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Sample records for alcohol dependence evidence

  1. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  2. Tiapride in the Treatment of Alcohol-Dependent Patients: What is the Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Maria João; Ribeiro, Helena; Ferreira, Maria do Céu; Namora, Nuno; Martins, Teresa; Ferraz, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol dependence is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, as well as an important public health problem. Tiapride is one of the drugs with clinical in-dication in the behavioral disturbances of alcohol withdrawal.Objective: To determine if the use of tiapride is supported by the scientific evidence in the treatment of alcohol dependence (alcohol withdrawal  syndrome and maintenance of abstinence).Methods: Literature search in different databases using the MeSH terms...

  3. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Guo, Linghong; Dai, Xi-Jian; Wang, Qinglai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Miao, Xinjun; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features. Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years) and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years) were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6), right hippocampus (BA 35, 36), and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18), and left precuneus (BA 7, 19). SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus ( R 2 =0.296, P =0.006). The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear to be disrupted by alcohol intoxication, which implicates at least three principal neural systems: including cerebellar, executive control, and visual cortex, which may further affect the normal motor behavior such as an explicit type of impaired driving behavior. These findings expand our understanding of the functional characteristics of alcohol dependence and may provide a new insight into the understanding of the dysfunction and pathophysiology of alcohol dependence.

  4. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  5. Tiapride in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients: what is the evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, MJ; Ribeiro, H; Ferreira, MC; Namora, N; Martins, T; Ferraz, L

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A dependência alcoólica repre- senta uma das mais prevalentes perturbações psiquiátricas, constituindo um importante problema de Saúde Pública. O tiaprida é um dos fármacos com indicação clínica nas per- turbações do comportamento na abstinência alcoólica. Objetivo: Esclarecer se a utilização do tiapri- da é fundamentada pela evidência científica no tratamento da dependência alcoólica (sín- drome de abstinência e manutenção da absti- n...

  6. [Pharmacological therapy of dependency on alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Hannu; Hyytiä, Petri

    2009-01-01

    Effective treatment choices for alcohol dependence have existed for long, but only a minor proportion of those dependent on alcohol seeks medical care and receives effective treatment. The biological mechanisms underlying the dependence and pharmacological means affecting them should be known in order to guarantee a successful pharmacological therapy of alcohol dependence. Therapy should be targeted depending on whether the goal is immediate total abstinence, gradual abstinence or maintaining of abstinence. The strongest scientific evidence for gradual abstinence exists for the opiate antagonist naltrexone. In attempting immediate total abstinence, a significant proportion of alcohol-dependent patients benefits from supervised disulfiram treatment.

  7. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, M W; Veeger, C; van Berkel, W J

    1995-11-15

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyphenylglycols and a series of catecholamines. These compounds are converted to the corresponding ketones. Both enantiomers of (nor)epinephrine are substrates for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, but the R isomer is preferred. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is most active with chavicol and eugenol. These 4-allylphenols are converted to coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. Isotopic labeling experiments show that the oxygen atom inserted at the C gamma atom of the side chain is derived from water. The 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol products and the substrate analog isoeugenol are competitive inhibitors of vanillyl alcohol oxidation. The binding of isoeugenol to the oxidized enzyme perturbs the optical spectrum of protein-bound FAD. pH-dependent binding studies suggest that vanillyl-alcohol oxidase preferentially binds the phenolate form of isoeugenol (pKa < 6, 25 degrees C). From this and the high pH optimum for turnover, a hydride transfer mechanism involving a p-quinone methide intermediate is proposed for the vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-catalyzed conversion of 4-allylphenols.

  8. Nalmefene for Reducing Alcohol Consumption in People with Alcohol Dependence: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Matt; Pandor, Abdullah; Stevens, John W; Rawdin, Andrew; Rice, Peter; Thompson, Jez; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2015-08-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company (Lundbeck) marketing nalmefene (Selincro) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for reducing alcohol consumption in people with alcohol dependence. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG) and to produce a critical review of the company's submission to NICE. The clinical evidence was derived from three phase III, company-sponsored, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence comparing nalmefene, taken on an as-needed basis, in conjunction with psychosocial support with placebo in conjunction with psychosocial support. Psychosocial support was provided in the form of BRENDA, an intervention of lower intensity than that recommended in NICE Clinical Guideline 115 (NICE CG115). Post-hoc subgroup analyses were conducted in people who were drinking at high or very high risk levels at baseline and maintained this level of drinking during the screening phase prior to randomisation. This subgroup forms the licensed population. There were a number of limitations and uncertainties in the clinical evidence base which warrant caution in its interpretation. In particular, the post-hoc subgroup analyses and high dropout rates in the three nalmefene studies meant that the inference of treatment effects might be confounded. The company's economic evaluation showed that use of nalmefene in conjunction with psychosocial support in the form of BRENDA dominated the use of BRENDA in conjunction with placebo, providing more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at a reduced cost. However, this evaluation did not meet the final scope issued by NICE, which specified that the comparator should be psychological intervention as defined in NICE CG115. The ERG

  9. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  10. Pharmacogenomics of alcohol addiction: Personalizing pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragia Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a serious psychiatric disorder with harmful physical, mental and social consequences, and a high probability of a chronic relapsing course. The field of pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence and craving is expanding rapidly; the drugs that have been found to reduce relapse rates or drinking in alcohol-dependent patients and are approved for treatment of alcohol dependence are naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfiram, whereas also topiramate appears as a promising therapy. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that genetic variation is a significant contributor to interindividual variation of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment. The aim of the present review is to summarize and discuss the findings on the association between gene polymorphisms and the response to alcohol dependence treatment medications. It is anticipated that future implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice will help personalize alcohol dependence drug treatment, and development personalized hospital pharmacology.

  11. Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Anxiety Disorder: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Carmen; Dorado, Marisa Luisa; Roncero, Carlos; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Alvarez, F. Javier

    2017-01-01

    Patients with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders (AnxDs). “Co-occurring disorders” refers to the coexistence of an AUD and/or drug related disorders with another non-addictive psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments and psychotherapy in patients with AUD and AnxD and to propose recommendations for the treatment of patients with comorbid AnxDs and AUDs. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical guidelines were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Paroxetine was found to be effective in social anxiety patients with alcohol dependence. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), especially sertraline, showed effective results in posttraumatic stress disorder and in comorbid AnxD–AUD. However, SSRIs should be used with caution when patients are actively drinking because they may increase alcohol consumption. Buspirone, gabapentin, and pregabalin were found to be effective in comorbid AnxD–AUD. The treatment of dual AnxDs should start as early as possible. Since AUDs and AnxDs can reinforce each other, treatments targeting both pathologies can be effective. Women suffer from higher levels of stress and AnxDs than men, and they are also more vulnerable to maintaining alcohol consumption levels. Further research is needed in this comorbid patient population, including the study of different types of patients and gender perspectives. PMID:29018367

  12. Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Anxiety Disorder: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gimeno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders (AnxDs. “Co-occurring disorders” refers to the coexistence of an AUD and/or drug related disorders with another non-addictive psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments and psychotherapy in patients with AUD and AnxD and to propose recommendations for the treatment of patients with comorbid AnxDs and AUDs. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical guidelines were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Paroxetine was found to be effective in social anxiety patients with alcohol dependence. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, especially sertraline, showed effective results in posttraumatic stress disorder and in comorbid AnxD–AUD. However, SSRIs should be used with caution when patients are actively drinking because they may increase alcohol consumption. Buspirone, gabapentin, and pregabalin were found to be effective in comorbid AnxD–AUD. The treatment of dual AnxDs should start as early as possible. Since AUDs and AnxDs can reinforce each other, treatments targeting both pathologies can be effective. Women suffer from higher levels of stress and AnxDs than men, and they are also more vulnerable to maintaining alcohol consumption levels. Further research is needed in this comorbid patient population, including the study of different types of patients and gender perspectives.

  13. Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Anxiety Disorder: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Carmen; Dorado, Marisa Luisa; Roncero, Carlos; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; Alvarez, F Javier

    2017-01-01

    Patients with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders (AnxDs). "Co-occurring disorders" refers to the coexistence of an AUD and/or drug related disorders with another non-addictive psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments and psychotherapy in patients with AUD and AnxD and to propose recommendations for the treatment of patients with comorbid AnxDs and AUDs. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical guidelines were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Paroxetine was found to be effective in social anxiety patients with alcohol dependence. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), especially sertraline, showed effective results in posttraumatic stress disorder and in comorbid AnxD-AUD. However, SSRIs should be used with caution when patients are actively drinking because they may increase alcohol consumption. Buspirone, gabapentin, and pregabalin were found to be effective in comorbid AnxD-AUD. The treatment of dual AnxDs should start as early as possible. Since AUDs and AnxDs can reinforce each other, treatments targeting both pathologies can be effective. Women suffer from higher levels of stress and AnxDs than men, and they are also more vulnerable to maintaining alcohol consumption levels. Further research is needed in this comorbid patient population, including the study of different types of patients and gender perspectives.

  14. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    medications, including baclofen, gabapentin, pregabalin, ondansetron, modafinil, and aripiprazole, are able to decrease alcoholic needs and to alleviate the manifestations of alcohol dependence. The Russian narcological practice in using antipsychotics to suppress a craving for alcohol (as well as other psychoactive substances contradicts the principles of evidence-based medicine and has no scientific base.

  15. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of

  16. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyph...

  17. Opioid antagonists for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, Susanne; Hackl-Herrwerth, Andrea; Leucht, Stefan; Vecchi, Simona; Srisurapanont, Manit; Soyka, Michael

    2010-12-08

    Alcohol dependence belongs to the globally leading health risk factors. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate and could be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene. To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of opioid antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG) Specialized Register, PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL in January 2010 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compare the effects of naltrexone or nalmefene with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. Two authors independently extracted outcome data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Based on a total of 50 RCTs with 7793 patients, naltrexone reduced the risk of heavy drinking to 83% of the risk in the placebo group RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.90) and decreased drinking days by about 4%, MD -3.89 (95% CI -5.75 to -2.04). Significant effects were also demonstrated for the secondary outcomes of the review including heavy drinking days, MD - 3.25 (95% CI -5.51 to -0.99), consumed amount of alcohol, MD - 10.83 (95% CI -19.69 to -1.97) and gamma-glutamyltransferase, MD - 10.37 (95% CI -18.99 to -1.75), while effects on return to any drinking, RR 0.96 (95 CI 0.92 to 1.00) missed statistical significance. Side effects of naltrexone were mainly gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea: RD 0.10; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.13) and sedative effects (e.g. daytime sleepiness: RD 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.14). Based on a limited study sample, effects of injectable naltrexone and nalmefene missed statistical significance. Effects of industry-sponsored studies, RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.05) did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials, RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91) and the linear regression test did not indicate publication

  18. The role of the opioid system in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2014-01-01

    The role of the brain opioid system in alcohol dependence has been the subject of much research for over 25 years. This review explores the evidence: firstly describing the opioid receptors in terms of their individual subtypes, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and ligands; secondly, summarising emerging data from specific neurochemical, behavioural and neuroimaging studies, explaining the characteristics of addiction with a focus on alcohol dependence and connecting the opioid system with alcohol dependence; and finally reviewing the known literature regarding opioid antagonists in clinical use for alcohol dependence. Further interrogation of how modulation of the opioid system, via use of MOP (mu), DOP (delta) and KOP (kappa) agents, restores the balance of a dysregulated system in alcohol dependence should increase our insight into this disease process and therefore guide better methods for understanding and treating alcohol dependence in the future.

  19. Treatment of alcohol-dependent college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Kelly, Terri Ann

    2012-10-01

    A report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for more than 4,600 deaths in underage youth annually. Alcohol abuse is common among college-age youth and may progress to alcohol dependence, which includes tolerance, craving, physical dependence, and loss of control. Although treatment for alcohol dependence is effective, like all other chronic disorders, relapse is common. The purpose of this article is to examine the issues surrounding alcohol abuse and dependence as well as maintaining sobriety in light of the high-risk college student drinking environment. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. [Drugs, a current problem. Alcohol dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a socially accepted drug which is commercialized in multiple products including wine, cognac, gin, beer, anisette, vermouth, rum, etc. and which can be consumed in small quantities without producing harmful effects on one's health; nonetheless, women are more susceptible to alcohol's damages and an abusive consumption of alcohol creates dependence and chronic diseases. Ten percent of those people who consume alcohol develop dependency and comprise the leading group of drug addicts in many countries.

  1. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus.

  2. Alcohol Binge-Drinking on the Transition to Alcohol Dependence : Relationship and Neurobiological Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent access to alcohol in rats produces a pattern similar to alcohol binge drinking which has been shown to be associated with of alcohol dependence in humans, however direct causal evidence is missing. Moreover, the neuronal ensemble responsible for the excessive drinking behavior is currently unknown. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), an anti-reward stress brain system, has been speculated in playing a critical role during ...

  3. Socio-emotional factors in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Deyashini Lahiri Tikka; Daya Ram; Indu Dubey; Sai Krishna Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score

  4. Alcohol dependence – what actually works

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on a pragmatic approach to the assessment of alcohol dependence and an overview of some of the most effective interventions. The acute medical management of the withdrawal process is beyond the scope of this article. This article concentrates on alcohol dependence, as this is the most common.

  5. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

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    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist.

  6. Self-cognitions in antisocial alcohol dependence and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen Farchaus

    2007-02-01

    Cross-sectional relationships between content and structural properties of the self-concept and alcohol use in young adults with antisocial alcohol dependence (AAD) (n = 24), those in recovery from AAD (n = 18), and controls (n = 23) were examined using the schema model of the self-concept. Persons with AAD had a trend toward fewer positive self-schemas than did controls, and had more negative self-schemas and a trend toward higher interrelatedness than did those in recovery and controls. They also showed evidence of a drinking-related self-schema, whereas those in recovery showed evidence of a recovery-related self-schema. Finally, evidence to support a model using properties of the self-concept to predict high levels of alcohol use was found. These findings provide a beginning empirical foundation for the development of nursing interventions aimed at altering self-structure to prevent the development of and promote recovery from antisocial alcohol dependence.

  7. [Alcohol dependence and anxious disorders: dangerous liaisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwood, Philip

    2010-06-20

    Anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence have a higher co-occurence than expected by chance only. This association has a double origin, as the presence of alcohol dependence increases by 6 the risk of any anxious disorder, and the presence of an anxious disorder multiply by 3 the risk of alcohol-dependence. Interestingly, a large population-based epidemiological study performed 10 years apart clearly showed that anxiety disorders moderatly increase the risk of regular consumption in non-consumers or irregular drinkers (by 70%), does not increase ther risk of abuse in regular drinkers, but has a strong impact on the risk of alcohol dependence while already an abuser (OR = 2.7). Assessing the kinetic of symptoms of anxiety and focusing on some symptoms that are more specific than others (for example nausea, vomiting and/or shaking hands in the morning, all being relieved by the first drink) is helpful. Treating anxiety symptoms in alcohol dependence means, whatever the type of relationship they have, to begin with a detoxification program. Indeed, antidepresants have a larger liver-toxicity in alcohol dependence, and benzodiazepine loose most of their benefits with high level of alcohol consumption. Furthermore, when benzodiazepines are taken with large doses of alcohol, the risk of severe withdrawal symptoms is increased (such as seizures). The same trend could be proposed for psychotherapy, as cognitive behavioural therapy sollicitates a lot executive functions. The neurotoxicity of alcohol explains the damages on executive functions, CBT therefore should have larger efficacy after the detoxification program, helping to reduce the risk of relapse.

  8. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.......In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism....

  10. Socio-emotional factors in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Ram, Daya; Dubey, Indu; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score Relationship Scale Questionnaire), anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory), and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Patients had significantly higher anger expression, 'anger in' and 'anger out,' and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with 'anger out,' and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other.

  11. Disability associated with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual's age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems.

  13. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  14. Neurobiological signatures of alcohol dependence revealed by protein profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Gorini

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse causes dramatic neuroadaptations in the brain, which contribute to tolerance, dependence, and behavioral modifications. Previous proteomic studies in human alcoholics and animal models have identified candidate alcoholism-related proteins. However, recent evidences suggest that alcohol dependence is caused by changes in co-regulation that are invisible to single protein-based analysis. Here, we analyze global proteomics data to integrate differential expression, co-expression networks, and gene annotations to unveil key neurobiological rearrangements associated with the transition to alcohol dependence modeled by a Chronic Intermittent Ethanol (CIE, two-bottle choice (2BC paradigm. We analyzed cerebral cortices (CTX and midbrains (MB from male C57BL/6J mice subjected to a CIE, 2BC paradigm, which induces heavy drinking and represents one of the best available animal models for alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. CIE induced significant changes in protein levels in dependent mice compared with their non-dependent controls. Multiple protein isoforms showed region-specific differential regulation as a result of post-translational modifications. Our integrative analysis identified modules of co-expressed proteins that were highly correlated with CIE treatment. We found that modules most related to the effects of CIE treatment coordinate molecular imbalances in endocytic- and energy-related pathways, with specific proteins involved, such as dynamin-1. The qRT-PCR experiments validated both differential and co-expression analyses, and the correspondence among our data and previous genomic and proteomic studies in humans and rodents substantiates our findings. The changes identified above may play a key role in the escalation of ethanol consumption associated with dependence. Our approach to alcohol addiction will advance knowledge of brain remodeling mechanisms and adaptive changes in response to drug abuse, contribute to

  15. Interactions Between Alcohol Metabolism Genes and Religious Involvement in Association With Maximum Drinks and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Dick, Danielle M; Almasy, Laura; Chan, Grace; Aliev, Fazil; Schuckit, Marc A; Scott, Denise M; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura J; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2016-05-01

    Variations in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes are associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence in multiple populations. Additionally, some environmental factors have been recognized as modifiers of these relationships. This study examined the modifying effect of religious involvement on relationships between ADH gene variants and alcohol consumption-related phenotypes. Subjects were African American, European American, and Hispanic American adults with lifetime exposure to alcohol (N = 7,716; 53% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Genetic markers included ADH1Brs1229984, ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, ADH4-rs1042364, and ADH4-rs1800759. Phenotypes were maximum drinks consumed in a 24-hour period and total number of alcohol dependence symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Religious involvement was defined by self-reported religious services attendance. Both religious involvement and ADH1B-rs1229984 were negatively associated with the number of maximum drinks consumed and the number of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed. The interactions of religious involvement with ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, and ADH4-rs1042364 were significantly associated with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms. Risk variants had weaker associations with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms as a function of increasing religious involvement. This study provided initial evidence of a modifying effect for religious involvement on relationships between ADH variants and maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms.

  16. [Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained. Advice is only given upon request. The conversation style is directive-guiding instead of authoritariansteering. OARS and the EPE principle are the motivational interviewing basics, which are consistently applied over 4 processes of motivational interviewing: engaging, focusing, evocing, and planning. The likelihood of change talk increases as soon as discrepancies between life goals and alcohol consumption emerge. An increased rate of change talk makes a change in behavior more likely. If a patient argues against change (sustain talk), one should not confront, but should consistently work with reflections, reframing, and an emphasis on autonomy. Motivational interviewing can be applied in different settings and populations, should be learned by the entire team (best professional guidance) in teamwork, and be subjected to a critical and constant evaluation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  18. Alcohol warning label perceptions: Emerging evidence for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2015-10-03

    Patterns of alcohol and cigarette use and abuse can be considered parallels due to their similar social, biological and epidemiological implications. Therefore, the cross-fertilization of policy research, including health warnings evidence, is justified. The objective of this study was to apply the lessons learned from the tobacco health warnings and plain packaging literature to an alcohol packaging study and test whether labelling alters consumer perceptions. Ninety-two adults were exposed to four labelling conditions of bottles for a famous brand of each of wine, beer and hard liquor. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four labelling conditions: standard, text warning, text and image warning, or text and image warning on a plain bottle. Participants then expressed their product-based (i.e., evaluation of the products) and consumer-based (i.e., evaluation of potential consumers of the products) perceptions in relation to each label condition and were asked to recognize the correct health warning. As expected, participants perceived bottles with warnings less positively as compared to standard bottles in terms of product-based and consumer-based perceptions: plain bottles showed the most consistent statistically significant results, followed by text and image warnings, and then text warnings in pair-wise comparisons with the standard bottles. Some support for the impact of plain packaging on warning recognition was also found. Unlike previous studies, this study reveals that health warnings, if similar to those on cigarette packs, can change consumer-based and product-based perceptions of alcohol products. The study reveals the importance of serious consideration of stringent alcohol warning policy research.

  19. Symptoms of Alcohol Dependence Predict Suicide Ideation Among Alaskan Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Skewes, Monica C

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated an association between alcohol-related problems and suicidal ideation (SI). The present study evaluated, simultaneously, alcohol consequences and symptoms of alcohol dependence as predictors of SI after adjusting for depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption. A sample of 298 Alaskan undergraduates completed survey measures, including the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire, the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory - II. The association between alcohol problems and SI status was evaluated using sequential logistic regression. Symptoms of alcohol dependence (OR = 1.88, p alcohol-related consequences (OR = 1.01, p = .95), emerged as an independent predictor of SI status above and beyond depressive symptoms (OR = 2.39, p alcohol consumption (OR = 1.08, p = .39). Alcohol dependence symptoms represented a unique risk for SI relative to alcohol-related consequences and alcohol consumption. Future research should examine the causal mechanism behind the relationship between alcohol dependence and suicidality among university students. Assessing the presence of dependence symptoms may improve the accuracy of identifying students at risk of SI.

  20. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-08

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  1. Evidence for phase-based psychotherapy as a treatment for dissociative identity disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Brianna E; Macfie, Jenny; Elledge, L Christian

    2017-01-01

    We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized the Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment. Significant symptom improvements were realized posttreatment across all measured domains of functioning, including dissociative symptoms, alcohol abuse, depression, anxiety, and emotion regulation skills. Moreover, the client no longer met criteria for DID, major depressive disorder, or alcohol abuse. Results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of trauma-focused, phase-based treatment for DID for cases of complex trauma with comorbid disorders.

  2. The role of norhaman in alcohol dependence and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, D.; Spijkerman, R.; Bongers, I.M.B.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the endogenous substance norharman in processes of alcohol and nicotine or tobacco dependence in both humans and animals. For this purpose heavy smokers and excessive alcohol drinkers were recruited, and rats were made dependent on alcohol and

  3. Effects of cognitive bias modification training on neural alcohol cue reactivity in alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Stelzel, C.; Gladwin, T.E.; Park, S.Q.; Pawelczack, S.; Gawron, C.K.; Stuke, H.; Heinz, A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Walter, H.; Bermpohl, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol cues evoke increased activation in mesolimbic brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. Moreover, patients show an alcohol approach bias, a tendency to more quickly approach than avoid alcohol cues. Cognitive bias modification

  4. Nutritional intake and status in persons with alcohol dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens Knudsen, Anne; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency.......Malnutrition increases the risk of developing alcohol-related complications. The aim of this study was to describe nutrient intake, nutritional status and nutrition-related complications in a Danish population of outpatients with alcohol dependency....

  5. The reciprocal influences of perceived risk for alcoholism and alcohol use over time: evidence for aversive transmission of parental alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira M; Chassin, Laurie

    2010-07-01

    This study examined how perceived risk for alcoholism and alcohol use influenced each other over time. We hypothesized an aversive transmission mechanism, by which some children of alcoholics may reduce their drinking because they perceive themselves to be at risk for future alcohol problems because of their parents' alcoholism. Using participants (N = 804, 47% female) from an ongoing longitudinal study of children of alcoholics (e.g., Chassin et al., 1991), we examined the reciprocal prospective relations between perceived risk for alcoholism and drinking across three measurement occasions, and also tested whether perceived risk for alcoholism mediated the effect of perceived parental alcoholism on subsequent drinking. Mediation analyses provided evidence for aversive transmission, in which the effect of perceived parental alcoholism on alcohol use during young adulthood was decreased to the extent that perceived parental alcoholism predicted higher levels of perceived risk for alcoholism during emerging adulthood. Results indicated reciprocal effects between perceived risk for alcoholism and drinking over time, such that higher levels of perceived risk were associated with lower levels of drinking. Results were replicated using both self-report and collateral-report of alcohol use, and using both actual and perceived parental alcoholism. Young adults may avoid drinking when they perceive their parent(s) to be alcoholic, and consequently perceive themselves to be at elevated risk for alcoholism. Given that beliefs about risk for alcoholism are potentially modifiable, increasing self-perceived risk for alcoholism may be one feasible way to reduce the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders within families.

  6. Gene-environment interactions and alcohol use and dependence: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the current status of gene-environment interaction research with regard to alcohol use and dependence. Further, we highlight the difficulties concerning gene-environment studies. Overview of the current evidence for gene-environment interactions in alcohol outcomes, and of the associated

  7. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sertraline with naltrexone for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farren, Conor K

    2009-01-01

    Significant preclinical evidence exists for a synergistic interaction between the opioid and the serotonin systems in determining alcohol consumption. Naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, is approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This double-blind placebo-controlled study examined whether the efficacy of naltrexone would be augmented by concurrent treatment with sertraline, a selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitor (SSRI).

  8. Community detoxification for alcohol dependence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Endsley, Paige; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela C; Noorani, Aneesa; Naik, Aresh; Murthy, Pratima; Velleman, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential advantages of community detoxification for alcohol dependence, in many countries the available resources are mostly focused on specialist services that are resource-intensive, and often difficult to access because of financial or geographical factors. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing literature about the management of alcohol detoxification in the community to examine its effectiveness, safety, acceptability and feasibility. The systematic review was guided by an a priori defined protocol consistent with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Cochrane library, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health and CINAHL databases were searched using appropriate search terms. A qualitative synthesis of the data was conducted as the heterogeneity of study designs, samples and outcomes measured precluded a meta-analyses. Twenty studies with a range of designs were eligible for the review. Community detoxification had high completion rates and was reported to be safe. Compared to patients undergoing facility based detoxification, those who underwent community detoxification had better drinking outcomes. Community detoxification was cheaper than facility based detoxification and generally had good acceptability by various stakeholders. For certain patients, community detoxification should be considered as a viable option to increase access to care. Although the current evidence base to some extent supports the case for community detoxification there is a need for more randomised controlled trials testing the cost effectiveness of community detoxification in comparison with inpatient detoxification. [Nadkarni A, Endsley P, Bhatia U, Fuhr DC, Noorani A, Naik A, Murthy P, Velleman R. Community detoxification for alcohol dependence: A systematic review Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:389-399]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Donadon; F.L. Osório

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence...

  10. Alcohol dependence, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks and associated work characteristics in the Taiwan working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chiou-Jong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between work characteristics and the risk of alcohol dependence across different employment types and occupations, including the pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of energy drinks and its association with alcohol dependence. A total of 13,501 men and 8584 women participated in a national survey in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence was defined as ≥2 points in the CAGE questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire recorded drinking behaviors, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks, employment type, occupation and a number of psychosocial work stressors, namely job demands, job control, employment security and workplace justice. Of the total, 9.4% of men and 0.8% of women were CAGE-positive, and 6.0% of men and 0.7% of women regularly consumed alcoholic energy drinks. In male and female regular consumers of alcoholic energy drinks, 38.7 and 23.3%, respectively, were alcohol-dependent. Multivariate regression analyses showed that male employees in manual skilled occupations, with lower workplace justice, having weekly working hours alcohol dependence. Certain occupational groups and workers with adverse psychosocial work characteristics should be targets for prevention of alcohol dependence. Alcoholic energy drink consumption should be taken into consideration while studying alcohol dependence in the work population in Taiwan.

  11. Craving and withdrawal as core symptoms of alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; Korzec, Alex; Koerselman, Frank; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the validity of the distinction of alcohol abuse and dependence, the distinction between normality and alcohol abuse, and the absence of craving in the DSM-IV classification of alcohol use disorders. In this study, we examine the discriminant validity of the DSM-IV

  12. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (Self-ratings of alcohol craving. The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (P = .02) or without (P = .049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy.

  13. The effectiveness of anxiety treatment on alcohol-dependent patients with a comorbid phobic disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadé, Annemiek; Marquenie, Loes A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; de Beurs, Edwin; van den Brink, Wim; van Dyck, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evidence has emerged which indicates that the post-treatment relapse rate for alcohol-dependent patients with a comorbid anxiety disorder is higher than for alcohol-dependent patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder. The question raised by this evidence is whether the relapse rate in

  14. Developmental differences in childhood motor coordination predict adult alcohol dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    hypothesized that developmental deficits in the cerebellar vermis may also play a role in the initiation of adult alcohol dependence. The present study evaluated whether measures of motor development in the first year of life predict alcohol dependence three decades later. METHODS: A total of 241 subjects....... RESULTS: Several measures of childhood motor development significantly predicted alcohol dependence at 30 years of age. These included deficits in muscle tone 5 days after birth, delays in the age to sitting, and delays in the age to walking. CONCLUSIONS: Relationships found between adult alcoholism...

  15. Suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent Danes attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk Petersen, Christina; Grønbæk, Morten; Bussey Rask, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The association between alcohol dependence and suicidal behaviour is well established and patients with suicidal behaviour in treatment for alcohol dependence present a considerable challenge for clinical services. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for suicide attempts and to eval......The association between alcohol dependence and suicidal behaviour is well established and patients with suicidal behaviour in treatment for alcohol dependence present a considerable challenge for clinical services. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for suicide attempts......, were more often lowly educated, and had more physical and psychiatric problems. Traumatic childhood experience related to physical or sexual abuse was found as a major predictor for suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent patients. We found no significant difference in the effect of treatment...

  16. Alcohol dependence and depression: advance practice nurse interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Tracey L

    2006-07-01

    To identify alcohol dependence, depression, and their comorbidity as common health problems in the United States. To emphasize advance practice nurse (APN) interventions including screening, treatment, and outcome evaluations for individuals and their families suffering with alcohol dependence and depression. Scientific literature on alcohol dependence, depression, and their comorbidity as well as general systems theory. APNs have the opportunity to successfully intervene with individuals and their family with alcohol dependence, depression, and their comorbidity. These complex health conditions need to be screened for, treated, and evaluated to ensure positive outcomes for the individual and their family system. APNs are in an excellent position to intervene at every contact with the individual and family with alcohol dependence and depression. Interventions aimed at the individual and family system are detailed in order to assist the individual and family to optimal health.

  17. COMORBID GAMBLING IN PERSONS SUFFERING FROM ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan M. S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gambling has been a part of human behaviour since prehistory. Past global studies show that rates of pathologic gambling are 4 to 10 times higher for substance abusers than for the general population. Alcohol dependence is also more common among parents of pathologic gamblers. Studies from India have been very few on this subject. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to analyse the prevalence of gambling behaviour in alcohol dependent individuals, to assess whether alcohol influence had effect on gambling behaviour, to analyse if gambling behaviour was associated with personality traits, to explore the possibility whether alcohol use & gambling behaviour in parents had influence on the gamblers. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive male patients attending de-addiction OPD of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai was selected. Those who had a diagnosis of alcohol dependence were screened for gambling and assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS and Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. History of gambling behaviour and alcohol use in parents were correlated. RESULTS A high incidence of gambling related problems in alcohol dependent individuals was found. Among them, 24% had gambling related problems, of which 11% amounted to pathologic gambling. Age, Marital status, Residential locality, Economic status, Educational levels, or being under the influence of alcohol did not correlate with the gambling behaviour. Extrovert personality, alcohol dependence in father, and family history of gambling were more common in problem/pathologic gamblers.

  18. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    diagnoses of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence that were characterized as currently active or currently in remission according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, course specifiers. RESULTS: The majority of subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse were...... in remission at age 40 compared with those with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (88% vs. 58%). Treatment did not predict remission. Fourteen of the 18 predictors of remission that also predicted dependence were submitted to an exploratory factor analysis (varimax). Two premorbid dimensions were identified...

  19. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2010-01-01

    diagnoses of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence that were characterized as currently active or currently in remission according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, course specifiers. RESULTS: The majority of subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse were...... a Danish birth cohort (N = 9,182). Two thirds of the subjects were high-risk biological sons of treated alcoholics. A large number of measures (361) were obtained at different periods before any subject had developed an alcohol-use disorder. At age 40, a psychiatrist provided mutually exclusive lifetime...

  2. The prevalence of major anxiety disorders in relatives of alcohol dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, M A; Hesselbrock, V M; Tipp, J; Nurnberger, J I; Anthenelli, R M; Crowe, R R

    1995-05-01

    The relationship between alcohol dependence and lifelong major anxiety disorders is complex. The literature indicates a close association between anxiety symptoms and drinking behavior. However, it is difficult to determine whether the anxiety conditions are lifelong disorders or if they represent temporary organic conditions related to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. One approach to understanding more about the relationships between alcohol dependence and major anxiety disorders is to observe the rate of anxiety-related diagnoses in close relatives of alcoholics. This approach evaluates whether alcoholism and major anxiety disorders might share a common genetic basis. The data presented here describe the rates of four major anxiety disorders in 591 interviewed first-degree relatives of alcohol dependent men and women. The data were gathered through face-to-face structured standardized interviews. The analyses reveal that after focusing on DSM-III-R anxiety disorders, controlling for the potential presence of temporary organic conditions in the subject and considering the impact of assortative mating in their parents, the life-time risk for panic disorder in close biological family members of alcoholics is 3.4%; for agoraphobia, 1.4%; for social phobia, 2.3%; and for obsessive-compulsive disease, 1.4%. These data do not indicate an exceptionally high rate of anxiety disorders among close relatives of alcoholics. While other mechanisms might contribute to relationship between alcoholism and major anxiety disorders, the results do not support evidence of a common genotype for the two disorders.

  3. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Bhattacharya, D.; Garg, Mohan L.; Khushu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  5. Family care to individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keity Laís Siepmann Soccol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, which aimed to describe the family care given to the individual dependent on alcohol and other drugs. For data collection we used the interview, open, free and recorded, which was performed in August and September 2011. The 11 subjects were relatives of the individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs, involved in family groups conducted at the Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. From the content analysis of these interviews, two categories were revealed: care actions in the perception of family caregivers, and care to minimize conflicts in family relations. The way the family takes care of the relative dependent on alcohol and other drugs has the purpose of meeting the physical and emotional demands, as well the interpersonal relationships, as it is concerned with the wellbeing of the chemically dependent relative.

  6. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  7. RISK FACTORS IN SUICIDE AMONG MALE ALCOHOL DEPENDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Prasanna; Gandhibabu; Asok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a potent risk factor for completed suicide but data are limited on factors that distinguish risk within this high risk population. AIM: To study the risk factors for suicide attempts among male alcohol dependents. METHODS: This was a case control study conducted from January to July in the Year 2014. Cases and controls were recruited from Department of Psychiatry, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, using various tools such as semi structured p...

  8. Family relationship quality and early alcohol use: evidence for gender-specific risk processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Adrian B; Toumbourou, John W; O'Flaherty, Martin; Patton, George C; Homel, Ross; Connor, Jason P; Williams, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    Family characteristics (relationship quality, parental behaviors, and attitudes relating to alcohol use) are known to influence alcohol use in the mid-teen years, and there is evidence that family characteristics have different influences on mid-teen girls versus boys. This study examined child gender differences in the association of family relationship quality, parental disapproval of children's alcohol use, and parental alcohol use with early adolescent alcohol use. Grade 6 and 8 students (modal age 11 and 13, respectively; N = 6,837; 52.6% female) were recruited from 231 schools across three Australian states. Hypotheses were tested using two-level ordinal logistic regression (individuals nested within schools). The main dependent measure was lifetime frequency of early adolescent alcohol consumption. Independent variables included mother's/father's alcohol use, closeness, conflict, and disapproval of adolescent alcohol use. Control variables included sensation seeking, peer alcohol use, and socioeconomic disadvantage. The key findings were that for the young age group (Grade 6), emotional closeness to the parent of the opposite sex was protective. Family conflict was associated with females' drinking in both age groups but not males' drinking. There was evidence of gender differences in the epidemiology of family relationship quality and early alcohol use. Social developmental models may need revision to account for these child gender differences. Gender-specific family dynamics may be an important consideration for family-oriented prevention strategy.

  9. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Taylor, Devin H

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse.

  10. An update on CRF mechanisms underlying alcohol use disorders and dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marian Hartmann Quadros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF systems have been critically implied in the transition towards problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence. CRF signaling, mostly via CRF1 receptors, seems to be particularly important in conditions of excessive alcohol taking and seeking, including during early and protracted withdrawal, relapse, as well as during withdrawal-induced anxiety and escalated aggression promoted by alcohol. Modulation of CRF1 function seems to exert a less prominent role over low to moderate alcohol intake, or to species-typical behaviors. While CRF mechanisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have some contribution to the neurobiology of alcohol abuse and dependence, a pivotal role for extra-hypothalamic CRF pathways, particularly in the extended amygdala, is well characterized. More recent studies further suggest a direct modulation of brain reward function by CRF signaling in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex, among other structures. This review will further discuss a putative role for other components of the CRF system that contribute for the overall balance of CRF function in reward and stress pathways, including CRF2 receptors, CRF binding protein and Urocortins, a family of CRF-related peptides.

  11. Effects of alcohol dependence and withdrawal on stress responsiveness and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Howard C

    2012-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body's stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body's neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produced and released from the hypothalamus and activates the pituitary in response to stress, plays a central role in the relationship between stress and alcohol dependence and withdrawal. Chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal lead to changes in CRF activity both within the HPA axis and in extrahypothalamic brain sites. This may mediate the emergence of certain withdrawal symptoms, which in turn influence the susceptibility to relapse. Alcohol-related dysregulation of the HPA axis and altered CRF activity within brain stress-reward circuitry also may play a role in the escalation of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent individuals. Numerous mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the relationship between alcohol dependence, stress, and drinking behavior. These include the stress hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to HPA axis activation (i.e., corticosteroids), neuromodulators known as neuroactive steroids, CRF, the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, and other stress-related molecules.

  12. [Cognitive vulnerability to alcohol dependence: related neuroanatomic endophenotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneurie, A-S; Guérin Langlois, C; Limosin, F

    2013-10-01

    Executive function impairments and high level of impulsivity may constitute heritable endophenotypes that confer predisposition for alcohol dependence. Brain volume abnormalities have also been reported in young, alcohol-naïve subjects at high risk (HR) for alcohol dependence, and linked to cognitive dysfunction. This paper presents a literature review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that examined brain volumes in adolescent/young adult HR offspring from families with multiple cases of alcohol dependence compared to low risk controls with no family history of alcohol or drug misuse. In some of these studies, executive functioning and externalizing symptoms were also assessed. In HR subjects, local white matter volume deficits were found in the corpus callosum and in the right orbito-frontal cortex, and lower fractional anisotropy in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and in the right optic radiation. Altered fronto-cerebellar connectivity has also been reported. Diminished gray matter volume of the cerebellar cortex was found in HR subjects, in the frontal, cyngulate and para-hippocampal gyri, and also in the amygdala, the thalamus and the cerebellum. These structural abnormalities have been associated with higher impulsivity level and executive function impairments, themselves markers of vulnerability to alcoholism. These premorbid cerebral abnormalities may increase the risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in HR subjects through atypical control processing. Brain abnormalities may potentially constitute an abnormal neural network that might underlie the risk towards alcohol dependence. These circuitry abnormalities might contribute to the reward deficiency, as well as impaired response inhibition that predict impulsive spectrum behavior, which are thought to represent the inherited vulnerability to alcohol dependence in HR individuals. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing enzyme and alcohol dependence in Polish men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cichoż-Lach

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence poses a serious medical and sociological problem. It is influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors, which may determine differences in alcohol metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of the enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism is highly ethnically and race dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences, if present, in the allele and genotype frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B, ADH1C and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS/CYP2E1 between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls and also to determine if these genotypes cause a difference in the age at which the patients become alcohol dependent. The allele and genotype frequencies of ADH1B, ADH1C, and CYP2E1 were determined in 204 alcohol dependent men and 172 healthy volunteers who do not drink alcohol (control group. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP methods on white cell DNA. ADH1B*1 (99.3% and ADH1C*1 (62.5% alleles and ADH1B*1/*1 (N = 201 and ADH1C*1/*1 (N = 85 genotypes were statistically more frequent among alcohol-dependent subjects than among controls (99.3 and 62.5%, N = 201 and 85 vs 94.5 and 40.7%, N = 153 and 32, respectively. Differences in the CYP2E1 allele and genotype distribution between groups were not significant. The persons with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes became alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2, ADH1C*2/*2 and CYP2E1*c1/*c1 genotypes (28.08, 25.67 years vs 36.0, 45.05, 34.45 years, respectively. In the Polish men examined, ADH1C*1 and ADH1B*1 alleles and ADH1C*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*1 genotypes favor alcohol dependence. The ADH1B*2 allele may protect from alcohol dependence. However, subjects with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes become alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2, ADH1C*2/*2 and CYP2E1*c1/*c1 genotypes.

