidays in 1986-7. A total of 156 advertisements (12%) promoted alcohol, and this percentage increased significantly over the holiday period to 17%. These advertisements were longer than those advertising other products, and just over half (56%) occupied the first position in commercial breaks. During sports programmes and...

  19. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  20. The control of abstinence in the treatment of alcohol dependence: the use of acamprosate in relapse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Venturella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with acamprosate is a valid tool to complement psychotherapy as it does not cause addiction, abuse or withdrawal of its suspension and does not interfere with other medications that patients often alcoholics must take. To evaluate the effectiveness, our study evaluated the effects of Acamprosate compared to γ-hydroxybutyrate in clinical-physiological and social health in a way indicator of a possible therapeutic success in terms of abstinence from alcohol and social reintegration. A total of 36 patients were observed, of which 5, 4 men and 1 woman at the Drug Addiction Service (Servizio Tossicodipendenze, Ser.T Alcamo, and 31, 21 men and 10 women at the Ser.T of Palermo. As regards the craving, during the period of treatment with acamprosate, there has been a change, in the sense of reduction, of craving for alcohol: if before therapy was in 68% of cases, medium-high, it becomes after 3-4 months of therapy in low-nil in 89% of patients observed. It has been recorded that, after 3-4 months after receiving acamprosate, the clinical picture of the patient is greatly improved by referring to biological markers. In particular, the strong point seems to be the ability for the user to experience a new sense of normalcy and to remove the desire for significant periods of alcohol.

  1. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  2. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry van der Heever

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1% tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT (score 8 or more. Among the 147 (96.7% university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009. Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting.

  3. DSM-IV criteria-based clinical subtypes of cannabis use disorders: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)☆

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Carlos; Ogburn, Elizabeth; de los Cobos, José Pérez; Lujan, Juan; Nunes, Edward V.; Grant, Bridget; Liu, Shang-Min; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research documented high homogeneity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as clinical entities. However, it is unknown whether this finding extends to other substance use disorders. We investigated this by examining the prevalence of all possible DSM-IV criteria-based clinical subtypes of current and lifetime cannabis use disorders in the general population. The number of possible (i.e., theoretical) clinical subtypes of cannabis abuse and dependence based on different combinations of the DS...

  4. Alcohol detoxification in Ysbyty Gwynedd: Two small sips or one big gulp? Two-step screening more reliable for identification of alcohol dependency syndrome at risk of delirium tremens for routine care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Subbe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with pathways for hospitalised patients with alcohol dependency syndrome is often poor. A pathway for recognition and treatment of alcohol dependency was redesigned as part of a 12 month service improvement project in the acute medical unit using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. A needs assessment was undertaken: Audit data from 2013 showed over-prescription of chlordiazepoxide for detoxification treatment (DT) leading to prolonged hospital admissions with an average length of stay of 5.5 days in 2012/2013. Acceptability of screening tools was tested: Common screening tools (CEWA, AUDIT) were rejected by junior doctors due to the high number of questions as too cumbersome for routine practice. Compliance with usage in random samples over a three month period was persistently (n=10%. Testing of an abbreviated AUDIT questionnaire with only two questions and a specified threshold showed a AUROC of 1 (p<0.001 for correct identification). The screening tool was implemented in several PDSAs cycles. After the final cycle a random sample of 100 patients was reviewed for pathway compliance over a three months period. Eighty-six patients were screened with the two-question tool of these 18 were identified as possible risk. Of these 16 patients had the full AUDIT questionnaire, only eight with elevated values were started on DT. Overall compliance with the pathway increased to 84%. PMID:26734413

