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Sample records for alcohol breath tests

  1. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  3. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healt...

  4. False-positive breath-alcohol test after a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W; Rössner, S

    2007-03-01

    A 59-year-old man undergoing weight loss with very low calorie diets (VLCD) attempted to drive a car, which was fitted with an alcohol ignition interlock device, but the vehicle failed to start. Because the man was a teetotaller, he was surprised and upset by this result. VLCD treatment leads to ketonemia with high concentrations of acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in the blood. The interlock device determines alcohol (ethanol) in breath by electrochemical oxidation, but acetone does not undergo oxidation with this detector. However, under certain circumstances acetone is reduced in the body to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ignition interlock device responds to other alcohols (e.g. methanol, n-propanol and isopropanol), which therefore explains the false-positive result. This 'side effect' of ketogenic diets needs further discussion by authorities when people engaged in safety-sensitive work (e.g. bus drivers and airline pilots) submit to random breath-alcohol tests. PMID:16894360

  5. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? 40.277 Section 40.277 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  6. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  7. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  8. Improved breath alcohol analysis with use of carbon dioxide as the tracer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art breath analysers require a prolonged expiration into a mouthpiece to obtain the accuracy required for evidential testing and screening of the alcohol concentration. This requirement is unsuitable for breath analysers used as alcolock owing to their frequent use and the fact that the majority of users are sober drivers; as well as for breath testing in uncooperative persons. This thesis presents a method by which breath alcohol analysis can be improved, using carbon dioxide (C...

  9. Clinical applications of breath testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

  10. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasch M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%. cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1. Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  11. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). (57 FR 11772.) Ignition interlocks are... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock... Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). The Model Specifications are guidelines for...

  12. Measurement of low breath-alcohol concentrations: laboratory studies and field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1999-10-01

    Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occur at breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L. We therefore studied performance of vapor-alcohol and breath-alcohol measurement at low alcohol concentrations in the laboratory and in the field, with current-generation evidential analyzers. We report here chiefly our field experience with evidential breath-alcohol testing of drinking drivers on paired breath samples using 62 Intoxilyzer 5000-D analyzers, for BrACs of 0-0.059 g/210 L. The data from 62 law enforcement breath-alcohol testing sites were collected and pooled, with BrACs recorded to three decimal places, and otherwise carried out under the standard Oklahoma evidential breath-alcohol testing protocol. For 2105 pooled simulator control tests at 0.06-0.13 g/210 L the mean +/- SD of the differences between target and result were -0.001 +/- 0.0035 g/210 L and 0.003 +/- 0.0023 g/210 L for signed and absolute differences, respectively (spans -0.016-0.010, 0.000-0.016). For 2078 paired duplicate breath-alcohol measurements with the Intoxilyzer 5000-D, the mean +/- SD difference (BrAC1-BrAC2) were 0.002 +/- 0.0026 (span 0-0.020 g/210 L). Variability of breath-alcohol measurements was related inversely to the alcohol concentration. Ninety-nine percent prediction limits for paired BrAC measurements correspond to a 0.020 g/210 L maximum absolute difference, meeting the NSC/CAOD recommendation that paired breath-alcohol analysis results within 0.02 g/210 L shall be deemed to be in acceptable agreement. We conclude that the field system for breath-alcohol analysis studied by us can and does perform reliably and accurately at low BrACs. PMID:10517542

  13. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the saliva ASD: (1) Check the expiration date on the device or on the package containing the device and show...

  14. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  15. Assessment of the breath alcohol concentration in emergency care patients with different level of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika; Kron, Josefin; Castren, Maaret; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hök, Bertil; Wiklund, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients seeking emergency care are under the influence of alcohol, which in many cases implies a differential diagnostic problem. For this reason early objective alcohol screening is of importance not to falsely assign the medical condition to intake of alcohol and thus secure a correct medical assessment. Objective At two emergency departments, demonstrate the feasibility of accurate breath alcohol testing in emergency patients with different levels of cooperation. Method As...

  16. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  17. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  18. Hydrogen Breath Tests in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectivel...

  19. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  20. How to Interpret Hydrogen Breath Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO a...

  1. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... limited shoulders.'' (p. 2.) NHTSA is very concerned about distracted driving and the risks that....) As stated above with regard to retests, NHTSA is concerned about distracted driving and believes that... (BAIIDs). (57 FR 11772.) Ignition interlocks are alcohol breath-testing devices installed in...

  2. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence...

  3. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  4. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  5. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  6. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I

    2003-09-01

    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  7. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  8. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  9. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  10. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  11. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or that has passed its expiration date. (3) For ASDs that test breath specimens and meet EBT.... Alcohol screening devices (ASDs), including devices that test specimens of oral fluids or breath, must be...) Acceptable evidential breath testing devices. Evidential breath testing devices listed in the NHTSA CPL...

  12. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13C and 14C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  14. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  15. Comparison of venous blood alcohol concentrations and breath alcohol concentrations measured with Draeger Alcotest 9510 DE Evidential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Pawlik, Evelyn; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Mindiashvili, Nona; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Most comparisons of blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) are either derived from drinking trials with rigid drinking protocols or from investigative authorities' data with considerable time differences between the determination of BAC and BrAC. In general, only comparisons of relatively low BAC-BrAC pairs are available. Therefore, the relationship between BAC and BrAC was examined even for high BAC above 2g/kg. The results of a large-scale drinking test under realistic conditions with 78 test persons and short time intervals between BAC and BrAC measurements are presented. It was shown that the conversion factor Q varies greatly (between 1571:1 and 2394:1) and increases with increasing BAC. A constant conversion factor that is suitable for variable forensic purposes could not be presented. PMID:26654867

  16. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from...

  18. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  19. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  20. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  1. Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

  2. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  3. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  4. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  5. Aminopyrine breath test for evaluation of liver function. How to analyse the 14CO2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that breath analysis of 14CO2, following administration of specifically labelled 14C-dimethylaminoantipyrine, allows assessment of Vsub(max) and Ksub(m) of in vivo demethylation in the rat. Consequently, this procedure was modified for application in man. Whereas in 23 liver normals the disappearance constant ksub(B) of 14CO2 from breath was 21+-SD4%/h, ksub(B) was significantly reduced in 14 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (8+-4%/h). Breath analysis is suggested as a non-invasive, convenient and valid method for measuring hepatic microsomal demethylation. Breath analysis discriminates between liver normals and patients with impaired liver function as well as established quantitative liver function tests (disappearance rate of BSP, galactose elimination capacity)

  6. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  7. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  8. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  9. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  10. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  11. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  12. Assessment of the (14C) aminopyrine breath test in liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of performing the (14C) aminopyrine breath test have been assessed. A tracer dose of 2 μCi without a loading dose and with a single breath collection at two hours was the method selected, since it gave the best discrimination between patients with hepatocellular diseases and normal subjects (5.2 +- 0.2%, mean - SEM). Reduced values occurred in patients with chronic active hepatitis (with and without cirrhosis) (1.5 +- 0.2%), alcoholic cirrhosis (1.7 +- 0.4%) and hepatitis (2.5 +- 0.3%), and late primary biliary cirrhosis suggesting defective microsomal function with respect to demethylation. Normal results were common in early primary biliary cirrhosis. Two weeks of prednisolone therapy caused some improvement in the breath test in nine of ten patients with chronic active hepatitis. It is concluded that the (14C) aminopyrine breath test is a simple test for detecting hepatocellular dysfunction, but has no obvious diagnostic advantage over the determination of serum aspartate transaminase and two hour post-prandial bile-acids. (author)

  13. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon....... Due to the large interindividual variations of hydrogen excretion, unabsorbable standards should be used. The intraindividual variations of H2 production/excretion and differences in fermentability of different carbohydrate substrates only allow for semiquantitative estimates of malabsorbed amounts of...... some carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under...

  14. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic pathway of 14C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14CO2. This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14CO2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites

  15. LOW DOSE CAPSULE BASED 13C-UREA BREATH TEST COMPARED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL 13C-UREA BREATH TEST AND INVASIVE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane MATTAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context One of the limitations of 13C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis in Brazil is the substrate acquisition in capsule presentation. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a capsule-based 13C-urea, manipulated by the Pharmacy Division, for the clinical practice. Methods Fifty patients underwent the conventional and the capsule breath test. Samples were collected at the baseline and after 10, 20 and 30 minutes of 13C-urea ingestion. Urease and histology were used as gold standard in 83 patients. Results In a total of 50 patients, 17 were positive with the conventional 13C-urea (75 mg breath test at 10, 20 and 30 minutes. When these patients repeated breath test with capsule (50 mg, 17 were positive at 20 minutes and 15 at 10 and 30 minutes. The relative sensitivity of 13C-urea with capsule was 100% at 20 minutes and 88.24% at 10 and at 30 minutes. The relative specificity was 100% at all time intervals. Among 83 patients that underwent capsule breath test and endoscopy the capsule breath test presented 100% of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Capsule based breath test with 50 mg 13C-urea at twenty minutes was found highly sensitive and specific for the clinical setting. HEADINGS- Helicobacter pylori. Breath Test. Urea, analysis.

  16. Deadspace breathing as a screening test for early lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breathing through added external deadspace (V/sub Dext/) was found to increase the tidal volume of normal dogs in order to achieve alveolar ventilation adequate for gas exchange. Addition of V/sub Dext/ did not alter alveolar-arterial gas gradients or cardiovascular function. Respiratory patterns during V/sub Dext/ breathing were compared with variables measured during treadmill exercise to investigate deadspace breathing as an indicator of early lung dysfunction caused by radiation pneumonitis in dogs. Dogs were evaluated clinically, radiographically and by pulmonary function tests at rest before and after inhaling 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles. By 4 mo after inhalation of 32 to 50 μCi/kg 144Ce, there were increases in respiratory frequency and minute volume during V/sub Dext/ breathing and in minute volume and the ventilatory equivalent for O2 while running. No other significant functional, radiographic or clinical changes were noted. The dogs were sacrificed and scattered foci of inflammation were found in their lungs. Deadspace testing detected early, subclinical lung alterations with a sensitivity and at a time identical to treadmill testing and did not require whole-body exercise or training

  17. Comparing the Detection of Transdermal and Breath Alcohol Concentrations during Periods of Alcohol Consumption Ranging from Moderate Drinking to Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Mr. Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol tes...

  18. Clinical 13CO2 breath tests: methodology and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed to perform 13CO2 breath tests and the limitations and sources of error in these tests were explored. The random error introduced during each step of the analysis was determined and it was found that the precision was limited by the fluctuations in the isotope ratio of the patient's endogenous CO2. The detection limit was a 1.4 percent increase in the isotope ratio. This corresponds to an oxidation rate of 140 nmoles/kg-hr of singly labeled substrate to CO2. The use of stable isotope 13C provides a safe and sensitive alternative to the use of the radionuclide 14C and extends the utility of CO2 breath tests to the previously exempted populations of children and pregnant women

  19. Development of Synthetic Methods of Breath Test Drug Carbon Labeled Methacetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Si-qian; CHEN; Bao-jun; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2013-01-01

    The accurate detection of liver function has important clinical significance.Breath test,due to it’s many advantages such as noninvasive,simple as well as good accuracy when applied to liver function test,has been deeply researched and applied in clinic.There are some common breath tests to reflect hepatocyte microsome function:Aminopyrine breath

  20. Examination of dialysis patients with the aminophenazone breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 endstage kidney disease patients (8 without and 4 with liver diseases) the activities of cytochrome P450-dependent mixed functional oxidases system (MFO) of the liver were studied by using the 14C-aminophenazone breath test before and after dialysis. The results showed that uremia seems to have a pressing influence on MFO activity. The activity was only significantly increased after dialysis in the group of patients without liver diseases. The MFO activity was reduced in patients with liver diseases. This is a restriction of the hepatic metabolic demethylation capacity. It is unclear if the 14C-aminophenazone breath test in dialysis patients is qualified to estimate metabolic capacity of the liver. Differentiation between the influence of uremia and of the liver disease on the alteration of MFO activity cannot be made. (author)

  1. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    OpenAIRE

    CESTAC, Julien; KRAÏEM, Sami; ASSAILLY, Jean Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Methods: Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers fro...

  2. Test-retest reproducibility of hydrogen breath test for lactose maldigestion in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas-Mury, C; Solomons, N W

    1987-01-01

    The test-retest reproducibility of the H2 breath test within the same individual has not been rigorously evaluated in preschool children. In the present study, 10 children--5 of whom were diagnosed as lactose-digesters on their first testing, and 5 of whom were diagnosed as lactose-maldigesters at first screening--were retested under identical conditions of a second opportunity. In each case, the same diagnostic classification was provided, for a reproducibility of 100%. Regression of the area under the curve of the change in breath H2 concentration during the 3 h of the test had a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.59 (p = 0.05). The time-course of 3-h H2 breath tests in 43 children with lactose maldigestion revealed a peaking of the concentration of H2 most commonly 120 min following the oral dose of 240 ml whole milk. Seventy-seven percent of the children who eventually proved to be lactose maldigesters were so diagnosed by the end of the second hour of the breath test. Thus, even the abbreviated breath sampling schedule used in children is sensitive, and few maldigesters would go undetected because of a late rise in breath H2 concentration. PMID:3694351

  3. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of 14C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO2 in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective

  4. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  5. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled 14CO2 which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The 14C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture

  6. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  7. Activity calibration in breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical and measurement problems of the breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori are briefly discussed. Calibrated results obtained for population of 108 cases indicate difference between HP+ (infected with Helicobacter pylori) and HP- (non infected with Helicobacter pylori) in exhaled 14C activity not less than 3.9 kBq while the lower limit for HP+ cases was set at 6.8 kBq at the detection limit: 0.9 Bq/mmol of CO2. It was estimated that in exhalation way up to 29% of the taken activity was removed in HP+ cases during first 35 minutes. Radiation hazard for the patient system is negligibly small - dose equipment not exceeds 0.29% of the natural (environmental) yearly exposure. (author)

  8. 14C-urea breath test in the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is supposed to be one of the major causes of digestive and other diseases. Among a lot of invasive and non-invasive methods for its detection, none is ideal. The aim is an assessment of the Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach using breath test and comparison to other diagnostic methods, as well as following up the effects of therapy. In 17 patients with digestive discomfort, breath test, rapid urease test and histology were performed, while in 47 patients with proven HP infection the effect of therapy was followed up using breath test and clinical findings. Breath test was performed after per oral administration of the capsule of 14C urea (37 kBq). Findings of the breath and urease tests were in accordance in 14/17 patients (83%) while breath test and histology in 16/17 patients (94%). During follow-up of the therapeutic effects, breath test and clinical findings were in accordance in 43/47 patients (98%). Breath test can be useful in diagnosis but is a method of choice in following up the patients after therapy for H. pylori infection, because it is non-invasive, fast and precise. (author)

  9. Habitual Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the associations between amount of habitual alcohol consumption (HAC) and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We enrolled 683 untreated SDB male patients (age: 54.4 ± 7.80 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 29.0 ± 21.53/h). HAC was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed per week during the past 12 months. Anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to diagnose MetS. Clinical data and MetS components were compared according to the reported amounts of HAC (no drinking, light drinking <13, heavy drinking ≥13 drinks/week). As reported, 78.9% of the participants (n = 539) were regular drinkers; 33.7% (n = 230) were habitually heavy drinkers (mean: 30.7 drinks/week), and 45.2% (n = 309) were light drinkers (5.1 drinks/week). The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.9% (n = 252) and was most common in heavy drinkers (40.5%). Compared to non-drinkers and light drinkers, heavy drinkers had the greatest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were most prevalent in heavy drinkers. Sleep quality and severity of SDB were the worst in heavy drinkers. After adjusting for age, AHI, and BMI, heavy drinkers had a 1.71 times greater risk of MetS when compared with non-drinkers, and light and heavy drinkers had a 2.06 and 2.11 times higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. HAC may increase the prevalence of MetS and deteriorate sleep in relation to amount of alcohol intake. Even light drinkers had more than twice higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. PMID:27536782

  10. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  11. The microdose rapid 14C urea breath test compares well with the original rapid 14 breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 14C urea breath test (CUBT) is a sensitive test used in the detection of H. pylori infection. The rapid 14CUBT using 185 KBq of 14C urea showed a sensitivity of 100% when tested in 36 patients. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 14CUBT performed following the ingestion of 37KBq microdose 14C urea capsule (Bicapsule, Trimed) with the earlier method which uses 185 KBq 14C urea. 19 patients (nine female age 21-52 yrs) were studied. All subjects first underwent a 14CUBT with the microdose capsule and a single 15 minute post ingestion sample. An hour later the test was repeated but with a dose of 185 KBq 14C urea in liquid form. A normal result was taken as 2 = 0.92). This is shown above. The Rapid 14CUBT performed following the microdose capsule whilst reducing patient radiation exposure is an accurate test for the detection of H. pylori. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  13. (13) C Breath Tests Are Feasible in Patients With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarsch, Jan; Menk, Mario; Malinowski, Maciej; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been established as an essential part of therapy in patients with pulmonary or cardiac failure. As physiological gaseous exchange is artificially altered in this patient group, it is debatable whether a (13) C-breath test can be carried out. In this proof of technical feasibility report, we assess the viability of the (13) C-breath test LiMAx (maximum liver function capacity) in patients on ECMO therapy. All breath probes for the test device were obtained directly via the membrane oxygenator. Data of four patients receiving liver function assessment with the (13) C-breath test LiMAx while having ECMO therapy were analyzed. All results were compared with validated scenarios of the testing procedures. The LiMAx test could successfully be carried out in every case without changing ECMO settings. Clinical course of the patients ranging from multiorgan failure to no sign of liver insufficiency was in accordance with the results of the LiMAx liver function test. The (13) C-breath test is technically feasible in the context of ECMO. Further evaluation of (13) C-breath test in general would be worthwhile. The LiMAx test as a (13) C-breath test accessing liver function might be of particular predictive interest if patients with ECMO therapy develop multiorgan failure. PMID:26527580

  14. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  15. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-minute waiting period is necessary to prevent an accumulation of mouth alcohol from leading to an... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the...

  16. Almagate interference in breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is common and affects both genders at any age. The 13C-urea breath test is a widely used test for the diagnosis of this infection. However, multiple drugs used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection symptoms have interactions with this breath test that generate false negative results. This observational study was to assess the potential interaction between almagate and the breath test. Methods: Thirty subjects on almagate therapy who underwent a breath test were included. If the result was negative, almagate was withdrawn for a month and the breath test was then repeated. Results: In general, 51.9 % of assessed subjects had a negative result after the first test, and 100 % of these also had a negative result after the second test. Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of almagate does not interfere in breath test results. These results provide a drug therapy option for the treatment of symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection during the diagnostic process.