  14. Rare ADH variant constellations are specific for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence.

  15. Marital quality in wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Bora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marriage is a strong bond between couples with the promise of lifelong dedication and emotional wellbeing. The effects of alcoholism in husbands may lead to disturbances in marital life. Lack of understanding, unpredictable behaviour of the husbands, and their irresponsibility in family matters can often lead to poor quality of a couple’s relationship. Aim of the study: The study is aimed to understand the marital quality of the wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: Thirty wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 were taken as the sample, using purposive sample collection. Socio-demographic profile was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire while Marital Quality Scale (MQS-1995 was applied to assess the marital quality after taking their informed consent. Higher scores indicate poorer quality of marital life. Data analysis was done using SPSS for descriptive statistics. Results: The domain mean scores of rejection, understanding, and decision-making, and the total score of marital quality were high. Thus, indicating poorer quality of marital life among the wives of persons with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is highly associated with poor marital quality as the person with alcohol dependence tends to adapt faulty communication patterns and behaviour which in turn leads to poor adjustment, unhappiness, and a high degree of dissatisfaction with relationships. Treatment plan for this group should be planned keeping these factors in consideration, as a priority.

  16. The psychiatric management of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Jonathan I; Park, Charles

    2007-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic, relapsing biobehavioral disease mediated by various parts of the brain, including reward systems, memory circuits, and the prefrontal cortex. It is characterized by loss of the ability to drink alcohol in moderation and continued drinking despite negative consequences. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a common but not universal diagnostic feature of alcohol dependence. Benzodiazepine detoxification of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome prevents the development of withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens, and makes patients more comfortable, which promotes engagement in treatment. Symptom-triggered dosing, based on a withdrawal rating scale such as the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised, is optimal for minimizing the total benzodiazepine dosage. Use of a long-acting benzodiazepine (eg, chlordiazepoxide) is preferred in uncomplicated patients. Thiamine should be administered routinely before the administration of intravenous fluids to prevent the development of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In combination with psychosocial treatment, disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate can reduce the frequency of relapse. Naltrexone may be more effective for reduction of loss of control with the first drink and cue-related craving, and acamprosate may be more effective for stabilizing the physiology of post-acute withdrawal. Disulfiram, an aversive deterrent, can be useful if administration can be monitored and tied to meaningful contingencies or when used prophylactically for situations anticipated to carry high risk of relapse. Psychiatric comorbidity, especially depression, is common and is best addressed concurrently, although definitive diagnosis may have to await a period of prolonged sobriety. Prescription of addictive substances, including benzodiazepines beyond the period of acute detoxification, should be avoided, and if necessary should be closely monitored (eg, by frequent

  17. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paille F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available François Paille, Hervé Martini Department of Addiction Treatment, University Hospital, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Abstract: Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence, reduction, consumption, damage reduction, drug therapy, nalmefene

  18. Alcohol and violence: connections, evidence and possibilities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert Nash

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews a number of theoretical and substantive arguments and models concerning the link between alcohol and violent crime which have appeared in the research literature in the past decade. These arguments and models form a firm foundation for the expectation that alcohol plays a causal role in violent crime, and that interventions designed to reduce or eliminate this link between alcohol and violence have the potential to become effective violence prevention policies. Four studies on the relationship between alcohol and violence are summarized, including one in which a natural alcohol policy experiment is evaluated. Taken together, these studies provide substantial empirical evidence that alcohol policy can be an effective crime prevention tool.

  19. Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perspectives on Evidence-Based Alcohol Consumption Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, David F., III

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students can lead to negative consequences for those consuming alcohol as well as for their classmates. The 2002 report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force on College Drinking described a "three-in-one" evidence-based approach for alcohol consumption reduction…

  20. Differences in the peripheral levels of beta-endorphin in response to alcohol and stress as a function of alcohol dependence and family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xing; Thavundayil, Joseph; Gianoulakis, Christina

    2005-11-01

    Evidence indicates that both genetic and environmental factors, such as stress, may play an important role for the development of alcoholism, while beta-endorphin may be implicated in the control of alcohol consumption. The objective of the present studies was to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the response of the pituitary beta-endorphin system to stress as a function of family history of alcoholism and alcohol dependence. The response of the pituitary beta-endorphin to a placebo or an alcohol (0.50 g ethanol/kg) drink and to a stress task performed 30 min following ingestion of either the placebo or the alcohol drink was measured in social and heavy drinkers with [high risk (HR)] and without [low risk (LR)] a family history of alcoholism. Thus, each subject participated in 4 experimental sessions given on different days in a randomized order. Four groups of subjects were investigated: 1) low risk nonalcoholics (LRNA); 2) high risk nonalcoholics (HRNA), 3) low risk alcoholics (LRA); and 4) high risk alcoholics (HRA). Plasma beta-endorphin was estimated prior to and for 3.5 hr post-stress. Changes in the concentration of plasma beta-endorphin following ingestion of either the placebo or alcohol drink without performance of the stress task served as controls to compare the stress-induced changes. Basal plasma beta-endorphin levels were higher in LRNA than LRA, HRNA and HRA participants, while basal plasma beta-endorphin levels were higher in LRA than those in HRNA and HRA participants. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the plasma beta-endorphin levels between HRNA and HRA participants. Stress, induced a significant increase in plasma beta-endorphin concentration in all four groups of participants. However, the stress-induced increase in plasma beta-endorphin levels was more pronounced in LRNA than HRNA, LRA and HRA participants. Thus, alcohol dependence decreased the basal plasma beta-endorphin levels in LR only, as well as the

  1. Replication of genome wide association studies of alcohol dependence: support for association with variation in ADH1C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Biernacka

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with complex traits. Although these studies frequently fail to identify statistically significant associations, the top association signals from GWAS may be enriched for true associations. We therefore investigated the association of alcohol dependence with 43 SNPs selected from association signals in the first two published GWAS of alcoholism. Our analysis of 808 alcohol-dependent cases and 1,248 controls provided evidence of association of alcohol dependence with SNP rs1614972 in the ADH1C gene (unadjusted p = 0.0017. Because the GWAS study that originally reported association of alcohol dependence with this SNP [1] included only men, we also performed analyses in sex-specific strata. The results suggest that this SNP has a similar effect in both sexes (men: OR (95%CI = 0.80 (0.66, 0.95; women: OR (95%CI = 0.83 (0.66, 1.03. We also observed marginal evidence of association of the rs1614972 minor allele with lower alcohol consumption in the non-alcoholic controls (p = 0.081, and independently in the alcohol-dependent cases (p = 0.046. Despite a number of potential differences between the samples investigated by the prior GWAS and the current study, data presented here provide additional support for the association of SNP rs1614972 in ADH1C with alcohol dependence and extend this finding by demonstrating association with consumption levels in both non-alcoholic and alcohol-dependent populations. Further studies should investigate the association of other polymorphisms in this gene with alcohol dependence and related alcohol-use phenotypes.

  2. Links of gut microbiota composition with alcohol dependence syndrome and alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinkina, Veronika B; Tyakht, Alexander V; Odintsova, Vera Y; Yarygin, Konstantin S; Kovarsky, Boris A; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Popenko, Anna S; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Taraskina, Anastasiya Y; Nasyrova, Regina F; Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Shalikiani, Nino V; Bakulin, Igor G; Shcherbakov, Petr L; Skorodumova, Lyubov O; Larin, Andrei K; Kostryukova, Elena S; Abdulkhakov, Rustam A; Abdulkhakov, Sayar R; Malanin, Sergey Y; Ismagilova, Ruzilya K; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ilina, Elena N; Govorun, Vadim M

    2017-10-17

    Alcohol abuse has deleterious effects on human health by disrupting the functions of many organs and systems. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver diseases, with its composition manifesting expressed dysbiosis in patients suffering from alcoholic dependence. Due to its inherent plasticity, gut microbiota is an important target for prevention and treatment of these diseases. Identification of the impact of alcohol abuse with associated psychiatric symptoms on the gut community structure is confounded by the liver dysfunction. In order to differentiate the effects of these two factors, we conducted a comparative "shotgun" metagenomic survey of 99 patients with the alcohol dependence syndrome represented by two cohorts-with and without liver cirrhosis. The taxonomic and functional composition of the gut microbiota was subjected to a multifactor analysis including comparison with the external control group. Alcoholic dependence and liver cirrhosis were associated with profound shifts in gut community structures and metabolic potential across the patients. The specific effects on species-level community composition were remarkably different between cohorts with and without liver cirrhosis. In both cases, the commensal microbiota was found to be depleted. Alcoholic dependence was inversely associated with the levels of butyrate-producing species from the Clostridiales order, while the cirrhosis-with multiple members of the Bacteroidales order. The opportunist pathogens linked to alcoholic dependence included pro-inflammatory Enterobacteriaceae, while the hallmarks of cirrhosis included an increase of oral microbes in the gut and more frequent occurrence of abnormal community structures. Interestingly, each of the two factors was associated with the expressed enrichment in many Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-but the exact set of the species was different between alcoholic dependence and liver cirrhosis. At the level of

  3. Clinical experience of baclofen in alcohol dependence: A chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozatkar, Abhijit R; Kapoor, Abhishek; Sidana, Ajeet; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Craving is recognized as a formidable barrier in the management of patients with alcohol dependence. Among pharmacological agents that have been used in experimental studies for reduction in craving, baclofen appears to have a significant advantage over other agents. The study is retrospective chart review of patients ( n = 113) who have been treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence in a tertiary hospital of North India. Baseline assessments included sociodemography, motivation, quantity-frequency of alcohol use, and other alcohol-related clinical parameters. Weekly assessments, for a period of 4 weeks, were extracted from records which included dose of baclofen, craving intensity, and alcohol consumption. The study sample was predominantly male, mean age of 41.49 (±9.75) years, most having a family history of substance use (70.97%), and many reporting binge use pattern in last year (49.46%). Baseline assessment revealed 48.7% of the sample was in precontemplation phase for alcohol use and 70% reported severe and persistent craving. This persistent craving was reported by only 15% of the sample by the end of 4 weeks treatment with baclofen (20-40 mg/day). Thirty-four percent of patients reported continued problematic use of alcohol by the end of 4 weeks. Our clinical experience suggests that baclofen reduces craving and alcohol consumption including in those with poor motivation. The drug causes few side effects and does not add to the intoxication effect of alcohol. Considering that baclofen is safe in those with liver cirrhosis and reduces withdrawal symptoms due to alcohol, a controlled trial comparing it with standard treatment is required.

  4. Clinical experience of baclofen in alcohol dependence: A chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit R Rozatkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Craving is recognized as a formidable barrier in the management of patients with alcohol dependence. Among pharmacological agents that have been used in experimental studies for reduction in craving, baclofen appears to have a significant advantage over other agents. Methodology: The study is retrospective chart review of patients (n = 113 who have been treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence in a tertiary hospital of North India. Baseline assessments included sociodemography, motivation, quantity-frequency of alcohol use, and other alcohol-related clinical parameters. Weekly assessments, for a period of 4 weeks, were extracted from records which included dose of baclofen, craving intensity, and alcohol consumption. Results: The study sample was predominantly male, mean age of 41.49 (±9.75 years, most having a family history of substance use (70.97%, and many reporting binge use pattern in last year (49.46%. Baseline assessment revealed 48.7% of the sample was in precontemplation phase for alcohol use and 70% reported severe and persistent craving. This persistent craving was reported by only 15% of the sample by the end of 4 weeks treatment with baclofen (20–40 mg/day. Thirty-four percent of patients reported continued problematic use of alcohol by the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our clinical experience suggests that baclofen reduces craving and alcohol consumption including in those with poor motivation. The drug causes few side effects and does not add to the intoxication effect of alcohol. Considering that baclofen is safe in those with liver cirrhosis and reduces withdrawal symptoms due to alcohol, a controlled trial comparing it with standard treatment is required.

  5. Positive Selection on Loci Associated with Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

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    Brooke Sadler

    Full Text Available Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima's D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS to test for evidence of natural selection. Our results provide evidence for strong selection in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 8, previously found to be significantly associated with both nicotine and cocaine dependence, as well as evidence selection acting on the region containing the CHRNA5 nicotinic receptor gene on chromosome 15, that is genome wide significant for risk for nicotine dependence. To examine the possibility that this selection is related to memory and learning, we utilized genetic data from the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA to test variants within these regions with three tests of memory and learning, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS Block Design, WAIS Digit Symbol and WAIS Information tests. Of the 17 SNPs genotyped in COGA in this region, we find one significantly associated with WAIS digit symbol test results. This test captures aspects of reaction time and memory, suggesting that a phenotype relating to memory and learning may have been the driving force behind selection at these loci. This study could begin to explain why these seemingly deleterious SNPs are present at their current frequencies.

  6. Variation in gastric alcohol dehydrogenase and the risk of alcohol dependence

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    Paulina Całka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is both a medical and socioeconomic problem. The disease is multifactorial, i.e. its development is attributable to gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Multi-centre studies investigating the genetic background of alcoholism stress the role of genes encoding enzymes of the ethanol decomposition pathway in the human body, particularly alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, in the development of alcohol dependence. Among five classes of alcohol dehydrogenases, class I and IV isoenzymes have been found to be associated with alcohol dependence. Class IV is of particular interest due to its occurrence in the upper gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the stomach. No activity of the enzyme has been demonstrated in the liver. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the gene encoding ADH class IV (ADH7 affects its ethanol-oxidizing activity in the gastric lumen, thereby influencing the first-pass metabolism (FPM of the substance. The findings published by various research centres have demonstrated that specific SNP changes in the ADH7 gene are of different significance for the risk of alcohol dependence according to the population studied.

  7. When Habits Are Dangerous: Alcohol Expectancies and Habitual Decision Making Predict Relapse in Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebold, Miriam; Nebe, Stephan; Garbusow, Maria; Guggenmos, Matthias; Schad, Daniel J; Beck, Anne; Kuitunen-Paul, Soeren; Sommer, Christian; Frank, Robin; Neu, Peter; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Rapp, Michael A; Smolka, Michael N; Huys, Quentin J M; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Addiction is supposedly characterized by a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision making, thus facilitating automatic drug intake. The two-step task allows distinguishing between these mechanisms by computationally modeling goal-directed and habitual behavior as model-based and model-free control. In addicted patients, decision making may also strongly depend upon drug-associated expectations. Therefore, we investigated model-based versus model-free decision making and its neural correlates as well as alcohol expectancies in alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls and assessed treatment outcome in patients. Ninety detoxified, medication-free, alcohol-dependent patients and 96 age- and gender-matched control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the two-step task. Alcohol expectancies were measured with the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire. Over a follow-up period of 48 weeks, 37 patients remained abstinent and 53 patients relapsed as indicated by the Alcohol Timeline Followback method. Patients who relapsed displayed reduced medial prefrontal cortex activation during model-based decision making. Furthermore, high alcohol expectancies were associated with low model-based control in relapsers, while the opposite was observed in abstainers and healthy control subjects. However, reduced model-based control per se was not associated with subsequent relapse. These findings suggest that poor treatment outcome in alcohol dependence does not simply result from a shift from model-based to model-free control but is instead dependent on the interaction between high drug expectancies and low model-based decision making. Reduced model-based medial prefrontal cortex signatures in those who relapse point to a neural correlate of relapse risk. These observations suggest that therapeutic interventions should target subjective alcohol expectancies. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. CO(2) hypersensitivity in recently abstinent alcohol dependent individuals:; A possible mechanism underlying the high risk for anxiety disorder among alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassovsky, Yuri; Hurliman, Elisabeth; Abrams, Kenneth; Kushner, Matt G

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol, administered acutely, is known to cause CO(2) hyposensitivity. CO(2) hypersensitivity associated with anxiogenic hyperventilation (HV) could reasonably be expected to emerge as an opponent process upon withdrawal from chronic alcohol use. To test this hypothesis, we applied two well-known methods to quantify CO(2) sensitivity in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals and never alcohol-disordered individuals who are social drinkers. We found that the alcoholic group exhibited significantly greater CO(2) sensitivity than did controls in response to both challenges. Indirect evidence of chronic HV was also obtained. These findings implicate the effect of chronic alcohol use on CNS-based CO(2) sensitivity in heightening the vulnerability to disturbing anxiety symptoms and syndromes exhibited by alcoholic individuals. Future work must verify that pathological drinking actually causes the dysregulated respiratory responding observed in this study as is inferred in our conclusions.

  9. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  10. Psychosocial findings in alcohol-dependent patients before and after three months of total alcohol abstinence

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    Anna Ferrulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs may be associated with several psychological and affective disorders. It is controversial, however, if these symptoms are a cause or rather a consequence of alcohol dependence. There are few data testing simultaneously psychosocial and affective disorders before and after a period of alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to perform multiple psychometric evaluations in alcohol-dependent patients before and after 12 weeks of abstinence. Twenty-five alcohol-dependent patients were included in the study. The following psychometric tests were administered at baseline (T0 and after 12 weeks (T1: Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Social Behaviour Scale (SBS, Sheehan Disability Scale (DISS, Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. At T1, 16 (64% patients were abstinent, 5 (20% patients dropped out and 4 (16% patients relapsed. Compared to T0, patients totally abstinent at T1 showed a significant reduction of the scores related to BPRS, BPRS-E and its subscales (except BPRS 5, ASI 1, ASI 2, ASI 3, ASI 6, ASI 7, BSM, AQ, DISS 1, DISS 2, DISS 3 (p<0.05. No significant changes in ASI 4, ASI 5, DISS 4 and DISS 5, BPRS 5 scores were found at T1 compared to T0. The present study indicates that total alcohol abstinence improves psychometric features, such as alcohol addiction severity, psychiatric rating, social behaviour, aggressiveness, and disability. Larger controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Sub-populations of alcohol-dependent patients: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, A J; Koechling, U M; Voltaire-Carlsson, A; Borg, S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the processes underlying relapse to drinking using objective biological validation of self-reported recent alcohol consumption, using the ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HTOL/5-HIAA), a new biological marker to detect single episodes of drinking, in a sample of 38 male alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-III-R) who were assessed prospectively in terms of their clinical symptomatology over a 6-month treatment period. Results showed that nearly all patients obtained positive 5-HTOL/5-HIAA samples during the course of treatment. However, upon closer inspection, results revealed a bimodal distribution for alcohol intake with high and low frequency of consumption episodes. Results showed that high frequency consumers obtained higher ratings of clinical symptoms as measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and by the St Göran's Semi-structured Interview (SGSI) compared to low frequency alcohol consumers on symptoms of inner tension, lack of initiative, risk of relapse (as rated by therapists and as rated by patients themselves), dysphoria, negative craving for alcohol, and positive craving for alcohol. The present results provided evidence for the existence of two sub-populations of alcoholics, those who have frequent lapses and those who have low frequency of sporadic lapses. Further, these two sub-populations were shown to differ with respect to overall psychological functioning, and craving for alcohol. In conclusion, the present findings have important treatment implications in that reliable identification of patients' consumption patterns using biological markers would allow for the design of individually tailored treatment needs.

  12. Improving personality/character traits in individuals with alcohol dependence: the influence of mindfulness-oriented meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The study of personality is critical to enhance current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of alcohol dependence. Recent evidence shows that mindfulness-oriented meditation positively influences healthy individuals' character. Here, it was assessed whether 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation promotes similar changes in a group of alcohol-dependent individuals. A control group with alcohol dependence was also tested. Mindfulness-oriented meditation participants showed an increase in the character scores of the temperament and character inventory together with reduced risks of relapse. These longitudinal data highlight the importance of assessing personality in alcohol-dependent individuals and support the utility of therapeutic interventions for alcohol dependence aimed at enhancing individuals' character.

  13. [Characteristics of the formation, course and treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Petrosian, T R; Kuznetsov, A G; Gurevich, G L; Shuvalov, S A

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of clinical features of the development and course of alcohol dependence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in comparison with alcohol-dependent patients without PTSD. The highly progressive course, continuous alcohol consumption, high alcohol tolerance, rapidly emerged altered forms of alcohol intoxication, alcohol amnesias, alcohol withdrawal with the prevalence of psychopathological component, and more pronounced social and somatic consequences of alcohol abuse were characteristic of the PTSD group. At the same time, the alcohol-dependent patients with PTSD had the best outcome to the end of 12-month treatment with intramuscular injections of vivitrol.

  14. Modification of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies in alcohol-dependent patients with mild or major neurocognitive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijen, A.; Rinck, M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Becker, E.S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced

  15. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Peter; von Gleissenthall, Gabriele; Gasser, Rudolf W; Moncayo, Roy; Giesinger, Johannes M; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2016-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a parameter of increasing interest in the search for pathophysiological mechanisms of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). It has been shown to be increased in alcohol-dependent subjects. In our study, we wanted to examine whether changes in OPG and receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) levels during an 8-week abstinence period in alcohol-dependent patients treated in an alcohol rehabilitation clinic would occur and whether alcohol-related variables, smoking, status, or physical activity prior to the study served as an influence on BMD and on OPG/RANKL levels. Forty-three patients, who were abstinent not longer than a week, were included in the study. OPG and RANKL as well as other markers of bone metabolism were measured at baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment, BMD was measured once. OPG levels decreased significantly, while osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, increased significantly. RANKL as well as RANKL/OPG ratio, Serum CrossLaps, and all examined hormones showed no significant changes over time. Inflammatory parameters showed a significant reduction after 8 weeks. We detected no influence of potentially confounding variables of alcohol dependency on the course of OPG or other laboratory values. Our results could point to the well-known risk for reduced BMD in these patients being reversible with abstinence through an excess of bone formation. We also confirmed earlier findings that inflammatory processes play a role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced disturbances in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Donadon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110, and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110. The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV. AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008 and tobacco abuse (P=0.007, whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02. The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder.

  17. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder.

  18. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

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    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  19. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...

  20. Alcohol impairment of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements: impact of risk factors for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C

    2010-09-01

    While persons at risk for alcohol dependence by virtue of heavy drinking patterns or family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders have exhibited differential alcohol responses on a variety of measures, few studies have examined alcohol's effects on eye movements in these subgroups. The purpose of this study was to (1) conduct a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of alcohol's effects on eye movements and (2) examine the impact of these risk factors on oculomotor response to alcohol. A within-subject, double-blind laboratory study was conducted in N = 138 heavy (HD; n = 78) and light social drinkers (LD; n = 60) with self-reported positive (FH+) or negative (FH-) family history. Subjects participated in three laboratory sessions in which they consumed a beverage containing a high (0.8 g/kg) or low (0.4 g/kg) dose of alcohol or placebo. Smooth pursuit, pro-saccadic, and anti-saccadic eye movements were recorded before and at two intervals after alcohol consumption. Alcohol significantly impaired smooth pursuit gain and pro- and anti-saccade latency, velocity, and accuracy in a dose and time specific matter. HD and LD showed similar impairment on smooth pursuit gain and anti-saccade measures, but HD were less impaired in pro-saccade latency, velocity, and accuracy. FH+ and FH- subjects were equally impaired in nearly all pro- and anti-saccade measures, but FH+ were less impaired in smooth pursuit gain. In sum, alcohol produced systematic impairment on oculomotor functioning, even at a non-intoxicating dose. Furthermore, high- and low-risk drinkers may be vulnerable to select performance deficits relative to eye movement task.

  1. Linkage analysis of alcohol dependence symptoms in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Narelle K; Agrawal, Arpana; Whitfield, John B; Morley, Katherine I; Gordon, Scott D; Lind, Penelope A; Pergadia, Michele L; Montgomery, Grant W; Madden, Pamela A F; Todd, Richard D; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2010-01-01

    We have previously identified suggestive linkage for alcohol consumption in a community-based sample of Australian adults. In this companion paper, we explore the strength of genetic linkage signals for alcohol dependence symptoms. An alcohol dependence symptom score, based on DSM-IIIR and DSM-IV criteria, was examined. Twins and their nontwin siblings (1,654 males, 2,518 females), aged 21 to 81 years, were interviewed, with 803 individuals interviewed on 2 occasions, approximately 10 years apart. Linkage analyses were conducted on datasets compiled to maximize data collected at either the younger or the older age. In addition, linkage was compared between full samples and truncated samples that excluded the lightest drinkers (approximately 10% of the sample). Suggestive peaks on chromosome 5p (LODs >2.2) were found in a region previously identified in alcohol linkage studies using clinical populations. Linkage signal strength was found to vary between full and truncated samples and when samples differed only on the collection age for a sample subset. The results support the finding that large community samples can be informative in the study of alcohol-related traits.

  2. MORTALITY FROM SUICIDE AND ALCOHOLISM, DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Radkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, the world takes place every year approximately 500 000 suicides and suicide attempts of 7 million. Since 1994, Russia ranks 2nd in the world after Lithuania, in the level of suicides, and is among the countries with the linear dependence of frequency of suicides on the level of alcohol consumption.Purpose. Install a quantitative connection between the frequency of suicide with alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism in the world.Material and method. For studies we used the mortality coefficient (MK from suicide and alcohol abuse (number of people/100 thousand of age standardized the population in 159 countries according to the WHO in 2004, the average daily consumption levels of alcoholic beverages: spirits, wine and beer (g/person/day according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. For data analysis we used correlation and regression methods.Results. We found significant positive correlation of mortality coefficient (MK from suicide for men and women with consumption of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine and beer and mortality from alcoholism. The gender differences are revealed. Included in the regression model independent variables (levels of alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism explain 66% and 52% of the variability in the frequency of suicides of men and women (dependent variables. A complete rejection of the consumption of alcohol reduces the MK from suicide of men in the world at 39.5 percent, in Russia — at 76.5%; women — 37.9%, in Russia — by 54.3%. According to the regression analysis the average daily level of consumption of strong alcohol in the world is 10.4 g (3.8 kg per year for men, in Russia — 91.8 g (of 33.5 kg per year. The increase in the consumption of strong alcohol to 3 g per day (1 kg per year increases the MK from suicide in men up to 10.8% (1.6 people in the world, in Russia — 2.4% (1.6 people. The increase in the MK of alcoholism of men

  3. Genetic Contribution to Alcohol Dependence: Investigation of a Heterogeneous German Sample of Individuals with Alcohol Dependence, Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis, and Alcohol-Related Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Treutlein

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i AD; (ii chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP; and (iii alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC. Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10−6; pcorrected = 0.020. This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.

  4. Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation, parental history of alcohol problems, and offspring lifetime alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Lizardi, Dana; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether the experiences of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems affected the likelihood of offspring DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence, controlling for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative United States survey of 43,093 civilian non-institutionalized participants aged 18 and older, interviewed in person. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the main and interaction effects of childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental history of alcohol problems were significantly related to offspring lifetime alcohol dependence, after adjusting for parental history of drug, depression, and antisocial behavior problems. Experiencing parental divorce/separation during childhood, even in the absence of parental history of alcohol problems, remained a significant predictor of lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing both childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation and parental alcohol problems had a significantly stronger impact on the risk for DSM-IV alcohol dependence than the risk incurred by either parental risk factor alone. Further research is needed to better identify the factors that increase the risk for lifetime alcohol dependence among those who experience childhood or adolescent parental divorce/separation.

  5. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  7. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug includes...

  8. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  9. Gender Differences in Interpersonal Problems of Alcohol-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Walter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  10. Benzodiazepine maintenance for alcohol dependence: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing syndrome. Benzodiazepines remain as the mainstay for detoxification, taking care of the acute withdrawal syndrome. There is fear of dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines on prolonged use. Here, we selectively interviewed ten cases who were on longer duration of benzodiazepines to elicit their potential perceived benefits, attitudes, and any adverse effect. Three patients experienced adverse effects. None of them had features of benzodiazepine dependence. We opine that in select cases, benzodiazepine use should persist beyond detox period, and its benefits continue beyond the acute withdrawal phase while monitoring their safety/adverse effects.

  11. Enhanced labelling on alcoholic drinks: reviewing the evidence to guide alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan E; Breda, Joao; Møller, Lars; Alfonso-Sanchez, Jose L; Gorgojo, Lydia

    2013-12-01

    Consumer and public health organizations have called for better labelling on alcoholic drinks. However, there is a lack of consensus about the best elements to include. This review summarizes alcohol labelling policy worldwide and examines available evidence to support enhanced labelling. A literature review was carried out in June-July 2012 on Scopus using the key word 'alcohol' combined with 'allergens', 'labels', 'nutrition information', 'ingredients', 'consumer information' and/or 'warning'. Articles discussing advertising and promotion of alcohol were excluded. A search through Google and the System for Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) identified additional sources on alcohol labelling policies, mainly from governmental and organizational websites. Five elements were identified as potentially useful to consumers: (i) a list of ingredients, (ii) nutritional information, (iii) serving size and servings per container, (iv) a definition of 'moderate' intake and (v) a health warning. Alcohol labelling policy with regard to these aspects is quite rudimentary in most countries, with few requiring a list of ingredients or health warnings, and none requiring basic nutritional information. Only one country (Australia) requires serving size and servings per container to be displayed. Our study suggests that there are both potential advantages and disadvantages to providing consumers with more information about alcohol products. Current evidence seems to support prompt inclusion of a list of ingredients, nutritional information (usually only kcal) and health warnings on labels. Standard drink and serving size is useful only when combined with other health education efforts. A definition of 'moderate intake' and recommended drinking guidelines are best suited to other contexts.

  12. COMORBIDITY DIAGNOSES IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT PATIENTS: DIFFERENCES AND DILEMMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rus-Makovec

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the presented study we followed the diagnostic procedures of comorbidity in alcohol dependent patients of in-patient treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of dual/triple diagnoses with alcohol dependent patients and to incorporate the diagnostic procedures in rutine work and in treatment planning.Material and methods. We were following the basic parameters of treatment of 469 patients (366 male, 102 female from July 1999 to July 2001. The diagnostic criteria according to ICD-10 were applied after at least four weeks of sobriety.Results. The most frequent additional diagnoses found were nicotine dependency, depressive and personal disorders. Main gender differences were found in diagnosis of depressive disorders and in dependency or abuse of prescripted drugs. Comparison of our results with literature data showed the greatest differences in diagnoses of cognitive, depressive, anxious data and dependency of other psychoactive substances.Conclusions. The comparison between the two time periods shows that stuff sensibility to diagnostic procedures of comorbidity states influences the frequency of diagnostic categories. The literature data review leads to impression of inconsistent diagnosing regarding the context and phylosophy of treatment context, stuff education and patient population.

  13. Implementing an evidence-based detoxification protocol for alcoholism in a residential addictions treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundio, Albert

    2013-09-01

    Chemical dependency, commonly known as substance abuse and use disorders, continues to plague residents of the United States. Because treatment has expanded beyond the walls of the acute care hospital, advanced practice nurses play a pivotal role in caring for clients addicted to various substances. This article describes how an advanced practice nurse in collaboration with the medical director and a director of nursing at a residential treatment center in southern New Jersey oversaw the development of an evidence-based detoxification treatment protocol for alcohol dependency, emphasizing the critical role of nurses in assuring that clinical practice is rooted in current evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic moderators and psychiatric mediators of the link between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E; Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A

    2011-06-01

    This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that might affect treatment planning. A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 20 CFR 404.736 - Evidence of a child's dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.736 Evidence of a child's dependency. (a) When evidence of a child's dependency is needed. If you apply for child's... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a child's dependency. 404.736...

  16. A case-comparison study of executive functions in alcohol-dependent adults with maternal history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottencin, Olivier; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Karila, Laurent; Mezerette, Caroline; Danel, Thierry

    2009-04-01

    As executive dysfunctions frequently accompany alcohol dependence, we suggest that reports of executive dysfunction in alcoholics are actually due, in some case to a maternal history of alcohol misuse (MHA+). A history of maternal alcohol dependence increases the risk for prenatal alcohol exposure to unborn children. These exposures likely contribute to executive dysfunction in adult alcoholics. To assess this problem, we propose a case-comparison study of alcohol-dependent subjects with and without a MHA. Ten alcohol-dependent subjects, with a maternal history of alcoholism (MHA) and paternal history of alcoholism (PHA), were matched with 10 alcohol-dependent people with only a paternal history of alcoholism (PHA). Executive functions (cancellation, Stroop, and trail-making A and B tests) and the presence of a history of three mental disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, violent behavior while intoxicated, and suicidal behavior) were evaluated in both populations. Alcohol-dependent subjects with MHA showed a significant alteration in executive functions and significantly more disorders related to these functions than PHA subjects. The major measures of executive functioning deficit are duration on task accomplishment in all tests. Rates of ADHD and suicidality were found to be higher in MHA patients compared to the controls. A history of MHA, because of the high risk of PAE (in spite of the potential confounding factors such as environment) must be scrupulously documented when evaluating mental and cognitive disorders in a general population of alcoholics to ensure a better identification of these disorders. It would be helpful to replicate the study with more subjects.

  17. Atraumatic Pantalar Avascular Necrosis in a Patient With Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callachand, Fayaz; Milligan, David; Wilson, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 new cases of avascular necrosis are diagnosed each year. We present an unusual case of atraumatic avascular necrosis with widespread hindfoot and midfoot involvement. A 62-year-old female with a history of alcohol dependence and smoking, who had previously been treated for avascular necrosis of the knee, presented with right-sided foot pain and difficulty weightbearing. Imaging studies revealed extensive avascular necrosis of the hindfoot and midfoot, which precluded simple surgical intervention. The patient was followed up for 18 months. In the last 8 months of the 18-month period, the patient managed her symptoms using an ankle-foot orthosis. A diagnosis of avascular necrosis should be considered in patients with atraumatic foot and ankle pain, especially in the presence of risk factors such as alcohol excess and smoking. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  19. Comparison of alcohol-dependent patients at a gastroenterological and a psychiatric ward according to the Lesch alcoholism typology: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssoki, Benjamin; Steindl-Munda, Petra; Ferenci, Peter; Walter, Henriette; Höfer, Peter; Blüml, Victor; Friedrich, Fabian; Kogoj, Dagmar; Lesch, Otto M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the clinical and biological status of alcohol-dependent patients admitted to a psychiatric or a gastroenterological ward, assessing and comparing dimensions important for prescribing treatment for withdrawal and relapse prevention. Eighty patients, alcohol-dependent according to international classification of diseases tenth revision and diagnostic and statistical manual, text revised, version IV, admitted to the Vienna General Hospital between January 2005 and  November 2006, were examined, of whom 44 were admitted to the psychiatric ward and 36 to the gastroenterological ward. Dimensions of alcohol dependence were assessed using a computerized structured interview, the Lesch alcoholism typology (LAT). Biological markers and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score defined the severity of alcohol-related physical disturbances. As might be expected, gastroenterological patients had more advanced physical diseases than psychiatric patients, and affective disorders and suicidal tendencies were significantly commoner among the psychiatric patients. Thus, LAT Type II patients were overrepresented at the gastroenterological ward and LAT Type III patients at the psychiatric ward. The severity of somatic diseases and psychiatric disorders as well as the distribution of the four types according to Lesch differ between alcohol-dependent patients admitted to a psychiatric ward or a gastroenterological ward. Regarding the positive long-term outcome, different evidence-based medical treatment approaches for withdrawal and relapse prevention are needed for these patients.

  20. Wine, alcohol and atherosclerosis: clinical evidences and mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, P.L. da; Coimbra, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which may cause obstructions of the coronary, cerebral and peripheral arteries. It is typically multifactorial, most often dependent on risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, sedentarism, and obesity. It is the single main cause of death in most developed countries due to myocardial infarction, angina, sudden death, and heart failure. Several epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol intake, esp...

  1. Structured outpatient treatment of alcohol vs. drug dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washton, A M

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes the rationale, indications, design, and use of a structured outpatient treatment approach as an effective alternative to residential treatment for alcohol and drug dependencies. An increasing demand for outpatient treatment services is being created by a combination of clinical and economic factors, including the influx of employed drug abusers who do not need or desire residential care and mounting financial pressures to contain health care costs. To be effective as a primary treatment modality, outpatient programs must be highly structured and intensive and able to deal with the full spectrum of alcohol and drug addictions. Perpetuating the historical separation between alcoholism and drug abuse treatment programs is unnecessary and counterproductive, although certain modifications in treatment approaches are needed to accommodate the distinctive characteristics of particular classes of drugs and the people who use them. The "outpatient rehab," a treatment model that approximates the intensity of inpatient treatment on an outpatient basis, may help to maximize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of outpatient treatment as a viable alternative to residential care. Initial treatment results with this model are encouraging.

  2. Nicotine and alcohol dependence in patients with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmeier, Martin D; Peters, Karsten; Kordon, Andreas; Seifert, Jürgen; Wildt, Bert Te; Wiese, Birgitt; Ziegenbein, Marc; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have shown that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) represents a significant risk factor for the onset and development of an addiction. Thirty-five per cent of adult ADHD patients are known to be addicted to alcohol. Many ADHD patients also have an increased nicotine consumption, which typically, leads to an improvement of attention, ability to concentrate and control of impulses. There may be pathophysiological connections here. On the other hand, it can also be assumed that there is a high prevalence of addicted patients with undiagnosed ADHD. Ninety-one adult alcohol-dependent patients were examined for ADHD in this study, using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom check-list for ADHD and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS, Long Version). The patients were divided into diagnostic sub-groups according to DSM-IV (inattentive type, impulsive type, combined type). Nicotine consumption was investigated using the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and then graded as 'minimal', 'average' or 'high' nicotine dependence. There were 20.9% (WURS-k) or 23.1% (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) of the patients addicted to alcohol, who showed evidence of ADHD in childhood. With the help of CAARS, it could be demonstrated that 33.3% of the patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, according to DSM-IV, had persisting ADHD in adulthood. The FTND showed a statistically significant difference in nicotine dependence between alcohol-dependent patients with and without ADHD in childhood. Patients numbering 76.2% with ADHD, demonstrated an 'average to high' level of nicotine dependence compared to 45.7% of those patients without ADHD. Furthermore, the number of patients not addicted to nicotine (19%) was significantly lower than among those without ADHD (36.6%) (P = 0.029). The results of this investigation reveal that a large number of ADHD patients suffer

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Clinical management methods for out-patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulze Isabelle

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France outpatient centres for the care of alcoholics are healthcare establishments providing medical, psychological and social support. Although they meet the practical needs of these patients, their degree of use in each of these domains and the respective mobilisation of different skills by the care team are not well understood. Our aim was therefore to determine in detail the management involved as a function of the severity of alcohol dependence. For this purpose, all the procedures involved were compiled in a thesaurus describing its type (psychological, medical, social, reception, its scheduled or unscheduled nature, its method (face-to-face, telephone, letter and its duration. The severity of dependence was evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI. Results 45 patients were included and followed-up during 291 ± 114 days. The mean initial ASI scores (± SD were: medical (M = 0.39 ± 0.3, working-income (ER = 0.5 ± 0.3, alcohol (A = 0.51 ± 0.2, illicit drugs (D = 0.07 ± 0.08, legal (L = 0.06 ± 0.13, familial and social environment (FS = 0.34 ± 0.26, psychological (P = 0.39 ± 0.22. The total number of procedures was 1341 (29.8 per patient corresponding to 754.4 hours (16.7 per patient. The intensity of management peaked during the first month of treatment, and then declined rapidly; the maximum incidence of abstinence was observed during the 3rd month of management. Interviews with patients, group therapy and staff meetings represented 68.7%, 9.9% and 13.9% of all procedures, respectively. In patients with severe dependence, as compared to moderate, management was twice as intense in the psychological and social domains, but not in the medical domain. The ASI questionnaire was completed a second time by 24 patients, after an average of 3.2 months. The improvement was significant in the M, A, D and P domains only. Conclusion This study provided an overview of the methods employed in managing a sample of

  5. Loss of brain graph network efficiency in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Veltman, Dick J; Van den Brink, Wim; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Douw, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is characterized by corticostriatal impairments in individual brain areas such as the striatum. As yet however, complex brain network topology in AD and its association with disease progression are unknown. We applied graph theory to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to examine weighted global efficiency and local (clustering coefficient, degree and eigenvector centrality) network topology and the functional role of the striatum in 24 AD patients compared with 20 matched healthy controls (HCs), and their association with dependence characteristics. Graph analyses were performed based on Pearson's correlations between RS-fMRI time series, while correcting for age, gender and head motion. We found no significant group differences between AD patients and HCs in network topology. Notably, within the patient group, but not in HCs, the whole-brain network showed reduced average cluster coefficient with more severe alcohol use, whereas longer AD duration within the patient group was associated with a global decrease in efficiency, degree and clustering coefficient. Additionally, within four a-priori chosen bilateral striatal nodes, alcohol use severity was associated with lower clustering coefficient in the left caudate. Longer AD duration was associated with reduced clustering coefficient in caudate and putamen, and reduced degree in bilateral caudate, but with increased eigenvector centrality in left posterior putamen. Especially changes in global network topology and clustering coefficient in anterior striatum remained strikingly robust after exploratory variations in network weight. Our results show adverse effects of AD on overall network integration and possibly on striatal efficiency, putatively contributing to the increasing behavioral impairments seen in chronically addicted patients. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. [Psychiatric disorders induced by drug dependence other than alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoyeux, M; Mourad, I; Ades, J

    2000-01-01

    Most of psychoactive substances abuse or dependence disorders are associated to another psychiatric disorders. Depression, anxiety and psychotic disorders are the more frequent comorbid disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity is induced by acute consumption of psychoactive agents, chronic consumption or withdrawal. Psychiatric disorders are more frequent when patient are assessed immediately after the withdrawal. Main biological factors implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders associated to dependence disorders are: increase in norepinephrine activity, during withdrawal, activation of locus coeruleus, kinding induced by repeated withdrawals. Psychotic disorders in opiate dependent patients can be induced by withdrawals. These psychotic disorders are more often described after methadone discontinuation. Consumption of cocaine can provocate paranoid delusions. Phenylcyclidine provocates sensorial distortion or delusive disorders resembling schizophrenia. Flash backs, following withdrawal realized brief and transient psychotic disorders. They can occur up to one year after the end of the intoxication. The occurrence of depression in dependent patients is frequent. Depressed patients are at risk for suicide. Retrospective studies showed that near of 40% of the subjects died from suicide have presented alcohol or drug abuse or dependence. Withdrawal from opiates provocates depression. Clinical picture included apathy, blunting of the affects, sadness and loss of interest. Cocaine consumption provocates manic-like disinhibition at the beginning of the intoxication. Long term consumption and withdrawal increase the risk of depression.