  5. Alcohol detoxification in Ysbyty Gwynedd: Two small sips or one big gulp? Two-step screening more reliable for identification of alcohol dependency syndrome at risk of delirium tremens for routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Subbe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with pathways for hospitalised patients with alcohol dependency syndrome is often poor. A pathway for recognition and treatment of alcohol dependency was redesigned as part of a 12 month service improvement project in the acute medical unit using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. A needs assessment was undertaken: Audit data from 2013 showed over-prescription of chlordiazepoxide for detoxification treatment (DT) leading to prolonged hospital admissions with an average length of stay of 5.5 days in 2012/2013. Acceptability of screening tools was tested: Common screening tools (CEWA, AUDIT) were rejected by junior doctors due to the high number of questions as too cumbersome for routine practice. Compliance with usage in random samples over a three month period was persistently (n=10%. Testing of an abbreviated AUDIT questionnaire with only two questions and a specified threshold showed a AUROC of 1 (ptool was implemented in several PDSAs cycles. After the final cycle a random sample of 100 patients was reviewed for pathway compliance over a three months period. Eighty-six patients were screened with the two-question tool of these 18 were identified as possible risk. Of these 16 patients had the full AUDIT questionnaire, only eight with elevated values were started on DT. Overall compliance with the pathway increased to 84%. PMID:26734413

  6. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  7. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  8. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  9. Three Mutually Informative Ways to Understand the Genetic Relationships Among Behavioral Disinhibition, Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Nicotine Use/Dependence, and Their Co-occurrence: Twin Biometry, GCTA, and Genome-wide Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    VRIEZE, SCOTT I.; McGue, Matt; Miller, Michael B.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral Disinhibition is a trait hypothesized to represent a general vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders. We used a large community-representative sample (N = 7188) to investigate the genetic and environmental relationships among measures of Behavioral Disinhibition, Nicotine Use/Dependence, Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Dependence, and Drug Use. First, using a subsample of twins (N = 2877), we used standard twin models to estimate the additive genetic, shared enviro...

  10. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  11. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  12. Physical exercise as a supplement to outpatient treatment of alcohol use disorders – design and preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Bilberg, Randi Marie; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    Background and aim Alcohol use disorder is a widespread problem in Denmark and has severe impacts on health and quality of life of each individual. The clinical treatment of alcohol use disorder involves evidence-based knowledge on medical treatment, physical training, and psychological management....... The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of physical exercise on alcohol intake, cardio-respiratory fitness and socio-psychological outcomes. Methods and design The study is a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (A) Standard treatment alone, (B) Standard treatment and physical...... exercise in groups, or (C) Standard treatment and physical exercise on an individual basis. The patients will fill a questionnaire and they will be tested at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Results At the end of March 2014 we expect to analyse the first baseline data and follow up data. Here, we will...

  13. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  14. Strain dependent gene expression and neurochemical levels in the brain of zebrafish: Focus on a few alcohol related targets

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Y.; Chaterjee, D; Gerlai, R.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish is becoming increasingly popular in behavior genetics because it may allow one to conduct large scale mutation and drug screens facilitating the discovery of mechanisms of complex traits. Strain differences in adult zebrafish behavior have already been reported, which may have important implications in neurobehavioral genetics. For example, we have found the AB and SF strains to differ in their behavioral responses to both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. In the current study...

  15. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition

    OpenAIRE

    D’Hondt F; Campanella S; Kornreich C; Philippot P; Maurage P

    2014-01-01

    Fabien D’Hondt,1 Salvatore Campanella,2 Charles Kornreich,2 Pierre Philippot,1 Pierre Maurage1 1Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Medical Psychology and Addictology, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI), Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-d...

  16. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TimothyDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  17. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  18. Implementing referral to an electronic alcohol brief advice website in primary healthcare: results from the ODHIN implementation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika; Karlsson, Nadine; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni; Reynolds, Jillian; Wallace, Paul; Segura, Lidia; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to explore whether the possibility of offering facilitated access to an alcohol electronic brief intervention (eBI) instead of delivering brief face-to-face advice increased the proportion of consulting adults who were screened and given brief advice. Design The study was a 12-week implementation study. Sixty primary healthcare units (PHCUs) in 5 jurisdictions (Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden) were asked to screen adults who attended the PHCU for risky drinking. Setting A total of 120 primary healthcare centres from 5 jurisdictions in Europe. Participants 746 individual providers (general practitioners, nurses or other professionals) participated in the study. Primary outcome Change in the proportion of patients screened and referred to eBI comparing a baseline 4-week preimplementation period with a 12-week implementation period. Results The possibility of referring patients to the eBI was not found to be associated with any increase in the proportion of patients screened. However, it was associated with an increase in the proportion of screen-positive patients receiving brief advice from 70% to 80% for the screen-positive sample as a whole (ptechnology. Staff continued to offer face-to-face advice to a larger proportion of patients (54%) than referral to eBI (38%). In addition, low engagement was seen among the referred patients; on average, 18% of the patients logged on to the website with a mean log-on rate across the different countries between 0.58% and 36.95%. Conclusions Referral to eBI takes nearly as much time as brief oral advice and might require more introduction and training before staff are comfortable with referring to eBI. Trial registration number NCT01501552; Post-results. PMID:27311902