  17. Aperitif effects on gastric emptying: a crossover study using continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, M; Iida, H; Endo, H; Hosono, K; Akiyama, T; Yoneda, K; Fujita, K; Iwasaki, T; Takahashi, H; Yoneda, M; Goto, A; Abe, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kubota, K; Nakajima, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between aperitif and gastric emptying. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Under two conditions (after drinking an aperitif versus not), the (13)C breath test was performed for 4 h with a liquid meal (200 kcal/200 ml) containing 100 mg (13)C acetate. We used 50 ml of umeshu as the aperitif. This is a traditional Japanese plum liqueur, and contains 7 ml alcohol (14%). In the aperitif group, T(1/2), T(lag), and T(peak) were significantly delayed [T(1/2) (132: 113-174) versus (112: 92-134) (P = 0.0069); T(lag) (80: 63-94) versus (55: 47-85) (P = 0.0069); and T(peak) (81: 62-96) versus (54: 34-84) (P = 0.0069), (median: range, aperitif versus control, min)]. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the aperitif group as compared with the control group. This study revealed that even a small amount of alcohol such as an aperitif may contribute to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:18688714

  18. (13)C-5-FU breath test current status and future directions: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzeldin, Hany H; Acosta, Edward P; Mattison, Lori K; Fourie, Jeanne; Modak, Anil; Diasio, Robert B

    2009-12-01

    Breath tests (BTs) represent a safe non-invasive alternative strategy that could provide valuable diagnostic information in conditions like fat malabsorption, carbohydrate (lactose and fructose) malabsorption, liver dysfunction, impaired gastric emptying, abnormal small bowel transit time, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. To date, despite the availability of a number of breath tests, only three have gained approval by the FDA for application in a clinical setting ((13)C-urea breath test for the detection of H. pylori; NO breath test for monitoring asthma and alkane breath test for heart transplant rejection). Unfortunately, none of these tests investigate cancer patients or response to cancer chemotherapy. Several years ago it was realized that the presence of a reliable non-invasive approach could assist in the detection of patients at risk of developing severe life-threatening toxicities prior to the administration of fluoropyrimidines (e.g. 5-FU) or related cancer chemotherapy. 5-FU toxicity results mainly from deficient uracil catabolism. This review discusses the development of a BT that utilizes an orally administered pyrimidine ([2-(13)C]-uracil) which is metabolized via the same catabolic pathway as 5-FU. This ([2-(13)C]-uracil) breath test could provide a valuable addition to the patients' standard of care. PMID:21386199

  19. Methodology and application of 13C breath test in gastroenterology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C breath test has been widely used in research of nutrition, pharmacology and gastroenterology for its properties such as safety, non-invasion and so on. The author describes the principle, methodology of 13C breath test and its application in detection to Helico-bacteria pylori infection in stomach and small bowl bacterial overgrowth, measurement of gastric emptying, pancreatic exocrine function and liver function with various substrates

  20. Significance of hydrogen breath tests in children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Däbritz, Jan; Mühlbauer, Michael; Domagk, Dirk; Voos, Nicole; Henneböhl, Geraldine; Siemer, Maria L; Foell, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen breath tests are noninvasive procedures frequently applied in the diagnostic workup of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review hydrogen breath test results and the occurrence of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption in pediatric patients; and determine the significance of the findings and the outcome of patients with carbohydrate malabsorption. Methods We included 206 children (88 male, 118 female, median age 10.7 years, range 3–18 years) with a total...

  1. Acidic colonic microclimate--possible reason for false negative hydrogen breath tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, H; Ferenci, P; Frotz, S; Meryn, S.; Gangl, A

    1988-01-01

    About 5% of normal subjects fail to produce increased hydrogen breath concentration after ingestion of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose (low hydrogen producers). The existence of low hydrogen producers limits the diagnostic use of hydrogen (H2) breath tests. We studied the effects of lactulose and of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) pretreatment on stool-pH and on hydrogen exhalation after oral loading with lactulose or lactose in 17 hydrogen producers and 12 low hydrogen producers. In sev...

  2. Tricks for interpreting and making a good report on hydrogen and 13C breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, G; Di Rienzo, T A; Scaldaferri, F; Del Zompo, F; Pizzoferrato, M; Lopetuso, L R; Laterza, L; Bruno, G; Petito, V; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Franceschi, F; Cammarota, G; Gaetani, E; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    Breath tests (BT) represent a valid and non-invasive diagnostic tool in many gastroenterological disorders. Their wide diffusion is due to the low cost, simplicity and reproducibility and their common indications include diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, Helicobacter pylori infection, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, gastric emptying time and orocaecal transit time. The review deals with key points on methodology, which would influence the correct interpretation of the test and on a correct report. While a clear guideline is available for lactose and glucose breath tests, no gold standard is available for Sorbitol, Fructose or other H2 BTs. Orocaecal transit time (OCTT) defined as time between assumption of 10 g lactulose and a peak > 10 ppm over the baseline value, is a well-defined breath test. The possible value of lactulose as a diagnostic test for the diagnosis of small bowel bacterial overgrowth is still under debate. Among (13)C breath test, the best and well characterized is represented by the urea breath test. Well-defined protocols are available also for other (13)C tests, although a reimbursement for these tests is still not available. Critical points in breath testing include the patient preparation for test, type of substrate utilized, reading machines, time between when the test is performed and when the test is processed. Another crucial point involves clinical conclusions coming from each test. For example, even if lactulose could be utilized for diagnosing small bowel bacterial overgrowth, this indication should be only secondary to orocaecal transit time, and added into notes, as clinical guidelines are still uncertain. PMID:24443074

  3. Diagnostic value of 14C urea breath test for Hp-associated peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a method of 14C urea breath test and to evaluate the accuracy of the method in clinical diagnosis. Methods: Helicobacter pylori(Hp)-positive patients were defined either by positive bacterial culture or by positive rapid urease test of endoscopic biopsy specimens. 1384 patients with suspected peptic disease were underwent 14C urea breath test. Of them, 44 patients underwent dynamic test at various intervals to determine the optimal time for expiratory air collection. Results: Dynamic breath test showed that the highest point of 14C counts was at 30 min after administration of 14C urea. When a cut-off value of 3.5 was selected, the sensitivity and specificity was of the test for detecting Hp infection 96.7% and 96.5% respectively. Hp positive rate detected by 14C urea breath test in 1092 adults and 292 children was 50.4% and 81.2%. Conclusions: This study suggests that 14C urea breath test is a simple and reliable method for detection of Hp infection and is of high sensitivity and specificity

  4. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  5. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  6. A 14-day elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing the lactulose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark; Constantino, Tess; Kong, Yuthana; Bajwa, Meera; Rezaei, Abolghasem; Park, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frustrated by the low efficacy of antibiotics. Elemental diets have been shown to reduce enteric flora. In this study, we evaluate the ability of an elemental diet to normalize the lactulose breath test (LBT) in IBS subjects with abnormal breath test findings. Consecutive subjects with IBS and abnormal LBT suggesting the presence of bacterial overgrowth underwent a 2-week exclusive elemental diet. The diet consisted of Vivonex Plus (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Minneapolis, MN) in a quantity based on individual caloric requirement. On day 15 (prior to solid food), subjects returned for a follow-up breath test and those with an abnormal LBT were continued on the diet for an additional 7 days. The ability of an elemental diet to normalize the LBT was determined for days 15 and 21. A chart review was then conducted to evaluate any clinical benefit 1 month later. Of the 93 subjects available for analysis, 74 (80%) had a normal LBT on day 15 of the elemental diet. When those who continued to day 21 were included, five additional patients normalized the breath test (85%). On chart review, subjects who successfully normalized their breath test had a 66.4 +/- 36.1% improvement in bowel symptoms, compared to 11.9 +/- 22.0% in those who failed to normalize (P < 0.001). An elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing an abnormal LBT in IBS subjects, with a concomitant improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:14992438

  7. Validation of 14 C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to validate the 14 C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of 14 C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p 14 C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  8. A methodological aspect of the 14C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with 14C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with 14C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author)

  9. [14C]urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. pylori is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the [14C]- and [13C]urea breath tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection also is known to increase with advancing age; however, the individual patient's age has not routinely been considered when interpreting urea breath test results. The aim of this study was to validate a short, age-adjusted [14C]urea breath test for use in diagnosing H. pylori infections. Forty-one subjects (28 volunteers, 13 patients) underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies. Subjects were defined as being H. pylori-positive if histology or culture was positive. In addition, all subjects completed a 120-min [14C]urea breath test. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age was used to estimate the probability of H. pylori positivity as a function of the 14C values generated. Sixteen subjects were H. pylori-positive, and 25 were H. pylori-negative. The 14C values generated between 15 and 80 min were found to be equally predictive in identifying H. pylori-positive subjects. Advancing age was associated with a higher probability of H. pylori-positivity. By taking advantage of the statistical probabilities, older patients could be accurately diagnosed with H. pylori at lower 14C values. We found that [14C]urea breath test to be both a sensitive and specific test that can be abbreviated to a 30-min examination (total test time). Moreover, our mathematical model indicates that a patient's age should be considered in order to optimize interpretation of the [14C]urea breath test, although further observations are needed to confirm this model

  10. Change of Gastric Emptying With Chewing Gum: Evaluation Using a Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Kato, Shingo; Sekino, Yusuke; Sakai, Eiji; Uchiyama, Takashi; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Fujita, Koji; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yoneda, Masato; Tokoro, Chikako; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims There are few reports on the correlation between chewing gum and the gastrointestinal functions. But previous report showed use of chewing gum to be an effective method for controlling gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between chewing gum and gastric emptying using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Methods Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fa...

  11. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  12. Kinetics of ethanol decay in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath measured on-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry following varying doses of alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Pysanenko, Andriy; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2010), s. 1066-1074. ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * blood-alcohol * breath Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.846, year: 2010

  13. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  14. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi Antonio E.; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M; Lopes Fabiana L.; Mezzasalma Marco A; Zin Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD) patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A to...

  15. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  16. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO2 after correction of endogenous production of CO2. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, 14 C-UBT and 13 C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the 13 C-UBT

  17. 14C octanoic acid breath tests correlate with scintigraphy in the critically ill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gastric stasis is common in the critically ill and reduces tolerance to nasogastric feeding. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying is rarely used in the critically ill for practical reasons. Breath testing would be a more convenient way of determining gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was to validate 14C octanoic acid breath tests against scintigraphy in ventilated patients. 21 unselected mechanically ventilated patients receiving enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube (14M, mean age 58yrs) were fed a dual radiolabelled nutrient meal consisting of 100ml Ensure, 74KBq 14C octanoic acid and 20MBq 99Tc sulphur colloid. 12 normal volunteers (9M mean age 38yrs) were also studied to establish normal ranges. Dynamic scintigraphic images were collected with subjects in 20 deg LAO position over 4 hours utilising a GE Starcam 300M mobile gamma camera. Breath samples were collected using the RAH 'Rapid-14' collection methodology at baseline and every 10 -15 minutes for 4 hours. Gastric emptying parameters were calculated and correlated. Normal breath test mean t- = 117min (SD=46). Delayed gastric emptying was seen in some of the critically ill patients, mean t- - 143 mm (SD=86). Strongest correlations were between normals scintigraphic t- (t-s) and breath test t- (t-B), r=0.96 (p-B, r=0.75 (p-s and t-B, n=16, r=0.73 (p14C octanoic acid breath tests in normal subjects and the critically ill. This may be a useful alternative for measurement of gastric emptying in the critically ill. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  19. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  20. Accuracy of the 14 C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of simple, accurate and low-expense techniques for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection has great relevance. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid 14 C-urea breath test (UBT) employing a very simple device for breathed air collection. One hundred and thirty-seven adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Clinical Hospital. The main measurements were histology for Helicobacter pylori (HP); urease test; urea breath test (UBT). One hundred and fifteen patients were infected by HP (HP +) according to both histology and the urease test, and 22 patients were HP-negative (HP-), according to the same two tests. UBT was capable of discriminating between HP + and HP- in a way that was similar to the combination of urease test and histology. When this combination of results is taken as the 'gold standard' for HP infection, the sensitivity and specificity of UBT are both greater than 90% for a range of cut-off points and breathed air collection times. It was concluded that the rapid UBT employing a simple device for air collection has a high accuracy in determining HP infection. (author)

  1. A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K C; Parkman, K M; Spruill, S E

    1996-12-01

    A new software-based visual search and divided-attention test of cognitive performance was developed and evaluated in an alcohol dose-response study with 24 human subjects aged 21-62 years. The test used language-free, color, graphic displays to represent the visuospatial demands of driving. Cognitive demands were increased over previous hardware-based tests, and the motor skills required for the test involved minimal eye movements and eye-hand coordination. Repeated performance on the test was evaluated with a latin-square design by using a placebo and two alcohol doses, low (0.48 g/kg/LBM) and moderate (0.72 g/kg/LBM). The data on 7 females and 17 males yielded significant falling and rising impairment effects coincident with moderate rising and falling breath alcohol levels (mean peak BrALs = 0.045 g/dl and 0.079 g/dl). None of the subjects reported eye-strain or psychomotor fatigue as compared with previous tests. The high sensitivity/variance relative to use in basic and applied research, and worksite fitness-for-duty testing, was discussed. The most distinct advantage of a software-based test that operates on readily available PCs is that it can be widely distributed to researchers with a common reference to compare a variety of alcohol and drug effects. PMID:8986207

  2. Application of the glycocolate 14C breath test in the stydy of rosacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel bacterial contamination was determined in patients affected by rosacea normal or gastric hyposecretors. The Breath Test 14C was used with glycocolate 14C Na. The study was completed by determination of gastric acidity, Key test, Schilling test and d xilosa test with positive results. Metronidazol was administered to these patients, thus normalizing the small bowel contamination and, at the same time, improving the dermatological process. (M.E.L.)

  3. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  4. Gastric emptying of a solid meal starts during meal ingestion : Combined study using C-13-octanoic acid breath test and Doppler ultrasonography - Absence of a lag phase in C-13-octanoic acid breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, IM; Mundt, MW; Roelofs, JMM; Samsom, M

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphy and the C-13-octanoic acid breath test are both applied to assess gastric emptying. Using the C-13-octanoic acid breath test, excretion curves show C-13 excretion immediately after ingestion of a solid egg meal, in contrast with scintigraphy where gastric emptying is observed after a la

  5. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive. PMID:27309028

  6. Breath tests sustainability in hospital settings: cost analysis and reimbursement in the Italian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, M; Scaldaferri, F; Ojetti, V; Poscia, A

    2013-01-01

    The high demand of Breath Tests (BT) in many gastroenterological conditions in time of limited resources for health care systems, generates increased interest in cost analysis from the point of view of the delivery of services to better understand how use the money to generate value. This study aims to measure the cost of C13 Urea and other most utilized breath tests in order to describe key aspects of costs and reimbursements looking at the economic sustainability for the hospital. A hospital based cost-analysis of the main breath tests commonly delivery in an ambulatory setting is performed. Mean salary for professional nurses and gastroenterologists, drugs/preparation used and disposable materials, purchase and depreciation of the instrument and the testing time was used to estimate the cost, while reimbursements are based on the 2013 Italian National Health System ambulatory pricelist. Variables that could influence the model are considered in the sensitivity analyses. The mean cost for C13--Urea, Lactulose and Lactose BT are, respectively, Euros 30,59; 45,20 and 30,29. National reimbursement often doesn't cover the cost of the analysis, especially considering the scenario with lower number of exam. On the contrary, in high performance scenario all the reimbursement could cover the cost, except for the C13 Urea BT that is high influenced by the drugs cost. However, consideration about the difference between Italian Regional Health System ambulatory pricelist are done. Our analysis shows that while national reimbursement rates cover the costs of H2 breath testing, they do not cover sufficiently C13 BT, particularly urea breath test. The real economic strength of these non invasive tests should be considered in the overall organization of inpatient and outpatient clinic, accounting for complete diagnostic pathway for each gastrointestinal disease. PMID:24443075

  7. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  8. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: possibilities of a new breath test in a dolphin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinaElizabethDavis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.

  9. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  10. A novel breath test to directly measure use of vaginal gel and condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Cheng, Helen; Wasdo, Scott; Montgomery, Liz; Smith-McCune, Karen; Booth, Matthew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; Morey, Timothy E; Dennis, Donn M

    2013-07-01

    We assessed the feasibility of a breath test to detect women's single or concurrent use of vaginal products by adding ester taggants to vaginal gel and condom lubricant. Healthy non-pregnant women were enrolled into a two-day cohort (N = 13) and a single-day cohort (N = 12) in San Francisco. Within each cohort, women were randomized (5:1) to tagged or untagged products, and inserted in a clinical setting: 4 mL of tenofovir placebo gel (ten tagged with 15 mg 2-pentyl acetate; three untagged), and an artificial phallus with a lubricated condom (11 tagged with 15 mg 2-butyl acetate; two untagged), on two separate days (two-day cohort) or concurrently (single-day cohort). Using a portable mini-gas chromatograph, the presence/absence of taggants was determined in breath specimens collected prior to, and at timed intervals following product exposure. Demographic, clinical and product use experience data were collected by structured interview. All participants completed all visits and inserted their assigned products. At 5 min post-insertion, the breath test was 100% accurate in identifying insertion of the tagged (or untagged) gel and/or condom. The half-life in breath of the two esters tested was <1 h with large variability between individuals, taggants and cohorts. Overall, among those receiving tagged product, six mild and two moderate product-related AEs were reported. All were transient and resolved spontaneously. Additional sensations included taste in mouth (N = 4) and scent (N = 5). The tagged products were well tolerated. This breath test has the potential to accurately and objectively monitor adherence to vaginal gel and condom used separately or concurrently. PMID:23321948

  11. 13C-urea breath test analyzed with infrared isotope spectrometry for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have evaluated a 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The 13C-test was analyzed with isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry and compared with a 14C-urea breath test and the urease test in gastric mucosal biopsies. 46 patients were analyzed with breath tests, 23 patients were negative and 22 patients were positive with both methods. One patients was positive with 14C-method and negative with the 13C-urea breath test. 61 patients were analyzed with the 13C-urea breath test and the urease test. 30 patients were negative and 30 patients were positive with both methods, whereas one patient with a negative urease test had a positive breath test. 13C-urea breath test analyzed with isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry is a fast, simple, non-radioactive, non-invasive, convenient and reliable method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. 13C Urea Breath Testing to Diagnose Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Deslandres, Colette

    1999-01-01

    The causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa and gastritis has been proven. Endoscopy and subsequent histological examination of antral biopsies have been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing H pylori gastritis. The 13C urea breath test is a noninvasive test with a high specificity and sensitivity for H pylori colonization. Increasingly, it is becoming an important tool for use in diagnosing H pylori infection in paediatric populations. This t...