  8. Treatment in hospital for alcohol-dependent patients decreases attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaudias V

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Valentin Flaudias,1,2 Georges Brousse,1,2 Ingrid De Chazeron,1,2 François Planche,2 Julien Brun,2 Pierre-Michel Llorca1,2 1Clermont Université, EA 7280 NPsy-Sydo, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 2Pôle Psychiatrie B, CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background and objectives: Previous studies in alcohol-dependent patients have shown an attentional bias (AB under related substance cues, which can lead to relapse. This AB can be evaluated by the alcohol Stroop test (AST. The AST is a modified Stroop task in which participants have to name the color of an alcohol-related word or a neutral word. AB is the response-time difference between these two types of words. The goal of the current study was to examine modification of AB during specialized hospitalization for alcohol dependence, with the suppression of a training bias that could be present in within-subject design. Methods: Individuals with alcohol-dependence disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and admitted for withdrawal in the addiction unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (test group, n = 42 and persons with no alcohol or psychiatric disorder (control group, n = 16, recruited among colleagues and friends of the staff, performed the AST. A subgroup of the test group performed the AST in admission (admission group, n = 19, and another subgroup undertook the test immediately before discharge (discharge group, n = 23. Results: Results showed an AB only for patients seen at admission (F[1,55] = 3.283, P = 0.075. Moreover, we observed that the AB in the admission group (mean = 34 ms, standard deviation [SD] = 70.06 was greater than the AB in the control group (mean = 23 ms, SD = 93.42, itself greater than the AB in the discharge group (mean = −12 ms, SD = 93.55 (t[55] = −1.71; P = 0.09. Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, the present study provides evidence for changes in the AB during alcohol-addiction treatment

  9. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  10. [The development of evidence-based psychotherapy for use in alcoholism. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, S; Mann, K

    2006-05-01

    Past decades have seen enormous advances in the development and validation of evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy for alcoholism. While psychoanalytic and early behavioral techniques were the original basis of psychotherapy in this field, evidence-based approaches are now built up on the principles of motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavior therapy. Different techniques have been developed to modify preceding and persisting conditions favoring problem behavior, e.g., training in coping/social skills and the community reinforcement approach. According to the results of the project MATCH, one of the largest treatment trials, "cognitive-behavioral intervention" combines motivational enhancement therapy, the 12-step approach, and cognitive-behavior therapy, with the aim of providing new and even more efficacious psychotherapy for alcohol dependent patients. These very promising developments are beset with huge problems, however, insofar as few of the new evidence-based treatment approaches are accepted as standard treatment in Germany, in addition to which only a fraction of all alcohol-dependent persons in the country find their way into the care system, for various reasons. Early diagnosis and facilitation of access to the various treatment options available could be a future task for general practitioners and also for company / industrial medical schemes.

  11. The Effect of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Consumption Among Individuals With Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among participants (N = 151) who were enrolled...

  12. The effects of the therapeutic workplace and heavy alcohol use on homelessness among homeless alcohol-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, phomeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol and youth mental health- The evidence base

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The My World Survey- Second Level (MWS-SL) assessed alcohol-related behaviours in 6,085 adolescents. Findings demonstrated a significant shift in the frequency, binge drinking and volume of alcohol consumed across the school year. Alcohol use in the Senior Cycle was a particular concern, with 35% outside the low risk category for alcohol behaviour. The MWS-SL found a strong relationship between alcohol use and mental health distress. Risky alcohol behaviour was associated with ...

  14. Alcohol dependence induced in rats by semivoluntary intermittent intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Macieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to assess ethyl alcohol (ETOH dependence brought about by a semivoluntary intermittent intake regimen in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g at the onset of the experiment were assigned to the following groups: 0% ETOH (N = 11, 5% ETOH (N = 20, 20% ETOH (N = 20 and 40% ETOH (N = 18. ETOH solutions were offered at the end of the day and overnight from Monday to Friday, and throughout weekends, for 90 days. The concentration of the ETOH solutions was increased in a stepwise fashion allowing the rats to get used to the taste of alcohol. Reposition of pure water was permitted during 1-h water drinking periods in the morning. Daily volume intake (± SEM averaged 25.4 ± 0.4 ml (0% ETOH, 23.8 ± 0.6 ml (5% ETOH, 17.6 ± 0.7 ml (20% ETOH and 17.5 ± 0.6 ml (40% ETOH. ETOH consumption differed significantly (P<0.05 among groups, averaging 4.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 day-1 (5% ETOH, 10.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 day-1 (20% ETOH and 26 ± 1.2 g kg-1 day-1 (40% ETOH. Furthermore, ETOH detection in plasma 10-12 h after offering the solution indicated that its consumption in the 40% ETOH group was sufficient to override its metabolism. Overt signs of ETOH dependence, such as increased thirst, hyperactivity, puffing, hair ruffling and startle responsiveness as well as reduced drowsiness, were significantly increased in the 20% and 40% ETOH groups compared to the 0% and 5% groups. Accordingly, the model described here proved to be a useful tool for the evaluation of subtle or moderate behavioral and physical consequences of long-term ETOH intake

  15. In alcohol-dependent drinkers, what does the presence of nicotine dependence tell us about psychiatric and addictive disorders comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2010-01-01

    To examine the pattern of psychiatric comorbidity associated with nicotine dependence among alcohol-dependent respondents in the general population. Drawn from a US national survey of 43,000 adults The (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions) who took part in a face-to-face interview, data were examined on the 4782 subjects with lifetime alcohol dependence, and comparisons were made between those with and those without nicotine dependence. Nicotine dependence was reported by 48% of the alcohol-dependent respondents. They reported higher lifetime rates of panic disorder, specific and social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, manic disorder, suicide attempt, antisocial personality disorder and all addictive disorders than those without nicotine dependence. After controlling for the effects of any psychiatric and addictive disorder, alcohol-dependent subjects with nicotine dependence were more than twice as likely as non-nicotine-dependent, alcohol-dependent subjects to have at least one other lifetime addiction diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval 2.07-2.68). Nicotine dependence represents a general marker of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly of addictive comorbidity. It may be used as a screening measure for psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice as well as in future trials.

  16. Neurocognitive Functioning and Treatment Outcome Following Detoxification Among Asian Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Teo, Hui Chin; Guo, Song; Wong, Kim Eng; Li, Ting-Kai

    2016-01-28

    The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in Asia is increasing and relapse among treated populations remains the norm, not the exception. The extent to which cognitive impairment influences clinical outcome remains unclear, with research dominated by studies of Caucasian populations. This study examines behavioral and self-reported cognitive functioning in detoxified alcohol-dependent (AD) patients in Singapore and its association with outcome. The cognitive performance of 30 recently-detoxified AD inpatients and 30 demographically-matched controls was compared using visuospatial memory, working memory, set-shifting, planning and reflection impulsivity tests of the CANTAB®, and self-reported dysexecutive symptoms and everyday cognitive difficulties. Patients' alcohol use and self-reported cognitive functioning were reassessed 3-months post-discharge. Compared to matched controls, AD inpatients exhibited significantly poorer fluid intelligence, visuospatial memory, working memory, set-shifting flexibility and planning/organization, but not reflection impulsivity. In support of Western studies, a significant proportion (three-quarters) were "clinically impaired" on subtests. Significant reductions were observed in alcohol units, frequency and dependency scores at follow-up, though improvements in self-reported cognitive functioning were limited to abstainers. Baseline cognitive performance did not differentiate those who had abstained from alcohol and relapsed at follow-up. Memory and executive functioning impairments were evident among Asian AD patients alongside self-reported cognitive difficulties, thus cognitively demanding psychological interventions may have limited impact during early detoxification. Future studies can build on these findings, with larger samples and measurement of moderating and mediating factors to extend our understanding of how cognitive impairment influences outcome.

  17. Using In Vitro Electrophysiology to Screen Medications: Accumbal Plasticity as an Engram of Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, R; Jeanes, Z M; Mangieri, R A; Maier, E Y; Kircher, D M; Buske, T R; Morrisett, R A

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a central component of the mesocorticolimbic reward system. Increasing evidence strongly implicates long-term synaptic neuroadaptations in glutamatergic excitatory activity of the NAc shell and/or core medium spiny neurons in response to chronic drug and alcohol exposure. Such neuroadaptations likely play a critical role in the development and expression of drug-seeking behaviors. We have observed unique cell-type-specific bidirectional changes in NAc synaptic plasticity (metaplasticity) following acute and chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. Other investigators have also previously observed similar metaplasticity in the NAc following exposure to psychostimulants, opiates, and amazingly, even following an anhedonia-inducing experience. Considering that the proteome of the postsynaptic density likely contains hundreds of biochemicals, proteins and other components and regulators, we believe that there is a large number of potential molecular sites through which accumbal metaplasticity may be involved in chronic alcohol abuse. Many of our companion laboratories are now engaged in identifying and screening medications targeting candidate genes and its products previously linked to maladaptive alcohol phenotypes. We hypothesize that if manipulation of such target genes and their products change NAc plasticity, then that observation constitutes an important validation step for the development of novel therapeutics to treat alcohol dependence. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Limited Associations of Dopamine System Genes With Alcohol Dependence and Related Traits in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Laura M.; Kalsi, Gursharan; Aliev, Fazil; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Prescott, Carol A.; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Dick, Danielle M.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 50 years of evidence from research has established that the central dopaminergic reward pathway is likely involved in alcohol dependence (AD). Additional evidence supports a role for dopamine (DA) in other disinhibitory psychopathology, which is often comorbid with AD. Family and twin studies demonstrate that a common genetic component accounts for most of the genetic variance in these traits. Thus, DA-related genes represent putative candidates for the genetic risk that underlies not only AD but also behavioral disinhibition. Many linkage and association studies have examined these relationships with inconsistent results, possibly because of low power, poor marker coverage, and/or an inappropriate correction for multiple testing. Methods We conducted an association study on the products encoded by 10 DA-related genes (DRD1-D5, SLC18A2, SLC6A3, DDC, TH, COMT) using a large, ethnically homogeneous sample with severe AD (n = 545) and screened controls (n = 509). We collected genotypes from linkage disequilibrium (LD)-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and employed a gene-based method of correction. We tested for association with AD diagnosis in cases and controls and with a variety of alcohol-related traits (including age-at-onset, initial sensitivity, tolerance, maximum daily drinks, and a withdrawal factor score), disinhibitory symptoms, and a disinhibitory factor score in cases only. A total of 135 SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate and Taqman Assays-on-Demand protocols. Results Of the 101 SNPs entered into standard analysis, 6 independent SNPs from 5 DA genes were associated with AD or a quantitative alcohol-related trait. Two SNPs across 2 genes were associated with a disinhibitory symptom count, while 1 SNP in DRD5 was positive for association with the general disinhibitory factor score. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of modest associations between a small number of DA-related genes and AD as well as a range

  19. Alcohol-dependent patients with comorbid phobic disorders: A comparison between comorbid patients, pure alcohol-dependent and pure phobic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadé, Annemiek; Marquenie, Loes A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; de Beurs, Edwin; van den Brink, Wim; van Dyck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patients with a double diagnosis of alcohol dependence and phobic disorders are a common phenomenon in both alcohol and anxiety disorder clinics. If we are to provide optimum treatment we need to know more about the clinical characteristics of this group of comorbid patients. Objective:

  20. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Perception of sleep and dreams in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxication and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinig, Jana; Foraita, Ronja; Happe, Svenja; Heinze, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate sleep quality and the subjective dream experience in alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal and abstinence compared with healthy controls. Thirty-seven patients with alcohol dependency and 35 healthy control subjects were asked to fill in several questionnaires and to give information about their subjective sleep and dream experiences. Twelve patients participated in a follow-up interview 4 weeks later. Sleep quality is impaired in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxication, and the subjective dream experience is more negatively toned compared with healthy controls. Both sleep quality and dream experience improves slightly after 4 weeks of abstinence. Patients with alcohol dependency during withdrawal and abstinence dream significantly more often about alcohol. However, none of the abstinent alcohol-dependent patients dreamed about alcohol during withdrawal. This study shows that the subjective sleep and dream quality is strongly impaired in patients with alcohol dependency. Differences in the dream experience between alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls are in accordance with the continuity hypotheses of dreaming. The hypothesis of dreaming about alcohol as a compensatory effect, however, could not be confirmed.

  2. Are the Public Health Responsibility Deal alcohol pledges likely to improve public health? An evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; Petticrew, Mark; Durand, Mary Alison; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Mays, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The English Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between industry, government and other actors in various areas including alcohol, and designed to improve public health. This paper reviews systematically the evidence underpinning four RD alcohol pledges. We conducted a systematic review of reviews of the evidence underpinning interventions proposed in four RD alcohol pledges, namely alcohol labelling, tackling underage alcohol sales, advertising and marketing alcohol, and alcohol unit reduction. In addition, we included relevant studies of interventions where these had not been covered by a recent review. We synthesized the evidence from 14 reviews published between 2002 and 2013. Overall, alcohol labelling is likely to be of limited effect on consumption: alcohol unit content labels can help consumers assess the alcohol content of drinks; however, labels promoting drinking guidelines and pregnancy warning labels are unlikely to influence drinking behaviour. Responsible drinking messages are found to be ambiguous, and industry-funded alcohol prevention campaigns can promote drinking instead of dissuading consumption. Removing advertising near schools can contribute to reducing underage drinking; however, community mobilization and law enforcement are most effective. Finally, reducing alcohol consumption is more likely to occur if there are incentives such as making lower-strength alcohol products cheaper. The most effective evidence-based strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm are not reflected consistently in the RD alcohol pledges. The evidence is clear that an alcohol control strategy should support effective interventions to make alcohol less available and more expensive. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. The links between ethnicity, cultural identity and alcohol use, abuse and dependence in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and cultural identity in alcohol use and misuse in a birth cohort of over 1000 young people. Data on ethnicity, cultural identification, alcohol use, alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD), socio-economic factors and childhood adversity were gathered as part of a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (the Christchurch Health and Development Study). Those reporting Māori ethnicity had rates of alcohol use and AAD that were 1.47-1.63 times higher than the rates found in the non-Māori people. However, there was little evidence to suggest that rates of alcohol use and AAD differed according to Māori cultural identity. Generalized estimating equation regression analyses adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage and childhood adversity slightly reduced the magnitude of these associations, but they remained statistically significant [AAD: odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-2.10; consumption: incidence rate ratio = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.52]. (a) Māori ethnicity was found to be associated with modestly increased risks of alcohol use and AAD (b) the higher rates of alcohol use and AAD among the Māori members of the cohort could not be explained by a combination of socio-economic factors and greater exposure to environmental factors known to influence the risk of alcohol use and misuse.

  4. Homelessness predicts attrition but not alcohol abstinence in outpatients experiencing co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leickly, Emily; Skalisky, Jordan; Oluwoye, Oladunni; McPherson, Sterling M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K; McDonell, Michael G

    2017-11-21

    Adults experiencing homelessness and serious mental illnesses (SMI) are at an increased risk of poor mental health and treatment outcomes compared with stably housed adults with SMI. The additional issue of alcohol misuse further complicates the difficulties of those living with homelessness and SMI. In this secondary data analysis, the authors investigated the impact of homelessness on attrition and alcohol use in a contingency management (CM) intervention that rewarded alcohol abstinence in outpatients with SMI. The associations between housing status and attrition and alcohol abstinence during treatment, as assessed by ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests, were evaluated in 79 adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence and SMI. Thirty-nine percent (n = 31) of participants reported being homeless at baseline. Individuals who were homeless were more likely to drop out of CM (n = 10, 62.5%) than those who were housed (n = 4, 16.7%), χ 2 (1) = 8.86, P < .05. Homelessness was not associated with attrition in the noncontingent control group. Accounting for treatment group and prerandomization EtG levels, neither the effect of housing status nor the interaction of housing status and group were associated with EtG-assessed alcohol abstinence during treatment. Individuals experiencing homelessness and co-occurring alcohol dependence and SMI receiving CM had higher rates of attrition, relative to those who were housed. Homelessness was not associated with differences in biologically assessed alcohol abstinence.

  5. Genome-Wide Gene Set Analysis for Identification of Pathways Associated with Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, Joanna M.; Geske, Jennifer; Jenkins, Gregory D.; Colby, Colin; Rider, David N.; Karpyak, Victor M.; Choi, Doo-Sup; Fridley, Brooke L.

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that multiple genetic variants with small individual effects contribute to the risk of alcohol dependence. Such polygenic effects are difficult to detect in genome-wide association studies that test for association of the phenotype with each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) individually. To overcome this challenge, gene set analysis (GSA) methods that jointly test for the effects of pre-defined groups of genes have been proposed. Rather than testing for association between the phenotype and individual SNPs, these analyses evaluate the global evidence of association with a set of related genes enabling the identification of cellular or molecular pathways or biological processes that play a role in development of the disease. It is hoped that by aggregating the evidence of association for all available SNPs in a group of related genes, these approaches will have enhanced power to detect genetic associations with complex traits. We performed GSA using data from a genome-wide study of 1165 alcohol dependent cases and 1379 controls from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), for all 200 pathways listed in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Results demonstrated a potential role of the “Synthesis and Degradation of Ketone Bodies” pathway. Our results also support the potential involvement of the “Neuroactive Ligand Receptor Interaction” pathway, which has previously been implicated in addictive disorders. These findings demonstrate the utility of GSA in the study of complex disease, and suggest specific directions for further research into the genetic architecture of alcohol dependence. PMID:22717047

  6. Genome-wide gene-set analysis for identification of pathways associated with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, Joanna M; Geske, Jennifer; Jenkins, Gregory D; Colby, Colin; Rider, David N; Karpyak, Victor M; Choi, Doo-Sup; Fridley, Brooke L

    2013-03-01

    It is believed that multiple genetic variants with small individual effects contribute to the risk of alcohol dependence. Such polygenic effects are difficult to detect in genome-wide association studies that test for association of the phenotype with each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) individually. To overcome this challenge, gene-set analysis (GSA) methods that jointly test for the effects of pre-defined groups of genes have been proposed. Rather than testing for association between the phenotype and individual SNPs, these analyses evaluate the global evidence of association with a set of related genes enabling the identification of cellular or molecular pathways or biological processes that play a role in development of the disease. It is hoped that by aggregating the evidence of association for all available SNPs in a group of related genes, these approaches will have enhanced power to detect genetic associations with complex traits. We performed GSA using data from a genome-wide study of 1165 alcohol-dependent cases and 1379 controls from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), for all 200 pathways listed in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Results demonstrated a potential role of the 'synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies' pathway. Our results also support the potential involvement of the 'neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction' pathway, which has previously been implicated in addictive disorders. These findings demonstrate the utility of GSA in the study of complex disease, and suggest specific directions for further research into the genetic architecture of alcohol dependence.

  7. How do people with homelessness and alcohol dependence cope when alcohol is unaffordable? A comparison of residents of Canadian managed alcohol programs and locally recruited controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Rebekah A; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernadette; Chow, Clifton; Roemer, Audra; Zhao, Jinhui; Vallance, Kate; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2018-01-04

    We investigated coping strategies used by alcohol-dependent and unstably housed people when they could not afford alcohol, and how managed alcohol program (MAP) participation influenced these. The aim of this study was to investigate potential negative unintended consequences of alcohol being unaffordable. A total of 175 MAP residents in five Canadian cities and 189 control participants from nearby shelters were interviewed about the frequency they used 10 coping strategies when unable to afford alcohol. Length of stay in a MAP was examined as a predictor of negative coping while controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, housing stability, spending money and drinks per day. Multivariate binary logistic and linear regression models were used. Most commonly reported strategies were re-budgeting (53%), waiting for money (49%) or going without alcohol (48%). A significant proportion used illicit drugs (41%) and/or drank non-beverage alcohol (41%). Stealing alcohol or property was less common. Long-term MAP participants (>2 months) exhibited lower negative coping scores than controls (8.76 vs. 10.63, P < 0.001) and were less likely to use illicit drugs [odds ratio (OR) 0.50, P = 0.02], steal from liquor stores (OR 0.50, P = 0.04), re-budget (OR 0.36, P < 0.001) or steal property (OR 0.40, P = 0.07). Long-term MAP participants were also more likely to seek treatment (OR 1.91, P = 0.03) and less likely to go without alcohol (OR 0.47, P = 0.01). People experiencing alcohol dependence and housing instability more often reduced their alcohol consumption than used harmful coping when alcohol was unaffordable. MAP participation was associated with fewer potentially harmful coping strategies. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Wine, alcohol and atherosclerosis: clinical evidences and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. da Luz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which may cause obstructions of the coronary, cerebral and peripheral arteries. It is typically multifactorial, most often dependent on risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, sedentarism, and obesity. It is the single main cause of death in most developed countries due to myocardial infarction, angina, sudden death, and heart failure. Several epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol intake, especially red wine, decrease cardiac mortality due to atherosclerosis. The alcohol effect is described by a J curve, suggesting that moderate drinkers may benefit while abstainers and heavy drinkers are at higher risk. Experimental studies indicate that most beneficial effects of drinking are attributable to flavonoids that are present in red wine, purple grape juice and several fruits and vegetables. The mechanisms include antiplatelet actions, increases in high-density lipoprotein, antioxidation, reduced endothelin-1 production, and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression which causes augmented nitric oxide production by endothelial cells. These findings lead to the concept that moderate red wine drinking, in the absence of contraindications, may be beneficial to patients who are at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Moreover, a diet based on fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids may be even more beneficial.

  9. Peculiarities of Coping and Mechanisms of Psychological Defense in Persons with Alcohol Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тинатин Владимировна Чхиквадзе

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the features of the defensive-coping behavior of alcohol dependent personality in the context of the necessity to optimize addiction therapy methods. An analysis of the range of coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defense in alcoholism was conducted. The study involved 120 men and women between the ages of 30 and 60; 62 of them are patients with alcohol dependence, registered with the narcological clinic, and 58 people who do not have alcohol dependence. The following psychodiagnostic methods were used: “Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS” (S. Hofball, “Life Style Index - LSI” (R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman & H.R. Conte. In the course of the analysis, it was found that behavioral pattern “aggressive actions” is expressed at a higher level in individuals with alcohol dependence. The leading coping strategies for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “seeking social support”, “cautious actions”, “coming into contact”. When assessing the gender characteristics of coping behavior, it was revealed that alcohol-dependent women use coping “avoidance” and “impulsive actions” more often than alcohol-dependent men. The dominant mechanisms of psychological defense for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “projection”, “intellectualization” and “negation”. There are differences between the group of respondents with alcohol dependence and the control group in the degree of tension of the defense mechanisms “substitution” and “compensation”: higher rates are observed in patients with alcoholism. The mechanism of defense “intellectualization” is more often and more intensively manifested in alcohol-dependent men, “reactive formations” - in alcoholdependent women. Identified in the course of the empirical study, the features are considered as possible “targets” for the psychological correction of an alcohol-dependent

  10. Alcohol consumption moderates the link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence in an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker Barnwell, Sara; Earleywine, Mitch; Gordis, Elana B

    2005-06-01

    The link between cannabis use and cannabis dependence remains poorly understood. Some people use cannabis regularly without signs of dependence; others show dependence despite using less. This study examined alcohol consumption as a moderator of this association. A sample of 476 people (primarily Caucasian men) who used cannabis at least once per week reported their alcohol consumption, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence symptoms in an Internet survey. Regressions revealed significant interactions between measures of cannabis use and alcohol consumption when predicting cannabis dependence. Cannabis use covaried with cannabis dependence, particularly in people who consumed alcohol frequently or in large amounts per week. Despite limitations, these data suggest that alcohol may decrease the safety of cannabis consumption. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathol...

  12. Associations of 5HTTLPR polymorphism with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Khine Zin; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-09-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is understood to control mood and drug response. Carrying a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTT) may increase the risk of major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Previous estimates of the association of the S allele of 5HTTLPR polymorphism with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence have been inconsistent. For the systematic review, we used PubMed MEDLINE and Discovery of The University of Melbourne to search for all relevant case-control studies investigating the associations of 5HTTLPR polymorphism with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Summary odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. To investigate whether year of publication, study population or diagnostic criteria used were potential sources of heterogeneity, we performed meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was assessed using Funnel plots and Egger's statistical tests. We included 23 studies of major depressive disorder without alcohol dependence containing 3392 cases and 5093 controls, and 11 studies of alcohol dependence without major depressive disorder containing 2079 cases and 2273 controls. The summary OR for homozygote carriers of the S allele of 5HTTLPR polymorphism compared with heterozygote and non-carriers combined (SS vs SL+LL genotype) was 1.33 (95% CI = [1.19, 1.48]) for major depressive disorder and 1.18 (95% CI = [1.01, 1.38]) for alcohol dependence. The summary OR per S allele of 5HTTLPR polymorphism was 1.16 (95% CI = [1.08, 1.23]) for major depressive disorder and 1.12 (95% CI = [1.01, 1.23]) for alcohol dependence. Meta-regression models showed that the associations did not substantially change after adjusting for year of publication, study population and diagnostic criteria used. There was no evidence for publication bias of the studies included in our meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis confirms that individuals with the homozygous S allele of 5HTTLPR

  13. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salujha, S K; Chaudhury, S; Menon, P K; Srivastava, K; Gupta, A

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO) personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Allele frequencies of ADH2*2 (0.50), ADH3*1 (0.67) and ALSH2*2 (0.09) were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence.

  14. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Salujha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2FNx012 (0.50, ADH3FNx011 (0.67 and ALSH2FNx012 (0.09 were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence.

  15. Reduced Dopamine Transporter Availability and Neurocognitive Deficits in Male Patients with Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hung Yen

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays an important role in the development of alcohol dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and is regulated via dopamine transporter activity. Although dopamine transporter activity is critically involved in alcohol dependence, studies observing this relationship are limited. Thus the current study examined whether dopamine transporter availability is associated with developing of alcohol dependence and cognitive dysfunction. Brain imaging with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure dopamine transporter availability among 26 male patients with pure alcohol dependence and 22 age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ were administered to assess neurocognitive functioning and personality traits, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, patients with alcohol dependence showed a significant reduction in dopamine transporter availability (p < 0.001, as well as diminished performance on the WCST (p < 0.001. Dopamine transporter availability was negatively correlated with both total and perseverative WCST errors among healthy controls, but only patients with alcohol dependence showed a positive correlation between dopamine transporter availability and a harm avoidance personality profile. Thus, reductions in dopamine transporter availability may play a pathophysiological role in the development of pure alcohol dependence, given its association with neurocognitive deficits. Moreover, personality may influence the development of pure alcohol dependence; however, additional clinical subgroups should be examined to confirm this possibility.

  16. Effects of Modafinil on Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Joos, L.; Koeleman, M.; Veltman, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired response inhibition is a key feature of patients with alcohol dependence. Improving impulse control is a promising target for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The pharmacologic agent modafinil enhances cognitive control functions in both healthy subjects and in patients with

  17. Effects of modafinil on neural correlates of response inhibition in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, Lianne; Joos, Leen; Koeleman, Marte; Veltman, Dick J.; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition is a key feature of patients with alcohol dependence. Improving impulse control is a promising target for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The pharmacologic agent modafinil enhances cognitive control functions in both healthy subjects and in patients with various

  18. Neonatal vitamin K might reduce vulnerability to alcohol dependence in Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    . The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, diagnosis of alcohol dependence and a measure of lifetime problem drinking served as the 30-year outcome variables. RESULTS: Vitamin K treatment, inherited risk and low birth weight each independently predicted alcohol dependence...

  19. Reduced Dopamine Transporter Availability and Neurocognitive Deficits in Male Patients with Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Che-Hung; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Liang, Chih-Sung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Huang, Chang-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yen; Shih, Mei-Chen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the development of alcohol dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and is regulated via dopamine transporter activity. Although dopamine transporter activity is critically involved in alcohol dependence, studies observing this relationship are limited. Thus the current study examined whether dopamine transporter availability is associated with developing of alcohol dependence and cognitive dysfunction. Brain imaging with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure dopamine transporter availability among 26 male patients with pure alcohol dependence and 22 age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) were administered to assess neurocognitive functioning and personality traits, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, patients with alcohol dependence showed a significant reduction in dopamine transporter availability (p < 0.001), as well as diminished performance on the WCST (p < 0.001). Dopamine transporter availability was negatively correlated with both total and perseverative WCST errors among healthy controls, but only patients with alcohol dependence showed a positive correlation between dopamine transporter availability and a harm avoidance personality profile. Thus, reductions in dopamine transporter availability may play a pathophysiological role in the development of pure alcohol dependence, given its association with neurocognitive deficits. Moreover, personality may influence the development of pure alcohol dependence; however, additional clinical subgroups should be examined to confirm this possibility. PMID:26120847

  20. The impact of family environment on the development of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Beil, Julia; Banach, Monika; Jarząbek, Karolina; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Alcoholism is a family disease. Many studies confirm that a family history of alcoholism is associated with the development of later alcohol dependence. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of family structure and relations between its members in the development of alcohol addiction in children grown up in these families. The research study was based on authors` anonymous questionnaire including questions referring to: family structure, parents' divorce, prevalence of alcoholism in the family, parents' attitude towards alcohol and parent-child relationships. The study group consisted of 125 people, 83 men and 42 women, aged from 22 to 68 participating in treatment programs for alcohol addiction. The control group consisted of 231 people, 136 men and 95 women, age from 17 to 65, with no history of alcoholism. The study group participants stated less frequently that they had been raised by both parents (78% vs 87%, pparents significantly more frequently abused alcohol (43% vs 19%; pparents abused alcohol (15% vs 1%; pparents. Based on these results we concluded that patients addicted to alcohol were more often raised by a single parent, they were more likely to have alcohol-dependent parents and relationships with their parents were more often impaired.

  1. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in alcohol dependents using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xufeng; Li Peiyong; Zhu Chenmo; Yu Jinling

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alternations in alcohol dependents ,comparing with normal subjects using statistical parametric mapping. Methods: 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain imaging were performed in 14 alcohol dependents diagnosed with SCID-AD, and 23 age matched normal controls for comparison situation of rCBF in alcohol dependents was analyzed by SPM. Results: The rCBF of bilateral frontal lobe, fight cingulate gyms, right caudate body , bilateral cerebellar tonsil were significantly decreased in alcohol dependents, and the rCBF of left inferior temporal gyms, left middle temporal gyms, bilateral precentral gyms, left thalamus, leftparahippocampal gyms, right lentiform nucleus was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: SPM analysis showed that significant rCBF change in alcohol dependents. (authors)

  2. Co-occurring alcohol and cocaine dependence: recent findings from clinical and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanner, B A; Morgenstern, Jon; McKay, James; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Litten, R Z

    2004-06-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium held at the 2003 annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. The organizer and chair was Barbara A. Flannery, and the discussant was Raye Z. Litten. The presentations were (1) Examining treatment trajectories of alcohol and cocaine dependent patients, by Jon Morgenstern; (2) Outcomes of alcoholics with and without cocaine dependence in a continuing care study, by James R. McKay; (3) Characteristics of non-treatment seeking cocaine and alcohol dependent African Americans, by Barbara A. Flannery; and (4) Cocaine and alcohol use among sex workers in South Africa, by Wendee M. Wechsberg. Copyright 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism

  3. Relationships Between Components of Emotional Intelligence and Suicidal Behavior in Alcohol-dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Suszek, Hubert; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    The importance of investigating various emotional skills in assessment of suicide risk in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals has recently become the focus of increasing interest. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between self-reported components of emotional intelligence and lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in a clinical sample of AD subjects. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland, was recruited. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality, and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test was utilized for assessment of emotional processing. Lifetime history of suicide attempts was obtained from the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. After accounting for affect-related suicide risk factors (severity of depression, anxiety, neuroticism), and also other significant predictors (eg, age, sex, history of childhood abuse), mood regulation/optimism deficits remained a significant correlate of lifetime suicide attempts in AD patients. In the mediation models, mood regulation appeared to fully mediate the relationship between history of suicide attempts and depression, and also neuroticism. The results of this study support the evidence that poor mood regulation might be related to the risk for suicidal behavior in AD individuals. These findings point towards the significance of addressing the issue of emotion-related skills in the therapy of those AD subjects who are at risk for suicide.

  4. Combined role of childhood maltreatment, family history, and gender in the risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M C; Geier, T; Keyes, K; Skodol, A E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S

    2013-05-01

    Studies of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol dependence have not controlled comprehensively for potential confounding by co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma, or determined whether parental history of alcohol disorders operates synergistically with gender and maltreatment to produce alcohol dependence. We addressed these issues using national data. Method Face-to-face surveys of 27 712 adult participants in a national survey. Childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical neglect were associated with alcohol dependence (prelationships for physical abuse in the entire sample, and for sexual abuse and emotional neglect in women (APs, 0.21, 0.31, 0.26 respectively), indicating that the odds of alcohol dependence given both parental history and these maltreatments were significantly higher than the additive effect of each alone (pdependence. Importantly, results suggest a synergistic role of parental alcoholism: the effect of physical abuse on alcohol dependence may depend on parental history, while the effects of sexual abuse and emotional neglect may depend on parental history among women. Findings underscore the importance of early identification and prevention, particularly among those with a family history, and could guide genetic research and intervention development, e.g. programs to reduce the burden of childhood maltreatment may benefit from addressing the negative long-term effects of maltreatments, including potential alcohol problems, across a broad range of childhood environments.

  5. The Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire: Evidence for Construct Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kimberly A; Bartholow, Bruce D; Hilgard, Joseph; McCarthy, Denis M; O'Neill, Susan E; Steinley, Douglas; Sher, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    Variability in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol is an important risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The most commonly used retrospective self-report measure of sensitivity, the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) form, queries a limited number of alcohol effects and relies on respondents' ability to recall experiences that might have occurred in the distant past. Here, we investigated the construct validity of an alternative measure that queries a larger number of alcohol effects, the Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire (ASQ), and compared it to the SRE in predicting momentary subjective responses to an acute dose of alcohol. Healthy young adults (N = 423) completed the SRE and the ASQ and then were randomly assigned to consume either alcohol or a placebo beverage (between-subjects manipulation). Stimulation and sedation (Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale) and subjective intoxication were measured multiple times after drinking. Hierarchical linear models showed that the ASQ reliably predicted each of these outcomes following alcohol but not placebo consumption, provided unique prediction beyond that associated with differences in recent alcohol involvement, and was preferred over the SRE (in terms of model fit) in direct model comparisons of stimulation and sedation. The ASQ compared favorably with the better-known SRE in predicting increased stimulation and reduced sedation following an acute alcohol challenge. The ASQ appears to be a valid self-report measure of alcohol sensitivity and therefore holds promise for identifying individuals at-risk for AUD and related problems. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Marijuana use and achievement of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs among people with substance dependence: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarrad, Mohammadali; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Many with alcohol and other drug dependence have concurrent marijuana use, yet it is not clear how to address it during addiction treatment. This is partially due to the lack of clarity about whether marijuana use impacts one's ability to achieve abstinence from the target of addiction treatment. We examined the association between marijuana use and abstinence from other substances among individuals with substance dependence. A secondary analysis of the Addiction Health Evaluation And Disease management study, a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of chronic disease management. Individuals met criteria for drug or alcohol dependence and reported recent drug (i.e. opioid or stimulant) or heavy alcohol use. Recruitment occurred largely at an inpatient detoxification unit, and all participants were referred to primary medical care. The association between marijuana use and later abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use was assessed using longitudinal multivariable models. Of 563 study participants, 98% completed at least one follow-up assessment and 535 (95%) had at least one pair of consecutive assessments and were included. In adjusted analyses, marijuana use was associated with a 27% reduction in the odds of abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.97], P=0.03). Marijuana use among individuals with alcohol or other drug dependence is associated with a lower odds of achieving abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use. These findings add evidence that suggests concomitant marijuana use among patients with addiction to other drugs merits attention from clinicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Family member involvement in relapse prevention improves alcohol dependence outcomes: a prospective study at an addiction treatment facility in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Leung, Kit Sang; Nagarajaiah; Murthy, Pratima

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to test if outcomes would be different when family members of alcohol-dependent individuals were included in intervention and to examine the factors associated with relapse during a 6-month follow-up period. Ninety male participants admitted for 3 weeks at an inpatient facility in India were randomly assigned to individual relapse prevention (IRP), dyadic relapse prevention (DRP), and treatment as usual (TAU), with 30 participants in each group. In IRP, intervention was administered to the individual participant. In DRP, both the participant and a family member were included in intervention. In all three conditions, family members stayed in the facility with participants. Participants were followed up for 6 months after discharge from the treatment center. DRP consistently performed better than TAU on all of the outcomes (reduction in quantity of alcohol, drinking days, and number of days with dysfunction in family, occupational, and financial dimensions). DRP participants also reported a significant reduction in the quantity of alcohol, drinking days, and family problems, compared with IRP. Results of Cox regression showed that being in IRP/TAU groups, early-onset dependence (<25 years), and paternal history of alcohol dependence were associated with relapse after adjusting for baseline alcohol use and other covariates. Findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of Western-based family-oriented intervention for alcohol-dependent patients in India; also, findings might help to alert treatment providers that some subsets of alcohol users might need more tailored interventions and rigorous monitoring during follow-up.

  8. Heterogeneity of emotional and interpersonal difficulties in alcohol-dependence: A cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Timary, Philippe de; D'Hondt, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    Emotional and interpersonal impairments have been largely reported in alcohol-dependence, and their role in its development and maintenance is widely established. However, earlier studies have exclusively focused on group comparisons between healthy controls and alcohol-dependent individuals, considering them as a homogeneous population. The variability of socio-emotional profiles in this disorder thus remains totally unexplored. The present study used a cluster analytic approach to explore the heterogeneity of affective and social disorders in alcohol-dependent individuals. 296 recently-detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were first compared with 246 matched healthy controls regarding self-reported emotional (i.e. alexithymia) and social (i.e. interpersonal problems) difficulties. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the alcohol-dependent sample, to explore the presence of differential patterns of socio-emotional deficits and their links with demographic, psychopathological and alcohol-related variables. The group comparison between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls clearly confirmed that emotional and interpersonal difficulties constitute a key factor in alcohol-dependence. However, the cluster analysis identified five subgroups of alcohol-dependent individuals, presenting distinct combinations of alexithymia and interpersonal problems ranging from a total absence of reported impairment to generalized socio-emotional difficulties. Alcohol-dependent individuals should no more be considered as constituting a unitary group regarding their affective and interpersonal difficulties, but rather as a population encompassing a wide variety of socio-emotional profiles. Future experimental studies on emotional and social variables should thus go beyond mere group comparisons to explore this heterogeneity, and prevention programs proposing an individualized evaluation and rehabilitation of these deficits should be promoted. Copyright © 2017

  9. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Holmes, John; Studer, Joseph

    2015-06-29

    There have been reviews on the association between density of alcohol outlets and harm including studies published up to December 2008. Since then the number of publications has increased dramatically. The study reviews the more recent studies with regard to their utility to inform policy. A systematic review found more than 160 relevant studies (published between January 2009 and October 2014). The review focused on: (i) outlet density and assaultive or intimate partner violence; (ii) studies including individual level data; or (iii) 'natural experiments'. Despite overall evidence for an association between density and harm, there is little evidence on causal direction (i.e. whether demand leads to more supply or increased availability increases alcohol use and harm). When outlet types (e.g. bars, supermarkets) are analysed separately, studies are too methodologically diverse and partly contradictory to permit firm conclusions besides those pertaining to high outlet densities in areas such as entertainment districts. Outlet density commonly had little effect on individual-level alcohol use, and the few 'natural experiments' on restricting densities showed little or no effects. Although outlet densities are likely to be positively related to alcohol use and harm, few policy recommendations can be given as effects vary across study areas, outlet types and outlet cluster size. Future studies should examine in detail outlet types, compare different outcomes associated with different strengths of association with alcohol, analyse non-linear effects and compare different methodologies. Purely aggregate-level studies examining total outlet density only should be abandoned. [Gmel G, Holmes J, Studer J. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Revictimization of violence suffered by those diagnosed with alcohol dependence in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F G; Quintana, M I; Ribeiro, W; Bressan, R A; Mello, M F; Mari, J J; Andreoli, S B

    2015-01-01

    To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle.