  19. The lack of association between catechol-O-methyl-transferase Val108/158Met polymorphism and smoking in schizophrenia and alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolac, Matea; Šagud, Marina; Nedić, Gordana; Nenadić Šviglin, Korona; Mihaljević Peleš, Alma; Uzun, Suzana; Vuskan Čusa, Bjanka; Kozumplik, Oliver; Živković, Maja; Mustapić, Maja; Jakovljević, Miro; Pavlović, Mladen; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea; Borovečki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2013-01-01

    The study elucidated the association between the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism and smoking in patients with schizophrenia, patients with alcohol dependence and healthy control subjects. The stepwise logistic regression (odds ratio (OR)=1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10–2.23, P=0.014) and the χ2 test (P=0.008) revealed that the COMT Val/Val genotype was significantly associated with smoking in healthy male subjects. Although the hypothesis of the study was that COMT Val108/158Met genot...

  20. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  1. Estimation of the Accuracy of Method for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Alcohol Products

    CERN Document Server

    Charepitsa, S V; Zadreyko, Y V; Sytova, S N

    2016-01-01

    Results of the estimation of the precision for determination volatile compounds in alcohol-containing products by gas chromatography: acetaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol are presented. To determine the accuracy, measurements were planned in accordance with ISO 5725 and held at the gas chromatograph Crystal-5000. Standard deviation of repeatability, intermediate precision and their limits are derived from obtained experimental data. The uncertainty of the measurements was calculated on the base of an "empirical" method. The obtained values of accuracy indicate that the developed method allows measurement uncertainty extended from 2 to 20% depending on the analyzed compound and measured concentration.

  2. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  3. DOWNREGULATION OF CINNAMYL-ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE IN SWITCHGRASS BY RNA SILENCING RESULTS IN ENHANCED GLUCOSE RELEASE AFTER CELLULASE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switch...

  4. Associação tabagismo-alcoolismo: introdução às grandes dependências humanas Association between smoking and alcoholism: initiation into the major human dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A . Chaieb

    1998-06-01

    applying the CAGE Scale. A non alcoholic random sample was compared with the alcoholic one. It was identified 129 alcoholics among 1,387 adults of 35 y.o. or more. From the general list of adults a random sample of 129 non alcoholics were selected and matched to the alcoholics by age and sex. Both groups were compared. Data were obtained from a 19 item questionnaire. Answers to generic questions were obtained from all family members, such as: income and smoking habit. Specific data were obtained from the interviewed person of 35 y.o. or more, such as: schooling grade, occupation, diseases and respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, Peak Expiratory Flow and alcoholism. RESULTS: Of 129 alcoholics, 109 (84.5% were male and 20 (15.5% were female. The smoking prevalence among alcoholics (67% was greater than among non alcoholics (43% (p < .002. The kind of occupation distinguished both groups. Among alcoholics unemployment and elementary levels of occupation are more usual while among the abstemious intermediate and superior levels are more frequent (p <.003. The family as well as the personal income are higher among the abstemious (p < .001. There is an increased non significant number of non whites, illiterate people and family smokers among the alcoholics (p < .06. The tendency to start smoking earlier in life and to smoke more cigarettes for a longer period of time was noticed among alcoholics. CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistical association between smoking and alcoholism in the sample studied. Alcoholism in this sample is more prevalent among people who fulfil the following conditions: smokers, low income, rudimentary cultural and professional levels.