  13. Glucose tolerance by 13CO2 breath test methodology and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The glucose tolerance test is a valuable diagnostic aid. The ability to utilize carbohydrate is decreased in diabetics and increased in hypopituitarism, hyperinsulinism, and adrenocortical hypofunction. Developments in mass spectrometric technology and availability of 13C-enriched substrates for clinical research have enabled the clinician to perform 13CO2 breath tests in normal and patients with various diseases. In this paper, we planned to evaluate the applicability of the non-invasive 13CO2 breath test for glucose tolerance studies and for the diagnosis of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in adults using natural glucose. The methodology for breath sample collection, storage and analysis was developed and experimental conditions were designed and optimized. Static absorption of breath CO2 was carried out by having the subject exhale through a Tygon tube attached with glass adapter into an empty 250 ml flat bottom flask. Flask was closed by stopper after adding 10 ml 1.5 N NaOH solution and was shaken for 5 minutes. Samples were stored in plastic lined screw-cap vials for analysis. Analysis of same breath sample (δ 13C value -25.63, n=3) and laboratory internal standard (δ 13C value -3.56, n=4) show precision 0.10 and 0.03 respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed on normal volunteers using naturally labeled glucose (glaxose-D) in fasting and non fasting conditions using standard test meal. MS Excel software template for trioctanoic acid breath test, got from W. A. Coward, Dunn Nutrition Center, U. K. was modified for calculations of cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered from natural glucose. Mean glucose tolerance test data from Marcel Lacroix (1973) was used to the modified template and cumulative percentage of 13C dose was calculated and compared with our experiments' results. Marcel Lacroix fasted data shows percentage dose recovered 30.53 ± 4.06, n=8, 20-32 years. PINSTECH fasted data shows percentage dose recovered 31.28

  14. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to......The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... technique was determined in 20 patients following ingestion of lactulose. The increment between consecutive means of duplicate samples indicative of a significant rise of H2 concentration never exceeded 10 p.p.m., the mean coefficient of variation of the duplicate samples was below 5%. Fasting H2 levels...

  15. 14C-triolein breath test in the diagnosis of steatorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-triolein breath test was evaluated as a screening test for steatorrhea in 66 consecutive patients. Steatorrhea was found in 20 patients. Following an oral dose of 14C-triolein, 14CO2-activity in the expiratory air was measured after zero, three, four, five and six hours. Maximum 14CO 2-expiration was calculated. The ability of the test to discriminate between patients with steatorrhea and patients without steatorrhea showed a specificity of 98%, and a sensitivity of 85%. Thus the 14C-triolein test seems to be sufficiently accurate as a screening test for steatorrhea

  16. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Antonio E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% (n=13 PD patients, 14.8% (n=4 SAD patients, 9.5% (n=2 GAD patients had a panic attack after the test (c²= 21.44, df= 2, p=0.001. There was no heart rate or anxiety levels difference among the groups before and after the test. CONCLUSION: In this breath-holding challenge test the panic disorder patients were more sensitive than other anxiety disorder patients.

  17. Update on diagnostic value of breath test in gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ahmed, Sibtain; Abid, Shahab

    2016-08-15

    In the field of gastroenterology, breath tests (BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect, non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered. The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles, methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen, methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and carbohydrate malabsorption. Evaluation of gastric emptying is routinely performed by scintigraphy which is however, difficult to perform and not suitable for children and pregnant women, this review has abridged the 13C-octanoic acid test in comparison to scintigraphy and has emphasized on its working protocol and challenges. A new development such as electronic nose test is also highlighted. Moreover we have also explored the limitations and constraints restraining the wide use of these BT. We conclude that breath testing has an enormous potential to be used as a diagnostic modality. In addition it offers distinct advantages over the traditional invasive methods commonly employed. PMID:27574563

  18. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p animal models. PMID:27294128

  19. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p < 0.01) with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0 ± 2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0 ± 1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0 ± 0.8 d). The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models. PMID:27294128

  20. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO’s association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical r...

  1. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Diagnosed by Glucose Hydrogen Breath Test in Post-cholecystectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hea Jung; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients undergoing cholecystectomy may have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of SIBO in patients with intestinal symptoms following cholecystectomy. Methods Sixty-two patients following cholecystectomy, 145 with functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs), and 30 healthy controls undergoing hydrogen (H2)-methane (CH4) glucose breath test (GBT) were included in the study. Before performing GBT, all patients were ...

  2. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y.; RUTGEERTS, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  3. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  4. Application of electrochemical breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in screening of Moscow students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkina, I A; Korotkova, O A; Loginov, I A; Vasilieva, E A; Yashina, N V; Anokhina, I V; Kozlov, A V; Tumanova, G M; Tedoradze, R V; Dalin, M V

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection is analyzed by the results of screening of first- and fourth-year students of Moscow Institute of Foreign Affairs using HelicoSense Scientific breath test system. Age-related dynamics of the infection in patients examined for the first time has been traced. The data on infection rates in patients after eradication therapy are presented. PMID:22803077

  5. The cut-off criterion for a positive hydrogen breath test in children: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Barillas, C

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three preschool children with adequate nutritional status underwent interval-sampling, 3-hour breath-hydrogen carbohydrate absorption tests after consuming either 240 ml of intact milk (containing 12 g of lactose) or the same volume of milk with 90-95% of its lactose prehydrolyzed in vitro (containing less than 1 g lactose, with the remaining sugar as glucose and galactose). Results were examined in a reappraisal of the cut-off criterion for the rise of breath H2 concentration signifying biologically incomplete absorption. If the greater than or equal to 10-ppm criterion advocated by some investigators is used, 83% of our subjects would have been classified as incomplete lactose digesters and 30% would have their tests with the monosaccharide-rich milk classified as positive. With the greater than or equal to 20 ppm criterion used in our laboratory and others, the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the sample becomes 60% and only 4% of subjects have apparent monosaccharide absorption, 96% having a rise below the cut-off level with prehydrolyzed milk. At least in Guatemalan preschoolers, the 20-ppm criterion for a positive breath H2 test provides a superior specificity-sensitivity balance and more reasonable diagnostic conclusions. PMID:3794911

  6. Diagnostic Value of the 13C Methacetin Breath Test in Various Stages of Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizah Razlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT in differentiating between various stages of liver disease is not clear. A cross-sectional study of Asian patients was conducted to examine the predictive value of the 13C-MBT in various stages of chronic liver diseases. Diagnostic accuracy of the breath test was determined by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve analysis. Seventy-seven patients (47 men/30 women, mean age 50±16 years were recruited. Forty-seven patients had liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh A = 11, Child Pugh B = 15, and Child Pugh C = 21, 21 had fibrosis, and 9 had chronic inflammation. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for liver fibrosis, cirrhosis (all stages, Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B, and Child-Pugh C were 65% and 56%, 89% and 89%, 67% and 42%, 40% and 40%, and 50% and 77%, respectively. Area under curve values for fibrosis was 0.62 (0.39–0.86, whilst that for cirrhosis (all stages was 0.95 (0.91–0.99. The 13C-methacetin breath test has a poor predictive value for liver fibrosis but accurately determines advanced cirrhosis.

  7. The interest of the 13C urea breath test for the diagnostic and monitoring of chronic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duodenal ulcer is very frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) present in the gastric mucous membrane. Breath tests with 13C-labelled urea have been carried out for the detection of Hp; these tests could be more sensitive than gastric biopsies, because of the heterogenous distribution of the bacteria in the mucous membrane. This breath test may be used repetitively and allows for a non-intrusive monitoring of the Hp eradication after treatment. 12 refs

  8. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? (a) A cancelled alcohol test is neither positive nor negative. (1)...

  9. Confirmation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the 14C-urea breath test (UBT). 14C-UBT is being used as a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There is paucity of reports on the utility of this test to confirm the H. pylori eradication after its treatment. The study was conducted to determine the utility of 14C-UBT in confirming the eradication of H. pylori

  10. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  11. Posttreatment 13C-Urea Breath Test Is Predictive of Antimicrobial Resistance to H. pylori After Failed Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ai-Wen; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lin, Ching-Yih; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether a 13C-urea breath test can predict antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS Seventy patients who had failed triple eradication therapy and 108 untreated H. pylori-infected patients were given a 13C-urea breath test, endoscopy for culture of H. pylori, and assessment of clarithromycin resistance. The patients who had failed triple therapy then received 1 week of quadruple therapy to eradicate residual H. pylori. RESULTS The posttreatment value of the 13C-urea breath test expressed as excessive δ13CO2 per ml (ECR) was higher in patients with residual H. pylori with clarithromycin resistance than in those without (23.8 vs 10.6; P or≤15, the 13C-urea breath test was 88.6% sensitive and 88.9% specific in predicting clarithromycin resistance of residual H. pylori. The H. pylori eradication rate of the rescue regimen was higher for patients with a posttreatment ECR of the 13C-urea breath test ≤ 15 than for those with a value >15 (93.8% vs 73.3%; P .05). CONCLUSION The posttreatment value of the 13C-urea breath test is predictive of clarithromycin resistance in residual H. pylori after failed triple therapy and predicts efficacy of the rescue regimen. The value of the noninvasive test is promising for primary care physicians who need to select a rescue regimen without invasive H. pylori culture. PMID:15836546

  12. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 ...

  13. Diagnosing lactose malabsorption in children: difficulties in interpreting hydrogen breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Entenmann, Andreas; Karall, Daniela; Müller, Thomas; Schimkowitsch, Alexander; Amann, Anton; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is caused by insufficient enzymatic degradation of the disaccharide by intestinal lactase. Although hydrogen (H2) breath tests (HBTs) are routinely applied to diagnose LM, false-negative results are not uncommon. Thirty-two pediatric patients (19 females, 13 males) were included in this prospective study. After oral lactose administration (1 g kg(-1) bodyweight to a maximum of 25 g), breath H2 was measured by electrochemical detection. HBT was considered positive if H2 concentration exceeded an increase of  ⩾20 ppm from baseline. In addition to H2, exhaled methane (CH4), blood glucose concentrations and clinical symptoms (flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea) were monitored. A positive HBT indicating LM was found in 12/32 (37.5%) patients. Only five (41.7%, 5/12) of these had clinical symptoms during HBT indicating lactose intolerance (LI). Decreased blood glucose concentration increments (⩽20 mg dL(-1) (⩽1.1 mmol L(-1))) were found in 3/5 of these patients. CH4 concentrations  ⩾10 ppm at any time during the test were observed in 5/32 (15.6%) patients and in 9/32 (28.1%) between 1 ppm and 9 ppm above baseline after lactose ingestion. In patients with positive HBT 10/12 (83.3%) showed elevated CH4 (>1 ppm) above baseline in breath gas, whereas in patients with negative HBT this figure was only 4/17 (23.5%). In addition to determining H2 in exhaled air, documentation of clinical symptoms, measurement of blood glucose and breath CH4 concentrations may be helpful in deciding whether in a given case an HBT correctly identifies patients with clinically relevant LM. PMID:26934035

  14. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  15. Modified 13C-urea breath test and the detection of helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) is one of the most important non-invasive methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection. This examination is innocuous, simple, highly accurate. While the major drawback of 13C-UBT is the higher cost compared with other methods which hold back its widely using. The author review focuses on the most recent advances in the machines used to measure the 13C isotope and on the most important improvements about the UBT, such as the use of lower dose 13C-urea tablet or capsule, the modification of test meal, a shortened collection time of exhalation sample and so on

  16. Assessment of liver function in dogs using the 13C-galactose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Wyse, C A; Goodfellow, M R; Yam, P S; Preston, T; Papasouliotis, K; Hall, E J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the 13C-galactose breath test (13C-GBT) in assessing canine liver function by applying it to a group of healthy dogs, and to a group with clinicopathological evidence of liver dysfunction. Breath samples were collected 30 min before ingestion of 13C-galactose, and then at regular intervals thereafter for 6 h. The proportion of 13CO2/12CO2 in the breath samples was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. There was no significant difference in recovery of 13CO2 in the diseased group, compared to the healthy controls, but there was considerable inter-subject variation in both groups, possibly due to differences in the rate of gastric emptying, which could preclude detection of alterations in hepatic metabolism of galactose. The results of this study do not support the application of the 13C-GBT for assessment of canine liver function. PMID:19546016

  17. Nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectroscopy: A new analytical method for 13C-urea breath tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, stable isotope techniques in breath tests using 13C-labeled substrates are limited to a few centers equipped with expensive and complex isotope spectrometry (IRMS). Although breath samples can be mailed to these centers, widespread application of 13C-breath tests would be more feasible with a cheaper and more practicable analysis system at hand. The authors therefore tested the newly developed nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometer (NDIRS) with reference to IRMS in a clinical setting, comparing the results of both techniques in 538 consecutive 13C-urea breath tests performed for the detection of helicobacter pylori infection. With NDIRS five false-positive and three false-negative results were observed; that is, the sensitivity of NDIRS was 98.3%, and the specificity was 98.6%. When running this large number of breath tests in 3 days, the NDIRS proved to be a reliable, stable, and easy-to-operate analytical tool, which is well qualified for gastroenterologic application in the diagnostic routine. Both the price and the easy handling of NDIRS will facilitate the widespread use of the noninvasive stable isotope technique for 13C breath test. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. The fate of ingested 14C-urea in the urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic fate of the radioactive carbon in the 14C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori was investigated in 18 subjects. After ingestion of labelled urea, breath was sampled for 24 h, and urine was collected for 3 days. Subjects were designated high or low expirers on the basis of their breath counts, and this agreed well with H. pylori serologic analyses. When given 185 or 37 kBq of 14C-urea, 51% of the label was recovered from the breath of high expirers, and 7% from the breath of low expirers. The mean combined urinary and breath recovery for high expirers was 86%, and for low expirers it was 97%. It is concluded that the long-term retention of 14C from ingested 14C-urea is low. The results enable a more accurate estimation to be made of radiation exposure resulting from the 14C-urea breath test. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Reduced accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth in gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the 14C-D-xylose breath test in the diagnosis of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth was prospectively evaluated in 10 patients with motility disorders: 6 myopathic, 3 neuropathic, and 1 mechanical obstruction. 6 of 10 patients had small-bowel bacterial overgrowth on culture of small-bowel aspirate. Increased breath 14CO2 levels were documented in 3 of 6 patients with positive cultures and in 2 of 4 with negative cultures. 2 patients with positive results by both methods and 1 of 2 with positive breath 14CO2 but negative cultures had previously undergone gastric surgery. 3 patients with myopathic dysmotility had positive cultures but negative breath tests. Cultures of duodenal aspirates and the D-xylose test had sensitivities of 80% and 40%, respectively, for the finding of hypoalbuminemia. Compared with cultures, the sensitivity and specificity of the breath test were 60% and 40%, respectively. Impaired delivery of 14C-D-xylose for bacterial metabolism may result from postprandial antral hypomotility or low amplitude small-bowel motility, contributing to the false-negative breath tests. Thus, cultures is the optimal method to detect small-bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with motility disorders. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Evaluation of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with functional dyspepsia through H2 breath test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bafutto Gomes Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Functional dyspepsia is a condition in which symptoms are not related to organic underlying disease; its pathogenesis is not well known. The small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by the increase in the number and/or type of colonic bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The hypothesis of SIBO being associated to functional dyspepsia must be considered, since the impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the main etiologic factors involved on both pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is SIBO in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Case-control study, evaluating 34 patients: 23 functional dyspeptic and 11 non-dyspeptic (control group. Questionnaire applied based on Rome III criteria. The patients underwent H2-lactulose breath test, considered positive when: H2 peak exceeding 20 ppm, in relation to fasting, or two peaks exceeding 10 ppm sustained until 60 minutes. RESULTS: Of the 23 dyspeptic patients, 13 (56.5% obtained positive results for SIBO trough the H2-lactulose breath test. On control group, SIBO was not observed. The association between the dyspeptic group and the control group regarding SIBO was statistically significant, with P = 0.0052. In the group of dyspeptic patients, 12 (52.2% were using proton pump inhibitor; of these 9 (75% were positive for SIBO. In the control group, none of the 11 patients used proton pump inhibitors and SIBO was not observed. The association of the dyspeptic group using proton pump inhibitor that were positive for SIBO and the control group was statistically significant, with P = 0.0011. CONCLUSION: It was found that, patients with functional dyspepsia presented SIBO, when they underwent to H2-lactulose breath test, compared to the non-dyspeptic. In addition, it was observed a higher prevalence of SIBO in dyspeptic patients that were using proton pump inhibitors, compared to control group.

  1. Analysis of 14C-Urea breath test in patients with halitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship between halitosis and the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). Methods: The results of 14C-urea breath test of 59 normal people, 50 patients with halitosis only and 56 patients infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were analyzed. Results: It showed that the 14C content and HP positive rate in group infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were much higher than that of halitosis only group and normal people group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The infection of Helicobacter pylori is an important factor but not only factor of halitosis. (authors)

  2. A preliminary investigation of 13C background in 13C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 13C-urea breath test which is used for diagnosis of the helicobacter pylori infection (HP), the 13C background values are measured in 495 normal donors in Beijing, Shandong, Jiangsu and Guizhou. The fluctuation is less than 0.2% for these areas and is about 0.1% within the same area. Through replacing of the individual 13C background values by the averaged values from local areas, the coincident rate for diagnosis of HP is higher than 98%

  3. Specific 13C functional pathways as diagnostic targets in gastroenterology breath-tests: tricks for a correct interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, M; Del Zompo, F; Mangiola, F; Lopetuso, L R; Petito, V; Cammarota, G; Gasbarrini, A; Scaldaferri, F

    2013-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive, non-radioactive, safe, simple and effective tests able to determine significant metabolic alterations due to specific diseases or lack of specific enzymes. Carbon isotope (13)C, the stable-non radioactive isotope of carbon, is the most used substrate in breath testing, in which (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured and expressed as a delta value, a differences between readings and a fixed standard. (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured with isotope ratio mass spectrometry or non-dispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometer and generally there is a good agreement between these techniques in the isotope ratio estimation. (13)C/(12)C ratio can be expressed as static measurement (like delta over baseline in urea breath test) or as dynamic measurement as percent dose recovery, but more dosages are necessary. (13)C Breath-tests are involved in many fields of interest within gastroenterology, such as detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, study of gastric emptying, assessment of liver and exocrine pancreatic functions, determination of oro-caecal transit time, evaluation of absorption and to a lesser extend detection of bacterial overgrowth. The use of every single test in a clinical setting is vary depending on accuracy and substrate costs. This review is meant to present (13)C the meaning of (13)C/(12)C ratio and static and dynamic measure and, finally, the instruments dedicated to its use in gastroenterology. A brief presentation of (13)C breath tests in gastroenterology is also provided. PMID:24443068

  4. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as a platform for technological growth in clinical breath-testing applications. A few exhaled breath tests have demonstrated clinical utility and are in widespread use, and several FDA-approved devices are available. These widely used exhaled breath tests include detection of blood alcohol concentration and exhaled CO(2). Other clinical applications of exhaled breath analysis include testing for H. pylori infection, lactose intolerance, heart transplant rejection and, more recently, monitoring of airway inflammation by means of exhaled NO. Examination of exhaled breath has the potential to change the existing routine approaches in human medicine. The rapidly developing new analytical and computer technologies along with novel, unorthodox ideas are prerequisites for future advances in this field. Scientists who participated in the Breath Analysis Summit 2011 were invited to submit a full length paper to the Journal of Breath Research and this issue includes eight articles which describe the different applications of breath analysis. We thank all the authors for their valuable contribution and we trust that this collection will provide useful information and an update to this rapidly evolving field, giving an example of integration among scientists who address the same topic-breath analysis-from different and complementary perspectives, from basic to clinical research. PMID:22622266

  5. An optimized 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate an optimized 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) protocol for the diagnosis of-H pylori infection that is cost-efficient and maintains excellent diagnostic accuracy.METHODS: 70 healthy volunteers were tested with two simplified 13C-UBT protocols, with test meal (Protocol 2)and without test meal (Protocol 1). Breath samples were collected at 10, 20 and 30 min after ingestion of 50 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 10 mL of water, taken as a single swallow, followed by 200 mL of water (pH 6.0) and a circular motion around the waistline to homogenize the urea solution. Performance of both protocols was analyzed at various cut-off values. Results were validated against the European protocol.RESULTS: According to the reference protocol, 65.7% individuals were positive for H pylori infection and 34.3% were negative. There were no significant differences in the ability of both protocols to correctly identify positive and negative H pylori individuals. However, only Protocol 1 with no test meal achieved accuracy, sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The highest values achieved by Protocol 2 were 98.57%, 97.83%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively.CONCLUSION: A 10 min, 50 mg 13C-UBT with no test meal using a cut-off value of 2-2.5 is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection at a reduced cost.