  11. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1. Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P=0.014; Odds=3.33. Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle.

  12. Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Claire; Room, Robin

    2009-07-01

    In light of possible introduction of alcohol warning labels in Australia and New Zealand, this paper discusses the international experience with and evidence of effects of alcohol warning labels. The report describes international experience with providing information and warnings concerning the promotion or sale of alcoholic beverages, and considers the evidence on the effects of such information and warnings. The experience with and evaluations of the effects of tobacco warning labels are also considered. The most methodologically sound evaluations of alcohol warning labels are based on the US experience. Although these evaluations find little evidence that the introduction of the warning label in the USA had an impact on drinking behaviour, there is evidence that they led to an increase in awareness of the message they contained. In contrast, evaluations of tobacco warning labels find clear evidence of effects on behaviour. There is a need and opportunity for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of introducing alcohol warning labels to add to the published work on their effectiveness. The experience with tobacco labels might guide the way for more effective alcohol warning labels. Alcohol warning labels are an increasingly popular alcohol policy initiative. It is clear that warning labels can be ineffective, but the tobacco experience suggests that effective warning labels are possible. Any introduction of alcohol warning labels should be evaluated in terms of effects on attitudes and behaviour.

  13. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  14. Deep sequencing of 71 candidate genes to characterize variation associated with alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shaunna L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Kumar, Gaurav; Aberg, Karolina A.; Nerella, Sri; Xie, Linying; Collins, Ann L.; Crowley, James J.; Quackenbush, Corey R.; Hilliard, Christopher E.; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Vrieze, Scott I.; Peterson, Roseann E.; Copeland, William E.; Silberg, Judy L.; McGue, Matt; Maes, Hermine; Iacono, William G.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Costello, Elizabeth J.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of putative risk loci for alcohol dependence (AD). However, only a few loci have replicated and these replicated variants only explain a small proportion of AD risk. Using an innovative approach, the goal of this study was to generate hypotheses about potentially causal variants for AD that can be explored further through functional studies. Methods We employed targeted capture of 71 candidate loci and flanking regions followed by next-generation deep sequencing (mean coverage 78X) in 806 European Americans. Regions included in our targeted capture library were genes identified through published GWAS of alcohol, all human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, reward system genes including dopaminegic and opioid receptors, prioritized candidate genes based on previous associations, and genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. We performed single locus tests to determine if any single variant was associated with AD symptom count. Sets of variants that overlapped with biologically meaningful annotations were tested for association in aggregate. Results No single, common variant was significantly associated with AD in our study. We did, however, find evidence for association with several variant sets. Two variant sets were significant at the q-value < 0.10 level: a genic enhancer for ADHFE1(p=1.47×10−05; q=0.019), an alcohol dehydrogenase, and ADORA1(p=5.29×10−05;q=0.035), an adenosine receptor that belongs to a G-protein coupled receptor gene family. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first sequencing study of AD to examine variants in entire genes, including flanking and regulatory regions. We found that in addition to protein coding variant sets, regulatory variant sets may play a role in AD. From these findings, we have generated initial functional hypotheses about how these sets may influence AD. PMID:28196272

  15. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  16. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    . Results: In this smaller subsample, paternal risk did not predict adult alcohol dependence. Subjects who were above a median split on both the ADHD and the CD scales were more than six times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than subjects who scored below the median on both. Although the two......ABSTRACT. Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development...... of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated...

  17. Risks of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death in Australia over time: Evidence of divergence by region, age and sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pascal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPast reports on trends of alcohol consumption and related harm have generally been descriptive in nature and have not provided evidence of whether changes over time are significant.AimsWe investigated whether: (i the risk of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death between 1994 and 2005 for three different age groups changed significantly across all Australian jurisdictions; and (ii the relative rates of hospitalisation for males and females changed over time.MethodEstimates of alcohol-attributable hospitalisations and deaths were calculated using the aetiologic fraction method. Hospitalisations and deaths were grouped by age: 15-29 years, 30-44 years and 45+ years. Risk estimates and risk differences were analysed using Poisson regression.ResultsRisk of alcohol-attributable hospital separations increased nationally and across most jurisdictions throughout the study period. Male and female rates converged over time. Alcohol-attributable deaths decreased nationally across the three age groups and across several jurisdictions beginning in the mid-1990s.ConclusionNationally, alcohol-attributable deaths declined while hospitalisations rose. However, states with higher population density tended to drive national rates, with considerable variation by jurisdiction. The conditions which dominated hospitalisations (e.g. alcohol dependence, falls differed substantially from those underlying alcoholattributable deaths (e.g. alcoholic liver cirrhosis, road crashes. Jurisdictional variation in death and hospitalisations rates as well as changes over time may be partly due to differences in: regulation of alcohol supply; patterns and levels of alcohol consumption; the nature and effectiveness of law enforcement; demographic characteristics of general and sub-populations; and medical health services and screening for chronic conditions.

  18. Potentiation of amygdala AMPA receptor activity selectively promotes escalated alcohol self-administration in a CaMKII-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Reginald; Fisher, Kristen R; Graham, Caitlin; Crayle, Jesse; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2017-05-01

    Growing evidence indicates that drugs of abuse gain control over the individual by usurping glutamate-linked mechanisms of neuroplasticity in reward-related brain regions. Accordingly, we have shown that glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activity in the amygdala is required for the positive reinforcing effects of alcohol, which underlie the initial stages of addiction. It is unknown, however, if enhanced AMPAR activity in the amygdala facilitates alcohol self-administration, which is a kernel premise of glutamate hypotheses of addiction. Here, we show that low-dose alcohol (0.6 g/kg/30 minutes) self-administration increases phosphorylation (activation) of AMPAR subtype GluA1 S831 (pGluA1 S831) in the central amygdala (CeA), basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) of selectively bred alcohol-preferring P-rats as compared with behavior-matched (non-drug) sucrose controls. The functional role of enhanced AMPAR activity was assessed via site-specific infusion of the AMPAR positive modulator, aniracetam, in the CeA and AcbC prior to alcohol self-administration. Intra-CeA aniracetam increased alcohol-reinforced but not sucrose-reinforced responding and was ineffective following intra-AcbC infusion. Because GluA1 S831 is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) substrate, we sought to determine if AMPAR regulation of enhanced alcohol self-administration is dependent on CaMKII activity. Intra-CeA infusion of the cell-permeable CaMKII peptide inhibitor myristolated autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (m-AIP) dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration. A subthreshold dose of m-AIP also blocked the aniracetam-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration, demonstrating that AMPAR-mediated potentiation of alcohol reinforcement requires CaMKII activity in the amygdala. Enhanced activity of plasticity-linked AMPAR-CaMKII signaling in the amygdala may promote escalated alcohol use

  19. Burnout and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Among U.S. Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.

  20. Multidimensional impulsivity as a mediator of early life stress and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Tae; Hwang, Syung Shick; Kim, Hae Won; Hwang, Eun Hee; Cho, Jaeil; Kang, Jee In; Kim, Se Joo

    2018-03-07

    Early life stress (ELS) leads to increased susceptibility to serious psychiatric problems such as alcohol dependence, but the mechanisms through which ELS affects alcohol dependence are unclear. We investigated the mediating role of multi-dimensional impulsivity in the associations between ELS and alcohol dependence. 330 male patients with alcohol dependence (mean age = 48.39) completed self-rating scales of ELS and several self-report measures of impulsivity as well as balloon analogue risk task (BART). After classifying different dimensions of impulsivity using factor analysis, structural equation modeling was conducted to test the mediation effects of impulsivity between ELS and alcohol dependence severity and social onset of hazardous drinking. Among the participants, 64.8%, 42.1% and 47.9% reported at least one episode of childhood maltreatment, sexual abuse and parental conflict, respectively. Response impulsivity-sensation seeking, reflection impulsivity and aggression partially mediated the association between ELS and severity of alcohol dependence (CFI = 0.902 and RMSEA = 0.079). Reflection impulsivity dimension partially mediated the association between ELS and social onset of hazardous drinking (CFI = 0.939, RMSEA = 0.091). These finding imply that stabilizing vulnerabilities such as reflection impulsivity via intervention programs that target young individuals with ELS may be helpful in delaying the onset of hazardous drinking and prevent alcohol dependence.

  1. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, o...

  2. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Tamie Yoshimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 53 adults who were in treatment for alcohol dependence at a Brazilian public university outpatient service. Assessment instruments Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses between the categorical outcome (Probable SAD: SPIN ≥ 19 and explanatory variables were conducted. Correlates of SPIN total and subscales scores (dimensional outcomes were also investigated. Results The diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence occurred, on average, 30 years after the onset of alcohol use and 39.6% of the 53 patients (37 men and 16 women reported alleviation of social anxiety symptoms with alcohol use. Twenty-four (45.3% patients presented probable SAD. These patients differed from non-SAD alcohol-dependent individuals by having lower income and higher frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts. The SPIN subscales mostly associated with suicidal behaviors were social inadequacy and social inferiority. Conclusions SAD symptoms are common among help-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals and should be directly investigated and treated, since depression and suicidality are associated with this comorbidity. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of SAD treatment on the clinical course of alcohol dependence.

  3. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20.......04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without......-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68 486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian...

  4. The effect of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol consumption among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Farris, Samantha G; Foa, Edna B

    2011-12-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use, and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among 151 participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial for alcohol dependence. We hypothesized that AS would moderate the association between PTSD symptoms and drinking behavior, with PTSD symptoms being more strongly associated with drinking behavior among individuals with high AS. Results showed that AS was strongly associated with PTSD (r = .48) and moderately associated with drinking behavior (r = .18). As predicted, the interaction of AS with severity of PTSD symptoms was associated with frequency of drinking; however, contrary to our hypothesis, PTSD symptoms were more strongly associated with drinking behavior among individuals with relatively low AS. The implication of the present results for treatment of both PTSD and alcohol dependence are discussed.

  5. Relationship between emotional processing, drinking severity and relapse in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural and psychological characteristics of college students with alcoholic parents differ depending on current alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Scholl, Jamie L; Fercho, Kelene A; Pearson, Kami; Kallsen, Noah A; Davies, Gareth E; Ehli, Erik A; Olson, Seth; Schweinle, Amy; Baugh, Lee A; Forster, Gina L

    2018-02-02

    A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of Validity for the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Suzanne H.; Yanico, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    The convergent validity of an abbreviated version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was tested and supported. Extends a previous validity study by examining the CAST relationship to a measure that specifically addresses triangulation, individuation, intimacy, and personal authority between children of alcoholics and children of…

  8. Loss of coping resources and psychological distress in spouses of alcohol dependents following partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A study to assess the psychological distress of married women due to their spousal violence under alcohol dependence. This study is aimed at studying partner violence, various coping styles and psychological distress among spouses of men with alcohol dependence and to explore the association between partner violence and coping behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 wives of alcohol dependent individuals in the age range of 20-50 years, who were divided into two groups based on the duration of drinking of their husbands. They were assessed by GHQ-12, Measure of Wife Abuse, Coping with Drinking Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Partner alcohol use was associated with increased psychological distress in their spouses and they have used both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusion: Alcohol plays a role in partner violence and spousal mental distress resulting in loss of their coping resources.

  9. Alcohol-induced changes in opioid peptide levels in adolescent rats are dependent on housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg(6) Phe(7) (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and underlying mechanisms for drinking and

  10. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. We included 78,154 men and women aged 20-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68,486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a causal odds ratio of 28.6 (95 % confidence interval 6.47-126) for an increase of 1 drink/day estimated from the combined genotype combination, whereas the corresponding multifactorially adjusted observational odds ratio was 1.28 (1.25-1.31). Corresponding odds ratios were 1.11 (0.67-1.83) causal and 1.04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without similar strong evidence for depression. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Are there gender differences in locus of control specific to alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R

    2017-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  13. Adolescent counterarguing of TV beer advertisements: evidence for effectiveness of alcohol education and critical viewing discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Rouner, D; Murphy, K; Beauvais, F; Van Leuven, J; Domenech-Rodriguez, M M

    1996-01-01

    The pervasiveness of American youth's exposure to alcohol advertising is well-documented, as is the correlational evidence linking such exposure to alcohol-related attitudes, use, and expectancies. While efforts to train young people to resist persuasive appeals are often made in alcohol education programs, little evidence exists concerning the effectiveness of such efforts. The present study (N = 83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in such classes predicts cognitive resistance (counterarguing) of such advertisements months or even years after class exposure. Age, gender, and ethnicity were statistically controlled. While females tended to counterargue the alcohol advertisements more than did males, there was no statistically significant difference in the impact of education on males and females.

  14. Culture and environment as predictors of alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms in American Indian youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-10-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spirituality predicted fewer alcohol symptoms, and, importantly, religious affiliation moderated the effects of problematic peers and family members on adolescent alcohol symptoms. The findings suggest further study of intervention and prevention efforts regarding the benefits from consideration of the complex relationships among multiple environmental variables.

  15. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large

  16. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, L.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Schmaal, L.; de Witte, N. A. J.; van den Brink, W.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Dom, G.

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and craving are both associated with higher relapse rates and a worse prognosis in patients with a substance use disorder, but the relationship between these two phenomena has been largely ignored in the field of alcohol use disorders. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the

  17. The relationship between impulsivity and craving in alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, L.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Schmaal, L.; De Witte, N.A.J.; van den Brink, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Dom, G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Impulsivity and craving are both associated with higher relapse rates and a worse prognosis in patients with a substance use disorder, but the relationship between these two phenomena has been largely ignored in the field of alcohol use disorders. Objectives: The primary aim of this study

  18. Field dependence and self-actualization in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J; Brown, C C; Minard, J C

    1975-03-01

    Field independence and self-actualization were significantly increased in alcoholic patients following a 6-week treatment program. There were no differences, however, between patients treated by drug-assisted individual therapy, individual therapy, or milieu therapy. Some causal factors are hypothesized, and implications for treatment are discussed.

  19. Management of Dependence on Alcohol - 2nd Of Two Articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    2008-10-27

    Oct 27, 2008 ... (often occurring 12 – 48 hours after alcohol withdrawal)2. Rehabilitation treatments are psychosocial ... depression, insomnia, abnormal liver enzyme levels, heartburn, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, injury or problems in ..... blood during childbirth. 3. 110 g/L. 4. Foods containing blood, such as meat and liver.

  20. Making public health policy: what place for the alcohol-dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sheila A M

    2009-12-01

    Although public policy in general, and health policy in particular, can be powerful and effective tools in shaping a "healthy" environment for citizens, the influences and agendas that underpin them are often lacking in transparency. In the case of the alcohol-dependent, the critical importance of identifying strategies appropriate to their specific needs is often sidelined. This, it is argued, results in part from the influence of the alcohol industry on governments and on social conditions and in part from the ethical underpinnings of public health policy, which depends on maximising social benefits even at the expense of "hard to reach" groups. In addition, much of alcohol policy rests on the kind of' "healthy living" message that appeals to the otherwise healthy While not infantilising people who are dependent on alcohol, consideration must be given to the extent to which their ability to choose health is compromised by the nature of dependence itself.

  1. Neural substrates of impulsive decision making modulated by modafinil in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Joos, L.; Dom, G.; Pattij, T.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impulsive decision making is a hallmark of frequently occurring addiction disorders including alcohol dependence (AD). Therefore, ameliorating impulsive decision making is a promising target for the treatment of AD. Previous studies have shown that modafinil enhances cognitive control

  2. Neural substrates of impulsive decision making modulated by modafinil in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Joos, L.; Dom, G.; Pattij, T.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive decision making is a hallmark of frequently occurring addiction disorders including alcohol dependence (AD). Therefore, ameliorating impulsive decision making is a promising target for the treatment of AD. Previous studies have shown that modafinil enhances cognitive control functions in

  3. Factors associated with resilience in wives of individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sreekumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Assessment of resilience in wives of individuals with alcohol dependence and identification and management of those with poor resilience should go hand in hand with their husband's treatment program.

  4. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  5. Episodic Future Thinking: Expansion of the Temporal Window in Individuals with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sarah E; LaConte, Stephen M; Bickel, Warren K

    2016-07-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT) requires an individual to vividly pre-experience a realistic future event. Inspired by previous reports of reducing delay discounting following EFT in other populations, we examined the effects of engaging alcohol-dependent individuals in EFT or episodic recent thinking (ERT; control) to examine its effects on delay discounting and alcohol purchasing. Participants (n = 50) with alcohol dependence were allocated into EFT or ERT groups and asked to generate positive future or recent past events for each of 5 time points. Participants then completed a delay-discounting task, during which event cues were displayed, and a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. EFT significantly increased valuation of future monetary rewards, while decreasing initial consumption (Q0 ) of alcoholic drinks indicative of lower demand intensity. Two additional findings suggest potential moderators of this effect. EFT more readily influenced individuals with lower Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores, and self-reported cue valence differed between groups. Together, these results suggest a widening of alcohol-dependent individuals' temporal window following engagement of EFT. While our data suggest that EFT may be moderated by certain susceptibility criteria, exercises such as EFT could be easily adaptable as a potential therapeutic tool for use in rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times.

  7. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  8. Acamprosate for treatment of alcohol dependence: mechanisms, efficacy, and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkiewitz K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Katie Witkiewitz, Kimber Saville, Kacie HamreusDepartment of Psychology, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA, USAAbstract: Acamprosate, or N-acetyl homotaurine, is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a pharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. The exact mechanism of action of acamprosate is still under investigation, but the drug appears to work by promoting a balance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid, respectively, and it may help individuals with alcohol dependence by reducing withdrawal-associated distress. Acamprosate has low bioavailability, but also has an excellent tolerability and safety profile. In comparison with naltrexone and disulfiram, which are the other FDA-approved treatments for alcohol dependence, acamprosate is unique in that it is not metabolized by the liver and is also not impacted by alcohol use, so can be administered to patients with hepatitis or liver disease (a common comorbid condition among individuals with alcohol dependence and to patients who continue drinking alcohol. Acamprosate has demonstrated its efficacy in more than 25 placebo-controlled, double-blind trials for individuals with alcohol dependence, and has generally been found to be more efficacious than placebo in significantly reducing the risk of returning to any drinking and increasing the cumulative duration of abstinence. However, acamprosate appears to be no more efficacious than placebo in reducing heavy drinking days. Numerous trials have found that acamprosate is not significantly more efficacious than naltrexone or disulfiram, and the efficacy of acamprosate does not appear to be improved by combining acamprosate with other active medications (eg, naltrexone or with psychosocial treatment (eg, cognitive-behavioral therapy. In this review, we present the data on acamprosate, including its pharmacology

  9. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate

    OpenAIRE

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; R?egg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; N?then, M M

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatmen...

  10. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Literacy and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, H. Rae

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based Practice Guidelines for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Literacy and Learning are derived from an inductive analysis of qualitative data collected in field research. FASD is the umbrella term for a spectrum of neurocognitive and physical disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Data from a sample of N =150 was…

  11. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  12. Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…

  13. Effect of paternal alcohol and drug dependence on offspring conduct disorder: gene-environment interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jon Randolph; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Jacob, Theodore; Grant, Julia D; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Duncan, Alexis E; Heath, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Not only are substance-use disorders and externalizing disorders frequently comorbid, they often co-occur in families across generations. The current study examined the role of genetic and environmental influences in the relationship between paternal histories of drug dependence or alcohol dependence and offspring conduct disorder using an offspring-of-twins design. Participants were male twins (n = 1,774) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, their offspring (n = 1,917), and mothers of the offspring (n = 1,202). Twins had a history of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, or neither. Based on the father's and his co-twin's drug-dependence or alcohol-dependence history and zygosity, risk groups were constructed to reflect different levels of genetic and environmental risk that were then used to predict offspring conduct disorder. After controlling for potentially confounding variables, the offspring of men with a history of drug dependence or alcohol dependence had significantly higher rates of conduct disorder, compared with offspring of men without this history. Offspring at higher genetic risk had higher rates of conduct disorder. High-risk offspring at lower environmental risk had lower rates of conduct disorder but only in the case of paternal drug-dependence risk. Lower environmental risk did not influence rates of offspring conduct disorder when the father had an alcohol-dependence history. Genetic risk associated with both paternal drug-dependence and paternal alcohol-dependence histories predicted offspring conduct-disorder risk, but only risk associated with paternal drug-dependence history was mitigated by having a low-risk environment. These results demonstrated a significant gene-environment interaction effect.

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) in patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Joi L; Turncliff, Ryan Z; Hayes, Siobhan C; Farrell, Colm B

    2007-11-01

    Injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol) has recently been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis examined the possibility of altered pharmacokinetics for naltrexone and its primary metabolite, 6beta-naltrexol, in subpopulations with a potential for alcohol-dependence treatment. Data from four clinical studies of XR-NTX were pooled. Absorption was modeled as a sequential release in three phases. The pharmacokinetics of naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol were modeled as one-compartment disposition submodels, parameterized in terms of clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V). The impact of age, weight, gender, race, hepatic function, renal function, smoking, and alcohol/opioid dependence on PPK parameter estimates was analyzed. Plasma concentrations were available from 453 subjects. More than half of the subjects (59%) were alcohol dependent, and 27% were dependent on both alcohol and opioids. Naltrexone CL (140 L/h) and V (38,300 L) were dependent on weight (changes of 0.548 L/h/kg and 0.655 L/kg, respectively) and were 23% and 35% higher, respectively, in subjects with alcohol and/or opioid dependence than in healthy subjects. Naltrexone CL also was dependent on age (-0.108 L/h/year); 6beta-naltrexol CL (65.1 L/h) was dependent on creatinine CL (0.229 L/h/ml/minute) and alkaline phosphatase (-0.130 L/h/IU/L), and was increased by 18% in smokers and in alcohol- and/or opioid-dependent subjects. Although statistically significant covariate-parameter relationships were identified, they were not considered clinically meaningful, suggesting that dosing adjustments of XR-NTX based on weight, age, gender, health status, smoking status, creatinine CL, and hepatic function differences should not be necessary.

  15. [Is "the resistance to negative reinforcement" a feature of alcohol dependence syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shin

    2006-10-01

    In 1979, "Alcoholism Diagnosis Committee, the Ministry of Health and Welfare" established the diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence syndrome, which included "the resistance to negative reinforcement". The author raises a question about this criterion which indicates the condition that "an individual continues to drink despite alcohol-related physical diseases, rejection by his/her family or economic poverty and drinking-related criminal problem." The author defines this condition not as "resistance to negative reinforcement" but as "resistance to punishment." Furthermore, the author can not find the data supporting that "the resistance to negative reinforcement" in the correct sense exists in the individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome. In a theoretical sense, an opposite idea seems to exist. There is an observed fact that can be regarded as a phenomenon that explains the involvement of "negative reinforcement" in enhancement of psychological dependence as in the case of the secondary development of psychological dependence. Consequently, the author would have to say that defining "the resistance to negative reinforcement" as one of common features of alcohol dependence syndrome or one of diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence syndrome is inappropriate.

  16. Psychological risk factors of social maladjustment and protective factors in alcohol-dependent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshakova E.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychological characteristics of alcohol-dependent women, including the particularities of subjective psychological symptomatic status, psychological well-being, motivation, social desirability and self-esteem. We tested the hypothesis that: 1 alcohol-dependent women expressed less motivation of social desirability and expressed more subjectively perceived symptoms in comparison with normal; 2 alcohol-dependent women have lower levels of well-being, self-esteem and level of aspiration in comparison with the conventional norm. The experimental group consisted of 46 women (mean age 45 years who are dependent on alcohol. The comparison group included 33 women with normal behavior who are not dependent on alcohol (the average age 33 years. We have found that a statistically significant contribution to the classification of women in a group of alcohol-dependent is made by low self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, low real self-evaluation of their success in business, willpower and mental health, low ideal self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and mind, achievable self-evaluation in terms of the happiness and visual attractiveness, the average level of the personal growth as basic component of well-being.

  17. Polygenic Risk Score Prediction of Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Across Population-Based and Clinically Ascertained Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Salvatore, Jessica E; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C; Hickman, Matthew; Kendler, Kenneth S; Macleod, John; Latvala, Antti; Loukola, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Chan, Grace; Hesselbrock, Victor; Webb, Bradley T; Adkins, Amy; Bigdeli, Tim B; Riley, Brien P; Dick, Danielle M

    2018-03-01

    Despite consistent evidence of the heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), few specific genes with an etiological role have been identified. It is likely that AUDs are highly polygenic; however, the etiological pathways and genetic variants involved may differ between populations. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether aggregate genetic risk for AUDs differed between clinically ascertained and population-based epidemiological samples. Four independent samples were obtained: 2 from unselected birth cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], N = 4,304; FinnTwin12 [FT12], N = 1,135) and 2 from families densely affected with AUDs, identified from treatment-seeking patients (Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, N = 2,097; Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, N = 706). AUD symptoms were assessed with clinical interviews, and participants of European ancestry were genotyped. Genomewide association was conducted separately in each sample, and the resulting association weights were used to create polygenic risk scores in each of the other samples (12 total discovery-validation pairs), and from meta-analyses within sample type. We then tested how well these aggregate genetic scores predicted AUD outcomes within and across sample types. Polygenic scores derived from 1 population-based sample (ALSPAC) significantly predicted AUD symptoms in another population-based sample (FT12), but not in either clinically ascertained sample. Trend-level associations (uncorrected p < 0.05) were found for polygenic score predictions within sample types but no or negative predictions across sample types. Polygenic scores accounted for 0 to 1% of the variance in AUD symptoms. Though preliminary, these results provide suggestive evidence of differences in the genetic etiology of AUDs based on sample characteristics such as treatment-seeking status, which may index other important clinical or demographic factors

  18. Craving sensation in the assessment of alcohol-dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Juczyński

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The approach to the problems of the occurrence of and coping with alcohol craving in the course of the therapy should be similar in men and women. However, there should be more focus on the working out of coping strategies, especially in the younger patients, because of the more frequent and intensive craving they experience, which poses a greater risk of relapse and recurrence of the problem.

  19. Integration of miRNA and protein profiling reveals coordinated neuroadaptations in the alcohol-dependent mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Gorini

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence involve different neurochemical systems and are brain region-dependent. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol (CIE procedure, combined with a Two-Bottle Choice voluntary drinking paradigm, represents one of the best available animal models for alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. MicroRNAs, master regulators of the cellular transcriptome and proteome, can regulate their targets in a cooperative, combinatorial fashion, ensuring fine tuning and control over a large number of cellular functions. We analyzed cortex and midbrain microRNA expression levels using an integrative approach to combine and relate data to previous protein profiling from the same CIE-subjected samples, and examined the significance of the data in terms of relative contribution to alcohol consumption and dependence. MicroRNA levels were significantly altered in CIE-exposed dependent mice compared with their non-dependent controls. More importantly, our integrative analysis identified modules of coexpressed microRNAs that were highly correlated with CIE effects and predicted target genes encoding differentially expressed proteins. Coexpressed CIE-relevant proteins, in turn, were often negatively correlated with specific microRNA modules. Our results provide evidence that microRNA-orchestrated translational imbalances are driving the behavioral transition from alcohol consumption to dependence. This study represents the first attempt to combine ex vivo microRNA and protein expression on a global scale from the same mammalian brain samples. The integrative systems approach used here will improve our understanding of brain adaptive changes in response to drug abuse and suggests the potential therapeutic use of microRNAs as tools to prevent or compensate multiple neuroadaptations underlying addictive behavior.

  20. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  1. Fatores de risco para dependência de álcool em adolescentes Factores de riesgo en adolescentes con dependencia al alcohol Risk factors for alcohol dependence in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rozin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco para dependência do álcool na adolescência. MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa com 21 artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2009, capturados nas bases de dados LILACS, BVS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE e IBECS com as palavras-chave: adolescência, risco para dependência e álcool. RESULTADOS: Há evidências de que o álcool é a droga mais consumida por adolescentes, com início entre 14 a 16 anos. Os fatores de risco para dependência estão relacionados ao início precoce do uso, influência da mídia, relacionamento conturbado com os pais, uso por membro da família, abuso sexual, violência doméstica, baixa autoestima, curiosidade, pressão de colegas, entre outros. Apontam a vulnerabilidade genética para a dependência do álcool e controvérsias em relação ao gênero e classe social. CONCLUSÃO: Os serviços de saúde devem incorporar estratégias preventivas de identificação de riscos para a dependência, controle e acompanhamento específicos ao grupo de adolescentes dependentes.OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo en adolescentes con dependencia al alcohol. MÉTODOS: Revisión integrativa realizada con 21 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2009, identificados en las bases de datos LILACS, BVS, MEDLINE, COCHRANE e IBECS con las palabras-clave: adolescencia, riesgo a dependencia y alcohol. RESULTADOS: Hay evidencias de que el alcohol es la droga más consumida por adolescentes, con inicio entre 14 a 16 años. Los factores de riesgo para la dependencia están relacionados al inicio precoz del uso, influencia de los medios de comunicación, relacionamiento conturbado con los padres, uso por un miembro de la familia, abuso sexual, violencia doméstica, baja autoestima, curiosidad, presión de colegas, entre otros. Apuntan la vulnerabilidad genética para la dependencia al alcohol y controversias en relación al género y clase social. CONCLUSIÓN: Los servicios de salud deben incorporar estrategias

  2. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Access: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Nilsson, Anton; Kedir, Abdu

    We exploit changes in minimum legal alcohol purchasing ages in Denmark in order to estimate effects on short- and long-term health outcomes, as well as on human capital formation. Employing a difference-in-differences approach for immediate outcomes and a “regression kink design” for long......-term outcomes, we bring comprehensive evidence on the health and education effects of three reforms, which affected alcohol availability along different dimensions and margins – 1) establishing an off-premise alcohol purchase age of 15 (1998), 2) raising the off-premise alcohol purchase age to 16 (2004), and 3......) increasing the purchase age of beverages exceeding 16.5% in alcohol content from 16 to 18 (2011). Our findings show significant short-term effects of the first and third reforms in terms of reducing injuries and alcohol-related conditions, and some long-term effects of the first reform in terms of reducing...

  3. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible...... association between alcohol intake and autoimmune Graves' hyperthyroidism. DESIGN: population-based, case-control study METHODS: In a well-defined Danish population (2,027,208 person-years of observation), we prospectively identified patients with new overt thyroid dysfunction and studied 272 patients...... with Graves' hyperthyroidism. For each patient, we recruited four age-sex-region-matched controls with normal thyroid function (n=1,088). MEASUREMENTS: Participants gave detailed information on current and previous alcohol intake as well as other factors to be used for analyses. The association between...

  4. Evaluation of the Evidence Base for the Alcohol Industry's Actions to Reduce Drink Driving Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Bao, James; Jernigan, David H; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the evidence base for the content of initiatives that the alcohol industry implemented to reduce drink driving from 1982 to May 2015. We systematically analyzed the content of 266 global initiatives that the alcohol industry has categorized as actions to reduce drink driving. Social aspects public relations organizations (i.e., organizations funded by the alcohol industry to handle issues that may be damaging to the business) sponsored the greatest proportion of the actions. Only 0.8% (n = 2) of the sampled industry actions were consistent with public health evidence of effectiveness for reducing drink driving. The vast majority of the alcohol industry's actions to reduce drink driving does not reflect public health evidenced-based recommendations, even though effective drink-driving countermeasures exist, such as a maximum blood alcohol concentration limit of 0.05 grams per deciliter for drivers and widespread use of sobriety checkpoints.

  5. Research opportunities for medications to treat alcohol dependence: addressing stakeholders' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of the heterogeneity of alcohol dependence, these medications will not work for all people, in all circumstances. Moreover, clinicians are not routinely prescribing these medications for alcohol treatment. This commentary poses a number of issues that must be addressed in order to advance the alcohol research field and to make medications a mainstream treatment for problematic drinking. These issues are framed from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved, including clinicians, patients, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payers. Addressing these issues will not only help to improve treatment but, as further described, will also open up many new research opportunities for alcohol investigators in the coming decade. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Laramée

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation: AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption.

  8. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...

  9. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  10. Does alcohol craving mediate the impulsivity-aggression relationship in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Franken, I.H.A.; van de Wetering, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The relationship between the use of alcohol and aggression is complex and represents major public health issues. Delving into the nature of this association is vital, since various underlying factors may contribute to the expression of aggression. Objective: This study examined trait

  11. Meta-Analysis Reveals Significant Association of the 3'-UTR VNTR in SLC6A3 with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Fan, Rongli; Li, Ming D

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have analyzed the association of 3'-untranslated region variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in SLC6A3 with alcohol dependence (AD), the results remain controversial. This study aimed to determine whether this variant indeed has any genetic effect on AD by integrating 17 reported studies with 5,929 participants included. The A9-dominant genetic model that considers A9-repeat and non-A9 repeat as 2 genotypes and compared their frequencies in alcoholics with that in controls was adopted. Considering the potential influence of ethnicity, differences in diagnostic criteria of AD, and alcoholic subgroups, stratified meta-analyses were conducted. There existed no evidence for the presence of heterogeneity among the studied samples, indicating the results under the fixed-effects model are acceptable. We found a significant association of VNTR A9 genotypes with AD in all ethnic populations (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.25; p = 0.045) and the Caucasian population (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.31; p = 0.036). We also found VNTR A9 genotypes to be significantly associated with alcoholism as defined by the DSM-IV criteria (pooled OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.03, 1.36; p = 0.02). Further, we found a significant association between VNTR A9 genotypes and alcoholism associated with alcohol withdrawal seizure or delirium tremens (pooled OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24, 1.92; p = 1.0 × 10(-4) ). In all these meta-analyses, no evidence of publication bias was detected. We concluded that the VNTR polymorphism has an important role in the etiology of AD, and individuals with at least 1 A9 allele are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than persons carrying the non-A9 allele. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. A working memory bias for alcohol-related stimuli depends on drinking score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Klaus; Pajak, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Harkin, Ben; Jones, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We tested 44 participants with respect to their working memory (WM) performance on alcohol-related versus neutral visual stimuli. Previously an alcohol attentional bias (AAB) had been reported using these stimuli, where the attention of frequent drinkers was automatically drawn toward alcohol-related items (e.g., beer bottle). The present study set out to provide evidence for an alcohol memory bias (AMB) that would persist over longer time-scales than the AAB. The WM task we used required memorizing 4 stimuli in their correct locations and a visual interference task was administered during a 4-sec delay interval. A subsequent probe required participants to indicate whether a stimulus was shown in the correct or incorrect location. For each participant we calculated a drinking score based on 3 items derived from the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and we observed that higher scorers better remembered alcohol-related images compared with lower scorers, particularly when these were presented in their correct locations upon recall. This provides first evidence for an AMB. It is important to highlight that this effect persisted over a 4-sec delay period including a visual interference task that erased iconic memories and diverted attention away from the encoded items, thus the AMB cannot be reduced to the previously reported AAB. Our finding calls for further investigation of alcohol-related cognitive biases in WM, and we propose a preliminary model that may guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Zakiniaeiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC, mid (MCC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome. Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  16. Poor autonomic nervous system functioning during sleep in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcoholism is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function is a major indicator of cardiovascular health. Sleep is a suitable model to investigate ANS activity free from wake-related confounders. We investigated night-time ANS functioning, and the relationship between ANS activity and severity of alcohol dependence in chronic alcoholism. Methods Fourteen recently abstaining alcoholics (Age: 42.0±9.0y, 7 women) and sixteen age- and sex-matched controls (Age: 45.2±9.1y, 8 women) underwent a night of standard clinical polysomnography, including electrocardiographic recording. Time- and frequency-domain spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was performed across hours of the night and during artifact-free epochs of stable sleep and wakefulness (pre-sleep wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep). Results Alcoholics had a poorer subjective and objective sleep quality compared to controls. Across the night, alcoholic men and women had elevated heart rate, reduced total HRV, i.e. lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal inter-beat-intervals, and reduced high frequency activity (assessed by the high frequency power and by the square root of the mean squared of successive heart period differences). This ANS pattern was most apparent at the beginning of the night. None of the ANS measures was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption or duration of alcohol dependence. Conclusions Our results show that ANS functioning is disrupted during the night, even in undisturbed sleep periods, indicating poor cardiovascular functioning in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men and women. PMID:24575956

  17. Activation of neural stem cells from quiescence drives reactive hippocampal neurogenesis after alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dayna M; Nickell, Chelsea G; Chen, Kevin Y; McClain, Justin A; Heath, Megan M; Deeny, M Ayumi; Nixon, Kimberly

    2018-05-01

    Neural stem cell-driven adult neurogenesis contributes to the integrity of the hippocampus. Excessive alcohol consumption in alcoholism results in hippocampal degeneration that may recover with abstinence. Reactive, increased adult neurogenesis during abstinence following alcohol dependence may contribute to recovery, but the mechanism driving reactive neurogenesis is not known. Therefore, adult, male rats were exposed to alcohol for four days and various markers were used to examine cell cycle dynamics, the percentage and number of neural progenitor cell subtypes, and the percentage of quiescent versus activated progenitors. Using a screen for cell cycle perturbation, we showed that the cell cycle is not likely altered at 7 days in abstinence. As the vast majority of Bromodeoxyuridine-positive (+) cells were co-labeled with progenitor cell marker, Sox2, we then developed a quadruple fluorescent labeling scheme to examine Type-1, -2a, -2b and -3 progenitor cells simultaneously. Prior alcohol dependence indiscriminately increased all subtypes at 7 days, the peak of the reactive proliferation. An evaluation of the time course of reactive cell proliferation revealed that cells begin proliferating at 5 days post alcohol, where only actively dividing Type 2 progenitors were increased by alcohol. Furthermore, prior alcohol increased the percentage of actively dividing Sox2+ progenitors, which supported that reactive neurogenesis is likely due to the activation of progenitors out of quiescence. These observations were associated with granule cell number returning to normal at 28 days. Therefore, activating stem and progenitor cells out of quiescence may be the mechanism underlying hippocampal recovery in abstinence following alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Derntl, Birgit; Osthaus, Friederike; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset on treatment completion. Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including 3 core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: (i) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), (ii) emotional perspective taking, and (iii) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. Subjective measures were also obtained, including estimates of task performance and a self-report measure of empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index). According to treatment outcomes, patients were divided into a patient group with a regular treatment course (e.g., with planned discharge and without relapse during treatment) or an irregular treatment course (e.g., relapse and/or premature and unplanned termination of treatment, "dropout"). Compared with patients completing treatment in a regular fashion, patients with relapse and/or dropout of treatment had significantly poorer facial emotion recognition ability at treatment onset. Additional logistic regression analyses confirmed these results and identified poor emotion recognition performance as a significant predictor for relapse/dropout. Self-report (subjective) measures did not correspond with neurobehavioral social cognition measures, respectively objective task performance. Analyses of individual subtypes of facial emotions revealed poorer recognition particularly of disgust, anger, and no (neutral faces) emotion in patients with relapse/dropout. Social cognition in AUD is clinically relevant. Less successful treatment outcome was associated with poorer facial emotion recognition ability at the beginning of

  19. The role of the glutamatergic system in the patogenesis and treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Łukasik

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of satisfactory results of alcohol dependence treatment has necessitated the search for new directions of studies. One of them is connected with glutamatergic transmission. The influence of alcohol on this transmission is very complex and relates to changes including at the molecular level. However, the diversity of glutamatergic receptors creates a new possibility of modulation of its activity. It leads to decrease of alcohol reward abilities, prolongs abstinence time and reduces the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication in alcohol addicts. The use of acamprosate – a glutamatergic transmission modulator drug – and naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist improves therapy effectiveness of acamprosate alone. Satisfactory results were achieved in the studies of topiramate – an antagonist of AMPA and KA receptors. Its effectiveness was proved in clinical studies. Topiramate reduced alcohol craving and prolonged abstinence time, which decreased the probability of relapse. There are promising preclinical results of groups I and II metabotropic receptor antagonists. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate precisely their role in alcohol dependence.