  5. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure in the rat results in region-specific deficits in brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S E; Miller, J A; West, J R

    1999-01-01

    Children of women who abuse alcohol during pregnancy may be affected by varying degrees of neurological abnormality, even if they are not diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The extent of the behavioral deficits of the affected offspring may be a function of several factors, such as the differential vulnerability of the various regions of the brain-to-alcohol insult. In this study, groups of timed-pregnant rats were exposed to different doses of alcohol (EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, EtOH 6.5 g/kg/day) or control conditions (maltose dextrin solution or no treatment) from embryonic day 1 (E1: sperm positive) to E20. On E33 (usually postnatal day 10), all pups were perfused. Their brains were removed, dissected into forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem, and weighed. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were measured on 4 different days of gestation, but the peak BACs across gestation for the three alcohol-treated groups averaged 142, 294, and 413 mg/dl for the EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, and EtOH 6.5 g/kg groups, respectively. Analysis of the body weight data indicated that pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group had a greater somatic growth deficit than pups from all other groups. Although the whole brain, forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem weights of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group were significantly smaller than those in the control groups, within-treatment group analyses indicated that the cerebella of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group were more severely affected than were their forebrains or brainstems. The analyses of the brain region to body weight ratios revealed again that the cerebellum-to-body-weight ratio of pups in the EtOH 6.5 g/kg group was more severely affected than the forebrain or brainstem to body weight ratios. Collectively, these data lend support to the view that gross regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during the first two trimesters equivalent, and suggest that the cerebellum is vulnerable to injury from exposure to high BACs

  6. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  7. Alcohol-related Problems in Vagrant People in Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Almaguer Barroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: irresponsible alcohol consumption is one of the most common problems in vagrant people.Objective: to identify alcohol-related problems in residents of the Care Center for People with Vagrant Behavior in Havana.Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. A questionnaire for identifying alcohol-related disorders was administered to 80 vagrants admitted to the center between June and August 2012.Results: it was demonstrated that alcohol consumption in subjects who participated in the research is quite common. Only 21.25% of these people do not suffer from alcohol-related problems, just a similar percent are at-risk drinkers and 57.5 % has physical and physiological problems and probable alcohol dependence.Conclusion: consumption of alcoholic beverages is common in the study population; hence strategies to reduce its negative effects on personal, professional, family and social life of these people must be implemented.

  8. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  9. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  10. Substance and alcohol use and dependence in a sample of patients from an emergency department in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Borges; Liliana Mondragón; Leticia Casanova; Estela Rojas; Joaquín Zambrano; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Isauro Gutiérrez

    2003-01-01

    Según datos nacionales representativos de encuestas en hogares, después de años de baja prevalencia, el uso de sustancias se incrementó en México durante la década pasada. Este cambio en el uso de sustancias también se ha observado en encuestas de estudiantes de nivel medio y medio superior. Las drogas ilícitas son ahora, junto con el uso de alcohol, parte de las sustancias que se consumen en el país, entre la población general y entre usuarios de los servicios de salud, incluidos los Servici...

  11. Characterization of Danio rerio Mn2+-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase, the structural prototype of the ADPRibase-Mn-like protein family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Rui Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The ADPRibase-Mn-like protein family, that belongs to the metallo-dependent phosphatase superfamily, has different functional and structural prototypes. The functional one is the Mn(2+-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase from Rattus norvegicus, which is essentially inactive with Mg(2+ and active with low micromolar Mn(2+ in the hydrolysis of the phosphoanhydride linkages of ADP-ribose, CDP-alcohols and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR in order of decreasing efficiency. The structural prototype of the family is a Danio rerio protein with a known crystallographic structure but functionally uncharacterized. To estimate the structure-function correlation with the same protein, the activities of zebrafish ADPRibase-Mn were studied. Differences between zebrafish and rat enzymes are highlighted. The former showed a complex activity dependence on Mn(2+, significant (≈25% Mg(2+-dependent activity, but was almost inactive on cADPR (150-fold less efficient than the rat counterpart. The low cADPR hydrolase activity agreed with the zebrafish genome lacking genes coding for proteins with significant homology with cADPR-forming enzymes. Substrate-docking to zebrafish wild-type protein, and characterization of the ADPRibase-Mn H97A mutant pointed to a role of His-97 in catalysis by orientation, and to a bidentate water bridging the dinuclear metal center as the potential nucleophile. Finally, three structural elements that delimit the active site entrance in the zebrafish protein were identified as unique to the ADPRibase-Mn-like family within the metallo-dependent phosphatase superfamily.