  6. The effect of alcohol on emotional inertia: a test of alcohol myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol myopia (AM) has emerged as one of the most widely researched theories of alcohol's effects on emotional experience. Given this theory's popularity, it is notable that a central tenet of AM has not been tested-namely, that alcohol creates a myopic focus on the present moment, limiting the extent to which the present is permeated by emotions derived from prior experience. We tested the impact of alcohol on moment-to-moment fluctuations in affect, applying advances in emotion assessment and statistical analysis to test this aspect of AM without drawing the attention of participants to their own emotional experiences. We measured emotional fluctuations using autocorrelation, a statistic borrowed from time-series analysis measuring the correlation between successive observations in time. High emotion autocorrelation is termed emotional inertia and is linked to negative mood outcomes. Social drinkers (N = 720) consumed alcohol, placebo, or control beverages in groups of 3 over a 36-min group formation task. We indexed affect using the Duchenne smile, recorded continuously during the interaction (34.9 million video frames) according to the Facial Action Coding System (P. Ekman, W. V. Friesen, & J. C. Hager, 2002). Autocorrelation of Duchenne smiling emerged as the most consistent predictor of self-reported mood and social bonding when compared with Duchenne smiling mean, standard deviation, and linear trend. Alcohol reduced affective autocorrelation, and autocorrelation mediated the link between alcohol and self-reported mood and social outcomes. Findings suggest that alcohol enhances the ability to freely enjoy the present moment untethered by past experience and highlight the importance of emotion dynamics in research examining affective correlates of psychopathology. PMID:24016015

  7. Predicting outcome of paracetamol poisoning by using 14C-aminopyrine breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-aminopyrine (14C-amidopyrine) breath test, carried out within 24 to 36 hours of an overdosage of paracetamol, was used to predict the extent of liver damage in 30 seriously poisoned patients. Mean 14C02 excretion was 4.4% in 20 healthy control subjects; 5.5% in six patients who escaped injury; and 2.9%, 1.5%, and 0.2% in those with mild to moderate (12 patients), severe (eight patients), and fatal (four patients) liver damage respectively. This test proved to be a more reliable predictor of the extent of liver damage than plasma paracetamol concentration or half life or the results of conventional liver function tests and may enable treatment of hepatic failure to be started at an early stage. (author)

  8. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Drug and Alcohol Testing Rates In a final rule published on December 2, 1994 (59 FR 62218), FRA... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random... rail industry random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for...

  9. Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of 14C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of 14C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of 14C in sample)/(mmol of CO2 collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO2 than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy

  10. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert Lawrence

    The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine

  11. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran...... red isotope spectrometry (IRIS) analyzer. Feeding the sugar beet diet high in soluble fibre and high water-binding capacity reduced the physical activity. Gastric emptying estimated using non-invasive breath test with 13C labelled isotope was comparable to that observed with total collection...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  12. Experimental study on L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function with animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using a small animal breath test model we designed and L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) of rats, the authors investigated its feasibility and validity and determined effective parameter of the test. Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) weighting 280-290 g rats randomized into two groups acute hepatitis rats (n=10) and control rats (n=10). Hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) olive oil administration through intragastric gavage. PheBT was assisted by small mechanical ventilator improved and air samples were collected discontinuously, 20 mg/kg body weight L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered intravenously. Twenty-nine breath samples were taken before and different intervals within sixty minutes after administration. 13Cenrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Results: All time phase curves of 13C enrichment in rat breath reached a peak almost at 2 min after the intravenous administration of 13C-Phe. The PheBT parameters, 13C excretion rate constant (PheBT-K), of CCl4 hepatitis rats were significantly lower than that of normal control rats [(2.45 ± 0.25) x 10-2 min-1 vs (2.98 ± 0.19) x 10-2 min-1, t = 5.40, P13C fast phase disposition constant did not statistically differ between the two groups (t=0.58, P>0.05). PheBT-K had significant negative cor-relation with serum ALT, AKP, TBA and total bilirum TBIL (the correlation coefficient r is -0.74, -0.73, -0.82 and -0.67 respectively, P0.05). Conclusions: It was indicated that the small animal breath test model we designed was a virtual tool to use in experimental study on breath test and PheBT-K was a sensitive index. (authors)

  13. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  14. Relationship between postoperative erythromycin breath test and early morbidity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Rasmussen, Allan; Kirkegaard, Preben;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in dosage requirements of the calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine and tacrolimus after liver transplantation may result from differences in the CYP3A activity of the liver graft. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is...... an in vivo measure of graft CYP3A activity. This study evaluates the usefulness of an early postoperative ERMBT in predicting early morbidity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 26 liver transplant recipients, ERMBT was performed within 2 hr after transplantation. Main end points were the...... associated with low postoperative ERMBT values (0.21%+/-0.15% 14C/hr vs. 1.09%+/-0.72% 14C/hr, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: An early postoperative ERMBT may be useful in predicting the development of cyclosporine and tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, severe graft dysfunction, or even graft loss in liver transplant...

  15. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna;

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...... before measurements started and expired air was then sucked out of the respiration chamber and collected into breath bags at frequent intervals until 5.5 h after the start of measurements. The ratio of 13C/12C was measured by means of an IRIS infrared analyser and results are reported in terms of delta...

  16. Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Krawielitzki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a nutritio

  17. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Els Houben; Vicky De Preter; Jaak Billen; Marc Van Ranst; Kristin Verbeke

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose brea...

  18. On-line, Simultaneous Quantification of Ethanol, some Metabolites and Water Vapour in Breath Following the Ingestion of Alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Wang, T.; Španěl, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2002), s. 477-489. ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * breath analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2002

  19. 13C basal abundance of expired CO2 -definition of pre-requisites for kinetic breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, M C; Sébastien, H; Brazier, J L

    2000-01-01

    A sufficiently stable rate of 13CO2 exhalation is necessary when the diagnostic 13CO2 breath tests are performed in healthy subjects and patients. The aim of the research was to define prerequisite conditions for kinetic breath tests in order to ensure a stable 13CO2 background. A 3-part protocol was developed. Part I: a study of the one-day variation of 13CO2 abundance in expired CO2 confirmed that shifts of the basal 13C abundance in breath are inherent in nature. Part II: a study of the variations of 13C enrichment after the ingestion of different meals and beverages showed that ingestion of food items containing C4 plant sugars, such as maize, induces a significant increase in isotopic abundance. Part III: a new test breakfast containing rice grain cereal, milk and orange juice was tested. This test meal induces no significant change on the basal 13CO2 abundance in healthy subjects. This new finding allows to avoid the fasting period normally required prior to a breath test which is sometimes difficult for children and pregnant women. PMID:11077930

  20. A citric acid solution is an optimal test drink in the 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Domínguez-Muñoz; Leodolter, A; Sauerbruch, T; Malfertheiner, P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) is a simple, non-invasive and reliable test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The duration of the test, the timing of breath sampling, and the accuracy of the method vary according to the test meal used. AIM: To identify the optimal test meal or drink for rapid and accurate performance of the 13C-UBT for the detection of H pylori infection. PATIENTS: Eighty patients with dyspeptic symptoms were included. Of these, 48 patients ha...

  1. Alcohol interlock implementation in the European Union : feasibility study. Final report of the European research project

    OpenAIRE

    Bax, C. (ed.) Kärki, O. Evers, C. Bernhoft, I.M. & Mathijssen, R.

    2002-01-01

    A Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device (BAIID) is a breath testing device connected to the ignition system of a motor vehicle. It prevents an operator from starting the vehicle if the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) exceeds a predetermined threshold or fail level. From November 2000 until September 2001, a consortium of European road safety research institutes conducted a feasibility study regarding the implementation of BAIIDs in EU drink-driving policies. This is the final report of...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... intoxication and poisoning. (b) Classification. Class II....

  3. Impact of hydrogen breath testing on diagnosis, management, and clinical outcome in children with chronic functional GI symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain) in children may have numerous etiologies including carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Hydrogen breath testing (HBT) frequently is used as a modality to evaluate for these two diagnoses. Howev...

  4. 13C-breath tests for sucrose digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase-deficient and sacrosidase-supplemented patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is characterized by absence or deficiency of the mucosal sucrase-isomaltase enzyme. Specific diagnosis requires upper gastrointestinal biopsy with evidence of low to absent sucrase enzyme activity and normal histology. The hydrogen breath test (BT) is ...

  5. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... period (i.e., to prevent an accumulation of mouth alcohol from leading to an artificially high reading... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  6. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same...

  7. Investigation of the method and clinical usefulness of the 14CO2-glycocholate-breath-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycocholate breath-tests were performed in 22 clinical patients without gastrointestinal disorders, in 11 cases with M. Crohn of the ileum and in 8 patients, in whom an intestinal overgrowth with bacteria was suspected. Additional to the usual discontinuous measurement of the specific activity of 14CO2 the exhaled amount of CO2 and 14CO2 and 14C-serum activity were determined. No advantage was found in the determination of the latter; for 1) discontinuous measurement of the specific activity of 14CO2 was sufficient for detecting disturbed enterohepatic bile-salt circulation; and 2) measurement of 14C-serum-activity or 14C-activity in cholic acids or protein were of no help in differentiating between bacterial overgrowth and diseases of the ileum. There remained doubts regarding the clinical usefulness of the test. Low specifity and many positive tests in patients without corresponding symptoms require that therapeutical procedures in such patients are initiated with some reserve. (orig.)

  8. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  9. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U3O8. Profiles developed for U3O8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  10. First-time urea breath tests performed at home by 36,629 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Søren; Andersen, Rikke Charlotte; Nielsen, Birgitte Sperling Wilms;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was (1) to describe the use of a (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) that was performed by patients at their homes as a part of a test-and-treat strategy in primary care and (2) to investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients taking a first......, positive H. pylori declined over the time course of the study (women: 19.6% in 2003 to 17.6% in 2009, p < .01; men: 20.7% in 2003 to 16.9% in 2009, p < .001). Patients who were older than 45 years had significantly higher positive H. pylori results than younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: A test......-and-treat system was possible to implement that allowed patients to perform UBTs at their homes. The results of the first-time UBTs demonstrated that approximately one of five patients who presented with dyspepsia in the clinical setting of Danish primary care was infected with H. pylori....

  11. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  12. 13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Jassal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test format as the basis of a novel biomarker and diagnostic for pulmonary TB. Sensitized New-Zealand White Rabbits underwent bronchoscopic infection with either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rabbits were treated with 25 mg/kg of isoniazid (INH approximately 2 months after infection when significant cavitary lung pathology was present. [(13C] urea was instilled directly into the lungs of intubated rabbits at selected time points, exhaled air samples analyzed, and the kinetics of delta(13CO(2 formation were determined. Samples obtained prior to inoculation served as control samples for background (13CO(2 conversion in the rabbit model. (13CO(2, from metabolic conversion of [(13C]-urea by mycobacterial urease activity, was readily detectable in the exhaled breath of infected rabbits within 15 minutes of administration. Analyses showed a rapid increase in the rate of (13CO(2 formation both early in disease and prior to treatment with INH. Following INH treatment, all evaluable rabbits showed a decrease in the rate of (13CO(2 formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urea breath testing may provide a useful diagnostic and biomarker assay for tuberculosis and for treatment response. Future work will test specificity for M. tuberculosis using lung-targeted dry powder inhalation formulations, combined with co-administering oral urease inhibitors together with a saturating oral dose of unlabeled urea, which would prevent the delta(13CO(2 signal from urease-positive gastrointestinal organisms.

  13. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  14. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Houben

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2 excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO, and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  15. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  16. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Gastroenterology

    1996-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  19. Perceived physical availability of alcohol at work and workplace alcohol use and impairment: testing a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R; Trinidad, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into 3 dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and 2 dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  20. An evaluation of the multiple-breath nitrogen washout as a pulmonary function test in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; McDonell, W. N.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple-breath nitrogen washouts (MBNW) were performed with 29 light horses. Seven normal horses were used to examine the reproducibility, and 22, ranging from normal to severely diseased, were used to examine the changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effect of a bronchodilator, salbutamol, on the distribution of ventilation. The MBNW were analyzed using the functional residual capacity (FRC), end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the MBNW (FETN2,fb), en...

  1. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães; Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.; Crabtree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n...

  2. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97–1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  3. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  4. Perceived Physical Availability of Alcohol at Work and Workplace Alcohol Use and Impairment: Testing a Structural Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived phy...

  5. Validation of a simplified carbon-14-urea breath test for routine use for detecting Helicobacter pylori noninvasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon-14 (14C) urea breath test for detecting Helicobacter pylori with multiple breath sampling was developed. Carbon-14-urea (110 kBq) administered orally to 18 normal subjects and to 82 patients with Helicobacter infection. The exhaled 14C-labeled CO2 was trapped at 10-min intervals for 90 min. The total 14C activity exhaled over 90 min was integrated and expressed in %activity of the total dose given. In normals, a mean of 0.59% +/- 0.24% was measured, resulting in an upper limit of normal of 1.07%. In 82 patients, a sensitivity of 90.2%, a specificity of 83.8%, and a positive predictive value of 90.2% was found. The single probes at intervals of 40-60 min correlated best with the integrated result, with r ranging from 0.986 to 0.990. The test's diagnostic accuracy did not change at all when reevaluated with the 40-, 50-, or 60-min sample data alone. Thus, the 14C-urea breath test can be applied routinely as a noninvasive, low-cost and one-sample test with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting Helicobacter pylori colonization

  6. [BREATH TEST WITH LOCALLY PRODUCED 13С-UREA (TBILISI, GEORGIA) IN DIAGNOSTICS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdaladze, A; Mosidze, B; Elisabedashvili, G; Kordzaia, D

    2016-04-01

    Comparative assessment of results of detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection by breath tests with standard and locally produced 13С urea was done in 213 patients with gastric and duodenal pathology, including those who already were undergone the surgery. Invasive endoscopic biopsy test including rapid urease test (RUT), smear cytology and histology were also performed (tissue samples were obtained after endoscopy or surgery). RUT was carried out with the help of URE-HP test kit. Serological test for Hp antibodies was performed by IFA using kit ELISA. 13С urea breath test (UBT) was conducted for the determination of 13/12CO2 in breath samples by using of infrared spectroscope. In I group (125 patients) UBT was performed with standard 13С urea, in II group (88 patients) with locally produced 13С urea. Based on 5 different methods of Hp infection testing Hp positivity in 172 (80,8%) and Hp negativity in 41 (19,2%) patients were revealed. 13С-UBT showed the highest diagnostic value (accuracy-97,5%, sensibility-97,0%, specificity-100%) in Hp infection diagnosis. The (accuracy, sensibility and specificity of breath test with locally issued 13С urea (98,7%, 98,5% and 100% respectively) are the same as those for BT with standard 13С urea (96,7%, 96,2% and 100% respectively). These parameters are also highly credible in control of treatment efficiency (96,7%, 90,0% and 100% respectively). The correlation of index DOB‰ of breath test with results of RUT was revealed In Hp positive patients. This can serve as a marker of Hp infection rate. Preliminarily, in pre-clinical experimental study, harmless of locally issued 13С-urea from point of view of acute/sub-acute toxicity and allergy development was confirmed. The advantages (noninvasiveness, simplicity, rapidity, safety) and high diagnostic value of UBT (with both standard as well as locally produced 13С-urea) provide the opportunity to offer 13С-UBT as screening method of Hp infection diagnosis. It also

  7. Determination of Rifaximin Treatment Period According to Lactulose Breath Test Values in Nonconstipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS...

  8. Noninvasive ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test shows delayed gastric emptying in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toepfer, Marcel; Folwaczny, Christian; Lochmüller, H.; Schroeder, M; Riepl, R. L.; Pongratz, D; Müller-Felber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. However, ALS has been recognized to also involve non-motor systems. Subclinical involvement of the autonomic system in ALS has been described. The recently developed C-13-octanoic acid breath test allows the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying. With this new technique we investigated 18 patients with ALS and 14 healthy volunteers. None of the patients had diabe...

  9. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ..., 1994 (59 FR 62218), FRA announced that it will set future minimum random drug and alcohol testing rates... Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of... annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2008 rail industry random testing positive rates were...

  10. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random.... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... (Administrator) has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug testing rate for the period...

  11. Influence of oral and esophageal commensal microflora on 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen gastritis patients (12M: 5F; mean age: 40 y) were studied to evaluate the influence of oral and esophageal urease producing commensal microflora on the 14C-urea breath test(UBT). To determine the influence of oral bacterial on UBT, 111 kBq14C-urea in 10 ml water was given orally to 6 H.pylori negative subjects, with the instructions to expectorate the tracer after 30 sec. To evaluate the influence normal esophageal flora on UBT, the tracer was given to 11 patients (4 H.pylori-ve :7 H.pylori +ve) in the capsule and again after 6 h in water. One mmol C02 was collected before and up to 30 min. of tracer administration and 14C content measured. When given as mouth wash, 14C-urea liquid caused an immediate peak of 14C02 at 2 min (4263 ± 1024 dpm) and thereafter declined sharply reaching base line value after 10 min (208 ±62 dpm). When tracer was given in capsule, 14C02 level in H.pylori +ve patients increased significantly within 5 min and peaked at 10-15 min. (8644 ± 987 dpm at 15 min). However, when the tracer was given in liquid, 14CO2 levels were almost similar to those of 14C-urea mouth wash experiment in H.pylori -ve patients. It is therefore, concluded that normal commensal microflora present in the oropharynx and esophagus contribute significantly to 14C-UBT. For the accurate diagnosis of H.pylori infection, the tracer should therefore, be given in the capsule

  12. Dual therapy for third-line Helicobacter pylori eradication and urea breath test prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Nishizawa; Hidekazu Suzuki; Takama Maekawa; Naohiko Harada; Tatsuya Toyokawa; Toshio Kuwai; Masanori Ohara

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a dual therapy with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (AMX) as an empiric third-line rescue therapy.In patients with failure of first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-AMX-clarithromycin regimen and second-line treatment with the PPI-AMX-metronidazole regimen,a third-line eradication regimen with mbeprazole (10 mg q.i.d.) and AMX (500 mg q.i.d.) was prescribed for 2 wk.Eradication was confirmed by the results of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) at 12 wk after the therapy.A total of 46 patients were included; however,two were lost to followup.The eradication rates as determined by per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were 65.9% and 63.0%,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects showing eradication failure; those patients showing successful eradication comprised 32.9 ± 28.8 permil and 14.8 ± 12.8 permil,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects with eradication failure were significantly higher than those in the patients with successful eradication (P =0.019).A low pretreatment UBT result (≤ 28.5 permil) predicted the success of the eradication therapy with a positive predictive value of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 89.7%.Adverse effects were reported in 18.2% of the patients,mainly diarrhea and stomatitis.Dual therapy with rabeprazole and AMX appears to serve as a potential empirical third-line strategy for patients with low values on pretreatment UBT.