  20. Blonanserin, an antipsychotic and dopamine D₂/D₃receptor antagonist, and ameliorated alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Manabu; Ujike, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) is used for treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. Because BNS has weak α1 receptor blocking activities and is almost devoid of histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 antagonist activity, BNS is better tolerated than other atypical antipsychotics. A high degree of D₃ receptor blockage is reported to be predictive of drug abuse and alcoholism, and BNS has strong D₃ receptor antagonism. Thus, BNS may be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. We present a case in which BNS ameliorated alcohol dependence.

  1. Alcohol dependence: analysis of factors associated with retention of patients in outpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsi Elbreder, Márcia; de Souza e Silva, Rebeca; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2011-01-01

    To identify factors associated with retention in treatment of alcohol-dependent individuals and to compare treatment retention between men and women. Analysis of the treatment attendance records and baseline characteristics of 833 men and 218 women who undertook to attend follow-up treatment in an alcoholism treatment centre. Retention after 4 weeks of treatment is more likely to occur among those using adjuvant medication (the most frequent of which was disulfiram), those presenting severe alcoholism and those who are older and tend to be frequent drinkers. There was no gender difference regarding treatment retention. Such results suggest possibilities for developing specific strategies to reduce the risk of early dropout from treatment.

  2. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  3. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    162–78. 9. Carter AC, Capone C, Eaton Short E: Co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders in veteran populations. J Dual...Neuropsychological functioning and alcohol dependence. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2005; 18: 319–23. 26. Scott JC, Matt GE, Wrocklage KM, et al : A quantitative...RJ: Cognitive abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder. Trends in Cogn Sci 2006; 10: 271–7. 32. Qureshi SU, Long ME, Bradshaw MR, et al : Does

  4. Alcohol and Opioid Dependence Medications: Prescription Trends, Overall and by Physician Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Tami L.; Kassed, Cheryl A.; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Levit, Katharine R.; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in addiction neurobiology have led to the approval of new medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. This study examined data from the IMS National Prescription Audit (NPA) Plus™ database of retail pharmacy transactions to evaluate trends in U.S. retail sales and prescriptions of FDA-approved medications to treat substance use disorders. Data reveal that prescriptions for alcoholism medications grew from 393,000 in 2003 ($30 million in sales) to an esti...

  5. Specificity of social anxiety disorder as a risk factor for alcohol and cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Schmidt, Norman B; Lang, Alan R; Small, Jason W; Schlauch, Robert C; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2008-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cannabis dependence. However, the temporal sequencing of these disorders has not been extensively studied to determine whether SAD serves as a specific risk factor for problematic substance use. The present study examined these relationships after controlling for theoretically-relevant variables (e.g., gender, other Axis I pathology) in a longitudinal cohort over approximately 14 years. The sample was drawn from participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project. After excluding those with substance use disorders at baseline, SAD at study entry was associated with 6.5 greater odds of cannabis dependence (but not abuse) and 4.5 greater odds of alcohol dependence (but not abuse) at follow-up after controlling for relevant variables (e.g., gender, depression, conduct disorder). The relationship between SAD and alcohol and cannabis dependence remained even after controlling for other anxiety disorders. Other anxiety disorders and mood disorders were not associated with subsequent cannabis or alcohol use disorder after controlling for relevant variables. Among the internalizing disorders, SAD appears to serve as a unique risk factor for the subsequent onset of cannabis and alcohol dependence.

  6. Specificity of Social Anxiety Disorder as a Risk Factor for Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Lang, Alan R.; Small, Jason W.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cannabis dependence. However, the temporal sequencing of these disorders has not been extensively studied to determine whether SAD serves as a specific risk factor for problematic substance use. The present study examined these relationships after controlling for theoretically-relevant variables (e.g., gender, other Axis I pathology) in a longitudinal cohort over approximately 14 years. The sample was drawn from participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project. After excluding those with substance use disorders at baseline, SAD at study entry was associated with 6.5 greater odds of cannabis dependence (but not abuse) and 4.5 greater odds of alcohol dependence (but not abuse) at follow-up after controlling for relevant variables (e.g., gender, depression, conduct disorder). The relationship between SAD and alcohol and cannabis dependence remained even after controlling for other anxiety disorders. Other anxiety disorders and mood disorders were not associated with subsequent cannabis or alcohol use disorder after controlling for relevant variables. Among the internalizing disorders, SAD appears to serve as a unique risk factor for the subsequent onset of cannabis and alcohol dependence. PMID:17320907

  7. Defense mechanisms in alcohol dependent patients with oral and oropharinegal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrić, Daniela; Francisković, Tanja; Juretić, Mirna; Suković, Zoran; Graovac, Mirjana; Racki, Sanjin; Ruzić, Tatjana; Britvić, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    The effects of psychological factors in alcoholics with malignant tumor of the oral cavity and oropharynx are scarcely explored. The aim of the research was to examine early family relations and investigate differences in the use of defense mechanisms in alcohol dependent patients suffering from malignant tumor of the oral cavity and oropharynx compared to alcohol dependent persons without malignant tumors and healthy controls. The research included 51 alcohol dependent patients treated for malignant tumor of the oral cavity and oropharynx at the University Hospital Center Rijeka from 2005 to 2009. The control groups corresponded to the experimental group in age, sex and education level. The research used a general demographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Revised Questionnaire of Life Style and Defense Mechanisms. The research groups showed significant differences in difficult childhood (p defense mechanisms of regression (p = 0.004) and displacement (p = 0.013) compared to alcoholics without malignant tumors who significantly more often used neurotic defense mechanisms - compensation (p = 0.005) and intellectualization (p defense mechanisms. These are the psychological factors in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in alcohol addicts.

  8. When evidence is not enough: a case study on alcohol marketing legislation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This case study identifies the influence and mechanisms that the alcohol industry in Brazil has been able to bring to bear to maintain self-regulation in the marketing of beer and many wines set against a trend of increasing alcohol consumption in Brazil, particularly among young people and women. It identifies the forms of power and strategies used by the alcohol industry in Brazil that may be useful for other countries to consider in seeking to move from self-regulation to state regulation of alcohol marketing. A review was conducted of recent legal documents and court cases, as well as the activities of alcoholic beverage industries. Because of an exemption, Brazilian law had established that both beer and many wines are not alcoholic beverages for marketing purposes. These beverages are subjected to industry self-regulation codes. Research shows that beer and wine marketing often violates industry codes, with little or no enforcement of penalties for non-compliance. Attempts to include beer and wine in the legal definition of alcohol have been opposed by the alcohol industry, and the courts have delegated responsibility to the legislature. The recent legal activities surrounding alcohol sales during the 2014 World Cup games in Brazil provide evidence of the alcohol industry's influence on the legislative process. The alcohol industry in Brazil plays a significant role in the formulation of public policies on alcohol, especially regarding the regulation of marketing. This power is exercised by strong lobbying of government officials responsible for public policies. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Aberrant regional brain activities in alcohol dependence: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu XZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Xianzhu Tu,1 Juanjuan Wang,2 Xuming Liu,3 Jiyong Zheng4 1Department of Psychiatry, Seventh People’s Hospital of Wenzhou City, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Medical Imaging, The Affiliated Huai’an No 1 People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: Whether moderate alcohol consumption has health benefits remains controversial, but the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior and brain function are well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol-induced regional brain activities and their relationships with behavioral factors. Subjects and methods: A total of 29 alcohol-dependent subjects (9 females and 20 males and 29 status-matched healthy controls (11 females and 18 males were recruited. Severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ and alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT were used to evaluate the severity of alcohol craving. Regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis was used to explore the alcohol-induced regional brain changes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to investigate the ability of regional brain activities to distinguish alcohol-dependent subjects from healthy controls. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the relationships between alcohol-induced ReHo differences and behavioral factors. Results: Alcohol-dependent subjects related to healthy controls showed higher ReHo areas in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, bilateral medial frontal gyrus (MFG, left precentral gyrus (PG, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG, and right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG and lower ReHo areas in

  10. Alcohol-induced blackout as a criminal defense or mitigating factor: an evidence-based review and admissibility as scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Mark R; Caudill, David S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol-related amnesia--alcohol blackout--is a common claim of criminal defendants. The generally held belief is that during an alcohol blackout, other cognitive functioning is severely impaired or absent. The presentation of alcohol blackout as scientific evidence in court requires that the science meets legal reliability standards (Frye, FRE702/Daubert). To determine whether "alcohol blackout" meets these standards, an evidence-based analysis of published scientific studies was conducted. A total of 26 empirical studies were identified including nine in which an alcohol blackout was induced and directly observed. No objective or scientific method to verify the presence of an alcoholic blackout while it is occurring or to confirm its presence retrospectively was identified. Only short-term memory is impaired and other cognitive functions--planning, attention, and social skills--are not impaired. Alcoholic blackouts would not appear to meet standards for scientific evidence and should not be admissible. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Age at onset of first depressive episode as a predictor for escitalopram treatment of major depression comorbid with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, Leea H; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine predictors of the response to escitalopram, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressant and memantine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor blocker, for the treatment of major depression comorbid with alcohol dependence. Eighty alcohol dependent treatment-seeking adult patients with comorbid major depressive disorder were randomized to receive either memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg for 26 weeks. In both treatment groups, depression was reduced significantly. Comparisons were made between patients in remission (final Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)evidence that the onset of the first major depressive episode might be a clinically relevant predictor of a response to escitalopram treatment in patients with major depression and comorbid alcohol dependence.

  12. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower

  13. Harm reduction with pharmacotherapy for homeless people with alcohol dependence: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Saxon, Andrew J; Duncan, Mark H; Smart, Brian F; Merrill, Joseph O; Malone, Daniel K; Jackson, T Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K

    2014-07-01

    Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among homeless, alcohol-dependent

  14. Traumatic Experiences, Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in German Inpatients Treated for Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Lincoln, Tania M; Lüdecke, Daniel; Bong, Sönke; Schulte, Bernd; Verthein, Uwe; Schäfer, Ingo

    2018-03-21

    Traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and affect its course and outcome. Prior prevalence reports are limited by the inclusion of individuals with additional substance use disorders (SUDs), a focus on childhood events only and the use of self-ratings only. To examine the prevalence of traumatic experiences, revictimization and PTSD in inpatients treated for alcohol dependence without other SUD, emphasizing interpersonal violence across the whole lifespan. For this cross-sectional study alcohol-dependent patients without additional SUD (N = 230, 73% male, mean age 43 years) were recruited in an inpatient detoxification unit and were administered the Structured Trauma Interview, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Data analysis comprised descriptive statistics and appropriate significance tests. 36.2% reported severe childhood physical or sexual abuse and 45.6% reported at least one of these types of abuse in adulthood. The lifetime rate of interpersonal violence was 61.1%. The prevalence of current PTSD was 13.2%. Women with a history of childhood abuse were about seven times as likely to be victimized in adulthood as women without these experiences, while in men revictimization was not significant. Even in patients with alcohol dependence without additional SUD experiences of interpersonal violence and PTSD are frequent. In order to adequately respond to the needs of this population, trauma and PTSD should routinely be assessed in alcohol-dependence treatment and considered in treatment planning if necessary.

  15. 38 CFR 3.204 - Evidence of dependents and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and age. 3.204 Section 3.204 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Evidence of dependents and age. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, VA will... furnished for the purpose of establishing marriage, dissolution of marriage, age, relationship, or death, if...

  16. Evidence for density dependent population regulation in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The means by which populations are regulated form a central theme in conservation biology, and much debate has revolved around density dependence as a mechanism driving population ... A significant increase in adult female survival was evident which is likely to have given rise to recent changes in population growth.

  17. Management of Dependence on Alcohol - 2nd Of Two Articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    2008-10-27

    Oct 27, 2008 ... knowledge of the physics and air/fluid flow and function of thoracic drainage. Pleural membrane. The inner visceral pleura and outer parietal pleura .... Give oxygen by nasal cannula or facemask – depending on the patient‟s condition. Prior to the procedure make sure intravenous access is available.

  18. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  19. Coping mediates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among out-patient clients in Project MATCH when dependence severity is high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Corey R; Maisto, Stephen A; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that alcohol-specific coping is a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our primary aim was to test whether baseline dependence severity moderates the mediational effect of CBT on drinking outcomes via coping. Secondary data analysis of Project MATCH , a multi-site alcohol treatment trial in which participants, recruited in out-patient and aftercare arms, were randomized to three treatments: CBT, motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF). Nine research sites in the United States. A total of 1063 adults with AUD. The primary outcomes were percentage days abstinent and percentage heavy drinking days at the 1-year follow-up. Coping was assessed with the Processes of Change Questionnaire . Dependence severity was measured with the Alcohol Dependence Scale . Among the full available sample (across treatment arms), there were no significant moderated mediation effects. Double moderated mediation analyses indicated that several moderated mediation effects were moderated by treatment arm (all P cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder was conditional on dependence severity. End-of-treatment coping mediated the positive treatment effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on 1-year drinking outcomes among out-patient clients when dependence severity was high, but not when dependence severity was low or moderate. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Computerized tomographic study on the brain of patients with alcohol dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akira; Tsuji, Motohiro; Nakamura, Michihiko; Nakajima, Teruo.

    1991-01-01

    One hundred ten patients with alcohol dependence and 56 psychiatric patients with either senile dementia, amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or chronic schizophrenia were investigated with a CT scan of the brain. The maximum width of the 3rd ventricle was measured, and the presence/absence of enlargement of the lateral ventricle and of atrophy of the frontal lobe was determined independently by 3 physicians. The width of the 3rd ventricle in alcoholic and the other patients examined was gradually enlarged with aging, and the width in these patients was significantly larger than that in the age-matched control patients who were selected from the patients with amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or schizophrenia. The enlargement of the lateral ventricles observed in the alcoholic patients always accompanied the enlargement of the 3rd ventricle, but not vice versa. The alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy showed a higher incidence of withdrawal delirium than the patients without atrophy. These findings suggest that the chronic intake of alcohol might affect primarily the area around the 3rd ventricle, resulting in enlargement of this ventricle and consequential enlargement of the lateral ventricles and also that the alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy could have a high risk for a manifestation of alcoholic withdrawal delirium. (author)

  1. Ability of baclofen in reducing alcohol craving and intake: II--Preliminary clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addolorato, G; Caputo, F; Capristo, E; Colombo, G; Gessa, G L; Gasbarrini, G

    2000-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows the efficacy of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor agonist baclofen in reducing alcohol intake in rats, but no studies have been performed in alcoholics. In the present preliminary study we investigated the effect of short-term baclofen administration on craving for alcohol, ethanol intake, and abstinence from alcohol in alcoholic individuals. Ten male current alcoholic individuals were admitted to the study. Baclofen was orally administered for 4 weeks, at a dose of 15 mg/day refracted in three times per day for the first 3 days, with the dose increased to 30 mg/day for the remaining 27 days. Each subject was checked as an outpatient every week for the 4 weeks; at each visit (T0-T4) craving level was evaluated by the Alcohol Craving Scale (ACS), and abstinence from alcohol was assessed based on the individual's self-evaluation, family member interview, and the main biological markers of alcohol abuse. A self-reported alcohol intake was recorded as the mean number of standard drinks consumed per day. Nine subjects completed the study; of these, two subjects continued to drink alcohol although they substantially reduced their daily drinks in the first week of treatment, whereas seven maintained abstinence throughout the experimental period. Craving was significantly reduced from the first week of the drug administration (p alcohol disappeared. Values of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, alanine aminotransferase, and mean cellular volume significantly decreased by the end of the study. Tolerability was fair in all participants; headache, vertigo, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypotension, increased sleepiness, and tiredness were present as side effects in the first stage of the treatment. No participants showed craving for the drug. With the limitations of the low number of individuals evaluated and the open design, this preliminary clinical study supports the preclinical evidence on the effect of baclofen in

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  3. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  5. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as we...

  6. WHO/ISBRA Study on State and Trait Markers of Alcohol Use and Dependence: analysis of demographic, behavioral, physiologic, and drinking variables that contribute to dependence and seeking treatment. International Society on Biomedical Research on Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jason; Grant, Bridget; Monteiro, Maristela; Tabakoff, Boris

    2002-07-01

    Discussions between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society on Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) identified the need for a multiple-center international study on state and trait markers of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. The reasoning behind the generation of such a project included the need to understand the alcohol use characteristics of diverse populations and the performance of biological markers of alcohol use in a variety of settings throughout the world. A second major reason for initiating this study was to collect DNA for well-structured and stratified association studies between genetic markers and/or "candidate" genes and behavioral/physiological phenotypes of importance to predisposition to alcohol dependence. An extensive interview instrument was developed with leadership from the U.S. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The instrument was translated from English to Finnish, French, German, Japanese, and Portuguese (Brazilian). One thousand eight hundred sixty-three subjects were recruited at five clinical centers (Montreal, Canada; Helsinki, Finland; Sapporo, Japan; São Paulo, Brazil; and Sydney, Australia). The subjects responded to the structured interview and provided blood and urine samples for biochemical analysis. This article focuses on the demographic characteristics of the study subjects, their drinking habits, alcohol-dependence characteristics, comorbid psychiatric and other drug variables, and predictors for seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed and used to explore variables that contribute to various levels of alcohol consumption, to a diagnosis of alcohol dependence, and to seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. ANOVA with post hoc comparisons, chi2, and Pearson moment calculations were used as necessary to assess additional relationships between variables. A number of factors previously noted in disparate studies

  7. Use of Anti-Craving Agents in Soldiers with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, P L; Gupta, A K; Sharma, P K

    2008-10-01

    In a search for an effective 'anti-alcohol pill', three modern anti-craving agents have been studied in alcoholics of Army/ DSC, Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard. 129 patients of alcohol dependence syndrome were randomly assigned to three groups where topiramate, acamprosate and naltrexone were used as anti-craving agents in a year long prospective study. Of these 92 patients completed the study. Topiramate (76.3%) appears to be significantly more effective (p<0.01) in sustaining abstinence, though naltrexone (57.7%) and acamprosate (60.70%) offer moderate relapse-prevention efficacy. Side effects of all the three agents have been mild, transient and self-limiting. We recommend a trial of topiramate, before invaliding out of any alcoholic soldier.

  8. The effects of educational intervention on nutritional behaviour in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Ponzio, Elisa; Pertosa, Maria Elisabetta; Aliotta, Federica; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status and the impact of an educational intervention on nutritional behaviour in alcohol-dependent patients. A pre-and post-intervention questionnaire and a follow-up interview were administered to 58 patients of a residential alcohol treatment service. Females were at lower risk of being overweight than males, even after adjusting for amount and preferred type of alcohol beverage. Before intervention, 19% consumed 3 meals/day. Following the educational intervention, 22.2% of participants improved their knowledge. After 6 months, when 45 patients agreed to a telephone interview of whom 80% reported continued abstinence, 70.7% reported eating more than 3 meals/day. Nutritional behaviour of alcohol patients after residential treatments improved during follow-up, and it is possible that an educational intervention to increase knowledge on healthy nutrition style may have contributed.

  9. Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of aggression in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Koller, Gabi; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, violence and antisocial behavior are common in alcoholism, but their biological basis is poorly understood. Several studies and recent meta-analyses indicate that in schizophrenia the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype may be associated with aggression, most often in methionine allele carriers. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent in-patients (293 German patients and 499 controls, and additional 190 Polish patients as replication sample). As expected, patients with a history of violent or non-violent crime were more often male, had an earlier onset of alcoholism and more withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens, and were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts. COMT genotype was not associated with a history of violent or non-violent crime. More studies are needed on the neurobiological basis of aggression and violence in alcoholism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Adolescent Alcohol Drinking Renders Adult Drinking BLA-Dependent: BLA Hyper-Activity as Contributor to Comorbid Alcohol Use Disorder and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Mahsa; Mangone, Elizabeth; Ray, Madelyn H; McDannald, Michael A

    2017-11-14

    Adolescent alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol-use disorder in adulthood. Yet, the changes in adult neural function resulting from adolescent alcohol drinking remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that adolescent alcohol drinking alters basolateral amygdala (BLA) function, making alcohol drinking BLA-dependent in adulthood. Male, Long Evans rats were given voluntary, intermittent access to alcohol (20% ethanol) or a bitter, isocaloric control solution, across adolescence. Half of the rats in each group received neurotoxic BLA lesions. In adulthood, all rats were given voluntary, intermittent access to alcohol. BLA lesions reduced adult alcohol drinking in rats receiving adolescent access to alcohol, but not in rats receiving adolescent access to the control solution. The effect of the BLA lesion was most apparent in high alcohol drinking adolescent rats. The BLA is essential for fear learning and is hyper-active in anxiety disorders. The results are consistent with adolescent heavy alcohol drinking inducing BLA hyper-activity, providing a neural mechanism for comorbid alcohol use disorder and anxiety disorders.

  11. 38 CFR 17.81 - Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.81 Section 17.81... Federal Agencies § 17.81 Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug... “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part II) and the “Confidentiality of Certain...

  12. General and religious coping predict drinking outcomes for alcohol dependent adults in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Ellingsen, Victor J; Tzilos, Golfo K; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2015-04-01

    Religiosity is associated with improved treatment outcomes among adults with alcohol dependence; however, it is unknown whether religious coping predicts drinking outcomes above and beyond the effects of coping in general, and whether gender differences exist. We assessed 116 alcohol-dependent adults (53% women; mean age = 37, SD = 8.6) for use of religious coping, general coping, and alcohol use within 2 weeks of entering outpatient treatment, and again 6 months after treatment. Religious coping at 6 months predicted fewer heavy alcohol use days and fewer drinks per day. This relationship was no longer significant after controlling for general coping at 6 months. The relationship between the use of religious coping strategies and drinking outcomes is not independent of general coping. Coping skills training that includes religious coping skills, as one of several coping methods, may be useful for a subset of adults early in recovery. This novel, prospective study assessed the relationship between religious coping strategies, general coping, and treatment outcomes for alcohol-dependent adults in treatment with results suggesting that the use of religious coping as one of several coping methods may be useful for a subset of adults early in recovery. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor genes and nicotine dependence: evidence for association from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Pergadia, Michele L; Saccone, Scott F; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Saccone, Nancy L; Neuman, Rosalind J; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Montgomery, Grant W; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G; Goate, Alison M; Rice, John P; Bierut, Laura J; Madden, Pamela A F

    2008-06-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABRA) gene clusters on chromosomes 4 and 5 have been examined previously for their association with alcohol and drug dependence phenotypes. Compelling evidence suggests that GABRA2 is associated with alcohol and drug dependence. However, no study has investigated whether genes in the GABA(A) gene clusters are associated with nicotine dependence, an important phenotype with a high correlation to persistent smoking, the single most preventable cause of mortality world-wide. Using data on 1050 nicotine-dependent cases and 879 non-dependent smoking controls, we used logistic regression to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes in the GABA(A) receptor system as well as GABBR2 (a GABA(B) gene). We found evidence for association between four SNPs in GABRA4, two SNPs in GABRA2 and one SNP in GABRE with nicotine dependence. These included a synonymous polymorphism in GABRA2 (rs279858), lying in a highly conserved region, which has been shown previously to be associated with alcohol and drug dependence. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs16859834/rs2229940) in GABRA4, also highly conserved, was associated at P-value of 0.03. Significant haplotypes associated with nicotine dependence were found for GABRA2. No evidence for epistatic interactions were noted. Our study did not find evidence for an association between GABBR2 gene and nicotine dependence. Given the potential role of compounds that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission in smoking cessation research, these findings have enormous potential for informing the wider field of addiction research.

  14. Prevalence and the factors associated with binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence: a population-based study of Chinese adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Lee, Sing; Chow, Julie; Lau, Joseph; Tsang, Adley; Choi, Jacqueline; Griffiths, Sian M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3% of males being alcohol abusers and 2.3% dependent on alcohol. The corresponding figures for women were all lower at 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Younger age groups showed the highest prevalence of these drinking problems. Among male binge drinkers, 18.7% were also alcohol abusers and 12.3% were alcohol dependent. Among female binge drinkers, 16% reported alcohol abuse and 9.9% reported dependence. Male binge drinkers were less likely to be older, less likely to be students but more likely to be employed in the service industry. Female binge drinkers were less likely to be over 60 years of age or married but more likely to be smokers. In both genders, smoking was significantly associated with the likelihood of binge drinking (OR = 3.6-12.3), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.0-12.1), and dependence (OR = 5.2-20.6). Although binge drinking has been well tolerated in Chinese culture, it is strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence in both genders in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that prevalence of problematic alcohol consumption warrants greater promotion of alcohol harms awareness. Higher rates of heavy drinking in younger-aged individuals may reflect changing lifestyle behaviors and herald higher future levels of alcohol-related health and social problems.

  15. Loss of control over alcohol seeking in rats depends on individual vulnerability and duration of alcohol consumption experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, M.; Pol, S. van der; Janssen, B.S.G.; Baars, A.M.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lesscher, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by excessive alcohol use and persistent alcohol seeking despite knowledge of its negative consequences. Importantly, AUD typically develops after chronic excessive alcohol use in a subgroup of individuals who drink alcohol, suggesting that AUD results from

  16. Loss of control over alcohol seeking in rats depends on individual vulnerability and duration of alcohol consumption experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Pol, Sylvana; Janssen, Boris S G; Baars, Annemarie M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by excessive alcohol use and persistent alcohol seeking despite knowledge of its negative consequences. Importantly, AUD typically develops after chronic excessive alcohol use in a subgroup of individuals who drink alcohol, suggesting that AUD results from

  17. The Level of Alexithymia in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Does Not Influence Outcomes after Inpatient Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  18. The level of Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  19. The level of alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  20. Long-term misuse of zopiclone in an alcohol dependent woman with a history of anorexia nervosa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Z-drugs, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem, are short-acting hypnotics which act at the same receptor as the benzodiazepines, but seemingly without the potential for misuse and the development of dependence of the older benzodiazepines. However, with increased prescribing of Z-drugs, reports of misuse and possible dependence began to appear in the literature, particularly in people with a history of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric illness. Here we report the case of a woman with a history of chronic zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa, admitted for alcohol detoxification. Case presentation A 31-year old Caucasian British woman with a history of long-term zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa was admitted as an inpatient for a ten-day alcohol detoxification. Her weekly (four days out of seven intake of alcohol was 180 units and her daily intake of zopiclone, 30 mg. Apart from a short period five years ago, she had been taking zopiclone for 13 years at daily doses of up to 90 mg. She admitted to using 'on top' of her prescribed medication, purchasing extra tablets from friends or receiving them gratis from her partner. After detoxification from alcohol and zopiclone, she was prescribed diazepam which she found ineffectual and voiced her intention of returning to zopiclone on leaving the hospital. Conclusion Zopiclone is generally regarded as safer than benzodiazepines, however, this particular individual, who was using high doses of zopiclone over many years, may provide further evidence of a risk of dependency when this drug is prescribed for substance users with a comorbid psychiatric illness.

  1. Long-term misuse of zopiclone in an alcohol dependent woman with a history of anorexia nervosa: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinan, Alun; Keaney, Francis

    2010-12-10

    The Z-drugs, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem, are short-acting hypnotics which act at the same receptor as the benzodiazepines, but seemingly without the potential for misuse and the development of dependence of the older benzodiazepines. However, with increased prescribing of Z-drugs, reports of misuse and possible dependence began to appear in the literature, particularly in people with a history of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric illness. Here we report the case of a woman with a history of chronic zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa, admitted for alcohol detoxification. A 31-year old Caucasian British woman with a history of long-term zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa was admitted as an inpatient for a ten-day alcohol detoxification. Her weekly (four days out of seven) intake of alcohol was 180 units and her daily intake of zopiclone, 30 mg. Apart from a short period five years ago, she had been taking zopiclone for 13 years at daily doses of up to 90 mg. She admitted to using 'on top' of her prescribed medication, purchasing extra tablets from friends or receiving them gratis from her partner. After detoxification from alcohol and zopiclone, she was prescribed diazepam which she found ineffectual and voiced her intention of returning to zopiclone on leaving the hospital. Zopiclone is generally regarded as safer than benzodiazepines, however, this particular individual, who was using high doses of zopiclone over many years, may provide further evidence of a risk of dependency when this drug is prescribed for substance users with a comorbid psychiatric illness.

  2. Analyzing repeated measures semi-continuous data, with application to an alcohol dependence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Strawderman, Robert L; Johnson, Bankole A; O'Quigley, John M

    2016-02-01

    Two-part random effects models (Olsen and Schafer,(1) Tooze et al.(2)) have been applied to repeated measures of semi-continuous data, characterized by a mixture of a substantial proportion of zero values and a skewed distribution of positive values. In the original formulation of this model, the natural logarithm of the positive values is assumed to follow a normal distribution with a constant variance parameter. In this article, we review and consider three extensions of this model, allowing the positive values to follow (a) a generalized gamma distribution, (b) a log-skew-normal distribution, and (c) a normal distribution after the Box-Cox transformation. We allow for the possibility of heteroscedasticity. Maximum likelihood estimation is shown to be conveniently implemented in SAS Proc NLMIXED. The performance of the methods is compared through applications to daily drinking records in a secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial of topiramate for alcohol dependence treatment. We find that all three models provide a significantly better fit than the log-normal model, and there exists strong evidence for heteroscedasticity. We also compare the three models by the likelihood ratio tests for non-nested hypotheses (Vuong(3)). The results suggest that the generalized gamma distribution provides the best fit, though no statistically significant differences are found in pairwise model comparisons. © The Author(s) 2012.

  3. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Tratamento farmacológico da dependência do álcool The pharmacologic treatment of the alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Castro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available As intervenções farmacológicas podem ter um papel crucial na redução do craving, consumo de álcool e manutenção da abstinência. Este artigo revisa a farmacoterapia para a dependência de álcool com ênfase na naltrexona, dissulfiram e acamprosato. O antagonista opióide naltrexona diminui taxas de recaída, reduz dias de consumo e prolonga períodos de abstinência. Acamprosato restaura a atividade normal dos sistemas glutamato e GABA. Dissulfiram tem demonstrado ser mais efetivo para pacientes que acreditam em sua eficácia e permaneçam aderentes ao tratamento. Ondansetron tem-se mostrado promissor na dependência de álcool de início precoce, mas necessita estudos mais extensivos. Topiramato (até 300 mg/dia foi mais eficaz do que placebo no tratamento da dependência de álcool.The pharmacological intervention can play a crucial role in the reduction of craving and drinking and the maintenance of abstinence. This article reviews pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence with an emphasis on the naltrexone, dissulfiram and acamprosate. The opioid antagonist naltrexone lowers relapse rate, reduces drinking days and prolongs periods of abstinence. Acamprosate restores the normal activity of glutamate and GABA systems. Disulfiram has been shown to be most effective for patients who believe in its efficacy and remain compliant with the treatment. Ondansetron, has shown promise in the early-onset alcohol dependence but needs more extensive study. Topiramate (up to 300 mg per day was more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  5. Effect of modafinil on cognitive functions in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, L.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Schmaal, L.; van den Brink, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Dom, G.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and may have a detrimental impact on treatment response and treatment outcome. Enhancing cognitive functions may improve treatment success. Modafinil is a promising compound in this respect. Therefore, a randomized

  6. The dopamine agonist apomorphine differentially affects cognitive performance in alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Oosterwijck, A.W.A.A.; Ellenbroek, A.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cools, A.R.; Verkes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced metabolic activity in frontal brain regions, and reduced striatal dopamine receptor densities have been shown in alcohol dependent patients. Little is known on functional changes in the fronto-striatal-thalamic dopaminergic neurocircuitry in these patients. The objective of this

  7. The dopamine agonist apomorphine differentially affects cognitive performance in alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Oosterwijck, A.W.A.A.; Ellenbroek, A.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cools, A.R.; Verkes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced metabolic activity in frontal brain regions, and reduced striatal dopamine receptor densities have been shown in alcohol dependent patients. Little is known on functional changes in the fronto-striatal-thalamic dopaminergic neurocircuitry in these patients. The objective of this

  8. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  9. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  10. Temporal stability of diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder in male alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M. W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the temporal stability of diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder in 432 male alcohol dependent patients. Indicators for temporal stability were criterion continuation (i.e., the proportion of current or recent diagnoses among those with a lifetime diagnosis) and

  11. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  12. Uso potencial dos anticonvulsivantes no tratamento ambulatorial da dependência de álcool Potential use of the anticonvulsants in the outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Castro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente três medicações (dissulfiram, naltrexona e acamprosato são aprovadas pela Food and Drug Administration (FDA para tratar a dependência de álcool. As drogas anticonvulsivantes clássicas são raramente empregadas como alternativa por causa dos seus efeitos colaterais, mas a sua última geração pode ser útil. Os anticonvulsivantes podem ser uma alternativa aos benzodiazepínicos (BZD e a outros tratamentos farmacológicos na prevenção de complicações na desintoxicação por apresentarem ausência de propriedades aditivas e um melhor perfil de efeitos adversos do que os anticonvulsivantes clássicos. Anticonvulsivantes como carbamazepina, ácido valpróico, gabapentina e topiramato demonstraram-se excelentes tratamentos para síndrome de abstinência do álcool e prevenção de recaídas. Embora nenhum desses agentes tenha sido aprovado pela FDA, existe uma crescente evidência na literatura que apóia o seu uso.Currently three medications (disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are approved by the FDA to treat alcohol dependence by the FDA. The classical anticonvulsive drugs are rarely employed as an alternative because of their side effects, but the latest generation of anticonvulsants could be useful. The anticonvulsants can be a alternative to BZD and other pharmacological treatments in the prevention of complications during the detoxification therapy, because of the absence of addictive properties and a better adverse effects profile than classical anticonvulsant drugs. Anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, gabapentin and topiramate have shown to be excellent treatment for alcohol withdrawal and for the prevention of alcohol relapse. Although none of these agents have been approved by the FDA yet, there is growing evidence in the literature to support their use.

  13. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AND MARITAL QUALITY AMONG WIVES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE SYNDROME

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    Koustubh R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Alcohol Dependence syndrome (ADS is one of the most common psychiatric disorders that has deleterious consequences not only on the patient with ADS but also hampers social , financial , and legal matters of his family hence could be considered as a disorder of the family. Spouses of patients with ADS , a key member of such dysfunctional family system , are most vulnerable to have significant psychiatric disorders like adjustment disorders , mood disorders , anxiety disorders and psychosocial problems. Hence we have undertaken this study in order to understand and address such issues which is largely neglected in psychiatric research. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the severity of alcohol dependence & its adverse effect on families , the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity and marital quality in spouses of men with ADS and to explore the association between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 spouses of males with ADS according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ‑ IV (DSM IV - TR Criteria were screened for psychiatric morbidity using General Health Questionnaire and the presence of specific psychiatric disorders using Structured Cli nical Interview for DSM - IV AXIS - I & AXIS - II (SCID - I & SCID - II. Severity of alcohol dependence in males and its adverse consequences was assessed using Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Drinkers Inventory of Consequences, respectively. Marital quality was assessed using the marital quality scale. Data obtained was analyzed statistically. RESULTS : High prevalence of Psychiatric morbidity (63.33% among spouses of alcohol dependent men , with majority having Axis I diagnosis of Major Depression (35% , Anxiety and Adjustment Disorder. None of them had personality disorders on SCID II. Psychiatric morbidity , poor marital quality in spouses and high alcohol dependence in their husbands and its adverse consequences were found to be significantly correlated with each

  14. Motivation to change and posttreatment temptation to drink: a multicenter study among alcohol-dependent patients

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    Fiabane E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Fiabane,1,2 Marcella Ottonello,1,3 Valeria Zavan,4 Caterina Pistarini,1 Ines Giorgi5 1Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Genoa Nervi, Genoa, 2Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 3Department of Medicine, PhD Program in Advance Sciences and Technologies in Rehabilitation Medicine and Sport, Università di Tor Vergata, Rome, 4Alcohol Unit, Addiction Department, Alessandria, 5Psychology Unit, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Scientific Institute of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: An inpatient 28-day rehabilitation program for alcohol dependence is focused on detoxification, enhancing motivation to change, and coping strategies for the management of emotional distress and temptation to drink. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 changes over time in motivation to change, anxiety, and depression in individuals undergoing residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol addiction, and 2 which pretreatment factors are associated with posttreatment temptation to drink.Methods: We assessed 432 patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision consecutively recruited from seven residential rehabilitation centers in Northern Italy. Patients were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires at the beginning of rehabilitation (pretreatment and before their hospital discharge (posttreatment regarding motivation to change and self-efficacy (motivation assessment of change – alcoholism version, readiness to change and temptation to drink (visual analog scales, and depression and anxiety (cognitive behavioral assessment – outcome evaluation.Results: Results showed an overall improvement in motivation to change and a significant reduction over time in depression and anxiety levels for the total sample, particularly patients with low baseline level of temptation to drink

  15. Subjective Alcohol Responses in a Cross-sectional, Field-Based Study of Adolescents and Young Adults: Effects of Age, Drinking Level, and Dependence/Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley; Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.; Miranda, Robert; Spear, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol’s stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults. Potential moderating influences of estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), as well as typical consumption and level of dependence/consequences were explored. Methods Subjective alcohol responses were collected from 1,364 participants, aged 17 to 32 years, recruited outside of venues where drinking takes place in a small metropolitan bar district. Results Self-reports of stimulatory response to alcohol were age-related, such that younger participants reported increased subjective stimulation at the time of data collection relative to older participants. Age-related differences in stimulatory responses were more pronounced at lower eBACs and among younger participants who typically drank more heavily. Stimulatory responses generally diminished among older than younger participants, although individuals with greater dependence/consequences consistently reported greater stimulation from drinking. Contrastingly, age, typical consumption, and dependence/consequences were not related to sedation in this sample. Conclusions This research provides cross-sectional evidence to support age-, consumption-, and dependence/consequences-related differences in stimulatory alcohol responses among adolescents and young adults assessed within a bar-area context. While cross-sectional, the results of this field-based study provide support for the theory that addiction liability is developmentally linked and associated, in part, with age-related differences in subjective alcohol responses. PMID

  16. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

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    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  17. PET imaging of mu- and delta-opioid receptor binding in alcohol dependent and healthy control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Elise M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Munro, Cynthia A.; Dannals, Robert F.; Hilton, John; Frost, J. James; McCaul, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The endogenous opioid system plays a significant role in alcohol dependence. The goal of the current study was to investigate regional brain mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) availability in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent and age-matched healthy control men and women with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging. Methods Alcohol dependent subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised withdrawal and PET imaging on day 5 of abstinence. Control subjects completed PET imaging following an overnight stay. PET scans with the MOR selective ligand [11C]carfentanil (CFN) were completed in 25 alcohol dependent and 30 control subjects. Most of these same subjects (20 alcohol dependent and 18 controls) also completed PET scans with the DOR selective ligand [11C]methyl-naltrindole (MeNTL). Results Volume of interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses indicated that alcohol dependent subjects had significantly higher [11C]CFN binding potential (BPND) than healthy controls in multiple brain regions including the ventral striatum when adjusting for age, gender and smoking status. There was an inverse relationship between [11C]CFN BPND and craving in several brain regions in alcohol dependent subjects. Groups did not differ in [11C]MeNTL BPND; however, [11C]MeNTL BPND in caudate was positively correlated with recent alcohol drinking in alcohol dependent subjects. Conclusions Our observation of higher [11C]CFN BPND in alcohol dependent subjects can result from up regulation of MOR and/or reduction in endogenous opioid peptides following long-term alcohol consumption, dependence and/or withdrawal. Alternatively, the higher [11C]CFN BPND in alcohol dependent subjects may be an etiological difference that predisposed these individuals to alcohol dependence or may have developed as a result of increased exposure to childhood adversity, stress and other environmental factors known to increase MOR. Although

  18. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychological Impairment in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

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    Catherine Martelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic alcoholism and its related cognitive impairments are associated with increased social, relational, and professional deficits which have a variable overall impact on social integration. These impairments are known to have varying severities and have rarely been studied among healthy alcohol-dependent subjects with preserved psychosocial functioning. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe neuropsychological performance in this particular population.MethodTwenty-nine socially adjusted alcohol-dependent men, hospitalized for a first or second withdrawal and abstinent for 3 weeks minimum, were compared to 29 healthy non-alcoholic controls. All subjects underwent clinical and psychiatric examination, neuropsychological tests of memory (M, working memory (WM, and executive functions (EF. Comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests.ResultsNo group differences were found on the Self-Reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR or in the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared to controls, patients had greater episodic, spatial, and WM deficits as well as slightly altered executive functions. In contrast, their executive functions (spontaneous flexibility, criteria generation, rule maintenance, and inhibitory control were relatively preserved.ConclusionOur sample of socially and professionally integrated alcoholic patients shows fewer cognitive deficits than described in previous studies. Our results suggest that early on, alcohol-dependent subjects develop compensatory adaptation processes to preserve social function and adaptation. Minor cognitive impairments should be screened early in the disease to integrate cognitive interventions into the health-care plan to thus eventually prevent further socio-professional marginalization.