  12. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Pan, Hui; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations. PMID:22094168

  13. New Fixed Point Results with PPF Dependence in Banach Spaces Endowed with a Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, N.; S. Khaleghizadeh; P. Salimi; Akbar, F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an ${\\alpha }_{c}$ -admissible non-self-mappings with respect to ${\\eta }_{c}$ and establish the existence of PPF dependent fixed and coincidence point theorems for ${\\alpha }_{c}{\\eta }_{c}$ - $\\psi $ -contractive non-self-mappings in the Razumikhin class. As applications of our PPF dependent fixed point and coincidence point theorems, we derive some new fixed and coincidence point results for $\\psi $ -contractions whenever the range space is endowed with a graph ...

  14. Results of Pancreatic Blood Shunting into the Systemic Blood Flow in Insulin-Dependent Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, E. I.; Diuzheva, T. G.; Petrovsky, P. F.; A. Yu. Chevokin; Dokuchayev, K. V.; Rabinovich, S. E.; Gitel, E. P.; Kuzovlev, N. F.; Platonov, L. V.

    1996-01-01

    A new surgical method of treating patients with unstable insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) has been developed-that of surgically shunting pancreatic blood into the systemic blood flow with the purpose of creating a more optimal interaction of subcutaneously administered insulin and pancreas-secreted glucagon. The long term results of the operation depend on the patency of a splenorenal anastomosis. This has been studied by following up 137 patients over periods from half a year to three years....

  15. Triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide release and prevent diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], β-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. PMID:25257874

  16. 童年期逆境经历、人格特征与成年男性酒精依赖的关系%Association between adverse childhood experiences, personality characteristics and male alcohol depen-dence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增训; 史振春; 曹枫林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between adverse childhood experiences, personality characteris⁃tics and alcohol dependence. Methods A total of 102 patients with alcohol-dependence (Patients group) and 106 volun⁃teers (control group) were rated by the adverse childhood experience scale (ACEs) and the big five personality scale (BFP). Results The prevalence of ACEs are significant higher in patients group than in control group, especially regard⁃ing emotional abuse, physical neglect, witness violence and substance abuse. The patients group has lower scores of de⁃light, conscientiousness and higher scores of psychoticism. Psychoticism and parents abuse alcohol in childhood were the risk factors of alcohol dependence. Conclusions There is a correlation between alcohol dependence with their ACEs, per⁃sonality characteristics and parents abused substance. The psychoticism increase the risk of alcohol dependence.%目的:探讨童年期逆境经历、人格特征与成年男性酒精依赖的关系。方法应用童年期逆境问卷(adverse childhood experience scale,ACEs)及大五人格问卷(big five personality,BFP),对103例酒精依赖患者(患者组)及106名健康志愿者(对照组)进行童年期逆境经历及人格特征的评估,比较两组间的差异。结果患者组中经历高童年期逆境者构成比为42.2%,高于对照组的16.0%(P<0.01);其中患者组的情感虐待、躯体忽视、目击暴力和物质滥用的发生率高于对照组(均P<0.05)。在人格特征方面,患者组在宜人性、尽责性维度得分低于对照组(均P<0.01),神经质维度得分高于对照组(P<0.01)。多因素Logistic回归分析示,家庭成员物质滥用(OR=8.397,95%CI:3.022~23.328)及人格特征中神经质维度(OR=1.135,95%CI:1.052~1.224)与酒精依赖有关联(P<0.01)。结论童年期逆境经历、人格特征与酒精依赖之间存在一定关系,童年期

  17. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  18. Alcohol Expectancies and Self-Efficacy as Moderators of Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrhart, Ian James

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety is widely thought to be positively associated with alcohol use. However, these studies rely primarily on self-report of drinking behavior. This research aimed to further explore this research by assessing blood alcohol concentration (BAC), a physiological measure of alcohol intoxication, as the dependent measure in naturalistic settings (i.e., fraternity parties). Results from Study 1 suggest a weak relationship between self-reported anxiety levels and BAC. Study 2 was based on...