  13. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  14. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... § 40.245(a)(8) for the saliva ASD and § 40.245(b)(8) for the breath tube ASD). (2) The saliva ASD does not activate (see § 40.245(a)(7); or (3) The device is used for a test after the expiration...

  15. A study on Helicobacter pylori infection in different parts of Karnataka using 14C urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-invasive 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) technique was used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The test utilises 14CO2 released due to the action of urease produced by H pylori. 14C UBT is found to be a simple alternative for endoscopic examinations for diagnosing H pylori infection. The test was performed on 664 subjects from various parts of Karnataka. Among them 34.9% of the subjects were found to be H pylori positive, and the infection rate varied from 16.9% to 38.6%. (author)

  16. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... percentage rate for random alcohol testing must be 25 percent of covered employees. (b) The...

  17. Usefulness of N-dimethyl-13 C-aminopyrine breath test in the diagnosis of liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-dimethyl-13C-aminopyrine breath test was performed in patients with liver disease and healthy controls to compare cumulative 13CO2% dose per 3 hrs expired during breathing. Expired cumulative values were significantly lower in patients with liver cirrhosis than in healthy controls. They were also significantly lower in cirrhosis patients with a history of hepatic insufficiency than in patients without it. However, there was no significant difference between patients with esophageal varices and patients without it. A significant difference was observed between patients with chronic active hepatitis than in healthy controls, but not observed between patients with chronic inactive hepatitis and healthy controls. They did not correlate with sGOT or sGPT, but correlated with prothrombin levels or serum albumin levels. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Advantages of breath testing for the early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Sule-Suso, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-257. ISSN 1473-7159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * breath analysis * lung cancer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.652, year: 2010

  19. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    1996-01-01

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar d

  20. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  1. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

  2. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  3. Bacterial contamination of the small bowel evaluated by breath tests, 75Se-labelled homocholic-tauro acid, and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-one patients with diarrhoea due to suspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine were investigated with the bile breath test (BABT) and 75Se-labelled homocholic-tauro acid (SeHCAT). The impact of bile acid malabsorption due to dysfunction of the terminal ileum on BABT was evaluated. The group of patients with abnormal BABT, notably the 6 h accumulated value, showed a high frequency of reduced SeHCAT values, indicating that a reliable test for bile acid malabsorption is indispensable for interpreting the BABT in the investigation of small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The results of the 14C-D-xylose breath test were compared with the outcome of the combined SeHCAT-BABT in 44 patients. In contrast to previous findings, no correlation between the two breath tests was found. On the contary, a significant negative correlation was encountered for patients in whom either breath test was abnormal. Scanning electron microscopy for demonstration of adherent microorganisms was including in the investigation. No correlations were found with the outcomes of the different breath tests. The effect of antibiotic treatment was evaluated with regard to symptoms and breath tests. The results of the investigation indicate that different tests are needed for the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine, because of the different metabolic characteristics of the contaminating bacteria. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  5. Predisposing factors for positive D-Xylose breath test for evaluation of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A retrospective study of 932 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Richard A; Zhang, Qing; Lodhia, Nilesh; Shuster, Jonathan; Phillip P Toskes; Moshiree, Baharak

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate, in the largest cohort to date, patient characteristics and associated risk factors for developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) using the D-Xylose breath test (XBT).

  6. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Feng; Luo, Nan; Lee, Hin-Peng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the population-based Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT) with eradication therapy.

  7. The 14C-monomethylamino-antipyrine breath test as in vivo parameter for characterizing the induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these investigations was to help clarify the following questions: 1) Does MAAP, following 14C labelling of the exocyclic aminomethyl group, offer a suitable substrate for a breath test in guinea pigs. 2) Which procedures for evaluating the 14C exhalation curves of the breath test are especially valid. 3) Can an induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system following pre-treatment with various inducing substances be detected by the 14C-MAAP breath test. 4) Do inducer-specific differences arise in response to the 14C-MAAP breath test by which the inducers can be characterized. 5) Is monomethylamino-antipyrine similar to amidopyrine in that it is a suitable independent in vivo parameter for the drug metasbolizing enzyme system in the liver of guinea pigs. (orig./MG)

  8. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random.... SUMMARY: According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug... therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug testing rate for the period January 1,...

  9. Effect of loperamide and naloxone on mouth-to-caecum transit time evaluated by lactulose hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Basilisco, G; Bozzani, A; Camboni, G; M. Recchia; Quatrini, M; Conte, D.; Penagini, R; PA Bianchi

    1985-01-01

    The effect of loperamide and naloxone on mouth-to-caecum transit time was evaluated by the lactulose hydrogen breath test in four men and four women. Each subject underwent tests during the administration of placebo, loperamide (12-16 mg po), naloxone (40 micrograms/kg/h by a three-hour intravenous infusion), and loperamide plus naloxone, carried out at intervals of one or two weeks. The transit time was significantly longer after loperamide, and this effect was antagonised by the concomitant...

  10. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  11. Imaging and retention measurements of selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine, and the carbon 14 glycochol breath test to document ileal dysfunction due to late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess ileal dysfunction in patients with complaints after pelvic radiation therapy, retention measurements and scintigraphic imaging with selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine (75Se-HCAT), combined with the carbon 14 clycochol breath test, were evaluated in 39 patients. In 22 patients without ileal resection the results of the 75Se-HCAT test and the breath test differentiated between a normal functioning ileum (both tests negative) and ileal dysfunction as a cause of complaints (one or both tests positive). Among the patients with ileal dysfunction, the combination of both tests permitted those with bacterial overgrowth (breath test positive, 75Se-HCAT negative) to be separated from patients with evidence of bile acid malabsorption (75Se-HCAT positive, breath test positive or negative). In 17 patients with small-bowel resection, the 75Se-HCAT test helped to estimate the severity of bile acid malabsorption with implications for therapy. In this group the breath test was false-negative in 7 cases with abnormal 75Se-HCAT. Additional systematically performed scintigraphic imaging improved the accuracy of the 75Se-HCAT test, revealing cases with prolonged colonic accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical, causing spurious retention values. In conclusion, assessment of ileal dysfunction by nuclear medicine techniques in post-irradiation conditions provides information about the aetiology and therefore the possibility of adjustment in the clinical management. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  13. Metallo-Dielectric Multilayer Structure for Lactose Malabsorption Diagnosis through H2 Breath Test

    OpenAIRE

    Cioffi, N.; de Ceglia, D.; De Sario, M; D'Orazio, A; Petruzzelli, V.(Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell'Informazione – Politecnico di Bari, Bari, Italy); F. Prudenzano; Scalora, M.; Trevisi, S.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A metallo-dielectric multilayer structure is proposed as a novel approach to the analysis of lactose malabsorption. When lactose intolerance occurs, the bacterial overgrowth in the intestine causes an increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. By monitoring the changes in the optical properties of a multilayer palladium-polymeric structure, one is able to detect the patient's disease and the level of lactose malabsorption with high sensitivity and rapid response.

  14. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  15. Breath test to diagnose the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of active chronic gastritis and ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil almost 80% of the population presents the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, considered to be the causative agent of active chronic gastritis and ulcers. This does not mean that all of these people will suffer gastritis or ulcers, but it is highly probable. The usual diagnostic procedure used a microbiological culture in mucus biopsy specimens collected during gastroscopy, an invasive method. The problem was to find a non-invasive, easy, fast and efficient procedure to diagnose this bacterium. The nuclear technique applied was liquid scintillation, a suitable technique to measure the low energy β emission of 14C. This was the best method available at the time to develop and establish the test. In order to develop a non-invasive test to diagnose H. pylori, research was carried out with doctors from the Department of Gastroenterology at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. This research applied a radiochemical method using 14C, a radioisotope of carbon. The patient's control breath sample was obtained after a 12 hour fast. Then a standard meal was offered to delay gastric emptying, after which the patient drank a determined amount of urea labelled with 14C in water. Breath samples were collected at 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes in a hyaline-ethanol solution with a pH (acid) indicator. If the bacteria were present, the labelled urea would be metabolized and the 14C would be eliminated as 14CO2 by exhalation; otherwise the 14C would be eliminated through the faeces. This 14C urea breath test was applied in around 5000 participants and the results were compared with results obtained through culture

  16. Correlation between symptoms developed after the oral ingestion of 50 g lactose and results of hydrogen breath testing for lactose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, L; Pohl, D.; Delco, F; Stutz, B; Fried, M; Tutuian, R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactase deficiency is a common condition responsible for various abdominal symptoms. Lactose hydrogen breath test is currently the gold standard in diagnosing lactose intolerance. AIM: To assess sensitivity and specificity of symptoms developed after oral lactose challenge. METHODS: Intensity of nausea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, bloating and diarrhoea was recorded every 15 min up to 3 h after ingestion of 50 g lactose in patients with positive (i.e. breath H2-concentration > or ...

  17. Influence of citric acid solution as a test drink in the 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobactor pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different test meals are used in the 14C-urea breath test (UBT) for the detection of H.pylori infection. The purpose of using test meals is to slow gastric emptying and to maximise the distribution of the urea substrate within the stomach so as to increase the area and time of contact between bacteria and substrate. Recently, citric acid has been suggested as an improved liquid test meal. The mechanism is not known and could act by delaying gastric emptying, decreasing the pH at the site of the bacteria, or both

  18. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  19. Microdose 14C urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: a survey in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dowlatabadi Bazaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon -14 urea breath test (UBTis a non-invasive and simple method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Attempts have been made to use lower doses of 14C-urea in the UBT in order to reduce the radiation risk of the test. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a microdose (1 µCi [37 KBq] 14C-UBT in Iranian population for validation of its diagnostic accuracy against gold standard methods. Eighty and two patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as 14C-UBT in one week. Rapid urease test and histological examinations were used as gold standard. Breath samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 minute after ingestion of 1 µCi of 14C- urea solution and their activities were measured using a scintillation counter and expressed as counts per minute (cpm and disintegration per minute (dpm. Good agreement was observed between the 14C-UBT and gold standard for samples which were collected 20 minutes after 14C-urea administration. The 14CUBT showed 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 95.45% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 97.50% accuracy. The results of this study showed good concordance between the 14C-UBT and invasive methods.

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  1. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children. PMID:12843086

  2. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children.

  3. Comparison of the 13C-urea breath test and the endoscopic phenol red mucosal pH test in the quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection loading

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Seok; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Jang, Se Na; Kim, Jin-Soo; Son, Hye Suk; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Byung-Wook; Han, Sok-Won; Choi, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chang, Eun Deok

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is a semiquantitative test for measuring Helicobacter pylori infection loading. H. pylori produces ammonia, which elevates the pH of the gastric mucosa and is detectable via endoscopy using a phenol red indicator. We evaluated whether this test could be used to diagnose H. pylori infection and whether phenol red staining was correlated with 13C-UBT results. Methods One hundred and twenty-three patients participated. The UBT was performed after in...

  4. Lactose malabsorption testing in daily clinical practice: a critical retrospective analysis and comparison of the hydrogen/methane breath test and genetic test (c/t-13910 polymorphism) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Rezanka, Erwin; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a retrospective evaluation and comparison of the hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) breath test and genetic test (C/T-13910 polymorphism) results in lactose malabsorption testing. In total 263 consecutive patients with suspected lactose malabsorption were included in this study. They underwent the H2/CH4 breath test following the ingestion of 50 g lactose and were tested for the C/T-13910 polymorphism. In total 51 patients (19.4%) had a C/C-13910 genotype, indicating primary lactose malabsorption. Only 19 patients (7.2%) also had a positive H2/CH4 breath test. All in all 136 patients (51.69%) had a C/T-13910 and 76 patients (28.91%) a T/T-13910 genotype, indicating lactase persistence. Four patients (1.5%) with the C/T-13910 genotype and one patient (0.4%) with the T/T-13910 genotype had a positive H2/CH4 breath test result, indicating secondary lactose malabsorption. Cohen's Kappa measuring agreement between the two methods was 0.44. Twenty patients (7.6%) with a positive H2/CH4 peak within 60 minutes after lactose ingestion were classified as patients with lactose-dependent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). In conclusion, only moderate agreement between the breath test and the genetic test was shown. Secondary lactose malabsorption as well as preanalytical limitations of the combined H2/CH4 breath test procedure can cause discrepant results. This trial is registered with K-42-13. PMID:24829570

  5. Turnover of carbon in the 13C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of 13C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the 13C in the 13C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio 13C/12C in expired CO2 from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to 13C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  6. Validity and cost comparison of "carbon urea breath test for diagnosis of H Pylori in dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Rasool; Shahab Abid; Wasim Jafri

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate and compare the cost of microdose 14C urea breath test (UBT) with histology and rapid urease test for the diagnosis of H Pylori.METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing gastroscopy were enrolled. Gastric biopsies were taken for histology and rapid urease test. UBT was performed after gastroscopy by microdose "C urea capsules. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of UBT were calculated and compared with histology and rapid urease test. Cost comparison of these tests was also performed.RESULTS: H pylori was diagnosed by histology and rapid urease test in 66 (70%) and 61 (65%) patients, while 14C UBT detected infection in 63 (67%). Accuracy of UBT was 93% in comparison with histology while its positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 84%, respectively. Comparison of 14C UBT with rapid urease test gives an accuracy of 96%, with positive and negative predictive values of 95% and 97%, respectively. These results were highly reproducible with a Kappa test (P value < 0.001). Cost of histology or rapid urease test with gastroscopy was 110 USD or 95 USD respectively while the cost of UBT was 15 USD.CONCLUSION: Microdose 14C UBT was comparable to histology and rapid urease test. 14C UBT is an economical, self sufficient and suitable test to diagnose active Hpylori infection in less developed countries.

  7. Evaluatin of the GGT levels in Alcohol dependence and correlation with biyochemical tests and clinical features

    OpenAIRE

    Salış, Osman; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the correlation between blood GGT levels and biochemical tests also sosyodemografic data who have alcohol dependence Materials and Methods: We intestigated a retrospective way for alcohol dependence patient records in Samsun Mental Hospital. We recorded patients GGT levels and other labarotory tests and sociodemografic data. We excluded other drug abuse or dependence. Results: The present analyses consisted of 83 participants who have alcohol dependence. ...

  8. Assessment of the peripheral ventilatory response to CO2 in heart failure patients: reliability of the single-breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of chemoreflex sensitivity in heart failure patients is gaining increasing interest since recent studies demonstrated that augmented chemosensitivity is an independent predictor of mortality and represents an important pathogenic factor in the development of Cheyne–Stokes respiration. The single-breath CO2 test is a well-established method to quantify peripheral hypercapnic chemoreflex sensitivity. As the original criteria for the computation of the chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects need to be modified in heart failure patients to take into account impaired cardiac function, the effects of such modifications on measurement reliability deserve investigation. Hence, we devised this study to assess the reliability of the single-breath CO2 test in heart failure patients. In 27 clinically stable, mild-to-moderate heart failure patients (age (mean±SD): 64±10 years, left ventricular ejection fraction: 34±7%, NYHA class: 2.7±0.4), the test was administered on two consecutive days in the same conditions. Reliability was assessed by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean value of the chemoreflex sensitivity on the two days was: 0.25 ± 0.12 and 0.24 ± 0.12 l min−1 mmHg−1 (p = 0.45), respectively. The SEM was 0.05 l min−1 mmHg−1, indicating large intra-subject variability. Consequently, in order to be 95% confident that a real change has occurred between two measurements taken on the same individual (test–retest), the observed difference must be higher than ±0.15 l min−1 mmHg−1, which is about 60% of the mean value across our population. The ICC was 0.71, indicating thatintra-subject variability, although high, is a limited (29%) portion of inter-subject variability. Intra-subject variability should be carefully taken into account when using the single-breath CO2 test in assessing changes in individual patients. The observed ICC indicates that this test may provide

  9. A simplified 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, T.; Bartholomeusz, F.D. L.; Bellon, M.S.; Chatterton, B.E. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide. SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The Urea Breath Test (UBT) is an accurate, noninvasive means of assessing the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Two tests are currently available, using 13C- and 14C-labelled urea, respectively. 13C is a nonradioactive isotope, unlike 14C, but the 13C-UBT is technically more challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a simplified 13C-UBT with no test meal, using the 14C-UBT as the previously validated standard. 76 studies were performed on 72 patients; 4 patients performed the test twice. 28 patients were female, 44 male. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 23-86 years). 42 patients presented for post-eradication follow up, and 30 for initial diagnosis. All subjects underwent a 14C-UBT with a 15 minute sample. The 13C-UBT was then performed without a test meal and the breath samples obtained at baseline and 20 minutes. Of the 14C-UBT studies, 27 were positive, ranging from 1372 to 10,987 DPM (Normal <1000 DPM), and 49 were negative, range 177-946 DPM. 26 of the 13C-UBT studies were positive, with a Delta value ranging from 4.29-47.89 (Normal: Delta <3.5), and 50 were negative, range -0.20-2.80. There were 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative 13-UBT studies. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 98.0% for the simplified 13C-UBT. From these results we conclude that the simplified 13C-UBT is an accurate means of detecting the presence of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach

  10. A simplified 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Urea Breath Test (UBT) is an accurate, noninvasive means of assessing the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Two tests are currently available, using 13C- and 14C-labelled urea, respectively. 13C is a nonradioactive isotope, unlike 14C, but the 13C-UBT is technically more challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a simplified 13C-UBT with no test meal, using the 14C-UBT as the previously validated standard. 76 studies were performed on 72 patients; 4 patients performed the test twice. 28 patients were female, 44 male. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 23-86 years). 42 patients presented for post-eradication follow up, and 30 for initial diagnosis. All subjects underwent a 14C-UBT with a 15 minute sample. The 13C-UBT was then performed without a test meal and the breath samples obtained at baseline and 20 minutes. Of the 14C-UBT studies, 27 were positive, ranging from 1372 to 10,987 DPM (Normal <1000 DPM), and 49 were negative, range 177-946 DPM. 26 of the 13C-UBT studies were positive, with a Delta value ranging from 4.29-47.89 (Normal: Delta <3.5), and 50 were negative, range -0.20-2.80. There were 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative 13-UBT studies. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 98.0% for the simplified 13C-UBT. From these results we conclude that the simplified 13C-UBT is an accurate means of detecting the presence of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach

  11. Fabry-Perot microcavity sensor for H2-breath-test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Leak detection of hydrogen for medical purposes, based on the monitoring of the optical response of a simple Fabry-Perot microcavity, is proposed to investigate either the occurrence of lactose intolerance, or lactose malabsorption condition. Both pathologic conditions result in bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which causes increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. Two sensitivity figures of merit are introduced to inspect changes in the sensor response, and to relate the microcavity response to a pathologic condition, which is strictly related to a different level of exhaled hydrogen. Different sensor configurations using a metal-dielectric microcavity are reported and discussed in order to make the most of the well-known ability of palladium to spontaneously absorb hydrogen.