  20. Familial Risk for Alcohol Dependence and Brain Morphology: The Role of Cortical Thickness Across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y

    2018-03-12

    Henderson and colleagues have provided new data from a large cohort demonstrating that cortical thickness, as one index of brain morphology, differs between adolescents with and without a family history of alcohol dependence. Understanding the relationship between brain structure and cognitive ability that differ in those with a family history of alcohol use disorders and those without relatives with AUD may provide clues about the biological substrate of addiction. To date, most of the studies concerning brain morphological differences by familial risk have focused on volumetric differences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. The case of H.S.: the ethics of reporting alcohol dependence in a bus driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, David E; Schuermeyer, Isabel N; Brooker, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    The physician's duty to preserve patient confidentiality is challenged when doing so may endanger third parties. We present the case of a bus driver whose alcohol dependence raised concerns of a risk not only to his own health and safety, but to public safety as well. We first examine the legal and ethical obligations to report his alcohol use to his employer and then stress the importance of weighing the potential harm of violating patient-physician confidentiality against the severity of risk to the general public.

  2. Naltrexone long-acting formulation in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bankole A

    2007-10-01

    While oral naltrexone has a demonstrated ability to decrease alcohol reinforcement, it also has pharmacotherapeutic limitations, such as a small treatment effect size, adverse events, and plasma level fluctuations. The pharmacokinetic profile of naltrexone could be enhanced by intramuscular administration, which would sustain its release over several weeks and keep plasma levels relatively constant, ie, low enough to minimize side effects but high enough to reduce drinking. Vivitrex((R))/Vivitrol((R)) and Naltrel((R)) are injectable naltrexone depot formulations that have been tested as possible medications for treating alcohol dependence. Their adverse-event profiles appear to be less severe than that of oral naltrexone. Vivitrex((R))/Vivitrol((R)) has demonstrated efficacy at decreasing heavy drinking among alcohol-dependent males. Naltrel((R)) helped to promote abstinence and decrease the incidence of relapse in two samples of alcohol-dependent subjects. The data on a third formulation, Depotrex((R)), are still limited. All three formulations require further study of their efficacy.

  3. High versus low level of response to alcohol: evidence of differential reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Schuckit, Marc A; Tapert, Susan F; Tolentino, Neil J; Matthews, Scott C; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan S; Hall, Shana A; Simmons, Alan N

    2012-11-15

    The low level of response (LR) or sensitivity to alcohol is genetically influenced and predicts heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using cognitive tasks suggest that subjects with a low-LR process cognitive information differently after placebo and alcohol than those with a high LR, but no studies have evaluated whether similar LR group differences are seen during an emotional processing task. The fMRI data were gathered from 116 nonalcoholic subjects (60 women) after oral placebo or approximately .7 mL/kg of ethanol while performing a modified emotional faces processing task. These included 58 low- and high-LR pairs matched on demography and aspects of substance use. Blood alcohol levels and task performance were similar across LR groups, but low-LR subjects consumed approximately .8 drinks more/occasion. Thirteen brain regions (mostly the middle and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate, and insula) showed significant LR group or LR × placebo/alcohol condition interactions for emotional (mostly happy) faces relative to non-face trials. Low-LR subjects generally showed decreasing blood-oxygen level-dependent response contrasts across placebo to alcohol, whereas high LR showed increasing contrasts from placebo to alcohol, even after controlling for drinking quantities and alcohol-related changes in cerebral blood flow. Thus, LR group fMRI differences are as prominent during an emotional face task as during cognitive paradigms. Low-LR individuals processed both types of information in a manner that might contribute to an impaired ability to recognize modest levels of alcohol intoxication in a range of life situations. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social pressure-induced craving in patients with alcohol dependence: application of virtual reality to coping skill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Suk; Namkoong, Kee; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Sangwoo; Park, Ji Yeon; Choi, You Kyong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I; Jung, Young-Chul

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the interaction between alcohol cues and social pressure in the induction of alcohol craving. Fourteen male patients with alcohol dependence and 14 age-matched social drinkers completed a virtual reality coping skill training program composed of four blocks according to the presence of alcohol cues (x2) and social pressure (x2). Before and after each block, the craving levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. Patients with alcohol dependence reported extremely high levels of craving immediately upon exposure to a virtual environment with alcohol cues, regardless of social pressure. In contrast, the craving levels of social drinkers were influenced by social pressure from virtual avatars. Our findings imply that an alcohol cue-laden environment should interfere with the ability to use coping skills against social pressure in real-life situations.

  5. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  6. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and...

  7. The interplay between the hippocampus and the amygdala in regulating aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis during protracted abstinence from alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra D Mandyam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of alcohol dependence involves elevated anxiety, low mood, and increased sensitivity to stress, collectively labeled negative affect. Particularly interesting is the recent accumulating evidence that sensitized extrahypothalamic stress systems (e.g., hyperglutamatergic activity, blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] hormonal levels, altered corticotropin-releasing factor signaling, and altered glucocorticoid receptor signaling in the extended amygdala are evident in withdrawn dependent rats, supporting the hypothesis that pathological neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala contribute to the negative affective state. Notably, hippocampal neurotoxicity observed as aberrant dentate gyrus (DG neurogenesis (neurogenesis is a process where neural stem cells in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone generate DG granule cell neurons and DG neurodegeneration are observed in withdrawn dependent rats. These correlations between withdrawal and aberrant neurogenesis in dependent rats suggest that alterations in the DG could be hypothesized to be due to compromised HPA axis activity and associated hyperglutamatergic activity originating from the basolateral amygdala in withdrawn dependent rats. This review discusses a possible link between the neuroadaptations in the extended amygdala stress systems and the resulting pathological plasticity that could facilitate recruitment of new emotional memory circuits in the hippocampus as a function of aberrant DG neurogenesis.

  8. Prospective association between alcohol intake and hormone-dependent cancer risk: modulation by dietary fiber intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Fassier, Philippine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Duverger, Lucie; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort. Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations. This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber

  9. Alcohol Dependence and Its Relationship With Insomnia and Other Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Chaudhary, Ninad S; Brower, Kirk J

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-related complaints are widely prevalent in those with alcohol dependence (AD). AD is associated not only with insomnia, but also with multiple sleep-related disorders as a growing body of literature has demonstrated. This article will review the various aspects of insomnia associated with AD. In addition, the association of AD with other sleep-related disorders will be briefly reviewed. The association of AD with insomnia is bidirectional in nature. The etiopathogenesis of insomnia has demonstrated multiple associations and is an active focus of research. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is showing promise as an optimal intervention. In addition, AD may be associated with circadian abnormalities, short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep-related movement disorder. The burgeoning knowledge on insomnia associated with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder has expanded our understanding of its underlying neurobiology, clinical features, and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Pharmacological relapse prevention in alcohol dependence: from animal models to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, J A; Lesch, O M; Spanagel, R; Wolffgramm, J; Narita, M; Sinclair, D; Mason, B J; Wiesbeck, G A

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Jobst August-Ludwig Boening and Otto Michel Lesch. The presentations were (1) Pharmacological validation of a new animal model of alcoholism, by Rainer Spanagel; (2) Persisting loss of control as main criterion for alcohol addiction in rats and mice, by Jochen Wolffgramm; (3) Role of NMDA receptor subunits associated with protein kinase C in the prevention of alcohol dependence, by Minoru Narita; (4) Long-term follow up of continued naltrexone treatment, by David Sinclair; (5) Pharmacological treatment trials with dopaminergic and serotonergic substances: Myths or facts? by Gerhard A. Wiesbeck; and (6) Methodology and behavioral therapy of the U.S. acamprosate study, by Barbara J. Mason.

  11. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  12. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness and treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan: results from internet-based surveys in persons, family, physicians and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yurie; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sasai, Ryoko; Murteira, Susana

    2014-01-01

    To understand current awareness of, and views on, treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan. (a) Nationwide internet-based survey of 520 individuals, consisting of 52 diagnosed alcohol-dependent (AD) persons, 154 potentially alcohol-dependent (ADP) persons, 104 family members and 106 friends/colleagues of AD persons, and 104 general individuals, derived from a consumer panel where the response rate was 64.3%. We enquired into awareness about the treatment of alcohol dependence and patient pathways through the healthcare network. (b) Nationwide internet-based survey of physicians (response rate 10.1% (2395/23,695) to ask 200 physicians about their management of alcohol use disorders). We deduced that 10% of alcohol-dependent Japanese persons had ever been diagnosed with alcohol dependence, with only 3% ever treated. Regarding putative treatment goals, 20-25% of the AD and ADP persons would prefer to attempt to abstain, while 60-75% preferred 'reduced drinking.' A half of the responding physicians considered abstinence as the primary treatment goal in alcohol dependence, while 76% considered reduced drinking as an acceptable goal. AD and ADP persons in Japan have low 'disease awareness' defined as 'understanding of signs, symptoms and consequences of alcohol use disorders,' which is in line with the overseas situation. The Japanese drinking culture and stigma toward alcohol dependence may contribute to such low disease awareness and current challenging treatment environment. While abstinence remains the preferred treatment goal among physicians, reduced drinking seems to be an acceptable alternative treatment goal to many persons and physicians in Japan. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  14. Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Cancer: Existing Evidence in a Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Roswall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review is to give an overview of the association between alcohol intake and the risk of developing cancer. Two large-scale expert reports; the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF/American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR report from 2007, including its continuous update project, and the International Agency for Research of Cancer (IARC monograph from 2012 have extensively reviewed this association in the last decade. We summarize and compare their findings, as well as relate these to the public health impact, with a particular focus on region-specific drinking patterns and disease tendencies. Our findings show that alcohol intake is strongly linked to the risk of developing cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, colorectum (in men, and female breast. The two expert reports diverge on the evidence for an association with liver cancer and colorectal cancer in women, which the IARC grades as convincing, but the WCRF/AICR as probable. Despite these discrepancies, there does, however, not seem to be any doubt, that the Population Attributable Fraction of alcohol in relation to cancer is large. As alcohol intake varies largely worldwide, so does, however, also the Population Attributable Fractions, ranging from 10% in Europe to almost 0% in countries where alcohol use is banned. Given the World Health Organization’s prediction, that alcohol intake is increasing, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and steadily high in high-income countries, the need for preventive efforts to curb the number of alcohol-related cancers seems growing, as well as the need for taking a region- and gender-specific approach in both future campaigns as well as future research. The review acknowledges the potential beneficial effects of small doses of alcohol in relation to ischaemic heart disease, but a discussion of this lies without the scope of the present study.

  15. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  16. Telomere length in alcohol dependence: A role for impulsive choice and childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jee In; Hwang, Syung Shick; Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Seung-Tae; Kim, Jieun; Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Kim, Se Joo

    2017-09-01

    Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular aging, has been considered to be linked with psychosocial stress as well as with chronic alcohol consumption, possibly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Recent findings suggested that early life adversity on telomere dynamics may be related to impulsive choice. To further our understanding of the association of impulsive choice and childhood trauma on telomere length, we examined whether delayed discounting and childhood trauma or their interaction is related to leukocyte telomere length, while controlling for multiple potential confounding variables, in patients with alcohol dependence who are considered to have higher impulsive choice and shorter telomere length. We recruited 253 male patients with chronic alcohol dependence. All participants performed the delay discounting task, and the area under curve was used as a measure of delay discounting. Steeper delay discounting represents more impulsive choices. The modified Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale was used to measure childhood maltreatment. In addition, confounding factors, including socio-demographic characteristics, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Resilience Quotient, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, were also assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed a significant main effect of delay discounting (β=0.161, t=2.640, p=0.009), and an interaction effect between delay discounting and childhood maltreatment on leukocyte telomere length (β=0.173, t=2.138, p=0.034). In subsequent analyses stratified by childhood maltreatment, patients with alcohol dependence and high childhood trauma showed a significant relationship between delay discounting and leukocyte telomere length (β=0.279, t=3.183, p=0.002), while those with low trauma showed no association between them. Our findings suggest that higher impulsive choice is associated with shorter telomere

  17. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  18. Effect of quality chronic disease management for alcohol and drug dependence on addiction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Witas, Julie; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of the quality of primary care-based chronic disease management (CDM) for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependence on addiction outcomes. We assessed quality using (1) a visit frequency based measure and (2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. The self-reported measure of care-when care was at a CDM clinic-was associated with lower drug addiction severity. The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere) was associated with lower alcohol addiction severity and abstinence. These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes. Quality measures based upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visit frequency measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption and social network ties among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Nikaj, Silda

    2014-05-01

    Although many studies have estimated the influence of peers on risky health behaviors, few have estimated the gains that adolescents receive from such behaviors, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. In this paper, we explore the extent to which alcohol consumption increases popularity of adolescents. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models with school-level fixed effects to identify the effect of alcohol consumption on social network ties. We find that alcohol consumption leads to an increase in popularity, with the largest gains experienced by white males and females. Our results provide new evidence on the motivation behind adolescent drinking and have important implications for substance abuse interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Specificity of Social Anxiety Disorder as a Risk Factor for Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Lang, Alan R.; Small, Jason W.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and cannabis dependence. However, the temporal sequencing of these disorders has not been extensively studied to determine whether SAD serves as a specific risk factor for problematic substance use. The present study examined these relationships after controlling for theoretically-relevant variables (e.g., gender, other Axis I pathology) in a longitudinal cohort over approximately 14 years. The sample was drawn...

  1. Effects of modafinil on neural correlates of response inhibition in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, Lianne; Joos, Leen; Koeleman, Marte; Veltman, Dick J; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2013-02-01

    Impaired response inhibition is a key feature of patients with alcohol dependence. Improving impulse control is a promising target for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The pharmacologic agent modafinil enhances cognitive control functions in both healthy subjects and in patients with various psychiatric disorders. However, very little is known about the underlying neural correlates of improvements in response inhibition following modafinil. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study using functional magnetic resonance imaging with a stop signal task to examine effects of a single dose of modafinil (200 mg) on response inhibition and underlying neural correlates in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (AD) (n = 16) and healthy control subjects (n = 16). Within the AD group modafinil administration improved response inhibition (reflected by the stop signal reaction time [SSRT]) in subjects with initial poor response inhibition, whereas response inhibition was diminished in better performing subjects. In AD patients with initial poor response inhibition, modafinil-induced SSRT improvement was accompanied by greater activation in the thalamus and supplementary motor area (SMA) and reduced connectivity between the thalamus and the primary motor cortex. In addition, the relationship between baseline response inhibition and modafinil-induced SSRT improvement was mediated by these changes in thalamus and SMA activation. These findings indicate that modafinil can improve response inhibition in alcohol-dependent patients through its effect on thalamus and SMA function but only in subjects with poor baseline response inhibition. Therefore, baseline levels of response inhibition should be taken into account when considering treatment with modafinil in AD. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Om; Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Amool R.; Sengar, K. S.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameter...

  3. Cognitive and Emotional Empathy in Alcohol-Dependent Patients (ADs): a Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Marie; Douws, Laetitia; Blairy, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert the current state of the scientific literature on the issues regarding empathy in alcohol-dependents patients (ADs). We will first explain what the term « empathy » covers and the distinction made between cognitive and emotional empathy. We will describe then the different studies that got interested in the capacities for empathy in ADs patients. These studies concern predominantly one precise aspect of cognitive empathy: the capacity to infer an emoti...

  4. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Biolcati; Giacomo Mancini; Elena Trombini

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergra...

  5. Psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Arya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a lack of literature on the relation between psychiatric comorbidities and their influence on quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome in the Indian settings. Aims: To study the relation between psychiatric comorbidity with quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a de-addiction centre of a tertiary care hospital upon randomly selected inpatients of alcohol dependence syndrome. Patients with other substance abuse except tobacco or those with severe physical impairment were excluded. Materials and Methods: Hundred in-patients were assessed between the period of August 2013 to July 2014, using a number of instruments including specially designed proforma for clinical and drinking variables, CIWA-Ar, SADD, M.I.N.I 5.0 and WHO QoL Bref. Statistics used: SPSS 19.0 was used for analysis. Significance was calculated using t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Prevalence of psychiatric disorder was found to be 32% across all the tested patients, with anxiety (n = 13 and depressive disorder (n = 12 being most common. Presence of psychiatric comorbidity lead to significant lowering in overall quality, perception of general health, physical (42.12 vs 57.78, P = 0.001, psychological (40.19 vs 53.29, P = 0.002, social (43.97 vs 66.90, P = 0.000, and environment (50.47 vs 62.71, P = 0.001 domains. Conclusion: Comorbid psychiatric disorders have a significant negative impact on the quality of life in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome.

  6. Psychological changes in alcohol-dependent patients during a residential rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Ines; Ottonello, Marcella; Vittadini, Giovanni; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-dependent patients usually experience negative affects under the influence of alcohol, and these affective symptoms have been shown to decrease as a result of alcohol-withdrawal treatment. A recent cognitive-affective model suggests an interaction between drug motivation and affective symptoms. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the psychological changes in subjects undergoing a residential rehabilitation program specifically designed for alcohol addiction, and to identify at discharge patients with greater affective symptoms and therefore more at risk of relapse. The sample included 560 subjects (mean age 46.91±10.2 years) who completed 28-day rehabilitation programs for alcohol addiction, following a tailored routine characterized by short duration and high intensity of medical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The psychological clinical profiles of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and self-perception of a positive change were assessed using the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment - Outcome Evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program. The changes in the psychological variables of the questionnaire were identified and considered as outcome evaluation of the residential intervention. Moreover, differences in the psychological functioning between patients with different characteristics were investigated. The score measured by the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment - Outcome Evaluation showed significant improvements in all the psychological characteristics assessed, and the profile at discharge was within the normal scores. Some significant differences were found in relation to specific characteristics of the sample, such as age, sex, level of education, type of intervention, and polysubstance use. This study shows the changes in psychological profile in subjects undergoing residential rehabilitation from alcohol and how this profile may permit identification of subjects requiring more

  7. Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Susan E; Vaughan, Roger D; Foster, William H; Califano, Joseph A

    2006-05-01

    To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry. Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets. The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research. A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources. Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking. Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence. The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001. The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.

  8. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  9. Challenges to medications development in treating alcohol dependence: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, John M; De Witte, Philippe; Litten, Raye; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Spanagel, Rainer; Kranzler, Henry; Lehert, Philippe; Johnson, Bankole; Saunders, John; Berglund, Mats; Harris, Adron; Anton, Raymond; Mann, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Few medications for treating alcohol dependence exist. Greater partnership is needed between academia and the pharmaceutical industry to develop, licence and market efficacious medications for treating alcohol dependence. Methodologies that span the divide between preclinical and large-scale clinical studies need to be developed in order to provide sufficient information on safety, toleration, drug-interaction profile and efficacy, with which to guide development decisions. Due to the heterogeneous nature of alcohol dependence, the effort of developing an efficacious medication is likely to be enhanced by clearer choices about the characteristics of the population. Careful consideration of potential mechanism of action of the putative therapeutic medication should enable the appropriate choice of drinking endpoint. The pharmaceutical industry in collaboration with academia might need to develop new approaches to determining appropriate treatment endpoints with regulatory bodies. The investment risk to industry should be appraised not only in terms of the rather poor results of previous marketing efforts but with a view to the opportunity to penetrate a potentially enormous and largely untapped market.

  10. Genome-wide association study of body mass index in subjects with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Zhang, Huiping; Smith, Andrew H; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Outcomes related to disordered metabolism are common in alcohol dependence (AD). To investigate alterations in the regulation of body mass that occur in the context of AD, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) with AD. Subjects were recruited for genetic studies of AD or drug dependence and evaluated using the Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We investigated a total of 2587 AAs and 2959 EAs with DSM-IV AD diagnosis. In the stage 1 sample (N = 4137), we observed three genome-wide significant (GWS) single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, rs200889048 (P = 8.98 * 10 -12 ) and rs12490016 (P = 1.44 * 10 -8 ) in EAs and rs1630623 (P = 5.14 * 10 -9 ) in AAs and EAs meta-analyzed. In the stage 2 sample (N = 1409), we replicated 278, 253 and 168 of the stage 1 suggestive loci (P stress in relation to birth size; rs1630623-a regulatory variant related to ALDH1A1, a gene involved in alcohol metabolism and adipocyte plasticity. These loci offer molecular insights regarding the regulatory mechanisms of body mass in the context of AD. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Impact of social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available literature shows that studies with careful analysis of result were less in number, especially on impact of social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome. Aim: To study the influence of social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: A pre and post with control group design was adopted for the present study sampling design. Samples were selected by using the purposive sampling method, from the Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences. Ten caregivers in experimental and ten in control group were recruited. The researchers administered socio-demographic interview schedule and clinical data sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Result shows comparison of scores obtained after intervention in experimental group and control group. Social support mean was 45.60±4.14 and 41.60±3.56 in experimental and control group respectively. It shows there was significant difference between both groups, social support (Z=2.05, p<0.05. Conclusion: The finding indicates social network among caregivers of individual with alcohol dependence plays pivotal role in improving the social support system of caregivers, protecting them from becoming prey of loneliness and aloofness.

  12. Long-acting injectable naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Paolo; Peindl, Kathleen; Masand, Prakash S; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2007-10-01

    Combining pharmacotherapy with psychosocial and behavioral interventions has helped improve the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, the clinical use of effective medications, such as naltrexone, is limited by poor adherence to a daily oral regimen. Recently, a once monthly extended-release injectable formulation of naltrexone (Vivitrol, Alkermes, Inc.) became the first FDA-approved long-acting formulation of naltrexone for alcohol dependence. Compared with the oral preparation, extended-release naltrexone shows reduced peaks and minimal fluctuations in plasma levels that may possibly lead to a more benign adverse-event profile. The administration of long-acting naltrexone in conjunction with psychosocial support has been associated with significant improvement in drinking outcome measures, especially among patients who are abstinent entering treatment. Additional studies are warranted to increase the knowledge on the clinical applications of long-acting naltrexone in other addictive disorders and to compare extended-release naltrexone with other long-acting formulations that are in development. The clinical availability of extended-release naltrexone has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes for alcohol and other drug dependence disorders.

  13. Failure to utilize feedback during explicit decision-making task in alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Roopesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who are diagnosed with alcohol-dependent syndrome (ADS are shown to have neuropsychological deficits, especially executive function (EF deficits. Among the EFs, decision-making is one such function which has consistently been shown to be impaired in people who are dependent on alcohol, compared to controls. Decision-making in this population is usually assessed with gambling-type tasks. However, some of these tasks are ambiguous, work on chance factors, rarely match with real-life gambling situations, and/or involve nonconscious mechanisms. Materials and Methods: The current study compared 26 male patients with ADS (P-ADS with equal number of their nonalcohol-dependent male siblings on sensation seeking and explicit gambling task (EGT. EGT is similar to the Iowa gambling task in administration, but varies from it as it involves a single outcome and provides unambiguous, explicit, and continuous feedback for the participants. Results and Conclusion: The results did not show any significant relationship between decision-making variables and sensation seeking. However, despite unambiguous, explicit, and continuous feedback, patients showed significantly poor decision-making as compared to the siblings of the P-ADS group. This study throws light on why people who are addicted to alcohol have difficulties in decision-making, despite knowing the adverse effects.

  14. Effects of a 3-hour sleep delay on sleep homeostasis in alcohol dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Roseanne; Hoffmann, Robert; Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd; Brower, Kirk J

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated slow wave activity homeostatic response to a mild sleep challenge in alcohol-dependent adults compared to healthy controls. Participants maintained a 23:00-06:00 schedule for 5 days verified by actigraphy and diary, followed by 3 nights in the lab: adaptation, baseline, and a sleep delay night with an 02:00-09:00 schedule. Sleep ' Chronophysiology laboratory. 48 alcohol-dependent adults (39 men, 9 women) who were abstinent for at least 3 weeks and 16 healthy control adults (13 men, 3 women), 21-55 years of age participated in study. N/A. Slow wave EEG activity (SWA) in consecutive NREM periods was compared between baseline and sleep delay nights and between AD and HC groups, using age and sex as statistical covariates. The AD group showed a blunted SWA response to sleep delay with significantly lower SWA power than the HC group. Exponential regression analyses confirmed lower asymptotic SWA with a slower decay rate over NREM sleep time in the AD group. Results were similar for raw SWA and %SWA on the delay night expressed relative to baseline SWA. Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired SWA regulation and a blunted response to a mild homeostatic sleep challenge.

  15. Empathy, and its relationship with cognitive and emotional functions in alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Almila; Akyalcin Kirdok, Asusinem; Zorlu, Nabi; Polat, Serap; Mete, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Empathy can be defined as the ability to understand the other's thoughts and feelings. It contains both cognitive and emotional components. The aim of this study was to investigate the empathy ability of patients with alcohol dependency in association with cognitive and emotional functions, after acute detoxification and during long-term abstinence. Thirty-three alcohol dependent inpatients that completed a detoxification process and stayed abstinent throughout the study, and 33 healthy comparison subjects that matched the patients for age, gender, and education level were included in the study. All the participants were administered the Facial Emotion Identification Test (FEIT), Facial Emotion Discrimination Test (FEDT), Trail Making Test (TMT), Digit Span Test (DST), Auditory Consonant Trigram Test (ACT), and Empathy Quotient Scale (EQS). All the tests were repeated after 3 months of abstinence. At the first evaluation conducted after detoxification, patients performed significantly worse than healthy comparisons in almost all tests. At the second evaluation, which was conducted after 3 months of abstinence, the patients improved significantly in all measures, and no significant differences were detected between the patient and comparison groups. There were significant correlations between the test scores and EQS score. Alcohol dependency has deleterious effects on empathy ability, and cognitive and emotional functions. Those impairments can improve with abstinence. Empathy ability has strong relationships with cognitive and emotional functions.

  16. Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 alcohol-dependent patients (AD and 22 normal controls (NC. All participants were measured with BIS- 11, go/no-go task, WCST and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that BIS-11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients.

  17. Effect of community nurse follow-up when treating alcohol dependence with acamprosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, I; Hanak, C; Baert, I; Houtain, C; Lehert, P; Landron, F; Verbanck, P

    2005-01-01

    To measure the effect of community nurse follow-up on abstinence and retention rates in the outpatient treatment of alcohol-dependent patients treated with acamprosate. Recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were prescribed acamprosate for 26 weeks and randomized to either physician-only follow-up, or physician plus regular visits from a community nurse. Drinking behaviour in the next 26 weeks was assessed at monthly visits to non-blind clinicians. The cumulative abstinence duration proportion (CADP) was significantly longer in (P=0.03) the subjects who had received community nurse support (0.57) than in those who had not (0.39). This might, in part, be an artefact of the higher retention rate among those followed up by the nurse, in that, the method of calculating CADP allocates 100% days of drinking for the month before a failed attendance. Differences favouring nurse in the follow-up were seen for time to first drink, and clinical global impression. For recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients treated with acamprosate, follow-up by a community nurse improves patient retention and probably also improves the 6-month drinking outcome.

  18. Efficacy of acamprosate for alcohol dependence in a family medicine setting in the United States: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lisa; Fisher, Michael; Brondino, Michael; Bohn, Michael; Gwyther, Robert; Longo, Lance; Beier, Nicole; Ford, Amy; Greco, Joe; Garbutt, James C

    2013-04-01

    Acamprosate has been found to enhance rates of complete abstinence and to increase percent days abstinent (PDA) from alcohol relative to placebo treatment. As most U.S. clinical trials of acamprosate have been conducted in alcohol and other drug specialty clinics, there is a need to examine the efficacy of acamprosate in generalist settings. This study tested the efficacy of acamprosate versus placebo on the primary study outcome of PDA in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients in a family medicine setting. Secondary study outcomes included percent heavy drinking days (%HDD) and gamma glutamyltransferase level (normal or high). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design of acamprosate was conducted in 2 family medicine settings (North Carolina and Wisconsin). One hundred volunteers were recruited primarily by advertisement, and participants were assigned to 666 mg (2 pills) oral acamprosate 3 times daily (1,998 mg/d) or matching placebo over a 12-week period. All participants concomitantly received 5 sessions of a brief behavioral intervention from a family/primary care physician. No significant treatment effect of acamprosate was found on PDA or the secondary outcomes. Significant treatment goal by time interaction effects was found on PDA and %HDD. Participants who had an initial goal of abstinence versus a reduction in alcohol use improved on average over time in PDA and had less %HDD from baseline to the end of treatment. This clinical trial did not find evidence of efficacy for acamprosate compared to placebo among alcohol-dependent individuals recruited primarily by advertisement as studied in a primary care setting. Drinking outcomes significantly improved regardless of medication condition. A goal of abstinence was significantly associated with improved drinking outcomes, suggesting that alcohol-dependent patients with such a goal may do particularly well with counseling in a family medicine setting. Copyright © 2012 by

  19. An Economic Perspective on Personality Traits and Alcohol Misuse: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Asia Sikora; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Recent economic work suggests a role for personality traits in determining socioeconomic outcomes. Much of this work has considered labor market outcomes, human capital accumulation, and, to some extent, health outcomes. No economic studies have explored the role of the Big Five taxonomy in alcohol use and misuse. Given defining characteristics of the Big Five, they are plausibly linked with these outcomes. Alcohol misuse is associated with large social costs through healthcare costs, traffic fatalities, violence, and reduced labor market productivity. Thus, understanding risk factors for such use is warranted. To investigate the associations between the Big Five, and measures of alcohol use and alcohol misuse. We obtain data on older adults 50 years and older from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Our outcomes include one measure of use (any use) and two measures of misuse (heavy drinking and binge drinking). Comparing across different measures of alcohol consumption can shed light on whether the Big Five are related to moderate alcohol use that need not impose social costs or alcohol misuse that may indeed impose such costs. A randomly selected sub-set of respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire developed for the Midlife Development Inventory in either the 2006 or 2008 round of the HRS. We use information collected in this instrument to generate our independent variables of primary interest: agreeableness, openness, extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness traits. We find that the Big Five personality traits are linked with measures of both alcohol use and alcohol misuse. We observe substantial heterogeneity in the associations by personality traits. Specifically, agreeableness is associated with increased risk for alcohol use/misuse while extraversion and openness are negatively associated with risk for these patterns of alcohol consumption. We find no evidence that neuroticism or contentiousness predict alcohol use and misuse. We

  20. ProBDNF/p75NTR/sortilin pathway is activated in peripheral blood of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xiong, Jing; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Ruan, Ye; Liu, Dennis; Bao, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2018-03-09

    Alcohol dependence is a worldwide problem with a great social and economic burden in many countries. A number of studies have suggested that BDNF (mature BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) play important roles in the alcohol dependence. However, what roles of the mBDNF/proBDNF pathways play during the pathological process of alcohol dependence are not clearly understood. In our clinical study, peripheral blood was sampled from 30 male patients with alcohol dependence and 50 healthy males (as control). The protein levels of proBDNF, p75NTR, sortilin, mBDNF, TrkB and mRNA levels of BDNF, p75NTR, sortilin, and TrkB were detected in the peripheral blood in our study. We found that the protein levels of proBDNF and p75NTR were increased, but not the sortilin protein level; while the TrkB protein level was decreased in the alcohol dependence patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the mRNA levels of p75NTR and sortilin from the lymphocytes were slightly increased; while BDNF and TrkB were significantly decreased. The ELISA results of mBDNF and TrkB were declined in the alcohol dependence group. The levels of mBDNF and TrkB were negatively correlated with the average amount of daily ethanol consumption, and the levels of proBDNF, p75NTR and sortilin were positively correlated with the average amount of ethanol consumption per day. The ratio of proBDNF to mBDNF was altered in alcohol dependence patients. The balance between the proBDNF/p75NTR and mBDNF/TrkB signalling pathways appeared dysregulated in alcohol dependence. Our results suggested that both pathways may participate in the complex processes of alcohol dependence.

  1. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  2. Patterns of use of other drugs among those with alcohol dependence: Associations with drinking behavior and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B; Goldstein, Risë B; Chen, Chiung M; Yi, Hsiao-Ye

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) presents with substantial clinical heterogeneity, including concurrent use of non-alcohol drugs. Here, we examine specific patterns of concurrent non-alcohol substance use during the previous year among a nationally representative sample of adults with DSM-IV AD, and estimate their population prevalence in the U.S. We then evaluate alcohol use behavior and comorbid psychopathology among respondents with AD according to their patterns of concurrent non-alcohol substance use. These analyses utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Latent class analyses classified respondents with AD into four clinically meaningful patterns of concurrent substance use: (1) use of alcohol only; (2) use of alcohol and tobacco only; (3) use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis; and (4) use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and other illicit drug(s). Among AD respondents, the most prevalent pattern was the use of alcohol and tobacco only (weighted percentage, 32.4%), followed by the use of alcohol only (weighted percentage, 27.5%). AD respondents who used alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and other illicit drug(s) (weighted percentage, 25.3%) manifested the most severe pattern of alcohol consumption, and had significant overrepresentations of major depression, panic, and other anxiety disorders as well as paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and histrionic personality disorders compared with those who used alcohol alone. Specific patterns of concurrent substance use convey important information regarding the clinical presentation and prognosis for AD. In particular, concurrent use of illicit drugs over the past year by AD individuals was associated with greater severity and comorbid psychopathology. These data suggest the need for pragmatic trials of AD interventions that take into account patterns of substance use behavior in addition to an AD diagnosis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. High mortality, violence and crime in alcohol dependents: 5 years after seeking treatment in a Brazilian underprivileged suburban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jairo Valentim; Castro, Viviane de; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Figlie, Neliana Buzi

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the results of alcohol-related consequences in an underprivileged area of São Paulo. One hundred and ninety one adult patients who sought alcohol treatment in 2002 were reassessed in 2007 regarding alcohol use and involvement with crime. The interview consisted of demographic questions and questionnaires assessing alcohol dependence and pattern of alcohol use. Risk and protective factors and involvement with crime were further explored. RESULTS High mortality rate (16.9%, n = 41) was found in this sample and 97.4% were identified as being severe alcohol dependents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group, average age of 42, 81.9% male, 57.5% black, 52.2% unemployed and 100% of low socioeconomic status. Individuals ageing 35 or younger, not engaged in religious activities and with intense alcohol consumption in the last month had 2.7 times more chance on committing crimes (95% CI = [1.22; 5.93] p = 0.014). Subjects who consumed alcohol in the last month also had a 4.1 greater chance of becoming involved in crime (95% CI = [1.2; 14.24] p = 0.024). Alcohol dependence within an underprivileged community was associated with high rates of crime and mortality. Religious affiliation was negatively associated with delinquent behavior.

  4. Self-stigma in alcohol dependence: consequences for drinking-refusal self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Corrigan, Patrick W; Klauer, Thomas; Kuwert, Philipp; Freyberger, Harald J; Lucht, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Public stigma and self-stigma are two facets of mental illness stigma. Self-stigma denotes the internalization of negative public perceptions by persons with mental illness and has been shown to decrease general self-efficacy. To date, self-stigma has not been examined in people suffering from alcohol dependence, a particularly severely stigmatized mental disorder. By adopting the Self-Stigma in Mental Illness Scale (SSMI), we developed the Self-Stigma in Alcohol Dependence Scale (SSAD). The scale is based on a focus-group derived list of 16 negative stereotypes about alcohol dependent persons. It consists of four 16-item subscales measuring four hypothetical stages of self-stigma, stereotype awareness (aware), stereotype agreement (agree), self-concurrence (apply), and self-esteem decrement (harm). We employed the SSAD in a cross-sectional study of 153 patients hospitalized for alcohol detoxification to examine its reliability and validity. The four stages of self-stigma could be reliably measured with the SSAD (Cronbach's alpha, 0.86-0.93). Each step in the process of self-stigmatization was most closely associated with its preceding step. Other significantly related independent variables in multiple regression analyses included desire for social distance (associated with agree), duration of drinking problems (associated with apply) and depressive symptoms (associated with apply and harm). Both apply and harm were significantly related to reduced drinking-refusal self-efficacy in analyses controlling for depressive symptoms and variables related to duration and severity of the drinking problem. The SSAD showed good validity and reliability measuring the stages of self-stigma in this group. Self-stigma appears to be associated with lower drinking-refusal self-efficacy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Executive functions in alcohol-dependence: A theoretically grounded and integrative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Mélanie; D'Hondt, Fabien; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Lecomte, Benoît; Ferauge, Marc; de Timary, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol-dependence is related to large-scale cognitive impairments, particularly for executive functions (EF). These deficits persist even after long-term abstinence and have a major impact on patients' everyday life and relapse risk. Earlier studies, based on multi-determined tasks, mostly focused on inhibition and did not offer a theoretically-grounded and exhaustive view of the differential deficit across EF. The present paper proposes a model-based exploration of EF in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), to precisely compare the specific deficit related to each executive subcomponent. Forty-seven recently detoxified ALC were compared to 47 matched healthy participants on a nine-tasks validated neuropsychological battery, simultaneously exploring and comparing the three main executive subcomponents (shifting, updating, and inhibition). Psychopathological comorbidities were also controlled for. Reaction time indexes revealed a global slowing down among ALC, whatever the EF explored. Accuracy indexes revealed a moderate deficit for inhibition tasks but a massive impairment for shifting and updating ones. Complementary analyses indicated that the executive deficits observed were centrally related to alcohol-dependence, while comorbid depressive symptoms appeared to intensify the deficits observed. By offering a direct comparison between the three major EF, these results showed that alcohol-related executive deficits extend beyond the classically described inhibition impairment. This impairment encompasses each EF subcomponent, as ALC actually presented stronger deficits for updating and shifting abilities. This first observation of a multifaceted EF deficit stresses the need for an individualized evaluation and rehabilitation of EF during and/or after the detoxification process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relation of autonomic function to physical fitness in patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbsleb, Marco; Schulz, Steffen; Ostermann, Stephanie; Donath, Lars; Eisenträger, Daniela; Puta, Christian; Voss, Andreas; Gabriel, Holger W; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Reduced cardio-vascular health has been found in patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Low cardio-respiratory fitness is an independent predictor of cardio-vascular disease. We investigated physical fitness in 22 alcohol-dependent patients 10 days after acute alcohol withdrawal and compared results with matched controls. The standardized 6-min walk test (6 MWT) was used to analyze the relationship of autonomic dysfunction and physical fitness. Ventilatory indices and gas exchanges were assessed using a portable spiroergometric system while heart rate recordings were obtained separately. We calculated walking distance, indices of heart rate variability and efficiency parameters of heart rate and breathing. In addition, levels of exhaled carbon monoxide were measured in all participants to account for differences in smoking behaviour. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were performed to investigate differences between patients and controls with regard to autonomic and efficiency parameters. Patients walked a significantly shorter distance in comparison to healthy subjects during the 6 MWT. Significantly decreased heart rate variability was observed before and after the test in patients when compared to controls, while no such difference was observed during exercise. The efficiency parameters indicated significantly reduced efficiency in physiological regulation when the obtained parameters were normalized to the distance. The 6 MWT is an easily applied instrument to measure physical fitness in alcohol dependent patients. It can also be used during exercise interventions. Reduced physical fitness, as observed in our study, might partly be caused by autonomic dysfunction, leading to less efficient regulation of physiological processes during exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC

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    Williamson Paula

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods

  8. Potential Impact of Minimum Unit Pricing for Alcohol in Ireland: Evidence from the National Alcohol Diary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Gráinne; Mongan, Deirdre; Barry, Joe; Smyth, Bobby; Rackard, Marion; Long, Jean

    2016-11-01

    One of the main provisions of the Irish Public Health (Alcohol) Bill is the introduction of a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in Ireland, set at €1.00/standard drink. We sought to identify who will be most affected by the introduction of a MUP, examining the relationship between harmful alcohol consumption, personal income, place of purchase and price paid for alcohol. A nationally representative survey of 3187 respondents aged 18-75 years, completing a diary of their previous week's alcohol consumption. The primary outcome was purchasing alcohol at  5), low personal annual income (target those suffering the greatest harm, and reduce alcohol-attributable mortality in Ireland. Further prospective studies are needed to monitor consumption trends and associated harms following the introduction of minimum unit pricing of alcohol. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Approach bias modification in alcohol dependence: Do clinical effects replicate and for whom does it work best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberl, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcoholism is a progressive neurocognitive developmental disorder. Recent evidence shows that computerized training interventions (Cognitive Bias Modification, CBM) can reverse some of these maladaptively changed neurocognitive processes. A first clinical study of a CBM, called

  10. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  11. Intangible costs of alcohol dependence from the perspective of patients and their relatives: A contingent valuation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol dependence causes multiple problems not only for the person suffering dependence but also for others. In this study, the contingent valuation method is proposed to measure the intangible effects of alcohol dependence from the perspective of the persons directly involved: the patients and their relatives. Interviews were conducted with 145 patients and 61 relatives. Intangible effects of alcohol dependence were determined based on willingness to pay for a hypothetical treatment for dependence, with different success scenarios (100% and 50%). The mean monthly willingness to pay among the alcohol-dependent population was €129 and €168, respectively, for the treatments with 100% and 50% success. The willingness to pay of relatives was greater in both scenarios (€307 and €420, respectively), which could be explained by their greater perception of the family, labour, and health problems resulting from alcohol dependence. Regression analysis showed that patients' willingness to pay is positively related to treatment efficacy, personal income and moderate health deterioration, and negatively related to feeling discouraged and depressed. The results from this study can be applied to economic valuation studies that aim to measure the benefits of programs intended to reduce the prevalence of alcohol dependence. The intangible costs estimated can be added to the direct and indirect costs commonly used.