  19. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gre2p, an NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alcohol dehydrogenase Gre2p from S. cerevisiae catalyses the stereospecific reduction of a variety of different keto compounds and can therefore be applied as a valuable biocatalyst. The crystallization of the complex of Gre2p with NADP+ and its preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Gre2p [Genes de respuesta a estres (stress-response gene)] from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a monomeric enzyme of 342 amino acids with a molecular weight of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme catalyses both the stereospecific reduction of keto compounds and the oxidation of various hydroxy compounds and alcohols by the simultaneous consumption of the cofactor NADPH and formation of NADP+. Crystals of a Gre2p complex with NADP+ were grown using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. They belong to the monoclinic space group P21. The current diffraction resolution is 3.2 Å. In spite of the monomeric nature of Gre2p in solution, packing and self-rotation calculations revealed the existence of two Gre2p protomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold noncrystallographic axis

  1. Da cervejinha com os amigos à dependência de álcool: uma síntese do que sabemos sobre esse percurso From one beer with friends to alcohol dependence: a synthesis about our knowledge of this path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Paula Ramos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Artigo de revisão sobre os estudos prospectivos a respeito da história natural do alcoolismo, com ênfase na contribuição de Vaillant, que discorre sobre o impacto de seus achados na evolução dos conceitos de uso nocivo e dependência, bem como suas principais implicações terapêuticas. É salientado o fato de as taxas de abstinência não terem aumentado no tratamento de dependentes graves nos últimos 25 anos.Review paper about prospective studies concerning the natural history of alcoholism. Emphasizing Vaillant and the impact of his contribution to the evolution of the concepts of harmful use and dependence, as well as its most important therapeutic implications. The fact that the abstinence rates, in the treatment of a severe dependence, almost remaining the same in the last twenty-five years is highlighted.

  2. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  3. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  4. Does consideration of future consequences moderate the relationship between aggression and alcohol use in adolescents? Results from the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Dempster, Martin; Mello, Zena

    2015-01-01

    Background: An increasing body of literature suggests that those who give greater consideration to the future consequences (CFC) of their present behaviours are at a reduced risk of negative health outcomes. The present study examined whether CFC moderated the relationship between four domains of aggression and alcohol use in adolescents in the United Kindgom. Methods: Participants were 1058 adolescents from Northern Ireland. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: Anger; Hostility; ...

  5. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in a population-based study Prevalência da dependência de álcool e fatores associados em estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence and identify associated factors among demographic, family, socioeconomic and mental health variables. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in the urban area of Campinas, southeastern Brazil, in 2003. A total of 515 subjects, aged 14 years or more were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample. The Self-Report Questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were used in the interview. Prevalences were calculated, and univariate and multivariate logistic analyses performed by estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence was 13.1% (95% CI: 8.4;19.9 in men and 4.1% (95% CI: 1.9;8.6 in women. In the final multiple logistic regression model, alcohol abuse/dependence was significantly associated with age, income, schooling, religion and illicit drug use. The adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in following variables: income between 2,501 and 10,000 dollars (OR=10.29; income above 10,000 dollars (OR=10.20; less than 12 years of schooling (OR=13.42; no religion (OR=9.16 or religion other than Evangelical (OR=4.77; and illicit drug use during lifetime (OR=4.47. Alcohol abuse and dependence patterns were different according to age group. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significantly high prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence in this population. The knowledge of factors associated with alcohol abuse, and differences in consumption patterns should be taken into account in the development of harm reduction strategies.OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do abuso/dependência de álcool e identificar fatores associados entre variáveis demográficas, familiares, socioeconômicas e relativas à saúde mental. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar na área urbana de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, realizado em 2003. Indivíduos de 14 anos ou mais de idade (N=515 foram selecionados aleatoriamente

  6. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Rüütel; Merike Sisask; Airi Värnik; Peeter Värnik; Vladimir Carli; Camilla Wasserman; Hoven, Christina W.; Marco Sarchiapone; Alan Apter; Judit Balazs; Julio Bobes; Romuald Brunner; Paul Corcoran; Doina Cosman; Christian Haring

    2014-01-01

    There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study ...