  12. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium))

    1991-06-01

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration.

  13. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration

  14. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  15. 49 CFR 40.225 - What form is used for an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol... foreign-language version of the ATF approved by ODAPC. You may use such a non-English language form only in a situation where both the employee and BAT/STT understand and can use the form in that language....

  16. Measurement of the rate of fat absorption by the 14C-triolein breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the extent to which continuous measurement of the rate of 14CO2 excretion following the oral administration of 14C-labeled triolein (14C-T) would estimate the rate of absorption of triolein by the gut, ten adult male rats were fed 0.5 ml of 14C-T and the rate of production of expired labeled CO2 was measured continuously. Pairs of animals were sacrificed at 30 min intervals between 90 and 210 min and absorption rates were calculated by quantitating substrate remaining in the gut. Comparison of these rates with the cumulative excretion rates of labeled CO2 revealed a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. In a second experiment, adult rats received an intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339, a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, prior to receiving 14C-T. The rate of intestinal 14C-triglyceride output was determined from the increase in 14C in the blood over a 6 hr period. Comparison of the rates of intestinal secretion using Triton WR-1339 with that determined from the cumulative rates of excretion of 14CO2 revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The authors conclude that rates of triglyceride absorption can be estimated in vivo by the continuous measurement of labeled CO2 excreted in breath

  17. Alcohol use and abuse among rural Zimbabwean adults: A test of a community-level intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  18. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescen...

  19. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan Bickram; Chappuis François; Baral Dharanidhar; Karki Prahlad; Rijal Suman; Hadengue Antoine; Gache Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non...

  20. The 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test in gallstone patients with and without duodenal diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess whether gallstone patients with duodenal diverticula have bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small bowel, the results of the 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test were compared in 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, and in 24 without diverticula. All patients had been treated with endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) for stones in the common bile duct before the study, and cholecystectomy had previously been performed in 20 patients. No significant differences between the groups were found concerning age, sex and body weight. Cummulative 14CO2 expired in 3 h in percentage of administered dose of 14C-d-xylose was 8.55% (7.58-9.57%) and 7.38% (6.32-8.96%) in patients with and without diverticula, respectively (p=0.06), indicating a higher bacterial activity in the small bowel in patients with duodenal diverticula than in those without diverticula. The results appeared to be influenced by cholecystectomy

  1. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the {sup 14}C-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglioglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan, E-mail: drayhant@hotmail.com [Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  2. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  3. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  4. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  5. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  6. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor t...

  8. Measurement of hepatic functional mass by means of 13C-methacetin and 13C-phenylalanine breath tests in chronic liver disease: Comparison with Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Festi; P. Portincasa; E. Roda; A. Colecchia; S. Capodicasa; L. Sandri; L. Colaiocco-Ferrante; T. Staniscia; E. Vitacolonna; A. Vestito; P. Simoni; G. Mazzella

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and compare the clinical usefulness of 13C-phenylalanine and 13C-methacetin breath tests in quantitating functional hepatic mass in patients with chronic liver disease and to further compare these results with those of conventional tests, Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels.METHODS: One hundred and forty patients (50 HCV-related chronic hepatitis, 90 liver cirrhosis patients) and 40 matched healthy controls were studied. Both breath test and routine liver test, serum levels of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates were evaluated.RESULTS: Methacetin breath test, expressed as 60 min cumulative percent of oxidation, discriminated the hepatic functional capacity not only between controls and liver disease patients, but also between different categories of chronic liver disease patients. Methacetin breath test was correlated with liver function tests and serum bile acids.Furthermore, methacetin breath test, as well as serum bile acids, were highly predictive of Child-Pugh scores. The diagnostic power of phenylalanine breath test was always less than that of methacetin breath test.CONCLUSION: Methacetin breath test represents a safe and accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hepatic functional mass in chronic liver disease patients.

  9. Cardiogenic oscillation phase relationships during single-breath tests performed in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, A. M.; Elliott, A. R.; Paiva, M.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the phase relationships of the cardiogenic oscillations in the phase III portion of single-breath washouts (SBW) in normal gravity (1 G) and in sustained microgravity (microG). The SBW consisted of a vital capacity inspiration of 5% He-1.25% sulfurhexafluoride-balance O2, preceded at residual volume by a 150-ml Ar bolus. Pairs of gas signals, all of which still showed cardiogenic oscillations, were cross-correlated, and their phase difference was expressed as an angle. Phase relationships between inspired gases (e.g., He) and resident gas (n2) showed no change from 1 G (211 +/- 9 degrees) to microG (163 +/- 7 degrees). Ar bolus and He were unaltered between 1 G (173 +/- 15 degrees) and microG (211 +/- 25 degrees), showing that airway closure in microG remains in regions of high specific ventilation and suggesting that airway closure results from lung regions reaching low regional volume near residual volume. In contrast, CO2 reversed phase with He between 1 G (332 +/- 6 degrees) and microG (263 +/- 27 degrees), strongly suggesting that, in microG, areas of high ventilation are associated with high ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q). This widening of the range of VA/Q in microG may explain previous measurements (G.K. Prisk, A.R. Elliott, H.J.B. Guy, J.M. Kosonen, and J.B. West J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1290-1298, 1995) of an overall unaltered range of VA/Q in microG, despite more homogeneous distributions of both ventilation and perfusion.

  10. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  11. Application of 13C-urea breath test in patients diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C-urea breath test(13C-UBT)was used to evaluate infection rate of H. pylori(HP) and effect of HP eradication in patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. Patiens without gastrointestinal disorders were set as control group. Within 640 patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test, there were 389 patients showed HP-positive by 13C-UBT. The positive rate of HP was 60.8%. 389 patients diagnosed as HP- positive by 13C-UBT were treated with PPI-based triple therapy, PPI-based double therapy and single PPI therapy, respectively. After treatment, the negative rate of 13C-UBT was 83.8%, 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The results showed significant difference between three kinds of therapy (P13C-UBT could improve the diagnostic rate of HP to patients who diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. (authors)

  12. Can the C-14 urea breath test reflect the extent and degree of ongoing helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) is the most specific noninvasive method to detect Helicobacter (H) pylori infection. We investigated if the C-14 UBT can reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx). One hundred fifty patients (M:F=83:67,age 48.6±11.2 yrs) underwent C-14 UBT, rapid urease test (CLO test) and GBx on the same day. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (137 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive (≥200 dpm), intermediate ( 50 ∼ 199 dpm) or negative ( < 50 dpm). The results of CLO tests were classified as positive or negative according to color change. The results of GBx on giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4(diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.5%, 88.4%, 97.1%, 88.4% and 91.3%, respectively. However, the CLO test had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 83.2%, 81.4%, 91.8%, 81.4% and 82.7%, respectively. The quantitative values of the C-14 UBT were 45 ± 27 dpm in grade 0, 707 ±584 dpm in grade 1, 1558±584 dpm in grade 2, 1851±604 dpm in grade 3, and 2719 ± 892 dpm in grade 4. A significant correlation (r=0.848, p<0.01) was found between C-14 UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection on GBx with giemsa stain. We conclude that the C-14 UBT is a highly accurate, simple and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of ongoing H. pylori infection and reflects the degree of bacterial distribution

  13. 13C-tryptophan breath test detects increased catabolic turnover of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiya Teraishi; Hiroaki Hori; Daimei Sasayama; Junko Matsuo; Shintaro Ogawa; Miho Ota; Kotaro Hattori; Masahiro Kajiwara; Teruhiko Higuchi; Hiroshi Kunugi

    2015-01-01

    Altered tryptophan–kynurenine (KYN) metabolism has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The l-[1-13C]tryptophan breath test (13C-TBT) is a noninvasive, stable-isotope tracer method in which exhaled 13CO2 is attributable to tryptophan catabolism via the KYN pathway. We included 18 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. 13C-tryptophan (150 mg) was orally administered and the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in the breath was monitored for 180 min. The cumulative recove...

  14. Comparison of the 1-gram [14C]xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H2, and 80-gram glucose-H2 breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of three breath tests (1-g [14C]xylose, 10-g lactulose-H2, and 80-g glucose-H2) was studied in 20 subjects with culture-documented small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Elevated breath 14CO2 levels were seen within 30 min of [14C]xylose administration in 19 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 0 of 10 controls. In contrast, H2 breath tests demonstrated uninterpretable tests (absence of H2-generating bacteria) in 2 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 1 of 10 controls and nondiagnostic increases in H2 production in 3 of 18 glucose-H2 and 7 of 18 lactulose-H2 breath tests in subjects with bacterial overgrowth. These findings demonstrate continued excellent reliability of the 1-g [14C]xylose breath test as a diagnostic test for bacterial overgrowth, indicate inadequate sensitivity of H2 breath tests in detecting bacterial overgrowth, and suggest the need for evaluation of a 13CO2 breath test having the same characteristics as the [14C]xylose test (avidly absorbed substrate having minimal contact with the colonic flora) for nonradioactive breath detection of bacterial overgrowth in children and reproductive-age women

  15. Occult H. pylori infection partially explains ‘false-positive’ results of 13C-urea breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Lázaro, María J; Lario, Sergio; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Quílez, Elisa M; Casalots, Alex; Suarez, David; Campo, Rafel; Brullet, Enric; Junquera, Félix; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial 13C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density ‘occult’ infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an ‘occult’ infection missed by reference tests. Methods Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated ‘occult’ H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests. Results UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests. Conclusions UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density ‘occult’ H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the ‘false-positive’ results. PMID:26535122

  16. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labeling and analysis by an optical breath test analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in optical systems for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking 13C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment at US$ 15000-25000 is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare the conventional mass spectrometry methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple 13C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This allows an assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For a global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle data is required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will allow collection of hard data within a reasonable time frame. (author)

  17. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labelling and analysis by means of an optical breath test analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R C; Khan, M; Haque, A; Khadir, M; Bonetto, J P; Syamsul, R; Mayr, L; Heiling, M

    2004-05-01

    Recent developments in optical systems (isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry) for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking (13)C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment, US$15,000-25,000, is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare conventional mass spectrometric methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple (13)C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This enables assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle, data are required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will enable collection of hard data within a reasonable time. PMID:14963630

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric cancer in a south-east Asian population by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of gastric cancer. There is a great variability in seropositivity and histological frequency of H. pylori in gastric cancer. The present prospective study investigates the prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer patients using 14C-urea breath testing. Patients with endoscopic biopsy-proven gastric cancer were fasted for 6 h prior to ingesting 18.5 x 104 Bq of 14C-urea cocktail orally. Breath samples were collected after 20 min by AS/King them to blow into a hyamine solution and measurements were read in a scintillation counter. Fifty out of 51 patients (98%) with gastric cancer were positive on the 14C-urea breath test compared to 29 patients (61%) who were positive on histology. There was no association between sex, age or tumour site, stage, differentiation, Lauren type and H. pylori status. The test was negative in one patient with cardiac tumour in which histology of the resected specimen was also negative for the bacteria. Active H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in gastric cancer in a South-East Asian population. The 14C-urea breath test is a highly sensitive method for detecting the presence of H. pylori even in gastric adenocarcinoma irrespective of the stage

  19. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Printable Version (PDF—498 kb) Coping with Grief Breathing Problems? Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD ... health care provider and ask for a simple breathing test called spirometry. Together, you can come up ...

  20. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  1. Evaporative emissions in three-day diurnal breathing loss tests on passenger cars for the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Breakthrough emissions that dominate diurnal evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles were observed in continuous 3-day diurnal breathing loss (DBL) tests. These measurements were conducted on nine vehicles for the Japanese market. Two of these vehicles, made by US and European manufacturers, also meet regulations in their countries of origin. Four vehicles exhibited marked emissions caused by breakthrough emissions during the experimental period, all made by Japanese manufacturers. Using our experimental results, we estimate the total diurnal evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan to be 32,792 t y-1. The compositions of the breakthrough and permeation emissions were analyzed in real time using proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry to estimate the ozone formation potential for the evaporative emissions. The real-time measurements showed that the adsorption of hydrocarbons in a sealed housing evaporative determination unit can result in underestimation, when concentrations are only monitored before and after a DBL test. The composition analysis gave an estimated maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) 20% higher for the breakthrough emissions than for the gasoline that was tested, while the MIR for the permeation emissions was almost the same as the MIR for the fuel. Evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan were found to contribute 4.2% to emissions from stationary sources using a mass-based estimate, or 6.1% of emissions from stationary sources using a MIR-based estimate.

  2. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n = 908) infants. [13C]UBT and stool test results concurred with each other in 1,255 (94.86%) cases (kappa coefficient = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 0.92). In the H. pylori-positive group, delta-over-baseline (DOB) and optical density (OD) values were positively correlated (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). The positivity of the tests was higher (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 6.01; 95% CI = 4.50 to 8.04) in Peru (546/878; 62.2%) than in Brazil (81/377; 21.5%) and increased with increasing age in Brazil (P = 0.02), whereas in Peru it decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The disagreement between the test results was associated with birth in Brazil and female gender but not with age and diarrhea. Our results suggest that both [13C]UBT and the stool monoclonal test are reliable for diagnosing H. pylori infection in very young children, which will facilitate robust epidemiological studies in infants and toddlers. PMID:24006009

  4. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Argnani, Mauro Di Camillo, Vanessa Marinaro, Tiziana Foglietta, Veronica Avallone, Carlo Cannella, Piero Vernia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT-25.METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded.RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77% with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm ± 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm ± 40.01 SD; P < 0.001. Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84 for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31.CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a “standard” HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  5. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiorenza Argnani; Mauro Di Camillo; Vanessa Marinaro; Tiziana Foglietta; Veronica Avallone; Carlo Cannella; Piero Vernia

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm)±29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm±40.01 SD; P<0.001). Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84) for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31). CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  6. Estimating Driver Risk Using Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock BAC Tests and Psychometric Assessments: Initial Descriptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul; Tippetts, Scott; Allen, John; Javors, Martin; Alling, Christer; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and followup blood samples (n=302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n=130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n=92) and ETG (n=146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Timeline Followback (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC), and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were significantly related to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall ANOVA F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were strongly correlated with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when relicensing. PMID:19922520

  7. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students. PMID:2621540

  8. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  9. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min−1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  10. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  11. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry for patients undergoing a glycerol tri[1-14C]oleate fat malabsorption breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glycerol tri[1-14C]olein test for fat malabsorption was carried out in two male volunteers and measurements of the loss of 14C in expired air, urine and faeces and the retention of 14C in biopsy samples of abdominal fat were made using accelerator mass spectrometry. Exhalation accounted for 73% and 55% of the administered activity and could be described by three-component exponential functions with halftimes of about 1 h, 2 days and 150 days, respectively. Urinary excretion accounted for 24% of the administered activity, almost all during the first 24 h after administration; about 2% was excreted in the faeces in 48 h. The halftime of retention of 14C in fat ranged from 137 to 620 days. Absorbed dose calculations indicate that for a normal adult the largest dose, 1.5-7.0 mGy/MBq is received by the adipose tissue, and that the effective dose is 0.3-0.5 mSv/MBq. It is concluded that no restrictions need to be placed on radiation safety grounds on the administration of 0.05-0.1 MBq 14C-triolein for the triolein breath test

  12. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  14. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  15. Comparison of a monoclonal antigen stool test (Hp StAR) with the 13C-urea breath test in monitoring Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Perri; Michele Quitadamo; Rosalba Ricciardi; Ada Piepoli; Rosa Cotugno; Annamaria Gentile; Alberto Pilotto; Angelo Andriulli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the agreement between a mAb-based stool test (HP StAR) and the urea breath test (UBT) in monitoring (H pylori) infection after eradication therapy.METHODS: Patients with discordant results on UBT and Hp StAR underwent endoscopy with biopsies for rapid urease test, culture, and histology to confirm H pylori status.RESULTS: Among 250 patients (50±14 years), 240 (96.0%) had concordant UBT and Hp StAR tests with a significant correlation between DOB and A values (R = 0.87; P<0.0001).The remaining 10 (4.0%) patients had discordant tests (positive Hp StAR and negative UBT) with the Hp StAR inaccurate in five cases (false positive) and UBT inaccurate in the other five cases (false negative). The "maximal expected" sensitivity, specificity, +PV, -PV, +LR, and -LR were 91%, 100%, 100%, 97.4%, ∞, and 8.2 respectively,for the UBT, and 100%, 97.4%, 91%, 100%, 38.8, and 0,respectively, for the Hp StAR. Overall accuracy for both tests was 98%.CONCLUSION: Both the UBT and the Hp StAR are equally accurate in monitoring H pylori infection. Nowadays,the choice of the "best" non-invasive H pylori test in the post-treatment setting should be done not only in terms of diagnostic accuracy but also in view of cost and local facilities.

  16. 14C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent 14C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO2 absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative cheaper and safer) CO2 absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

  17. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  18. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4 product...... production). Sources of RS: Raw potato starch (RPS), 58% RS; corn flakes (CF), 5% RS; hylon VII high amylomaize starch, extrusion cooked and cooled (HAS) 30% RS; highly retrograded hylon VII high amylomaize starch (HRA) 89% RS.......To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  19. 13C-methacetin breath test reproducibility study reveals persistent CYP1A2 stimulation on repeat examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Kasicka-Jonderko; Anna Nita; Krzysztof Jonderko; Magdalena Kami(n)ska; Barbara B(l)o(n)ska-Fajfrowska

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To find the most reproducible quantitative parameter of a standard 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT).METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (10 female, 10 male) underwent the 13C-MBT after intake of 75 mg 13C-methacetin p.o. on three occasions. Short- and medium-term reproducibility was assessed with paired examinations taken at an interval of 2 and 18 d (medians), respectively.RESULTS: The reproducibility of the 1-h cumulative 13C recovery (AUC0-60), characterized by a coefficient of variation of 10%, appeared to be considerably better than the reproducibility of the maximum momentary 13C recovery or the time of reaching it. Remarkably, as opposed to the short gap between consecutive examinations, the capacity of the liver to handle 13C-methacetin increased slightly but statistically significantly when a repeat dose was administered after two to three weeks. Regarding the AUC0-60, the magnitude of this fixed bias amounted to 7.5%. Neither the time gap between the repeat examinations nor the gender of the subjects affected the 13C-MBT reproducibility. CONCLUSION: 13C-MBT is most reproducibly quantified by the cumulative 13C recovery, but the exactitude thereof may be modestly affected by persistent stimulation of CYP1A2 on repeat examinations.