  12. [A comparison of self-esteem in alcohol-dependent women and women who have become abstinent, against a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Angélique; Chauveau-Clerc, Charlyne; Courtois, Robert; Bacq, Yannick; Maugé, Damien; Ballon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    ). No difference was found between alcohol-dependent women and women who had become abstinent. This study has shown evidence that general, familial and professional self-esteem drops in alcohol-dependent women and in women who had become abstinent compared to a general population. There was no proof of any difference of self-esteem in women who had become abstinent and alcohol-dependent women, although abstinent women seemed to have better general and professional self-esteem while their familial self-esteem seemed to be lower. This study begs the question about self-esteem in women who have become abstinent suggests that self-esteem should be integrated into their treatment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

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    Damien eBrevers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (AD and 32 controls performed an Ultimatum Game (UG, in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR. Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed are needed in order to examine whether - emotional and behavioral - reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD.

  14. Medications development to treat alcohol dependence: a vision for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litten, Raye Z; Egli, Mark; Heilig, Markus; Cui, Changhai; Fertig, Joanne B; Ryan, Megan L; Falk, Daniel E; Moss, Howard; Huebner, Robert; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    More than 76 million people world-wide are estimated to have diagnosable alcohol use disorders (AUDs) (alcohol abuse or dependence), making these disorders a major global health problem. Pharmacotherapy offers promising means for treating AUDs, and significant progress has been made in the past 20 years. The US Food and Drug Administration approved three of the four medications for alcoholism in the last two decades. Unfortunately, these medications do not work for everyone, prompting the need for a personalized approach to optimize clinical benefit or more efficacious medications that can treat a wider range of patients, or both. To promote global health, the potential reorganization of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) must continue to support the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA's) vision of ensuring the development and delivery of new and more efficacious medications to treat AUDs in the coming decade. To achieve this objective, the NIAAA Medications Development Team has identified three fundamental long-range goals: (1) to make the drug development process more efficient; (2) to identify more efficacious medications, personalize treatment approaches, or both; and (3) to facilitate the implementation and adaptation of medications in real-world treatment settings. These goals will be carried out through seven key objectives. This paper describes those objectives in terms of rationale and strategy. Successful implementation of these objectives will result in the development of more efficacious and safe medications, provide a greater selection of therapy options and ultimately lessen the impact of this devastating disorder. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Analysis of alcohol dependence phenotype in the COGA families using covariates to detect linkage

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    Tsai Hui-Ju

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linkage analysis methods that incorporate etiological heterogeneity of complex diseases are likely to demonstrate greater power than traditional linkage analysis methods. Several such methods use covariates to discriminate between linked and unlinked pedigrees with respect to a certain disease locus. Here we apply several such methods including two mixture models, ordered subset analysis, and a conditional logistic model to genome scan data on the DSM-IV alcohol dependence phenotype on the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism families, and compare the results to traditional nonparametric linkage analysis. In general, there was little agreement among the various covariate-based linkage statistics. Linkage signals with empirical p-values less than 0.001 were detected on chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 10, and 12, with the highest peak occurring at the GABRB1 gene using the ecb21 covariate.

  16. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  17. No evidence of association between structural polymorphism at the dopamine D3 receptor locus and alcoholism in the Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Susumu; Muramatsu, Taro; Matsushita, Sachio [National Institute on Alcoholism, Kanagawa (Japan); Murayama, Masanobu [Akagi Kougen Hospital, Gunma (Japan)

    1996-07-26

    Dopaminergic systems mediate reward mechanisms and are involved in reinforcing self-administration of dependence-forming substances, including alcohol. Studies have reported that polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor, whose structure and function are similar to those of the dopamine D3 receptor, increase the susceptibility to alcoholism. The observations led to the examination of the possible association between a structural polymorphism of the D3 receptor gene and alcoholism. Genotyping results, employing a PCR-RFLP method, showed no difference in allele and genotype frequencies of the D3 BalI polymorphism (Ser{sup 9}/Gly{sup 9}) between Japanese alcoholics and controls. Moreover, these frequencies were not altered in alcoholics with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), a well-defined negative risk factor for alcoholism. These results strongly suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is not associated with alcoholism. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance use (N = 420). Results showed that opioid dependent women scored higher on 2 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, particularly the schemas of dependence and punitiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be largely consistent across women diagnosed with alcohol or opioid dependence. Implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:23494129

  19. Dissociable patterns in the control of emotional interference in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in adults with alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Marx

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To effectively manage current task demands, attention must be focused on task-relevant information while task-irrelevant information is rejected. However, in everyday life, people must cope with emotions, which may interfere with actual task demands and may challenge functional attention allocation. Control of interfering emotions has been associated with the proper functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. As DLPFC dysfunction is evident in subjects with ADHD and in subjects with alcohol dependence, the current study sought to examine the bottom-up effect of emotional distraction on task performance in both disorders. METHODS: Male adults with ADHD (n = 22, male adults with alcohol dependence (n = 16, and healthy controls (n = 30 performed an emotional working memory task (n-back task. In the background of the task, we presented neutral and negative stimuli that varied in emotional saliency. RESULTS: In both clinical groups, a working memory deficit was evident. Moreover, both clinical groups displayed deficient emotional interference control. The n-back performance of the controls was not affected by the emotional distractors, whereas that of subjects with ADHD deteriorated in the presence of low salient distractors, and that of alcoholics did not deteriorate until high salient distractors were presented. Subsequent to task performance, subjects with ADHD accurately recognized more distractors than did alcoholics and controls. In alcoholics, picture recognition accuracy was negatively associated with n-back performance, suggesting a functional association between the ability to suppress emotional distractors and successful task performance. In subjects with ADHD, performance accuracy was negatively associated with ADHD inattentive symptoms, suggesting that inattention contributes to the performance deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with ADHD and alcoholics both display an emotional interference control

  20. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: motivations as predictors of consumption patterns, risk of alcohol dependence, and experience of injury and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Nicolas; Tonner, Lorraine; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I; Miller, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Coconsumption of alcohol with energy drinks (AED) is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents and young adults and has been associated with a range of harms. Motivations related to determined drunkenness and hedonistic drinking are potentially important in explaining both alcohol and AED consumption, given that a relationship has been identified between AED use and heavy alcohol consumption. This study aimed to explore motives for combined AED consumption, as well as their relationship with alcohol dependence and experiences of harm and aggression. Students (n = 594) enrolled at Deakin University, Victoria, Australia, completed an anonymous online survey in 2012. Approximately two-thirds of the sample (66.5%) were female, and the mean age was 22.3 (SD = 4.5), consistent with 2012 Deakin University enrollment. Principal axis factor analysis of 14 items measuring motivations for AED use identified 4 factors, categorized as "hedonistic," "social," "energy/endurance," and "intoxication-reduction" motives. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses demonstrated that hedonistic motives for AED use significantly predicted increases in alcohol and energy drink coconsumption during AED episodes, risk of alcohol dependence, as well as experiencing harm and aggression. Intoxication-reduction motives significantly predicted harm outcomes. Hedonistic motives specific to sensation and pleasure ideals are implicated in negative consequences associated with coconsumption of alcohol and energy drinks. Further, consumers who reported using AEDs to reduce alcohol intoxication were at increased risk of negative outcomes, a finding indicating that consumer knowledge of the effects of AED use may be limited. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Association study of the Ile349val polymorphism of the gene ADH1C and alcohol dependence

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    André Soares Rebello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism Ile349Val of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1C gene among individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS attending Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings. METHODS: A total of 120 subjects residing in Rio de Janeiro city participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: a group consisting of 54 individuals from the ADS group and 66 individuals that declared not having any alcohol dependence (control group. DNA was extracted from mouth epithelial cells by phenol-chloroform method and further submitted to amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: Our results did not show differences between the genotypes of control individuals and ADS subjects. Nevertheless, we found increased rates of alcoholism in families of ADS subjects as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not show any genotype difference on the ADH1C gene when control and AA genotypes are compared.

  2. Sugar alcohols: what is the evidence for caries-preventive and caries-therapeutic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loveren, C

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used sugar alcohols are: xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol and the products Lycasin and Palatinit. It is often claimed that xylitol is superior to the other sugar alcohols for caries control. This paper examines clinical studies on the caries-preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar alcohols with emphasis on sorbitol and xylitol. It is concluded that chewing sugar-free gum 3 or more times daily for prolonged periods of time may reduce caries incidence irrespective of the type of sugar alcohol used. It may be sufficient to do this only on school days. Sucking xylitol-containing candies or tablets may have a similar effect as chewing xylitol chewing gum. Clinical trials suggest greater caries reductions from chewing gums sweetened with xylitol than from gums sweetened with sorbitol. However, the superiority of xylitol was not confirmed in 2 out of 4 clinical trials comparing the caries-preventive effect of xylitol- with sorbitol-sweetened gums. The caries-preventive effects of polyol-containing gums and candies seem to be based on stimulation of the salivary flow, although an antimicrobial effect cannot be excluded. There is no evidence for a caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. These conclusions are in line with those of recent reviews and with the conclusions of the Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the EU Commission. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

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    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  4. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Campanella, Salvatore; Kornreich, Charles; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-dependence have, up to now, been mainly focused on the exploration of emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding. In the present paper, we provide some complements to the recent systematic literature review published by Donadon and de Lima Osório on this crucial topic. We also suggest research avenues that must be, in our opinion, considered in the coming years. More precisely, we propose, first, that a battery integrating a set of emotional tasks relating to different processes should be developed to better systemize EFE decoding measures in alcohol-dependence. Second, we propose to go below EFE recognition deficits and to seek for the roots of those alterations, particularly by investigating the putative role played by early visual processing and vision-emotion interactions in the emotional impairment observed in alcohol-dependence. Third, we insist on the need to go beyond EFE recognition deficits by suggesting that they only constitute a part of wider emotional deficits in alcohol-dependence. Importantly, since the efficient decoding of emotions is a crucial ability for the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, we suggest that disruption of this ability in alcohol-dependent individuals may have adverse consequences for their social integration. One way to achieve this research agenda would be to develop the field of affective and social neuroscience of alcohol-dependence, which could ultimately lead to major advances at both theoretical and therapeutic levels.

  5. Non-transfusion dependent thalassemia: translating evidence to guidelines

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    Afif R. Harb

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thalassemias are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis characterized by various degrees of defective production of the α- or β-globin chains of adult hemoglobin A. Non-transfusion- dependent thalassemia (NTDT includes a group of thalassemia patients who do not require regular RBC transfusions for survival, but may require occasional transfusions due to infection or pregnancy or may require more regular transfusions later in life due to splenomegaly or other complications. Due to the rising phenomenon of global migration, this previously well-localized entity is currently spreading more and more worldwide reaching Northern America and Northern Europe. The clinical picture of NTDT is governed by the severity of the ineffective erythropoiesis and the chronic hemolytic anemia, which, in turn, lead to iron overload, hypercoagulability, and an array of clinical complications involving almost every organ system. Patients with NTDT suffer from complications that are distinct from those encountered in patients with transfusion- dependent thalassemia (TDT in addition to the complications shared by both TDT and NTDT. As a consequence, patients with NTDT deserve a care specifically tailored to their needs. In the care of patients with NTDT, aiming at a standardized yet personalized care is not an easy task especially that NTDT patients lie on a heterogeneous spectrum with a wide variability in their clinical presentation and response to therapy. Therefore, guidelines emerge as a necessity to answer the specific needs of NTDT patients and the clinicians caring for them. In this article, we summarize the complications most commonly associated with NTDT and the recommendations of the guidelines for the management of patients with NTDT, based on the best available evidence.

  6. Gender differences in alcohol choice among Russians: evidence from a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative studies find that men and women in Russia have different preferences for alcoholic beverages, but quantitative evidence for gender differences in beverage type choice remains scarce. The purpose of this article is to test numerically whether and to what extent men and women in Russia differ in terms of preferences for type of drink, such as vodka, wine and beer. Results are based on multinomial logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression analyses of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-Higher School of Economics 2008 data. We observed significant gender differences in preferences for alcoholic beverages. Men have strong preferences for vodka, and they drink it in much larger amounts in comparison with women. Women are more likely to either refrain from drinking or drink mild types of alcoholic beverages, such as wine and beer. Gender differences remain statistically significant even when sociodemographic factors are well accounted for. The present study confirms the previous research findings about gender differences in drinking practices among Russians. Our results provide quantitative evidence of the pronounced differences in beverage types consumed by men and women. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hippocampal volume MRI and 1H-MRS study in chronic alcohol dependent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Huanmin; Chen Jun; Zha Yunfei; Zhang Yu; Liu Changsheng; Pan Ewu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of the bilateral hippocampal volume (BHV) and 1 H- MRS appearance of chronic alcohol dependent (CAD) patients and to provide quantitative information for the clinical diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The conventional MR imaging including three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-FSPGR) and 1 H-MRS were performed on 16 patients with CAD (CAD group) and 18 cases of volunteer (control group). The BHV were measured in both groups and the standardized BHV in CAD group and control group were compared. 1 H-MRS metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline compounds (Cho), Creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) of the bilateral cephalic hippocampus were acquired. The ratios of Cho/Ci, Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and mI/Ci within the bilateral cephalic hippocampus of the two groups were compared. The t test was used to compare the BHV and the ratios of 1 H-MRS in the bilateral cephalic hippocampus between the two groups. Results: In CAD group, the left and the right hippocampal volume were 1.881±0.292, 2.139±0.328 respectively while they were 2.106±0.245 and 2.267±0.271 respectively in the control group. The BHV had no significant difference between the left and the right in either the CAD group or the control group (t=0.232, 0.147 respectively, P>0.05). The BHV had no significant difference between the CAD group and control group (t=0.424, 0.131 respectively, P>0.05). The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in the right cephalic hippocampus of the CAD group were 1.225±0.210 and 1.145±0.034 respectively, while they were 1.429±0.286, 1.612±0.444 respectively in the control group (t=0.321, 0.408, P 1 H-MRS could potentially provide early diagnostic evidence for CAD patients before the onset of cerebral morphological changes. (authors)

  8. Study on alcohol dependence and factors related to erectile dysfunction among aborigines in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Taiwanese- most have described ED and medical problems in the general population. In this study, the cardiovascular risk factors of ED among aborigines in Taiwan were investigated. However, alcohol dependence (AD) was prevalent in Taiwan's aborigine population. So this study also focused on the relationship among AD, the cardiovascular risk factors and ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data was obtained from a baseline survey of 192 aboriginal adults (35-75 years of age). The participants' demographic data, AD, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone, and ED status were assessed. Ninety-four (49%) of the 192 participants had a history of alcoholism and 79 (84%) of those with alcoholism had ED. The study reported that AD and hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), ED, abnormality of testosterone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are highly prevalent among the aborigines. Factors that may affect ED included age, AD, central obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, MetS, and testosterone. ED is highly prevalent among aborigines with the risk factors of AD, MetS, old age, and abnormal testosterone serum level. MetS, atherosclerosis, and ED are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, an increased focus on Taiwanese aborigines with ED is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. A Study of Psychiatric Patients Diagnosed with Pathological Gambling and Alcohol Dependence Accompanied by Multiple Debts

    OpenAIRE

    上平, 忠一

    2002-01-01

    We reported the cases of two psychiatric patients, one with pathological gambling and the other with alcohol dependence, both with multiple debts. Case 1: A 72-year-old widow exhibiting simple pachinko addition after the death of her husband six years earlier. She used card loans and borrowed money from consumer credit (Sara kin) and gradually fell into debt. Case 2: A 40-year-old housewife with a five year history of alcholism. Due to economic distress she utilized consumer credit (Sara kin)...

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of yoga therapy as an adjunct in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2017-01-01

    was significant only till two weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Yoga therapy significantly reduced anxiety symptoms and craving in patients of alcohol dependence but not depressive symptoms. Secondly, practicing yoga for a longer period of time has progressive benefits.

  11. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  12. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  13. Alcohol and opioid dependence medications: prescription trends, overall and by physician specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Tami L; Kassed, Cheryl A; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Levit, Katharine R; Kranzler, Henry R

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in addiction neurobiology have led to the approval of new medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. This study examined data from the IMS National Prescription Audit (NPA) Plus database of retail pharmacy transactions to evaluate trends in U.S. retail sales and prescriptions of FDA-approved medications to treat substance use disorders. Data reveal that prescriptions for alcoholism medications grew from 393,000 in 2003 ($30 million in sales) to an estimated 720,000 ($78 million in sales) in 2007. The growth was largely driven by the introduction of acamprosate in 2005, which soon became the market leader ($35 million in sales). Prescriptions for the two buprenorphine formulations increased from 48,000 prescriptions ($5 million in sales) in the year of their introduction (2003) to 1.9 million prescriptions ($327 million in sales) in 2007. While acamprosate and buprenorphine grew rapidly after market entry, overall substance abuse retail medication sales remain small relative to the size of the population that could benefit from treatment and relative to sales for other medications, such as antidepressants. The extent to which substance dependence medications will be adopted by physicians and patients, and marketed by industry, remains uncertain.

  14. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed.

  15. Blunted amygdala functional connectivity during a stress task in alcohol dependent individuals: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha E. Wade, M.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Materials and methods: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. Results: After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05, there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. Conclusions: This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence. Keywords: Alcohol dependence, fMRI, Stress task, Functional connectivity, Amygdala

  16. Relay model for recruiting alcohol dependent patients in general hospitals--a single-blind pragmatic randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Anne-Sophie; Bilberg, Randi; Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Danish population consumes more than the officially recommended weekly amount of alcohol. Untreated alcohol use disorders lead to frequent contacts with the health care system and can be associated with considerable human and societal costs. However, only...... a small share of those with alcohol use disorders receives treatment. A referral model to ensure treatment for alcohol dependent patients after discharge is needed. This study evaluates the i) cost-effectiveness ii) efficacy and iii) overall impact on societal costs of the proposed referral model...... a lifestyle questionnaire with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test embedded as a case identification strategy. The primary outcome of the study will be health care expenditures 12 months after discharge. The secondary outcome will be the percentage of the target group, who 30 days after discharge...

  17. Living an unstable everyday life while attempting to perform normality - the meaning of living as an alcohol-dependent woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurang, Anna; Bengtsson Tops, Anita

    2013-02-01

    To illuminate the meaning of living with alcohol dependency as a woman. The number of women suffering from alcohol dependency is increasing. Today there are shortcomings in knowledge about the lived experiences of being a woman with alcohol dependency; knowledge which might be of importance for meeting these women's specific needs of care. The study has a qualitative design. Fourteen women with alcohol dependency participated in open in-depth interviews. Data were analysed according to a phenomenological-hermeneutic method, and interpreted by help from gender and caring perspectives as well as results from previous research of alcohol dependency. In relation to the women's senses of well-being, four main gender formations were found; An unstable self involving continual and rapid swings between emotional and bodily reactions. Ambivalence - meaning ambiguous feelings towards themselves as human beings and how they lead their lives. Introspectiveness - involving reflections, pondering and being introverted. Attempts to perform normality - covering - dealing with life through various strategies and facades to live up to the expectations of how to behave as a woman. Living with alcohol dependency as a woman constitutes of a rapid shifting everyday life resulting in senses of alienation as well as private introspection leading to self-degradation, and to a lesser extent meaningfulness and hope. It also constitutes of managing to perform normality. When supporting women with alcohol dependency towards wellbeing, professionals need to work towards approaching the woman's inner thoughts, share them and reflect over them together. To support these women to find balance in life, caregivers need to cooperate with the women to find out how best to live a life adjusted to the woman's abilities and wishes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Hondt F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabien D’Hondt,1 Salvatore Campanella,2 Charles Kornreich,2 Pierre Philippot,1 Pierre Maurage1 1Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Medical Psychology and Addictology, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-dependence have, up to now, been mainly focused on the exploration of emotional facial expressions (EFE decoding. In the present paper, we provide some complements to the recent systematic literature review published by Donadon and de Lima Osório on this crucial topic. We also suggest research avenues that must be, in our opinion, considered in the coming years. More precisely, we propose, first, that a battery integrating a set of emotional tasks relating to different processes should be developed to better systemize EFE decoding measures in alcohol-dependence. Second, we propose to go below EFE recognition deficits and to seek for the roots of those alterations, particularly by investigating the putative role played by early visual processing and vision–emotion interactions in the emotional impairment observed in alcohol-dependence. Third, we insist on the need to go beyond EFE recognition deficits by suggesting that they only constitute a part of wider emotional deficits in alcohol-dependence. Importantly, since the efficient decoding of emotions is a crucial ability for the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, we suggest that disruption of this ability in alcohol-dependent individuals may have adverse consequences for their social integration. One way to achieve this research agenda would be to develop the field of affective and social neuroscience of alcohol-dependence, which could ultimately lead to major advances at both theoretical

  19. Fractional amplitude analysis of low frequency fluctuation in alcohol dependent individuals: a resting state functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dingfang; Cheng Jun; Wu Hanbin; Xu Liangzhou; Liu Jinhuan; Zhao Yilin; Lin Xue; Liu Changsheng; Qiu Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore brain activity features during the resting state in alcohol dependent individuals, and study the relationship between the brain activity features and alcohol dependent individuals' clinical symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four alcohol dependent individuals and 22 healthy control subjects, well matched in gender, age, education and handedness, were enrolled as the alcohol dependent group and control group respectively. A GE 3.0 T MR scanner was used to acquire all the subjects' resting state data. DPARSF software was used to process resting functional MRI data, and then the whole brain fractional amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) data were acquired. Two-sample t test statistical analysis was made to access fALFF difference between the two groups. Results: In comparison with the control group, the alcohol dependent group showed reduced fALFF in bilateral medial prefrontal gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus, left precuneus,left inferior temporal gyrus, and left posterior lobe of cerebellum (0.64-1.69 vs. 0.87-1.78, t=-4.23- -2.79, P<0.05). fALFF was increased in the alcohol dependent group at the anterior cingulate,bilateral inferior frontal gyrus,right middle frontal gyrus,bilateral insular lobe,bilateral dorsal thalamus (0.86-1.82 vs. 0.76-1.58, t=3.56-3.96, P<0.05). Conclusion: Alcohol dependent individuals had abnormal activity at the bilateral prefrontal lobe,anterior cingulate, bilateral dorsal thalamus, bilateral insular lobe, left posterior lobe of cerebellum et al, during the resting state, and these abnormal activities might be related with clinical manifestation and pathophysiology. (authors)

  20. Pd Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Isomerization vs Hydrogenation of Allyl Alcohol: Solvent-Dependent Regioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghmoghaddam, Elham; Gu, Hanmo; Shon, Young-Seok

    2012-09-07

    Our previous work has shown that alkanethiolate-capped Pd nanoparticles generated from sodium S -dodecylthiosulfate are excellent catalysts for selective isomerization of various allyl alcohols to the carbonyl analogues. The present work focuses on understanding the mechanism and the regioselectivity of Pd nanoparticles in different environments. First, the presence of H 2 gas has turned out to be essential for the efficient catalytic isomerization reaction. This suggests that the mechanism likely involves the Pd-alkyl intermediate rather than the η 3 π-allyl Pd hydride intermediate. Second, the Pd nanoparticles are found to convert allyl alcohol selectively to either propanal or 1-propanol depending on the type of solvent used for the catalytic reactions. The reaction pathway is most likely determined by steric hindrance, which is the result of the interaction between substrate and alkylthiolate ligands on Pd nanoparticles. Presumably, the conformation of alkylthiolate ligands changes upon the type of solvents, resulting in varying degree of available space close to the nanoparticle surface. In general, nonpolar or weakly polar solvents such as benzene and chloroform, respectively, promote the isomerization of allyl alcohol to propanal via the formation of the branched Pd-alkyl intermediate. On the other hand, polar protic solvents such as methanol and water foster the hydrogenation of allyl alcohol to 1-propanol involving the steric induced formation of a linear Pd-alkyl intermediate. Third, the use of sodium S -hexylthiosulfate instead of sodium S -dodecylthiosulfate for the synthesis of Pd nanoparticles results in nanoparticle catalysts with a lower regioselectivity toward isomerization over hydrogenation. This is due to the higher surface ligand density of hexanethiolate-capped Pd nanoparticles, which negatively impacts the formation of branched Pd-alkyl intermediate. The results clearly indicate that controlling the structure and surface density of

  1. Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and illicit drug dependence: genetics of vulnerability to drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie; Nugent, Nicole R; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Keller, Matthew C

    2015-03-01

    Twin and family studies suggest that genetic influences are shared across substances of abuse. However, despite evidence of heritability, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have indicated numerous markers of limited effects, suggesting that much of the heritability remains missing. We estimated (1) the aggregate effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on multiple indicators of comorbid drug problems that are typically employed across community and population-based samples, and (2) the genetic covariance across these measures. A total of 2596 unrelated subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment provided information on alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cannabis and other illicit substance dependence. Phenotypic measures included: (1) a factor score based on DSM-IV drug dependence diagnoses (DD), (2) a factor score based on problem use (PU; i.e. 1+ DSM-IV symptoms) and (3) dependence vulnerability (DV; a ratio of DSM-IV symptoms to the number of substances used). Univariate and bivariate genome-wide complex trait analyses of this selected sample indicated that common SNPs explained 25-36% of the variance across measures, with DD and DV having the largest effects [h(2) SNP (standard error) = 0.36 (0.13) and 0.33 (0.13), respectively; PU = 0.25 (0.13)]. Genetic effects were shared across the three phenotypic measures of comorbid drug problems [rDD-PU = 0.92 (0.08), rDD-DV = 0.97 (0.08) and rPU-DV = 0.96 (0.07)]. At least 20% of the variance in the generalized vulnerability to substance dependence is attributable to common single nucleotide polymorphisms. The additive effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms is shared across important indicators of comorbid drug problems. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Family Dysfunction Differentially Affects Alcohol and Methamphetamine Dependence: A View from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ikeda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  3. Evidence against alcohol as a proximal cause of sexual risk taking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Blasini, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    Studies have suggested that drinking leads to promiscuity and sexual risk taking. This claim, however, has not remained unchallenged, and several investigations have suggested this relationship may be at best limited to a narrow band of sexual behavior or at worst entirely spurious. An on-line survey about two discrete sexual events: one with intercourse, one without college students (a smaller subsample was used to examine crucial hypotheses) completed by 216 (148 female). Within-subjects analyses yielded no evidence indicating that condom use was less prevalent when alcohol was consumed regardless of relationship status (casual or romantic partners). Alcohol was consumed more often during noncoital events. Among females, intercourse events showed higher levels of arousal and perceived benefits and lower perceived costs and internal conflict than noncoital events, suggesting a rather rational decision-making process even when under the influence. Stable personality and behavioral dimensions (sociosexuality, impulsivity/sensation seeking, sociability, and usual drinking) provided a better explanation for sexual risk taking than acute alcohol effects.

  4. [Acamprosate and psychosocial intervention. An integrative treatment approach for prevention of alcohol dependent patients in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, W J; Riebenfeld, D

    2002-04-24

    105 patients with severe alcohol dependence, who were treated in 13 centers in Switzerland, took part in this open study. The abstinence rate achieved under treatment with Acamprosat, which was used within the framework of established psychotherapeutic intervention programmes in which the doctors could choose between five different procedures, was determined over a period of 24 weeks. In addition, a sociodemographic profile was drawn up, a physical examination was carried out and data were collected on the safety aspect of Acamprosat. It was also of interest to ascertain whether, and if so how, the patients' quality of life changed under the treatment, and in what form they received psychosocial support. As supportive therapy almost two-thirds of the patients (63%) received individual psychotherapy, in 28% the doctor decided on cognitive behavioural therapy, in 4% a short intervention was carried out, in 4% group therapy and in 2% family therapy. In 85.7% of the patients the doctor continued with the initial form of psychotherapy, while in the remaining patients it was changed once. Due to the very uneven distribution a comparison of the outcome in regard to the concomitant therapy was rather problematical. Psychiatric problems (21%), polyneuritis (12%) and liver damage (10.6%)--all known complications of chronic alcohol abuse--were the most frequent concomitant diagnoses. Of the 91 patients who had remained abstinent for the first two weeks after the start of the study, 12.9% had a recurrence at the end of the study, 56% did not have a recurrence (they were abstinent, but did have a binge or a lapse) and 31.8% did not return for the control visits. When a recurrence did occur, however, significantly less alcohol was consumed than before the treatment. As a result of the combined intervention all the parameters relating to the quality of life that were documented in connection with the SF 36 showed improvement. With this study carried out in Switzerland, which is

  5. The prevalence of alcohol dependence and its association with hypertension: a population-based cross-sectional study4 in Xuzhou city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ailing; Lou, Peian; Dong, Zongmei; Xu, Chunrong; Zhang, Pan; Chang, Guiqiu; Li, Ting

    2018-03-16

    To describe the prevalence of alcohol dependence and to explore the relationship between alcohol dependence and newly detected hypertension in China. A multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to obtain samples from February to June 2013. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was used to estimate alcohol dependence level. A standard questionnaire measured other independent variables. Enumeration data were analyzed using chi-square; quantitative data were analyzed using t-tests. Spearman correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between alcohol dependence and hypertension. The alcohol dependence rate was 11.56%; 22.02% of males (3854/17501) and 1.74% of females (324/18656) were classified as alcohol dependent. The newly detected hypertension rate was 9.46% (3422/36157). Significant associations were found between alcohol dependence levels and blood pressure (P < 0.01). Alcohol dependence was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.071, P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.077, P < 0.01) and was an independent risk factor for hypertension after adjusting for confounders (low alcohol dependence: odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.14-1.81, P < 0.01; light alcohol dependence: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.64, P < 0.01; medium alcohol dependence: OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.40-2.41, P < 0.01). Alcohol dependence was high and associated with hypertension. Health education and precautions against alcoholism should be implemented in Xuzhou city.

  6. Influence of repeated permanent coloring and bleaching on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair from alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Dom, Geert; Cappelle, Delphine; Maudens, Kristof E; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of alcohol, is used as a sensitive marker in hair to detect the retrospective consumption of alcohol. The proximal 0-3 cm hair segment is often used for analysis, providing information on alcohol consumption over the past 3 months. Using more distal segments would allow the detection of alcohol consumption over longer time periods, thereby addressing the chronicity of the consumption. In view of this, permanent coloring and bleaching were shown in vitro to alter EtG concentrations in hair, but no in vivo studies are available to prove or disprove this. To investigate the influence of repeated bleaching and permanent coloring on EtG concentrations in vivo and to assess the stability of EtG concentrations in distal compared to proximal hair segments. Hair samples from alcohol-dependent patients with uncolored/unbleached (N=4), permanent coloration (N=5) and bleached hair (N=5) were analyzed in two to six 3 cm long segments for EtG concentrations, and alcohol consumption and hair cosmetic treatments were assessed. We observed that hair bleaching and permanent coloring reduces EtG concentrations by 82±11% and 65±24%, respectively, with correlations between the number of cosmetic treatments and the decrease in EtG concentrations. EtG remained stable in untreated hair samples up to 18 cm. EtG is a sensitive marker to assess chronic alcohol consumption up to 18 months in alcohol-dependent patients with no cosmetic hair treatments. However, in alcohol-dependent patients who color or bleach their hair, care should be taken when interpreting EtG measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistent dose-dependent changes in brain structure in young adults with low-to-moderate alcohol exposure in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Ding, Zhaohua; Dodge, Neil C; Cowan, Ronald L; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Avison, Malcolm J

    2012-11-01

    Many children with heavy exposure to alcohol in utero display characteristic alterations in brain size and structure. However, the long-term effects of low-to-moderate alcohol exposure on these outcomes are unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry and region-of-interest analyses, we examined the influence of lower doses of alcohol on gray and white matter composition in a prospectively recruited, homogeneous, well-characterized cohort of alcohol-exposed (n = 11, age 19.5 ± 0.3 years) and control (n = 9, age 19.6 ± 0.5 years) young adults. A large proportion of the exposed individuals were born to mothers whose alcohol consumption during pregnancy was in the low-to-moderate range. There were no differences in total brain volume or total gray or white matter volume between the exposed and control groups. However, gray matter volume was reduced in alcohol-exposed individuals in several areas previously reported to be affected by high levels of exposure, including the left cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right middle temporal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. Notably, this gray matter loss was dose dependent, with higher exposure producing more substantial losses. These results indicate that even at low doses, alcohol exposure during pregnancy impacts brain development and that these effects persist into young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Further evidence for GHB naturally occurring in common non-alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon P; Fais, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    GHB has been implicated in many cases of suspected surreptitious administration with the purpose of increasing victim vulnerability to sexual assault. Low amounts of endogenous (or naturally occurring) GHB, which do not reach pharmacologically active levels, have been detected in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Due to the continued requirement to obtain data on the presence of endogenous GHB in various beverage types, GHB concentrations were measured in a series of non-alcoholic beverages. Tonic water and lemon flavoured tonic water beverages were analysed at 0, 24 and 96h after the bottle opening using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) on an Agilent 6890/7000C Triple Quadrupole. GHB was detected in all beverages at very low amounts ranging from 89 to 145ng/mL (0.089-0.145mg/L) and did not demonstrate a general trend of variation for concentration along the tested time span (96h). The presented data provide additional evidence for the endogenous nature of GHB in non-alcoholic beverages at very low concentrations, which are many orders of magnitude lower than those described to produce any pharmacological effect on the subject. However, when considering a case of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault, a low level of GHB detected in a drink may be related both to a surreptitiously GHB administration with subsequent dilution for concealment or to the presence of endogenous GHB. On this basis, a comprehensive analysis of all the available information, including circumstantial data demonstrating possible attempts to conceal GHB administration and an assessment of levels of endogenous GHB in the suspected beverage type, is of the utmost importance for a proper interpretation of the toxicological results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Health-related quality of life in alcohol dependence: Similar cross-cultural impact beyond specific drinking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquiens, Amandine; Owens, Lynn; Whalley, Diane; Rahhali, Nora; Laramée, Philippe; Crawford, Rebecca; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Falissard, Bruno; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2017-08-14

    This study explores sociocultural differences in alcohol-related impact on quality of life between France and United Kingdom. We included 38 alcohol-dependent patients in France and United Kingdom in 10 focus groups. We used a text-mining approach. Three classes of each corpus regarded identical themes across the countries: (a) core impact on quality of life, (b) drinking habits, (c) sources of help. Core impact was similar between the two countries. Main differences were in drinking habits and referral to sources of help. Despite differences in drinking habits, the domains of life impacted by alcohol were non-country specific.

  10. A genome wide association study of alcohol dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Chyong; Foroud, Tatiana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Le, Nhung XH; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Harari, Oscar; Koller, Daniel L; Wetherill, Leah; Agrawal, Arpana; Almasy, Laura; Brooks, Andrew I; Bucholz, Kathleen; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric O; Kang, Sun; Kapoor, Manav; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Madden, Pamela AF; Manz, Niklas; Martin, Nicholas G; McClintick, Jeanette N; Montgomery, Grant W; Nurnberger, John I; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A; Whitfield, John B; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Heath, Andrew C; Edenberg, Howard J; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol use disorders, but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence. To maximize the power of the extended family design we used a quantitative endophenotype, measured in all individuals: number of alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed (symptom count). Secondary analyses were performed to determine if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with symptom count were also associated with the dichotomous phenotype, DSM-IV alcohol dependence. This family-based GWAS identified SNPs in C15orf53 that are strongly associated with DSM-IV alcohol (p=4.5×10−8, inflation corrected p=9.4×10−7). Results with DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the regions of interest support our findings with symptom count, though the associations were less significant. Attempted replications of the most promising association results were conducted in two independent samples: non-overlapping subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) and the Australian twin-family study of alcohol use disorders (OZALC). Nominal association of C15orf53 with symptom count was observed in SAGE. The variant that showed strongest association with symptom count, rs12912251 and its highly correlated variants (D′=1, r2≥ 0.95), has previously been associated with risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:23089632

  11. Pathological gambling and alcohol dependence in a sample of workers and university students: prevalences, relationships and gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Pérez, José Ignacio; Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know pathological gambling prevalence in a Colombian people, relationships between pathological gamblingand alcohol drinking problems, and to explore differences between men and women. A university students and adult workers non-randomizedsample (n=150) answered the South Oaks Gambling Screen –sogs– and the Brief Questionnaire on Alcohol Dependence, several questionson gaming patterns and social and demographic background. Results showed that, accor...