  7. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in a population-based study Prevalência da dependência de álcool e fatores associados em estudo de base populacional

    OpenAIRE

    Marilisa Berti Azevedo Barros; Neury José Botega; Paulo Dalgalarrondo; Letícia Marín-León; Helenice Bosco de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence and identify associated factors among demographic, family, socioeconomic and mental health variables. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in the urban area of Campinas, southeastern Brazil, in 2003. A total of 515 subjects, aged 14 years or more were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample. The Self-Report Questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were used in the interview. Prevalences ...

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disorders are classified as either alcohol dependence (alcoholism) or alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, the more serious of the disorders, is a ... due to their drinking. Like many other diseases, alcoholism is usually considered chronic, meaning that it lasts ...

  9. The enthalpy of solution of DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine depending on the composition of water-alcohol binary solvents at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2008-12-01

    The integral enthalpies of solution of DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine in water-ethanol, water- n-propanol, and water-isopropanol mixtures at alcohol concentrations x 2 = 0-0.4 mole fractions were measured calorimetrically. The enthalpies of solution of the peptide Δsol H° and transfer from water to a mixed solvent Δtr H° were calculated. The effect of the structure and properties of the peptide and mixture composition on the enthalpy characteristics of the peptide are discussed. The enthalpy coefficients of pair interactions h xy of DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine with alcohol molecules were calculated. It was found that they were positive and increased in the series ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol. An analysis of the results allows the general features of changes in the thermodynamic parameters of solution of peptides of the DL-α-alanine series with different amino acid residues in water-alcohol mixtures to be established.

  10. Analysis of metal health and coping style of alcohol dependence%酒依赖患者心理健康状况及应对方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席巧真; 刘玉兰; 周雷

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the mental health and coping style among alcohol dependence. Methods:Totally 158 alcohol dependence receiving treatment in in-patient andout-patient form Qingdao Mental Health Center were recruited form january 2013 to December 2014. The subjects were investigated by Self-reporting Inventory(SCL-90),Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS),Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS),Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire(SCSQ)and self-made questionnaire. Results:The total scores ang the subscale scores of somatization,interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety,terror and paranoid of SCL-90,score of SDS(52. 37 ± s10. 65),and score of SAS(48. 87 ± s6. 59)among alcohol dependence were higher than normal population,and the difference was statistically significant;Their coping style were negative,Negative coping score of lcohol dependence was positively correlated with total score of SCL-90,somatization symptoms,interpersonal sensitivity,anxiety,depression,terror and paranoidforced factor. Conclusion:Anxiety and depression status of alcohol dependence were higher than normal population. Their coping style was negative. The mental health status may be closely associated with coping styles and we should strengthen psychological health education for alcohol dependence.%目的:探讨酒依赖患者心理健康状况及其应对方式。方法:对2013年1月~2014年12月在青岛市精神卫生中心门诊及住院治疗的158例酒依赖患者采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、简易应对方式问卷(SCSQ)和自编的基本情况调查问卷,对酒依赖患者进行心理健康状况评定及应对方式调查。结果:酒精所致精神障碍患者SCL-90总分、躯体化、人际敏感、抑郁、焦虑、恐怖与偏执、SDS 得分(52.37± s10.65)、SAS(48.87± s6.59)得分均高于常模,差异有统计学意义;应对方式以消极为主,酒

  11. Fatores de risco para dependência de álcool em adolescentes Factores de riesgo en adolescentes con dependencia al alcohol Risk factors for alcohol dependence in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Rozin; Ivete Palmira Sanson Zagonel

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco para dependência do álcool na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa com 21 artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2009, capturados nas bases de dados LILACS, BVS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE e IBECS com as palavras-chave: adolescência, risco para dependência e álcool. RESULTADOS: Há evidências de que o álcool é a droga mais consumida por adolescentes, com início entre 14 a 16 anos. Os fatores de risco para dependência estão relacionados ao início precoce do uso, ...