  20. Intragastric acidification increases the sensitivity of 14C-urea breath test in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate if intragastric acidification at the ingestion of 14C-urea can decrease the likelihood of false-negative (FN) results of urea breath test (UBT) in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Methods: Twenty-three patients with positive 14C-UBT (UBT-1) results underwent an acid suppression treatment with omeprazole 40 mg/d for 14 d. On day 13, patients underwent second standard UBT (YBT-2). On day 14, patients underwent a modified UBT (UBT-3), which included consuming 200 mL of 0.1 mol/L citric acid solution 30 min before and at the administration of 14C-urea. Mean 14CO2 expiration and the number of FN results were compared for the three UBTs. Results: Omeprazole caused a significant decrease in mean 14CO2 excretion between UBT-1[(5.57 +- 3.90) Bq/mmol] and UBT-2[(1.98 +- 1.42) Bq/mmol, t=5.867, P=0.000]. Omeprazole caused 10(43.5%) FN UBT-2 results. Mean 14CO2 expiration in UBT-3 [(4.93 +- 3.77) Bq/mmol] was greater than that in UBT-2 (t=-4.538, P=0.000). UBT-3 caused only 2 FN results (8.7%, x2=6.66, P14C-urea increases 14Co2 expiration and decreases FN 14C-UBT results in patients taking PPI

  1. Comparative diagnostic value of the breath test and the urine test with 14C-urea in the detection of the Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 92 patients with chronic gastritis we conducted a synchronous diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using a culture and a serological test (IFP), in conjunction with breath and urine tests involving 14C-urea (BTU-C14 and UTU-C14). The infection was confirmed by isolation in 71 persons (77.2%), the presence of specific IgG in the blood serum was found in 75 (81.5%). In comparison, the BTU-C14 indicated a group of 77 people (83.7%) as infected, and the UTU-C14 a group of 76 (82.6%). In order to determine the diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and efficiency) of the latter tests, the results were compared with those of the culture and of the serological tests. It was found that the BTU-C14 test used showed a 100% sensitivity, a 89.5% specificity and a 97.9% efficiency. The UTU-C14 test showed a 100.0% sensitivity, a 94.4% specificity and a 98.9% efficiency in the detection of the H. pylori infection. (author)

  2. Where c-14 urea breath tests lie in nuclear medicine. The detection of H pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 20th century, ulcers have been believed to be caused by stress and dietary factors. Treatment had focussed on hospitalisation, bed rest, and prescription of special bland foods. Later on, gastric acid was blamed for ulcer disease. Antacids and medication that block acid production became the standard of therapy. Despite this treatment, there seemed to be a high recurrence of ulcers. In 1982 a pair of Australian physicians Robin Warren and Barry Marshall were first to identify a link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ulcers, concluding that bacterium, not stress or diet, causes ulcers. However, the medical community was slow to accept their findings. It was not until 1994 that a Health Consensus Development Conference concluded that there was a strong association between H. pylori and ulcer diseases also recommending ulcer patients with H. pylori infection be treated with antibiotics. The paper discusses several tests, which have become available to medical staff in the detection of H. pylori. Sensitivity, specificity, relatively inexpensive ease of use and patient compliance are factors of a good diagnostic test. Copyright (2000) ANZ Nuclear Medicine

  3. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  4. Job loss and alcohol abuse: a test using data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, R; Dooley, D; Wilson, G; Hough, R

    1993-09-01

    The hypothesis that job loss affects the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is tested using panel data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Results suggest that the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is greater among those who have been laid off than among those who have not. However, employed persons in communities in which total employment is unexpectedly low are at reduced risk of becoming alcohol abusers. The implications of the results for economic policy and for mental health services are discussed briefly. PMID:7989666

  5. Discussion on test and application of Reilly breathing technique for self-contained breathing apparatus%自给正压式空气呼吸器R式呼吸法测试与应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晔

    2014-01-01

    Reilly emergency breathing technique,as one of basic skills of fireground survival for firefighters,can efficiently prolong the consumption time of self-contained breathing apparatus in case of disorientation,trauma or entrapment,and raise the success rate of rapid intervention. The values were tested,compared and analyzed be-tween the consumption time of 5 . 5 MPa air in cylinder with normal breathing model and Reilly emergency breathing technique in the state of running at 6 Km/h in treadmill and prone position in the field,and the proposal was put forward that the Reilly emergency breathing technique should be trained in the fire brigade and the rapid interven-tion system should be completed and implemented in order to improve the skills of breathing protection and the op-portunity of fireground survival.%对遇险消防员迅速实施二次救援是目前减少消防员火场伤亡的重要措施。当遭遇迷失、受伤、被困等意外而依靠自身的力量无法脱险、或空气呼吸器低压报警装置起鸣时,消防员如果能延长空气呼吸器的使用时间,就能够为外部救援力量的二次救援提供宝贵的时间,为成功获救创造条件。测试采用自由呼吸和R式呼吸法两种呼吸方式下、在跑步机上以6km/h的速度快步行走和俯卧状伏于地面两种运动状态下5.5MPa空气的使用时间。结果证明,采用R式呼吸法较之自由呼吸时空气的使用时间更长,采用R式呼吸法俯卧状伏于地面能更有效地延长空气的使用时间。为了提高火场遇险消防员的生存机率,应将R式呼吸法作为消防员基本生存技能纳入灭火救援业务训练大纲,规范消防员火场避险行动程序,并系统化地开展实战化专项训练。

  6. Prognostic value of 13C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I Gallardo-Wong; S Morán; G Rodríguez-Leal; B Casta(n)eda-Romero; R Mera; J Poo; M Uribe; M Dehesa

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of 13C-phenylalanine oxidation (13C-PheOx) obtained by 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure.METHODS: The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of 13C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox.RESULTS: Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78,0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI:0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin,creatinine, age and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival.CONCLUSION: Percentage of 13C-PheOx obtained by 13C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease.

  7. Alcohol and its effects on sprint and middle distance running.

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton, L; D. Preece

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol has been used as an aid to performance for a considerable period of time in many athletic endeavours. Five sprinters and five middle distance athletes were tested to determine whether differing levels of alcohol (0.01 mg X ml-1, 0.05 mg X ml-1 and 0.10 mg X ml-1) had differing effects upon performance times in the 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m events. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was estimated from breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) using a hand held Drager Alcotest 7310...

  8. Predicting alcohol use with a recoding-free variant of the Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Rothermund, Klaus; Wiers, Reinout W

    2009-05-01

    Recently, a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the IAT-RF (IAT-Recoding Free) was developed which prevents recoding processes by switching response assignments randomly between trials rather than between blocks. In this study, the IAT-RF was used to measure and examine the predictive validity of recoding-free implicit alcohol associations with positive arousal. Findings with the IAT-RF demonstrated that alcohol was overall more strongly associated with negative sedation than with positive arousal. However, more importantly, the size of this compatibility effect was positively correlated with alcohol use indicating that stronger implicit alcohol associations with positive arousal are related to increased drinking. Further, implicit alcohol associations with positive arousal measured with the IAT-RF also predicted unique variance in alcohol use above the variance explained by explicit measures. Hence, the present findings suggest that implicit associations with positive arousal may play an important role in drinking behavior, and demonstrate the validity of the IAT-RF as a measure of implicit alcohol associations. PMID:19162409

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  10. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of 14C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired 14CO2 at 30 min were corrected with the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a 14CO2 concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of 14C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected 14C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected 14C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  11. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labeling and analysis by an optical breath test analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in optical systems for breath testing have provided a robust, low cost option for undertaking 13C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have potential as a research tool in soil science and agronomy. The relatively low cost of the equipment at US$ 15000-25000 is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The operational simplicity of the optical system means that relatively low maintenance and minimal training are required. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for 13C isotope-ratio analysis using the breath test analyser, and results were compared with conventional isotope-ratio analysis by mass spectrometry. In combination with simple 13C plant labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This allows an assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For a global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle data is required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will allow collection of data within a reasonable time frame. (author)

  12. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Chisen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Granhum [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Chiahung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Peng Shihnen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang Chihkuen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Poon Sekkwong [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of {sup 14}C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of {sup 14}C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired {sup 14}CO{sub 2} at 30 min were corrected with the amount of {sup 14}C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a {sup 14}CO{sub 2} concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of {sup 14}C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  13. "VALIDATION OF 13C-UREA BREATH TEST WITH NON DISPERSIVE ISOTOPE SELECTIVE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION: A SURVEY IN IRANIAN POPULATION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Davood Beiki

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The urea breath test (UBT which is carried out with 13C or 14C labeled urea is one of the most important non invasive methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. Application of 13C-UBT is becoming increasingly popular because of its non radioactive nature which makes it suitable for diagnostic purposes in children and women of child bearing ages. While isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS is generally used to detect 13C in expired breath, this instrument is expensive and recently non dispersive isotope selective infrared (NDIR spectroscopy which is a lower cost technique has been employed as a reliable counterpart for IRMS in small clinics. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of NDIR spectroscopy technique in Iranian population in comparison with histological examination, rapid urease test and 14C-urea breath test as gold standard. Seventy six patients with dyspepsia were underwent 13CUBT for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Good agreements were found between the 13C-UBT and gold standard methods. The 13C-UBT showed 100% sensitivity, 97.3% specificity, 97.56% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 98.65% accuracy. On the basis of these results it could be concluded that 13C-UBT performed with NDIR spectroscopy is a reliable, accurate and non invasive diagnostic tool for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Iranian population.

  14. Experience with the 14C-aminopyrine breath test in hepatic cirrhosis and under the influence of diclofenac-sodium (Voltaren/sup R/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-aminopyrine breath test is a simple procedure for the non-invasive determination of the microsomal function of the liver. After oral administration of 74 kBq 14C-aminopyrine the 14CO2 activity of the expired breath air is determined in hourly intervals. There is a close correlation between its decrease and the elimination of aminopyrine from the plasma. Both the elimination constant of 14CO2 and the maximal specific 14CO2 activity are useful quantitative parameters of the test. They allow conclusions as to the hepatic demethylation capacity. Both parameters were significantly lower in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis than in 12 control patients. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac-sodium did not significantly influence the demethylation of 14C-aminopyrine in 5 patients with rheumatic diseases and in 2 healthy probands. Further experience with the breath test is necessary, especially with respect to its suitability for prospective investigation. (author)

  15. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  16. Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Runaway Youths: A Test-Retest Study of the Form 90

    OpenAIRE

    SLESNICK, NATASHA; Tonigan, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    While excellent adolescent alcohol and drug screening tools are available, there are relatively few, if any, psychometrically validated measures to use in the assessment of adolescent treatment outcome. This study conducted a test-retest exercise of the Form 90 Drug and Alcohol (Form 90 DnA) to determine the stability of adolescent responses when administering the day-by-day calendar/grid approach. Homeless youth (N = 37) with alcohol, drug, or alcohol and drug abuse/dependence combined were ...

  17. SU-D-BRE-01: A Realistic Breathing Phantom of the Thorax for Testing New Motion Mitigation Techniques with Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A prototype breathing phantom (named LuCa) has been developed which simulates the anatomy and motion of a patient thorax.In this work, we describe the results of the first commissioning tests with LuCa. Methods: The phantom provides a close representation of the human thorax. The lungs,contained within a tissue-equivalent ribcage and skin,are made from a polymer foam,which is inflated and deflated using a custommade ventilator. A tumor is simulated using a wooden ball with cutplanes for placing GafChromic films. The ventilator,controlled with Labview software,simulates a full range of breathing motion types.Commissioning tests were performed to assess its performance using imaging (CT and radiographic) and film dosimetry as follows:i)maximum Tumor excursion at acceptable pressure ranges, ii)tumor Motion repeatability between breathing periods,iii)reproducibility between measurement days,iv)tumor-to-surface motion correlation and v)reproducibility of film positioning in phantom. Results: The phantom can generate repeatable motion patterns with sin4,sin,breath-hold (tumor amplitude repeatability 2=0.92. Reproducibility of film positioning within the thorax was within 0.9mm, and maximum 3° error from the coronal plane. Film measurements revealed that the film repositioning error yields relative errors in the mean dose over the planned target volume (PTV) of up to 2.5% and 4.5% for films at the center and on the edge of the PTV respectively. Conclusion: Commissioning tests have shown that the LuCa phantom can produce tumor motion with excellent repeatability. However,a poorer performance in reproducibility of tumor amplitude for a given peak pressure week-to-week. Film set-up reproducibility is adequate for detection of dosimetric errors resulting from motion of >3%. This work is funded by Swiss National Fund Grants 320030-127569 and 320030-1493942-1

  18. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271 Section 40.271 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION... problem promptly, if practicable. You may repeat the testing process as part of this effort. (2)...

  19. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  20. Teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina na doença hepática crônica pelo vírus C 13C-methacetin breath test in hepatitis C chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    óticos (19,2 ± 7,1% para cirróticos compensados e 14,7 ± 4,0% para os cirróticos descompensados que nos grupos controle (29,9 ± 4,5% e com hepatite crônica (27,8 ± 6,1%. A melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de cirrose entre os portadores de hepatite crônica C foi encontrada para o teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min com 81% de sensibilidade e 77% de especificidade. CONCLUSÃO: O teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina se correlaciona com alterações estruturais encontradas na hepatite crônica pelo vírus C e o percentual de recuperação de 13CO2 aos 120 minutos é um sensível parâmetro para identificar a presença de cirrose nesses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The 13C-methacetin breath test is a non-invasive method to evaluate hepatic microssomal function that allows a quantitative assessment of the functional hepatic mass. AIM: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the 13C-methacetin breath test in patients with hepatitis C chronic liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy eight patients with chronic hepatitis C and 13 matched healthy controls were studied. HCV patients were classified as having chronic hepatitis (n = 51, cirrhosis (n = 27, being seven with decompensated disease (presence of ascite, jaundice and/or encephalopathy. HbsAg/HIV co-infected patients, chronic alcohol drinker, having other chronic diseases and those using drugs that could interfere with hepatic cytochrome P450, were excluded. The disease stage and activity in biopsy fragments were determined according the Brazilian Society of Hepatology criteria. Breath test was performed with 75 mg of 13C-methacetin, and the 13CO2 in the expired air was measured through a nondispersive infra red spectrometry. The delta over baseline, and the cumulative recovery of 13CO2 at 40 (13C-methacetin breath test 40 min and 120 minutes (13C-methacetin breath test 120 min were calculated. RESULTS: 13C-methacetin breath test parameters correlate only with hepatic staging but not with necroinflammatory

  1. Driver can't escape alcohol test by claiming AIDS phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-22

    A Pennsylvania appeals court ruled that a suspected drunk driver could not refuse blood alcohol content testing because he feared needles and HIV. The case involves a motorist who refused to take a blood test to determine whether or not he was driving under the influence of alcohol; his license was revoked. The driver successfully appealed to the Allegheny County Common Pleas Court and had his license reinstated. The Commonwealth Court granted the State's motion to reinstate the driver license suspension, stating that fear of needles was not a viable defense. PMID:11364594

  2. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... licensee or other entity shall subject the individual to random testing under § 26.31(d)(2), except if—...

  3. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

  4. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  5. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  7. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  8. Validation of the String Test for the Recovery of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Secretions and Correlation of Its Results with Urea Breath Test Results, Serology, and Gastric pH Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga, Margarita; Pérez-Peréz, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the “gold standard,” the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions.

  9. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  10. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13CO2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t1/2 and tlag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t1/2, 19.4% for tlag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t1/2, 28.2% for tlag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t1/2 and tlag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  11. Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As noninvasive tests for Helicobacter pylori infection, the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen test have been widely used. In children, however, there are few studies reporting which test shows superior performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the 13C-UBT and stool antigen test for their accuracy in diagnosing. H. pylori infection in children. A total of 123 Japanese children, ages 2 to 17 years (mean, 12 years) who underwent gastric biopsies for H. pylori infection were studied. The diagnoses included gastritis (n=55), gastric ulcer (n=5), duodenal ulcer (n=20), iron-deficiency anemia (n=7), and other conditions (n=36). The cutoff value of the 13C-UBT was defined to be 3.5 per mille. The stool antigen test was performed using the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Premier Platinum HpSA). In 16 patients who received eradication therapy, the 13C-UBT and HpSA were repeated 2 months after treatment. Based on biopsy tests, 60 children were infected with H. pylori and 63 children were not. For the 13C-UBT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.1%-99.0%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.5%-100%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.9%), respectively. For the HpSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 983.% (95% CI, 90.8%-100%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%), and 98.3% (95% CI, 96.0%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the performance of these two tests. In the assessment of H. pylori eradication, the results of 13C-UBT and HpSA agreed with those of biopsy tests. The 13C-UBT and the HpSA are equally accurate for the diagnosis of active H. pylori infection in Japanese children. (author)

  12. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  13. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  14. A Validation Study of the Brief Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT): A Brief Screening Tool Derived from the AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    So, Kyungseop; Sung, Eunju

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is very high in Korea. To identify AUD in the busy practice setting, brevity of screening tools is very important. We derived the brief Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and evaluated its performance as a brief screening test. Methods One hundred male drinkers from Kangbuk Samsung Hospital primary care outpatient clinic and psychiatric ward for alcoholism treatment completed questionnaires including the AUDIT, cut down, a...

  15. Performance of American Indian Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on the Test of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Laura J.; Chermak, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven American Indian children (ages 4-12), 10 with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and 17 normally developing control subjects, were administered the Test of Language Development. FAS children exhibited depressed performance on most subtests. The older FAS children presented syntactic deficits whereas the younger FAS subjects presented more…

  16. Point-of-care continuous 13C-methacetin breath test improves decision making in acute liver disease: Results of a pilot clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gadi Lalazar; Tomer Adar; Yaron Ilan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of the 13C-methacetin breath test (MBT) in patients with acute liver disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients with severe acute liver disease from diverse etiologies were followed-up with 13C-MBT during the acute phase of their illnesses (range 3-116 d after treatment). Patients fasted for 8 h and ingested 75 mg of methacetin prior to the MBT. We compared results from standard clinical assessment, serum liver enzymes, synthetic function, and breath test scores. RESULTS: Thirteen patients recovered and two patients died. In patients that recovered, MBT parameters improved in parallel with improvements in lab results. Evidence of consistent improvement began on day 3 for MBT parameters and between days 7 and 9 for blood tests. Later convergence to normality occurred at an average of 9 d for MBT parameters and from 13 to 28 d for blood tests. In both patients that died, MBT parameters remained low despite fluctuating laboratory values. CONCLUSION: The 13C-MBT provides a rapid, noninvasive assessment of liver function in acute severe liver disease of diverse etiologies. The results of this pilot clinical trial suggest that the MBT may offer greater sensitivity than standard clinical tests for managing patients with severe acute liver disease.

  17. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  18. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  19. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  20. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? 40.269 Section 40.269 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  1. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40.261 Section 40.261 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  2. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and alcohol... percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety-...

  3. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  4. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025 and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000. Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops.