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Among Adult Population: Evidence From the CHILILAB Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong V; Tran, Hanh T D; Tran, Ngan T

    Alcohol contributes to severe social and health problems and is a major risk factor for noncommunicable diseases in Vietnam. Over the years, there has been an increase in consumption per capita as well as a rapid expansion of commercially prepared alcohol. To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in a random sample of people 15 years of age and older living in Chi Linh who were also a part of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) and to determine the association between alcohol use and sociodemographic characteristics. Data on alcohol consumption of 5438 people 15 years of age and older were extracted from the CHILILAB HDSS information collected in 2016. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were utilized to assess the association between current drinkers and binge drinkers with socioeconomic groups. The overall prevalence of alcohol use 1 month prior to interview was 41.1%, which is composed of 75.1% males and 17.3% females. Among the 41% of alcohol drinkers, 31.7% reported binge drinking over the last 30 days. The proportion of binge drinking was also found to be higher among males than among females. The association between current drinkers, binge drinkers and gender, area of residence, education, and family income level was statistically significant. This study confirms that alcohol use among current and binge drinkers is common among males in Vietnam and that it is also a rising issue among females. Alcohol use is also associated with sociodemographic factors and income level. The results of this study provide evidence of harmful alcohol use among the Vietnamese population, which could help policy makers further advocate for the approval of the Vietnamese alcohol harm reduction law in the coming years. The results of this study reaffirm the need for public health strategies, including the formulation of laws and policies to reduce the harmful effects of alcohol consumption in

  13. Association between Copy Number Variation Losses and Alcohol Dependence across African American and European American Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions

  14. Person and People -centered Integrated Health Care for Alcohol Dependence-Whether it is real in the present moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Ratko Jovanovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. Together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect the person who consumes alcohol (e.g. fetal alcohol syndrome, violations that are related to alcohol use…Also, the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol use (e.g. acute and chronic illness, injuries in fights, at the workplace, in traffic, violent behavior, and death create a great burden for the economic development of a society.Unfortunately, confirmed alcoholics that are still drinking are unlikely to be given a life insurance cover. On the other hand, if a person is now a recovering alcoholic with a considerable abstinence period, he/she may hope to get a good life insurance quote. Usually, a year or two is believed to be an adequate amount of time for a person to get a life insurance cover at an average price. However, this is only possible if the alcohol did not cause serious health issues to the person. Furthermore, relapsing after impatient rehabilitation can be viewed as an aggravating factor to get a life insurance.So far the research focused on the effects on the population level, such as the increase in taxes, advertising bans and the implementation of laws that prevent the use of alcohol in traffic. However, it seems that the problem may be viewed at the individual level.In any case, models of treatment should be tailored to the needs of the individual. These models should incorporate the reduction of alcohol intake, but also the path to abstinence. The plan should take into account the different (individual needs for treatment, with regard to the degree of alcohol

  15. Analysis of extreme drinking in patients with alcohol dependence using Pareto regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourish; Harel, Ofer; Dey, Dipak K; Covault, Jonathan; Kranzler, Henry R

    2010-05-20

    We developed a novel Pareto regression model with an unknown shape parameter to analyze extreme drinking in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD). We used the generalized linear model (GLM) framework and the log-link to include the covariate information through the scale parameter of the generalized Pareto distribution. We proposed a Bayesian method based on Ridge prior and Zellner's g-prior for the regression coefficients. Simulation study indicated that the proposed Bayesian method performs better than the existing likelihood-based inference for the Pareto regression.We examined two issues of importance in the study of AD. First, we tested whether a single nucleotide polymorphism within GABRA2 gene, which encodes a subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, and that has been associated with AD, influences 'extreme' alcohol intake and second, the efficacy of three psychotherapies for alcoholism in treating extreme drinking behavior. We found an association between extreme drinking behavior and GABRA2. We also found that, at baseline, men with a high-risk GABRA2 allele had a significantly higher probability of extreme drinking than men with no high-risk allele. However, men with a high-risk allele responded to the therapy better than those with two copies of the low-risk allele. Women with high-risk alleles also responded to the therapy better than those with two copies of the low-risk allele, while women who received the cognitive behavioral therapy had better outcomes than those receiving either of the other two therapies. Among men, motivational enhancement therapy was the best for the treatment of the extreme drinking behavior. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Relationships between components of emotional intelligence and physical pain in alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maciej Kopera,1 Kirk J Brower,2 Hubert Suszek,3 Andrzej Jakubczyk,1 Sylwia Fudalej,1 Aleksandra Krasowska,1 Anna Klimkiewicz,1 Marcin Wojnar1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Psychiatry, Addiction Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Purpose: Chronic pain is a significant comorbidity in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. Emotional processing deficits are a substantial component of both AD and chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze the interrelations between components of emotional intelligence and self-reported pain severity in AD patients. Patients and methods: A sample of 103 participants was recruited from an alcohol treatment center in Warsaw, Poland. Information concerning pain level in the last 4 weeks, demographics, severity of current anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as neuroticism was obtained. The study sample was divided into “mild or no pain” and “moderate or greater pain” groups. Results: In the logistic regression model, across a set of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical factors, higher emotion regulation and higher education predicted lower severity, whereas increased levels of anxiety predicted higher severity of self-reported pain during the previous 4 weeks. When the mediation models looking at the association between current severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain severity with the mediating role of emotion regulation were tested, emotion regulation appeared to fully mediate the relationship between depression severity and pain, and partially the relationship between anxiety severity and pain. Conclusion: The current findings extend previous results indicating that emotion regulation deficits are related to self-reported pain in AD subjects. Comprehensive strategies focusing on the improvement of mood regulation skills might be

  17. Analysis of Extreme Drinking in Patients with Alcohol Dependence Using Pareto Regression†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourish; Harel, Ofer; Dey, Dipak K.; Covault, Jonathan; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY We developed a novel Pareto regression model with an unknown shape parameter to analyze extreme drinking in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD). We used the generalized linear model (GLM) framework and the log-link to include the covariate information through the scale parameter of the generalized Pareto distribution. We proposed a Bayesian method based on Ridge prior and Zellner’s g-prior for the regression coefficients. Simulation study indicated that the proposed Bayesian method performs better than the existing likelihood based inference for the Pareto regression. We examined two issues of importance in the study of AD. First, we tested whether a single nucleotide polymorphism within GABRA2 gene, which encodes a subunit of the GABAA receptor, and that has been associated to AD, influences ‘extreme’ alcohol intake and second, the efficacy of three psychotherapies for alcoholism in treating extreme drinking behavior. We found an association between extreme drinking behavior and GABRA2. We also found that, at baseline, men with a high-risk GABRA2 allele had a significantly higher probability of extreme drinking than men with no high-risk allele. However, men with a high-risk allele responded to the therapy better than those with two copies of the low-risk allele. Among men, cognitive behavioral therapy was the worst for the treatment of extreme drinking behavior. Women with high-risk alleles also responded to the therapy better than those with two copies of the low-risk allele, while women who received the cognitive behavioral therapy had better outcomes than those receiving either of the other two therapies. PMID:20225194

  18. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Meinou H.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A1A2A3B3B2B1) and crossed dependencies (A1A2A3B1B2B3), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A1A2A3B3_B1), reminiscent of the ‘missing-verb effect’ observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A1A2A3B1_B3). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch—which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively—showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning. PMID:22688641

  19. Alcohol Dependence Associated with Increased Utilitarian Moral Judgment: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas. PMID:22761922

  20. Alcohol dependence associated with increased utilitarian moral judgment: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas.

  1. Relationships between components of emotional intelligence and physical pain in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Brower, Kirk J; Suszek, Hubert; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Fudalej, Sylwia; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant comorbidity in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). Emotional processing deficits are a substantial component of both AD and chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze the interrelations between components of emotional intelligence and self-reported pain severity in AD patients. A sample of 103 participants was recruited from an alcohol treatment center in Warsaw, Poland. Information concerning pain level in the last 4 weeks, demographics, severity of current anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as neuroticism was obtained. The study sample was divided into "mild or no pain" and "moderate or greater pain" groups. In the logistic regression model, across a set of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical factors, higher emotion regulation and higher education predicted lower severity, whereas increased levels of anxiety predicted higher severity of self-reported pain during the previous 4 weeks. When the mediation models looking at the association between current severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain severity with the mediating role of emotion regulation were tested, emotion regulation appeared to fully mediate the relationship between depression severity and pain, and partially the relationship between anxiety severity and pain. The current findings extend previous results indicating that emotion regulation deficits are related to self-reported pain in AD subjects. Comprehensive strategies focusing on the improvement of mood regulation skills might be effective in the treatment of AD patients with comorbid pain symptoms.

  2. Violent behavior and driving under the influence of alcohol: prevalence and association with impulsivity among individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark A; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated or under the influence (DUI; for the purposes of this paper, we use the following terms synonymously: driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, and drunk driving) and engaging in interpersonal violence are two injury-related problems of high public health importance that have both been linked to alcohol consumption. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of DUI and violence in a sample of individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Patient characteristics associated with DUI and violence involvement, with a particular focus on impulsivity, were examined. Three hundred and sixty-four patients consecutively admitted to four alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland participated in this study. Questions concerning history of interpersonal violence as well as those about DUI were derived from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Impulsivity level was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the stop-signal task. Among all participants in the study, 148 (40.1%) had been arrested in the past for DUI, and 196 (55%) reported involvement in a fight under the influence of alcohol (FUI). The DUI group had a significantly earlier onset of alcohol problems, a longer period of heavy alcohol use, and fewer women in comparison to participants without a DUI history. FUI patients were significantly younger, with a younger average age of onset of drinking problems, longer period of heavy drinking, and lower percentage of women than the non-FUI group. Both of the self-reported measures of impulsivity indicated a higher level of impulsivity among participants from the FUI group than those from the non-FUI group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  4. Prefrontal Cortex KCa2 Channels Regulate mGlu5-Dependent Plasticity and Extinction of Alcohol-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Reginald; McGonigal, Justin T; Newsom, Ryan J; Woodward, John J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Gass, Justin T

    2017-04-19

    Identifying novel treatments that facilitate extinction learning could enhance cue-exposure therapy and reduce high relapse rates in alcoholics. Activation of mGlu 5 receptors in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) facilitates learning during extinction of cue-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (K Ca 2) channels have also been implicated in extinction learning of fear memories, and mGlu 5 receptor activation can reduce K Ca 2 channel function. Using a combination of electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches, this study examined K Ca 2 channels as a novel target to facilitate extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. This study also explored related neuronal and synaptic mechanisms within the IL-PFC that underlie mGlu 5 -dependent enhancement of extinction learning. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, activation of mGlu 5 in ex vivo slices significantly reduced K Ca 2 channel currents in layer V IL-PFC pyramidal neurons, confirming functional downregulation of K Ca 2 channel activity by mGlu 5 receptors. Additionally, positive modulation of K Ca 2 channels prevented mGlu 5 receptor-dependent facilitation of long-term potentiation in the IL-PFC. Systemic and intra-IL-PFC treatment with apamin (K Ca 2 channel allosteric inhibitor) significantly enhanced extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior across multiple extinction sessions, an effect that persisted for 3 weeks, but was not observed after apamin microinfusions into the prelimbic PFC. Positive modulation of IL-PFC K Ca 2 channels significantly attenuated mGlu 5 -dependent facilitation of alcohol cue-conditioned extinction learning. These data suggest that mGlu 5 -dependent facilitation of extinction learning and synaptic plasticity in the IL-PFC involves functional inhibition of K Ca 2 channels. Moreover, these findings demonstrate that K Ca 2 channels are a novel target to facilitate long-lasting extinction of alcohol

  5. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  6. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  7. A case study of alcohol dependence syndrome with poor motivation and coping skills: the psychosocial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Harikrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study is an attempt to assess the impact of psychiatric social work intervention in person with alcohol dependence. Psychiatric social work intervention (brief intervention was provided to the client focusing on building motivation for change and strengthening commitment to change. It uses a single subject design and compares pre- and post-intervention baseline data with that following intervention. Semi-structured clinical and socio-demographic data sheet, family assessment proforma, and readiness to change questionnaires were administered to the client. The brief psychiatric social work intervention was provided to the client and family members. The attempt has been to bring out changes in motivation level and to enhance coping skill. After brief psychiatric social work intervention, knowledge regarding the illness was enhanced. The client motivation level was enhanced, family members have better understanding about client’s illness, and interpersonal relationship has been improved.

  8. Ionized magnesium in plasma and erythrocytes for the assessment of low magnesium status in alcohol dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordak, Michal; Maj-Zurawska, Magdalena; Matsumoto, Halina; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena; Kieres-Salomonski, Ilona; Nasierowski, Tadeusz; Muszynska, Elzbieta; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the homeostasis of magnesium in alcohol-dependent patients have often been characterized by low hypomagnesemia detection rates. This may be due to the fact that the content of magnesium in blood serum constitutes only 1% of the average magnesium level within the human body. However, the concentration of ionized magnesium is more physiologically important and makes up 67% of the total magnesium within a human organism. There are no data concerning the determination of the ionized fraction of magnesium in patients addicted to alcohol and its influence on mental health status. This study included 100 alcohol-dependent patients and 50 healthy subjects. The free magnesium fraction was determined using the potentiometric method by means of using ion-selective electrodes. The total magnesium level was determined by using a biochemical Indiko Plus analyzer. In this study, different psychometric scales were applied. Our results confirm the usefulness of ionized magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma as a diagnostic parameter of low magnesium status in alcohol-dependent patients. The lower the concentration of ionized magnesium, the worse the quality of life an alcohol-dependent person might experience. In the case of total magnesium, no such correlation was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol Dependence and Altered Engagement of Neural Networks in Risky Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi eZhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is associated with heightened risk tolerance and altered decision- making. This raises the question as to whether alcohol dependent patients (ADP are incapable of proper risk assessment. We investigated how healthy controls (HC and ADP engage neural networks to cope with the increased cognitive demands of risky decisions. We collected fMRI data while 34 HC and 16 ADP played a game that included safe and risky trials. In safe trials, participants accrued money at no risk of a penalty. In risky trials, reward and risk simultaneously increased as participants were instructed to decide when to stop a reward accrual period. If the participant failed to stop before an undisclosed time, the trial would bust and participants would not earn the money from that trial. Independent Component Analysis was used to identify networks engaged during the anticipation and the decision execution of risky compared with safe trials. Like HC, ADP demonstrated distinct network engagement for safe and risky trials at anticipation. However, at decision execution, ADP exhibited severely reduced discrimination in network engagement between safe and risky trials. Although ADP behaviorally responded to risk they failed to appropriately modify network engagement as the decision continued, leading ADP to assume similar network engagement regardless of risk prospects. This may reflect disorganized network switching and a facile response strategy uniformly adopted by ADP across risk conditions. We propose that aberrant salience network (SN engagement in ADP might contribute to ineffective network switching and that the role of the SN in risky decisions warrants further investigation.

  10. A randomized comparative trial in the management of Alcohol Dependence: Individualized Homoeopathy versus standard Allopathic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of IH with standard allopathic (SA treatment. Methods: A randomized controlled, open-label, comparative trial, was conducted, in which alcohol dependents were screened verbally using the CAGE scale. The participants 80 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized either IH (n=40 or SA (n=40 and treated cum followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was more than 50% reduction in the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire [SADQ] rating scale at 12 th month. Data analysis was done for both intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP populations. Results: ITT analysis reflected 80% (n = 32 of the patients in IH and 37.5% (n = 15 of the patients in the SA responding to CI before 2.4 treatment with absolute difference was 42.5% (42.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.0, 61.6] and estimated effect: 6.6 (95% C.I: 2.4, 18.2, P = 0.0002. A significant difference favoring IH was also observed in three out of four domains of WHO QOL-BREF. Statistically significant difference was found in the number of drinking days (median difference: −24.00; CI: −39.0-−8.0; P = 0.001 and number of drinks per drinking day (median difference: −6.3 [95% CI: −11.3-−1.9]; P = 0.004, favoring IH. The results showed a similar trend in PP analysis. Medicines found useful were Sulphur, Lycopodium clavatum, Arsenicum album, Nux vomica, Phosphorus, and Lachesis. Conclusion: The results conclude that IH is not inferior to SA in the management of AD patients. More rigorous studies with large sample size are however desirable.

  11. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-15

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as well as other psychiatric disorders. EEGs were collected from six cortical sites and spectral power determined in five frequency bands (delta 1.0-4.0 Hz, theta 4.0-7.5 Hz, alpha 7.5-12.0 Hz, low beta 12.0-20.0 Hz and high beta/gamma 20-50 Hz). The estimated heritability (h(2)) of the EEG phenotypes was calculated using SOLAR, and ranged from 0.16 to 0.67. Stepwise linear regression was used to detect correlations between MJ and ALC dependence and the spectral characteristics of the EEG using a model that took into account: age, gender, Native American Heritage (NAH) and a lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality and/or conduct disorder (ASPD/CD). Increases in spectral power in the delta frequency range, were significantly correlated with gender (pEEG delta and high beta/gamma activity are correlated with MJ dependence and alcohol dependence, respectively, in this community sample of Native Americans. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescent Counterarguing of TV Beer Advertisements: Evidence for Effectiveness of Alcohol Education and Critical Viewing Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…

  14. Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Richardson, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweete...

  15. Copy number variations in 6q14.1 and 5q13.2 are associated with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Hartz, Sarah M; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Agrawal, Arpana; Zhang, Tian-Xiao; McKenna, Nicholas; Bucholz, Kathleen; Brooks, Andrew I; Tischfield, Jay A; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J; Rice, John P

    2012-09-01

    Excessive alcohol use is the third leading cause of preventable death and is highly correlated with alcohol dependence, a heritable phenotype. Many genetic factors for alcohol dependence have been found, but many remain unknown. In search of additional genetic factors, we examined the association between Diagnostic and StatisticalManual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol dependence and all common copy number variations (CNVs) with good reliability in the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE). All participants in SAGE were interviewed using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism, as a part of 3 contributing studies. A total of 2,610 non-Hispanic European American samples were genotyped on the Illumina Human 1M array. We performed CNV calling by CNVPartition, PennCNV, and QuantiSNP, and only CNVs identified by all 3 software programs were examined. Association was conducted with the CNV (as a deletion/duplication) as well as with probes in the CNV region. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to validate the CNVs in the laboratory. CNVs in 6q14.1 (p = 1.04 × 10(-6)) and 5q13.2 (p = 3.37 × 10(-4)) were significantly associated with alcohol dependence after adjusting multiple tests. On chromosome 5q13.2, there were multiple candidate genes previously associated with various neurological disorders. The region on chromosome 6q14.1 is a gene desert that has been associated with mental retardation and language delay. The CNV in 5q13.2 was validated, whereas only a component of the CNV on 6q14.1 was validated by qPCR. Thus, the CNV on 6q14.1 should be viewed with caution. This is the first study to show an association between DSM-IV alcohol dependence and CNVs. CNVs in regions previously associated with neurological disorders may be associated with alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Scale of attitudes toward alcohol - Spanish version: evidences of validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Erika Gisseth León; Vargas, Divane de

    2017-08-03

    validate the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders in its Spanish version. methodological study, involving 300 Colombian nurses. Adopting the classical theory, confirmatory factor analysis was applied without prior examination, based on the strong historical evidence of the factorial structure of the original scale to determine the construct validity of this Spanish version. To assess the reliability, Cronbach's Alpha and Mc Donalid's Omega coefficients were used. the confirmatory factor analysis indicated the good fit of the scale model in a four-factor distribution, with a cut-off point at 3.2, demonstrating 66.7% of sensitivity. the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders in Spanish presented robust psychometric qualities, affirming that the instrument possesses a solid factorial structure and reliability and is capable of precisely measuring the nurses' atittudes towards the phenomenon proposed. validar a Escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool, versão espanhola. estudo metodológico, realizado com 303 enfermeiros colombianos. Seguindo a teoria clássica, foi aplicada a análise fatorial confirmatória sem exploração preliminar, com base na forte evidência histórica da estrutura fatorial do instrumento original para a validação de construto desta versão em espanhol. Para a avaliação da confiabilidade foram utilizados os coeficientes de Alfa de Cronbach e Ômega de Mc Donald. a análise fatorial confirmatória indicou o bom ajuste do modelo da escala na distribuição de quatro fatores, compreendendo 48 itens em sua versão espanhola. Os índices de confiabilidade foram satisfatórios, com ponto de corte observado em 3,2, demonstrando sensibilidade de 66,7%. a Escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool no idioma

  17. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development...... interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes...

  18. The role of conduct disorder in explaining the comorbidity between alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Tanya M M; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Hewitt, John K; Young, Susan E; Corley, Robin P; Stallings, Michael C

    2007-02-23

    Conduct disorder (CD), alcohol dependence (AD), and illicit drug dependence (IDD) frequently co-occur. This paper describes the result of an investigation of the extent to which comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adolescents are explained by etiological factors in common with conduct disorder. Participants were 645 MZ twin pairs, 702 DZ twin pairs, 429 biological sibling pairs, and 96 adoptive sibling pairs, aged 12-18 years, from a community based sample. Conduct disorder was measured using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Alcohol and illicit drug dependence were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM). For each outcome, subjects were categorized into those with no symptoms, those with one or more symptoms but no diagnosis, and those with a diagnosis. The heritability estimates for CD, AD, and IDD were 58, 66, and 36%, respectively. The genetic correlation between AD and IDD was partially explained by the genetic risk they both share with conduct disorder. We conclude that conduct disorder in adolescents explains, in part, the co-occurrence of alcohol and illicit drug dependence. Specifically, the genetic contribution to their covariation is explained partially by the genetic contribution in common with conduct disorder.

  19. Illusory Licensing Effects across Dependency Types: ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ming; Dillon, Brian; Phillips, Colin

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have argued that grammatical illusions can arise in the process of completing linguistic dependencies, such that unlicensed material is temporarily treated as licensed due to the presence of a potential licensor that is semantically appropriate but in a syntactically inappropriate position. A frequently studied case…

  20. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    , a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1...... antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1(NestinCre) mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1(NestinCre) mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress...

  1. Effect of modafinil on cognitive functions in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E; Schmaal, Lianne; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Dom, Geert

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive deficits are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and may have a detrimental impact on treatment response and treatment outcome. Enhancing cognitive functions may improve treatment success. Modafinil is a promising compound in this respect. Therefore, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted with modafinil (300 mg/d) or placebo in 83 AD patients for 10 weeks. Various cognitive functions (digit span task, Tower of London task, Stroop task) were measured at baseline, during and after treatment. Compared to placebo, modafinil improved verbal short-term memory (number of forward digit spans) (p=0.030), but modafinil exerted a negative effect on the working memory score of the digit span task (p=0.003). However, subgroup analyses revealed that modafinil did improve both working memory and verbal short-term memory in AD patients with a poor working memory ability at baseline (25% worst performers), whereas no significant treatment effect of modafinil was found on these two dependent variables in patients with good working memory skills at baseline (25% best performers). No effect of modafinil was found on measures of planning (Tower of London task) and selective attention (Stroop task). Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between cognitive remediation and treatment outcome in order to design targeted treatments.

  2. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Amool R; Sengar, K S; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  3. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD, emotional intelligence (EI, and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  4. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biolcati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergraduate students (285 female, aging from 18 to 36, using an assessment self-reporting set consisting of the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experience Scale. Results converging for the three psychological phenomena involved are interrelated, corroborating the hypothesis of the search for an altered state of consciousness as their common underlying mechanism. Findings show that the tendency to escape from reality, through dissociation and substance abuse, are risk factors for Internet addiction in youngsters. The implications of these results are discussed in a preventive and clinical perspective.

  5. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  6. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  7. Effect of modafinil on impulsivity and relapse in alcohol dependent patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, Leen; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Schmaal, Lianne; Fransen, Erik; van den Brink, Wim; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Dom, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Poor impulse control plays an important role in the development, course and relapse of substance use disorders. Therefore, improving impulse control may represent a promising approach in the treatment of alcohol dependence. This study aimed to test the effect of modafinil on impulse control and

  8. Effect of early and late compliance on the effectiveness of acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van den Brink, Wim; Lehert, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to assess the influence of early and late compliance of acamprosate on attendance and abstinence duration in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Individual patient data of 2,305 patients from 11 randomized controlled trials comparing acamprosate (n =

  9. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  10. A Randomized Trial of Extended Telephone-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol Dependence: Within-Treatment Substance Use Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James R.; Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Oslin, David W.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Ivey, Megan; Ward, Kathleen; Drapkin, Michelle L.; Becher, Julie R.; Coviello, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study tested whether adding up to 18 months of telephone continuing care, either as monitoring and feedback (TM) or longer contacts that included counseling (TMC), to intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) improved outcomes for alcohol-dependent patients. Method: Participants (N = 252) who completed 3 weeks of IOP were randomized to…

  11. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  12. Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, E.A.A.; Crone, E.A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Tranel, D.; Bechara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Substance dependence is associated with executive function deficits, but the nature of these executive defects and the effect that different drugs and sex have on these defects have not been fully clarified. Therefore, we compared the performance of alcohol- (n = 33; 18 women), cocaine- (n = 27; 14

  13. Psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives among subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) presenting different patterns of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna; Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests-Coping Inventory for Stresfull Situations (CISS), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ 40), Syndrom Checklist (SCL-90) and Short Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (SZPTI-PL). The sample comprised 112 individuals with alcohol dependence, aged 20 to 63 years old, the average age was 37.86; 78 percent were men. There were identified three sub-groups of individuals characterized by a distinctive patterns of coping with stress -"emotional-avoidant", "task oriented" and a "mixed one". Individuals with the predominant emotional-avoidant coping pattern are characterized by significantly higher severity of psychopathological symptoms, less mature defense mechanisms and past time perspectives. Subjects reliant on task-oriented coping pattern were characterized by the highest level of adaptation and the most constructive way of functioning in the face of difficulties. It is worth regarding the examination of patterns of coping as an indispensable element of collecting medical history from alcohol dependent individuals.

  14. Prevention of alcohol and other drug use and related harm in the digital age: what does the evidence tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol and other drug use are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Prevention is critical and evidence is beginning to support the use of online mediums to prevent alcohol and other drug use and harms among adolescents. This study aims to expand the evidence base by conducting a systematic review of recent universal prevention programs delivered by computers and the Internet. A total of 12 papers reporting outcomes from trials of nine universal online prevention programs were identified. Of the identified interventions, five targeted multiple substances, two focused solely on alcohol, one targeted only cannabis and one primarily addressed smoking. The majority of programs were delivered at school; however one was implemented in a primary care setting. Six programs demonstrated significant, but modest, effects for alcohol and/or other drug use outcomes. Evidence to support the efficacy of computer and Internet-based prevention programs for alcohol and other drug use and related harms among adolescents is rapidly emerging, demonstrating that online prevention is an area of increasing promise. Further replication work, longer-term trials and attempts to increase the impact are required.

  15. Economic burden associated with alcohol dependence in a German primary care sample: a bottom-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Manthey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable economic burden has been repeatedly associated with alcohol dependence (AD – mostly calculated using aggregate data and alcohol-attributable fractions (top-down approach. However, this approach is limited by a number of assumptions, which are hard to test. Thus, cost estimates should ideally be validated with studies using individual data to estimate the same costs (bottom-up approach. However, bottom-up studies on the economic burden associated with AD are lacking. Our study aimed to fill this gap using the bottom-up approach to examine costs for AD, and also stratified the results by the following subgroups: sex, age, diagnostic approach and severity of AD, as relevant variations could be expected by these factors. Methods Sample: 1356 primary health care patients, representative for two German regions. AD was diagnosed by a standardized instrument and treating physicians. Individual costs were calculated by combining resource use and productivity data representing a period of six months prior to the time of interview, with unit costs derived from the literature or official statistics. The economic burden associated with AD was determined via excess costs by comparing utilization of various health care resources and impaired productivity between people with and without AD, controlling for relevant confounders. Additional analyses for several AD characteristics were performed. Results Mean costs among alcohol dependent patients were 50 % higher compared to the remaining patients, resulting in 1836 € excess costs per alcohol dependent patient in 6 months. More than half of these excess costs incurred through increased productivity loss among alcohol dependent patients. Treatment for alcohol problems represents only 6 % of these costs. The economic burden associated with AD incurred mainly among males and among 30 to 49 year old patients. Both diagnostic approaches were significantly related to the

  16. The Effect of Alcohols on Red Blood Cell Mechanical Properties and Membrane Fluidity Depends on Their Molecular Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Melda; Ince, Huseyin Yavuz; Yalcin, Ozlem; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Spasojević, Ivan; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

    2013-01-01

    The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease) and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; palcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology) was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations. PMID:24086751

  17. Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman

    2017-05-01

    Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.

  18. Histamine H3 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in alcohol dependence?

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    Pertti ePanula

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain histaminergic system is one of the diffuse modulatory neurotransmitter systems which regulate neuronal activity in many brain areas. Studies on both rats and mice indicate that histamine H3 receptor antagonists decrease alcohol drinking in several models, like operant alcohol administration and drinking in the dark paradigm. Alcohol-induced place preference is also affected by these drugs. Moreover, mice lacking H3R do not drink alcohol like their wild type littermates, and they do not show alcohol-induced place preference. Although the mechanisms of these behaviors are still being investigated, we propose that H3R antagonists are promising candidates for use in human alcoholics, as these drugs are already tested for treatment of other disorders like narcolepsy and sleep disorders.

  19. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C MARKERS IN ALCOHOLICS WITH AND WITHOUT CLINICALLY EVIDENT HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

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    OLIVEIRA Luiz Carlos Marques de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the frequency of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections in 365 alcoholics by determining, by ELISA, the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. Fifty patients were cirrhotics and 315 had no evidence of hepatic cirrhosis; of the latter HBsAg was assessed in all, anti-HBc and anti-HBs in 130, and anti-HCV in 210. Among the alcoholics the frequencies of HBsAg (1.9%, anti-HBc (28.3% and anti-HCV (3.8% were higher (p<0.001 than among the controls (N=17,059, 0.4%, 4.0% and 0.4% respectively. The frequency of positive HBsAg was higher (p<0.001 in the cirrhotic patients (8.0% than in alcoholics without cirrhosis (0.95% and in controls (0.4%, and similar between the latter; of anti-HBc in alcoholics without cirrhosis (28.5% was similar in cirrhotics patients (28.0% and higher (p<0.001 than in the controls (4.0%; of anti-HBs in alcoholics without cirrhosis (20.8% was similar to that of the cirrhotic patients (10.0%, and the anti-HCV was similar between alcoholics with (6.0% and without cirrhosis (3.3% and higher (p<0.001 than in controls (0.4%. We concluded that: a alcoholics with or without cirrhosis have similar frequencies of infection with HBV and HCV between them, and higher than in nonalcoholics; b alcoholics without cirrhosis had a frequency of HBV active infection (HBsAg+ which was similar to the controls, whereas among those who progressed to cirrhosis this frequency was significantly higher, what suggests that HBV may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis in a few alcoholic individuals.

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Therapeutic Workplace for Chronically Unemployed, Homeless, Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Wong, Conrad J.; Diemer, Karly; Needham, Mick; Hampton, Jacqueline; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence conti...

  1. Evidence for a possible calcium flux dependent cardiomyopathy in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, J.L.; Wicker, P.; Manley, W.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the impaired functional cardiac reserve to exercise in hyperthyroidism is related to alterations in the regulation of calcium transport. In 2l hyperthyroid patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured using equilibrium gated radionuclide angiocardiography at rest and during supine dynamic exercise. After a recovery period, the patients performed a second exercise study after random administration of Verapamil, a calcium entry blocker (11 pts), or propanolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist (10 pts) for comparison. The results showed i) normal resting LVEF with no significant change during exercise before any medication, ii) resting LVEF significantly decreased after Propanolol, and no significantly changed after Verapamil, iii) during exercise, significant increase of LVEF after Verapamil, and no significant change after Propanolol. These results are consistent with previous studies showing that abnormal change in LVEF during exercise in hyperthyroidism seems independent of beta adrenergic activation, and suggest a reversible functional cardiomyopathy dependent of calcium transporting systems

  2. What do preschoolers know about alcohol? Evidence from the electronic Appropriate Beverage Task (eABT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Mével, l. le; Zucker, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    While much is known about alcohol use in adolescence and beyond, factors leading to such behaviors are rooted much earlier in life. To investigate what preschoolers (aged three to six) know about alcohol and adult alcohol use, we developed an electronic version (eABT) of the Appropriate Beverage

  3. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzlin AI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Isabel Penzlin,1 Timo Siepmann,2 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,3 Kerstin Weidner,4 Martin Siepmann4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany Background and objective: In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV. Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24 attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2. Results: Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05, whereas craving was unchanged at

  4. Psychosocial functioning, quality of life and clinical correlates of comorbid alcohol and drug dependence syndromes in people with schizophrenia across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Johnson, Sonia; Crocamo, Cristina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Brugha, Traolach; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Toumi, Mondher; Bebbington, Paul E

    2016-05-30

    Little is known about the correlates of comorbid drug and alcohol dependence in people with schizophrenia outside the USA. We tested hypotheses that dependence on alcohol/drugs would be associated with more severe symptoms, and poorer psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The EuroSC Cohort study (N=1204), based in France, Germany and the UK, used semi-structured clinical interviews for diagnoses, and standardized tools to assess correlates. We used mixed models to compare outcomes between past-year comorbid dependence on alcohol/drugs, controlling for covariates and modelling both subject and country-level effects. Participants dependent on alcohol or drugs had fewer negative symptoms on PANSS than their non-dependent counterparts. However, those dependent on alcohol scored higher on PANSS general psychopathology than those who were not, or dependent only on drugs. People with schizophrenia dependent on drugs had poorer quality of life, more extrapyramidal side effects, and scored worse on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those without dependence. People with alcohol dependence reported more reasons for non-compliance with medication, and poorer functioning on GAF, though not on Global Assessment of Relational Functioning. In people with schizophrenia, comorbid dependence on alcohol or drugs is associated with impaired clinical and psychosocial adjustment, and poorer quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

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    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  6. Evidence for a locus on chromosome 1 that influences vulnerability to alcoholism and affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnberger, J I; Foroud, T; Flury, L; Su, J; Meyer, E T; Hu, K; Crowe, R; Edenberg, H; Goate, A; Bierut, L; Reich, T; Schuckit, M; Reich, W

    2001-05-01

    Depression (major depression or depressive syndrome) is more prevalent in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects in families with multiple members with alcoholism studied as part of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). First-degree relatives of probands with comorbid alcoholism and depression have a higher prevalence of both disorders than relatives of probands with alcoholism alone, and both groups have a higher prevalence than the relatives of comparison subjects selected without regard to psychopathology. Data from the collaborative study were used to test three phenotypes (comorbid alcoholism and depression, alcoholism or depression, and depression) for genetic linkage. Genome-wide sibling-pair linkage analyses were performed with the phenotypes comorbid alcoholism and depression, alcoholism or depression, and depression (major depression or depressive syndrome). Analyses were performed in two data sets (initial and replication data sets) from subject groups ascertained with identical criteria, as well as in the combined data set. Peak lod scores on chromosome 1 (near 120 centimorgan) for the alcoholism or depression phenotype were 5.12, 1.52, and 4.66 in the initial, replication, and combined data sets, respectively. The corresponding lod scores on chromosome 2 were 2.79, 0.20, and 3.26; on chromosome 6, they were 3.39, 0.00, and 0.92; and on chromosome 16, they were 3.13, 0.00, and 2.06. Lod scores on chromosome 2 for the comorbid alcoholism and depression phenotype in the three data sets were 0.00, 4.12, and 2.16, respectively. The results suggest that a gene or genes on chromosome 1 may predispose some individuals to alcoholism and others to depression (which may be alcohol induced). Loci on other chromosomes may also be of interest.

  7. Synthesis-condition dependence of carbon nanotube growth by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method

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    Nobuhito Inami et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the dependence of growth yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on heat-treatment time and catalyst film thickness by the alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Three types of heat-treatment, synthesis of 30 min, synthesis of 30 min after annealing of 30 min, and synthesis of 60 min, were investigated. Thickness of Co catalyst film was varied from 1 to 10 nm. In the case of thinner Co film less than 3 nm, long synthesis time of 60 min is favorable for the effective SWNT growth, because of the small amount of Co catalyst. In the case of thicker Co film more than 3 nm, an amount of grown SWNTs by 30 min synthesis after 30 min annealing and by 60 min synthesis was much higher than that by 30 min synthesis without annealing, showing that total heat-treatment time of 60 min is important for the SWNT growth. Results suggest that the conversion from the thicker film of Co to nano-particle which acts as catalyst takes place during the first 30 min.

  8. Decision making in alcohol dependence: insensitivity to future consequences and comorbid disinhibitory psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Hope; Finn, Peter R; Rickert, Martin E; Lucas, Jesolyn

    2008-08-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is often comorbid with other disinhibitory disorders that are characterized by poor decision making and evidenced by disadvantageous strategies on laboratory tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). In this study, a variant of the IGT is used to examine specific mechanisms that may account for poor decision making on the task in AD both with and without comorbid psychopathology. The community sample (n = 428) included 134 young adult subjects with AD and a history of childhood conduct disorder (CCD), 129 with AD and no history of CCD, 60 with a history of CCD and no AD, and 105 controls. Lifetime histories of other disinhibitory problems (adult antisocial behavior, marijuana, and other drugs) and major depression also were assessed. A modified version of the IGT was used to estimate (i) insensitivity to future consequences (IFC), and (ii) preference for large versus small immediate reward decks (PLvS). Both AD and CCD were associated with greater IFC but not greater PLvS. Structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that IFC was associated with higher scores on a latent dimensional "disinhibitory disorders" factor representing the covariance among all lifetime measures of disinhibitory psychopathology, but was not directly related to any one disinhibitory disorder. SEMs also suggested that adult antisocial behavior was uniquely associated with a greater PLvS. Disadvantageous decision making on the IGT in those with AD and related disinhibitory disorders may reflect an IFC that is common to the covariance among these disorders but not unique to any one disorder.

  9. Differences in functional connectivity between alcohol dependence and internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Won; Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Kim, BoAh; Kim, Boong Nyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and alcohol dependence (AD) have been reported to share clinical characteristics including craving and over-engagement despite negative consequences. However, there are also clinical factors that differ between individuals with IGD and those with AD in terms of chemical intoxication, prevalence age, and visual and auditory stimulation. We assessed brain functional connectivity within the prefrontal, striatum, and temporal lobe in 15 patients with IGD and in 16 patients with AD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were assessed in patients with IGD and in patients with AD. Both AD and IGD subjects have positive functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), cingulate, and cerebellum. In addition, both groups have negative functional connectivity between the DLPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. However, the AD subjects have positive functional connectivity between the DLPFC, temporal lobe and striatal areas while IGD subjects have negative functional connectivity between the DLPFC, temporal lobe and striatal areas. AD and IGD subjects may share deficits in executive function, including problems with self-control and adaptive responding. However, the negative connectivity between the DLPFC and the striatal areas in IGD subjects, different from the connectivity observed in AD subjects, may be due to the earlier prevalence age, different comorbid diseases as well as visual and auditory stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Profiles of Childhood Trauma in Patients with Alcohol Dependence and Their Associations with Addiction-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Haupt, Lena; von Schönfels, Julia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Schäfer, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    The high occurrence of childhood trauma in individuals with alcohol dependence is well-recognized. Nevertheless, researchers have rarely studied which types of childhood trauma often co-occur and how these combinations of different types and severities of childhood trauma are related to the patients' current addiction-related problems. We aimed to identify childhood trauma profiles in patients with alcohol dependence and examined relations of these trauma profiles with the patients' current addiction-related problems. In 347 alcohol-dependent patients, 5 types of childhood trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Childhood trauma profiles were identified using cluster analysis. The patients' current severity of addiction-related problems was assessed using the European Addiction Severity Index. We identified 6 profiles that comprised different types and severities of childhood trauma. The patients' trauma profiles predicted the severity of addiction-related problems in the domains of psychiatric symptoms, family relationships, social relationships, and drug use. Childhood trauma profiles may provide more useful information about the patient's risk of current addiction-related problems than the common distinction between traumatized versus nontraumatized patients. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. In silico evidence for sequence-dependent nucleosome sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lequieu, Joshua; Schwartz, David C.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2017-10-18

    Nucleosomes represent the basic building block of chromatin and provide an important mechanism by which cellular processes are controlled. The locations of nucleosomes across the genome are not random but instead depend on both the underlying DNA sequence and the dynamic action of other proteins within the nucleus. These processes are central to cellular function, and the molecular details of the interplay between DNA sequence and nudeosome dynamics remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigate this interplay in detail by relying on a molecular model, which permits development of a comprehensive picture of the underlying free energy surfaces and the corresponding dynamics of nudeosome repositioning. The mechanism of nudeosome repositioning is shown to be strongly linked to DNA sequence and directly related to the binding energy of a given DNA sequence to the histone core. It is also demonstrated that chromatin remodelers can override DNA-sequence preferences by exerting torque, and the histone H4 tail is then identified as a key component by which DNA-sequence, histone modifications, and chromatin remodelers could in fact be coupled.

  12. Vitamin B12 status and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in alcohol dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Laheij, Robert J. F.; de Jong, Cor A. J.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Jansen, Jan B. M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Both infection with Helicobacter pylori and alcohol abuse have been associated with low vitamin B12 serum levels. The interaction between both risk factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with low vitamin B12 levels in alcohol

  13. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  14. Effects of wine, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease risk factors: evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Arranz, Sara; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to focus on the knowledge of the cardiovascular benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, as well as to analyze the effects of the different types of alcoholic beverages. Systematic revision of human clinical studies and meta-analyses related to moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) from 2000 to 2012. Heavy or binge alcohol consumption unquestionably leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, moderate alcohol consumption, especially alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols, such as wine and beer, seems to confer cardiovascular protective effects in patients with documented CVD and even in healthy subjects. In conclusion, wine and beer (but especially red wine) seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits because of their polyphenolic content. However, caution should be taken when making recommendations related to alcohol consumption.

  15. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  16. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  17. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  18. The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Sonmez

    Full Text Available The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01. The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations.

  19. Age at drinking onset, alcohol dependence, and their relation to drug use and dependence, driving under the influence of drugs, and motor-vehicle crash involvement because of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingson, Ralph W; Heeren, Timothy; Edwards, Erika M

    2008-03-01

    We explored among people who ever consumed alcohol whether early age at drinking onset and alcohol dependence predicted drug use and dependence. We also examined among drinkers who have used drugs whether they also predict driving under the influence of drugs and motor-vehicle crash involvement because of drugs. A U.S. national sample of 42,867 persons age 18 and older was surveyed in 1991-1992 (response rate = 90%). Logistic regression examined these potential associations among 27,616 respondents who ever drank alcohol, controlling for numerous demographic and personal characteristics. Among "ever" drinkers, 22% used drugs, 10% had driven under the influence of drugs, and nearly 1% was in a motor-vehicle crash because of drug use, the equivalent of 1 million people. The younger the age of respondents when they first began drinking and whether they ever experienced alcohol dependence were independently associated with greater odds of ever using drugs and experiencing drug dependence. Among persons who consumed alcohol and drugs, having ever experienced drug dependence was the strongest predictor of driving under the influence of drugs and motor-vehicle crash involvement because of drug use. After controlling for drug dependence and age at first drug use, having experienced alcohol dependence was also independently associated with both outcomes. Efforts to prevent drug-related crashes should include drug use prevention and treatment, as well as prevention of early alcohol use and treatment of alcohol dependence.

  20. Sector-dependent framing effects of corporate social responsibility messages: An experiment with non-alcoholic and alcoholic drinks