  12. EXISTENCE RESULTS FOR IMPULSIVE NEUTRAL EVOLUTION DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH STATE-DEPENDENT DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the existence of mild solutions to a first order impulsive neutral evolution differential equations with state-dependent delay. By suitable fixed point theorems combined with theories of evolution systems,we prove some existence theorems. As an application,an example is also given to illustrate the obtained results.

  13. Epidemiological study of prevalence of chlorpropamide alcohol flushing in insulin dependent diabetics, non-insulin dependent diabetics, and non-diabetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Tang Fui, S; Keen, H; Jarrett, R J; Strakosch, C; Murrells, T.; Marsden, P.; Stott, R.

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to compare the prevalence of facial flushing in non-diabetics, patients with insulin dependent diabetes, and patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes in response to 40 ml sherry taken 12 hours after 250 mg chlorpropamide or placebo, administered double blind in randomised order. A flush after chlorpropamide but not placebo was reported by 6.2% of non-diabetics (17/273), 9.7% of insulin-dependent diabetics (14/145), and 10.5% of non-insulin dependen...

  14. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  15. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  16. O processo de alcoolização em populações indígenas do Alto Rio Negro e as limitações do CAGE como instrumento de screening para dependência ao álcool The process of alcoholization among the indian population of the Upper Rio Negro river and CAGE's limitations as a screening instrument for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de Souza

    2007-01-01

    refers back to the ambiguous and conflicting relationships established between drinkers and non-drinkers in historical moments and specific social situations. RESULTS: The analysis of the answers to CAGE made evident the incongruence between its objectives and assumptions and the indigenous understanding of the instrument, invalidating a productive use. CONCLUSION: Despite CAGE's universalist intentions, the indigenous cultural singularity produced new and unexpected meanings to the test-questions and generated useless answers to carry out the screening of suspects of alcohol dependence, in the studied situation.

  17. Drinking patterns of adolescents who develop alcohol use disorders: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Craig A.; Romaniuk, Helena; Salinger, Jodi; Staiger, Petra K; Bonomo, Yvonne; Hulbert, Carol; Patton, George C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identify drinking styles that place teens at greatest risk of later alcohol use disorders (AUD). Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants A representative sample of 1943 adolescents living in Victoria in 1992. Outcome measures Teen drinking was assessed at 6 monthly intervals (5 waves) between mean ages 14.9 and 17.4 years and summarised across waves as none, one, or two or more waves of: (1) frequent drinking (3+ days in the past week), (2)...

  18. Transcriptional control of maladaptive and protective responses in alcoholics: a role of the NF-κB system

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Tatjana; Bazov, Igor; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hauser, Kurt F.; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairment appear to result from maladaptive neuroplasticity in response to chronic alcohol consumption, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The inherent stability of behavioral alterations associated with the addicted state suggests that transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms are operative. NF-κB transcription factors are regulators of synaptic plasticity and inflammation, and responsive to a variety of stimuli including alcohol. These fact...

  19. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  20. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and alcohol problems in heavy drinkers: moderation by depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eTartter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol use in young adults has been prospectively associated with a host of psychosocial and alcohol-related problems. Recent studies have supported the interaction between serotonin transporter polymorphism and adverse environmental factors, as a predictor of alcohol use and the development of alcohol dependence. The current study examined the role of depressive symptoms in combination with the serotonin transporter polymorphism as a predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results revealed a significant genotype by depressive symptom interaction, such that heavier alcohol use was associated with depressive symptoms in L allele homozygotes but not among S allele carriers. These results remained significant after controlling for ethnicity and gender effects. These findings extend the emerging literature supporting 5-HTTLPR genotype as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems in the context of co-occurring symptoms of depression.