  5. Similarities and differences in alcohol trajectories: Testing the catch-up effect among biracial black subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Trenette Clark; Hidalgo, Sebastian J Teran; McGovern, Tricia

    2016-09-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) data, we examine the alcohol-use trajectories of monoracial Black youth and biracial Black-White, Black-Hispanic, and Black-American Indian youth to assess how their trajectories differ from the alcohol-use trajectories of White youth over time. The sample consists of 9421 adolescents and young adults who self-identified as White, Black, Black-American Indian, Black-Hispanic, or Black-White. Study hypotheses are tested using latent growth curve modeling. Results indicate that a catch-up effect exists, but only for Black-American Indians whose alcohol-use rates approach the higher rates of Whites at age 29. Black-American Indians face particularly high risk of problematic drinking over the life course. Additional research is needed to understand causal factors of alcohol-use among biracial individuals particularly Black-American Indians who may be at higher risk for alcohol misuse. PMID:27082263

  6. MIN 14C UBT: A combination of gastric basal transit and 14C-urea breath test for the detection of helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the 14C-urea breath test (UBT) performed at different times combined with the study of the gastric basal transit, which evaluates the intragastric displacement of a labeled solution under fasting conditions, has the advantage of being representative of the whole stomach surface and constitutes a non-aggressive test for the detection of H. pylori. This test, which has been called MIN 14C UBT, is a modification of the conventional 14C UBT in which low volumes of a solution of 14C-urea together with 99mTc-sulfur colloid are administered. The 99mTc-sulfur colloid is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and has the great advantage of allowing the 'visualization' of the transit of the 14C-urea within the gastrointestinal tract. This modification allows the simultaneous determination of the production of the 14CO2 and the place where this process occurs. The results show that there is a good correlation between the images obtained and the breath samples collected. We found that this test has a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 96% for H. pylori detection

  7. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 14C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used 14C-breath tests: 14C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low 14C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform 14C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of 14C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: 14C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, 14C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, 14C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and 14C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the 14C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  8. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT: reliability and validity of the Greek version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratis Dimitris

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with alcohol abuse are recognised by the World Health Organization as a major health issue, which according to most recent estimations is responsible for 1.4% of the total world burden of morbidity and has been proven to increase mortality risk by 50%. Because of the size and severity of the problem, early detection is very important. This requires easy to use and specific tools. One of these is the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Aim This study aims to standardise the questionnaire in a Greek population. Methods AUDIT was translated and back-translated from its original language by two English-speaking psychiatrists. The tool contains 10 questions. A score ≥ 11 is an indication of serious abuse/dependence. In the study, 218 subjects took part: 128 were males and 90 females. The average age was 40.71 years (± 11.34. From the 218 individuals, 109 (75 male, 34 female fulfilled the criteria for alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, and presented requesting admission; 109 subjects (53 male, 56 female were healthy controls. Results Internal reliability (Cronbach α was 0.80 for the controls and 0.80 for the alcohol-dependent individuals. Controls had significantly lower average scores (t test P 8 was 0.98 and its specificity was 0.94 for the same score. For the alcohol-dependent sample 3% scored as false negatives and from the control group 1.8% scored false positives. In the alcohol-dependent sample there was no difference between males and females in their average scores (t test P > 0.05. Conclusion The Greek version of AUDIT has increased internal reliability and validity. It detects 97% of the alcohol-dependent individuals and has a high sensitivity and specificity. AUDIT is easy to use, quick and reliable and can be very useful in detection alcohol problems in sensitive populations.

  9. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E;

    1985-01-01

    presence of BOG was ruled out (diagnoses: irritable bowel syndrome, 8; chronic diarrhoea, 6; and lactose malabsorption, 1). These patients were used as controls. The other 22 of the 60 patients could not be placed in either group owing to the presence of factors known to predispose for BOG; none of them......Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients the...

  10. SU-D-BRE-01: A Realistic Breathing Phantom of the Thorax for Testing New Motion Mitigation Techniques with Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R; Peroni, M; Bernatowicz, K; Zakova, M; Knopf, A; Safai, S [Paul Scherrer Institut, Psi-villigen, Aargau (Switzerland); Parkel, T [CSEM, Swiss Centre of Electronics and Microtechnology, Landquart, Graubunden (Switzerland)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A prototype breathing phantom (named LuCa) has been developed which simulates the anatomy and motion of a patient thorax.In this work, we describe the results of the first commissioning tests with LuCa. Methods: The phantom provides a close representation of the human thorax. The lungs,contained within a tissue-equivalent ribcage and skin,are made from a polymer foam,which is inflated and deflated using a custommade ventilator. A tumor is simulated using a wooden ball with cutplanes for placing GafChromic films. The ventilator,controlled with Labview software,simulates a full range of breathing motion types.Commissioning tests were performed to assess its performance using imaging (CT and radiographic) and film dosimetry as follows:i)maximum Tumor excursion at acceptable pressure ranges, ii)tumor Motion repeatability between breathing periods,iii)reproducibility between measurement days,iv)tumor-to-surface motion correlation and v)reproducibility of film positioning in phantom. Results: The phantom can generate repeatable motion patterns with sin{sup 4},sin,breath-hold (tumor amplitude repeatability <0.5mm over 10min),aswell as patient-specific motion types. Maximum excursions of the tumor are 20mm and 14mm for the large and small tumor inserts respectively. Amplitude reproducibility (Coefficient of Variation) averaged at 16% for the workable pressure range over 2 months. Good correlation between tumor and surface motion was found with R{sup 2}=0.92. Reproducibility of film positioning within the thorax was within 0.9mm, and maximum 3° error from the coronal plane. Film measurements revealed that the film repositioning error yields relative errors in the mean dose over the planned target volume (PTV) of up to 2.5% and 4.5% for films at the center and on the edge of the PTV respectively. Conclusion: Commissioning tests have shown that the LuCa phantom can produce tumor motion with excellent repeatability. However,a poorer performance in reproducibility of

  11. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  12. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population. PMID:25578000

  13. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  14. Application of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry for the evaluation of the 13C-urea breath test: comparison with three concordant methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho L.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the performance of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry (IRIS for the 13C-urea breath test with the combination of the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT, urease test and histologic examination for the diagnosis of H. pylori (HP infection. Fifty-three duodenal ulcer patients were studied. All patients were submitted to gastroscopy to detect HP by the urease test, histologic examination and 14C-UBT. To be included in the study the results of the 3 tests had to be concordant. Within one month after admission to the study the patients were submitted to IRIS with breath samples collected before and 30 min after the ingestion of 75 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 200 ml of orange juice. The samples were mailed and analyzed 11.5 (4-21 days after collection. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square and Mann-Whitney test and by the Spearman correlation coefficient. Twenty-six patients were HP positive and 27 negative. There was 100% agreement between the IRIS results and the HP status determined by the other three methods. Using a cutoff value of delta-over-baseline (DOB above 4.0 the IRIS showed a mean value of 19.38 (minimum = 4.2, maximum = 41.3, SD = 10.9 for HP-positive patients and a mean value of 0.88 (minimum = 0.10, maximum = 2.5, SD = 0.71 for negative patients. Using a cutoff value corresponding to 0.800% CO2/weight (kg, the 14C-UBT showed a mean value of 2.78 (minimum = 0.89, maximum = 5.22, SD = 1.18 in HP-positive patients. HP-negative patients showed a mean value of 0.37 (minimum = 0.13, maximum = 0.77, SD = 0.17. IRIS is a low-cost, easy to manage, highly sensitive and specific test for H. pylori detection. Storing and mailing the samples did not interfere with the performance of the test.

  15. Comparative performance of capsulated Vs non-capsulated 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) is employed as a 'gold standard' technique for the detection of active Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, to follow up the patients after its eradication and for epidemiological evaluations. Due to high accuracy of this test and other benefits it is recommended as the best option for 'test-and-treat' strategy in primary health care centers. So far no appropriate study has been done to compare the performance of 14C-UBT using capsulated versus non-capsulated protocol. In this study, we employed a novel technique of performing capsulated 14C-UBT with simultaneous monitoring the dynamic movement of capsule and compared the results with non-capsulated protocol. (author)

  16. Use of the Biphasic (13)C-Sucrose/Glucose Breath Test to Assess Sucrose Maldigestion in Adults with Functional Bowel Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekun, Antone R; Balesh, Albert M; Shelby, Harold T

    2016-01-01

    Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II). (13)CO2 enrichment recovery ratio from (13)C-sucrose and secondary (13)C-glucose loads reflect the individualized sucrase activity [Coefficient of Glucose Oxidation for Sucrose (CGO-S)]. To determine if sucrase insufficiency could be a factor in FBD, (13)C-S/GBT was validated using subjects with known sucrase gene mutation status by comparing (13)CO2-breath enrichment with plasma (13)C-glucose enrichment. (13)C-S/GBT was used to assess sucrose digestion in FBD patients and asymptomatic controls. (13)CO2-breath enrichment correlated with the appearance of (13)C-sucrose-derived glucose in plasma (r (2) = 0.80). Mean, control group CGO-S-enrichment outcomes were 1.01 at 60', 0.92 at 75', and 0.96 at mean 60'-75' with normal CGO-S defined as >0.85 (95% C.I.). In contrast, FBD patients demonstrated lower CGO-S values of 0.77 at 60', 0.77 at 75', and 0.76 at mean 60'-75' (Chi Square: 6.55; p < 0.01), which points to sucrose maldigestion as a cause of FBD. PMID:27579322

  17. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test with college first-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, T; Sherrer, M V

    1999-01-01

    Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been shown to have good validity and reliability with clinical samples, little data has been examined with respect to youthful problem drinkers, particularly college students. Data collected with 312 students cited their first time for breaking university drinking rules was examined to evaluate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the 10-item scale, and also to test the validity of the AUDIT against two scales designed with a previous cohort specifically to measure hazardous (The Drinking Context Scale) and harmful drinking (the College Alcohol Problem Scale) in college students. Overall, results suggest that the AUDIT is a valid and reliable screening device for college students, and could play an important role in assessing youthful problem drinkers for early intervention programming. PMID:10435259

  18. A methodological aspect of the {sup 14}C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis; Wybrany aspekt metodologiczny testu oddechowego z mocznikiem znakowanym stosowanego w diagnostyce zakazenia Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B. [Szpital Wojskowy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author) 38 refs, 2 tabs, 1 fig

  19. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Riaz Ahmad; Chatton, Anne; Nallet, Audrey; Broers Kayser, Barbara; Thorens, Gabriel; Achab Arigo, Sophia; Poznyak, Vladimir; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (...

  20. Validación de la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sánchez-López

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El sesgo atencional para el alcohol se ha mostrado útil para identificar a personas con consumo patológico así como a personas dependientes con altas probabilidades de recaída. El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol diseñado para evaluar el sesgo atencional en pacientes dependientes del alcohol. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 173 participantes divididos en dos grupos: Un grupo de pacientes (n = 88 cumpliendo criterios de dependencia alcohólica y un grupo control (n = 85 con riesgo bajo de consumo de alcohol, que realizaron el Test de palabras y colores de Stroop (Stroop clásico, el Test de Stroop neutro y el Test de Stroop de Alcohol. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las interferencias para el Stroop Clásico y el Stroop de Alcohol. Los pacientes con dependencia, en comparación a los participantes control, mostraron mayores interferencias para estímulos de contenido alcohólico que para estímulos de contenido neutro. Este efecto fue explicado por un sesgo atencional para información relacionada con el alcohol en pacientes con dependencia. Se calcularon curvas COR, observándose áreas bajo la curva estadísticamente significativas para las interferencias del Stroop clásico y del Stroop de alcohol. Este trabajo sirvió para validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol para evaluar sesgos atencionales hacia el alcohol en personas con problemas de consumo y dependencia alcohólica.

  1. PREVALENCE AND PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL INTAKE AMONG INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN MANGALORE: AN APPRAISAL BY ALCOHOL USE DISORDER IDENTIFICATION TEST (AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Viquar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO estimates two billion alcoholic beverages consumers and 76.7 million people with diagnosable alcohol - use disorders worldwide(WHOand ranks 5th as a risk factor for avoidable disease measured by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY (WHO , 2002. OBJECTIVE: 1. To Assess Prevalence alcohol use among the selected Industr ial workers. 2. Factors associated with alcohol use . METHODS: This cross - sectional study was conducted in one of selected wood and plywood industry among all the industrial workers aged 18 years and above from October to November 2013. Socio - demographic pr ofile of all the participants was collected, questions on prevalence and dependence on alcohol use and its dependence was assessed using AUDIT questionnaire modified as per local needs and validated was used. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 . RESULTS: Mean age of the study subjects was 33.4 years, most of the participants (44.8% were in the age group of 18 - 28 years and majority were Hindu and were belonging to class IV socio - economic status. MAJORITY: (55.2% of the study participants were a lcohol users and majority (61.6% was in the age group of 18 - 28 years. Religion and socio - economic status were the factors found to be statistically significant with alcohol use. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of alcohol use was significantly higher in the selecte d industry were religion and socio - economic status were the significant factors associated with tobacco use. Counseling and continuous monitoring is needed to reduce the prevalence of alcohol use and also further study is recommended on a larger scale.

  2. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8±15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 μCi of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of 14C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: [(DPM/mmol CO2 collected)/(DPM administered)]x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsu Chungyuan (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Lin Wanyu (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Huang Chihkua (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology); Chen Granhum (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1993-08-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8[+-]15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 [mu]Ci of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of [sup 14]C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: (DPM/mmol CO[sub 2] collected)/(DPM administered)x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min [sup 14]C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adar Tomer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  6. Does Ingestion of Tincture of Opium Notably Raise Blood Alcohol Concentration?

    OpenAIRE

    Solhi, Hassan; Sadeghi-Sedeh, Bahman; Emami, Pardis; Jamalian, Mohammad; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Tincture of opium (TOP) is currently used for maintenance therapy in treatment of opioids addiction. It contains ethanol. The present study was conducted to assess the increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in its users; a process which may interfere with breath-alcohol test performed by law enforcement or traffic police. Methods A total of 143 individuals were selected randomly from drug users who had been referred to an addiction treatment clinic. They were asked to underg...

  7. Rapid CO breath test screening of drugs for protective effects on ribavirin-induced hemolysis in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Wu, Chuang-Hong; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Ji, Kun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia is a major side effect of ribavirin antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Ribavirin dose reduction may compromise the antiviral response and erythropoietin can take several weeks to alleviate anemia. The purpose of the present study was to screen potentially protective drugs against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in a rabbit model, using our modified CO breath test for measuring erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan, the gold standard diagnostic index of hemolysis. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into five groups (N  =  3/group): one vehicle control group, one ribavirin (only)-treated (RBV) group, and three groups initially treated with ribavirin only, followed by a combination of ribavirin with prednisone (RBV  +  Pred), polyene phosphatidyl choline (RBV  +  PPC), or reduced glutathione (RBV  +  GSH). RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO measured in a closed rebreath apparatus, blood volume measured by the Evan's blue dye (EBD) dilution test, and hemoglobin concentration data. The RBC lifespan was normal in the vehicle control group (44-60 d), but reduced significantly in all of the ribavirin-treated groups before the addition of screened drugs (17-35 d). RBC lifespan rebounded significantly with the addition of glutathione, but not with the addition of prednisone or polyene phosphatidyl choline. A similar overall drug effect pattern was seen in the hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte count data. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that reduced glutathione can attenuate ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia, and that the RBC lifespan measured with our modified rapid CO breath test is feasible and reliable for use in animal studies. PMID:27506143

  8. Field test of high molecular weight alcohol flushing for subsurface nonaqueous phase liquid remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W.; Lee, Cindy M.; Brame, Scott E.; Roeder, Eberhard; Coates, John T.; Wright, Charles; Wood, A. Lynn; Enfield, Carl G.

    1999-07-01

    A pilot scale field test of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal using high molecular weight alcohols was conducted at Operable Unit 1, Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Petroleum hydrocarbons and spent solvents were disposed of in chemical disposal pits at this site, and these materials are now present in the subsurface in the form of a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). This LNAPL is a complex mixture of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, and other compounds. The field experiment was performed in a 5 m by 3 m confined test cell, formed by driving interlocking sheet pile walls through the contaminated zone into an underlying clay. The test involved the injection and extraction of about four pore volumes (1 pore volume=7000 L) of a mixture of 80% tert-butanol and 15% n-hexanol. The contaminants were removed by a combination of NAPL mobilization and enhanced dissolution, and the results of postflood soil coring indicate better than 90% removal of the more soluble contaminants (trichloroethane, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzene, naphthalene) and 70-80% removal of less soluble compounds (decane and undecane). The results of preflood and postflood NAPL partitioning tracer tests show nearly 80% removal of the total NAPL content from the test cell. The field data suggest that a somewhat higher level of removal could be achieved with a longer alcohol injection.

  9. The interest of the {sup 13}C urea breath test for the diagnostic and monitoring of chronic duodenal ulcer; Interet du test respiratoire a l`uree {sup 13}C dans le diagnostic et le suivi de l`ulcere duodenal chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau-Tsangaris, M. [INBIOMED, 69 - Lyon (France); Centarti, M.; Mion, F.; Minaire, Y. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France); Brazier, J.L. [Faculte de Pharmacie, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1994-12-31

    Duodenal ulcer is very frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) present in the gastric mucous membrane. Breath tests with {sup 13}C-labelled urea have been carried out for the detection of Hp; these tests could be more sensitive than gastric biopsies, because of the heterogenous distribution of the bacteria in the mucous membrane. This breath test may be used repetitively and allows for a non-intrusive monitoring of the Hp eradication after treatment. 12 refs.

  10. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  13. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  14. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  15. Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  16. Levels and Types of Alcohol Biomarkers in DUI and Clinic Samples for Estimating Workplace Alcohol Problemsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways – a workplace for many – provides an example for work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this report, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average 8 months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programs log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher program entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This report summarizes selected biomarkers’ potential for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cutoff levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  17. The acute effects of alcohol on auditory thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Maaytah Mohammed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little knowledge about alcohol-induced hearing loss. Alcohol consumption and tolerance to loud noise is a well observed phenomenon as seen in the Western world where parties get noisier by the hour as the evening matures. This leads to increase in the referrals to the "hearing aid clinic" and the diagnosis of "cocktail party deafness" which may not necessarily be only due to presbyacusis or noise-induced hearing loss. Methods 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this trial which took place in a controlled acoustic environment. Each of the individuals was required to consume a pre-set amount of alcohol and the hearing was tested (using full pure tone audiogram pre- and post- alcohol consumption over a broad range of 6 frequencies. Volunteers who achieve a minimum breath alcohol threshold level of 30 u/l had to have second audiogram testing. All the volunteers underwent timed psychometric and visuo-spatial skills tests to detect the effect of alcohol on the decision-making and psychomotor co-ordination. Results Our results showed that there was a positive association between increasing breath alcohol concentration and the magnitude of the increase in hearing threshold for most hearing frequencies. This was calculated by using the Pearson Regression Coefficient Ratio which was up to 0.6 for hearing at 1000 Hz. Over 90% of subjects had raised auditory thresholds in three or more frequencies; this was more marked in the lower frequencies. Conclusion Alcohol specifically blunts lower frequencies affecting the mostly 1000 Hz, which is the most crucial frequency for speech discrimination. In conclusion alcohol does appear to affect auditory thresholds with some frequencies being more affected than others.

  18. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  19. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  20. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. PMID:26358643

  1. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... random drug testing ] positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the last two years. The Federal Railroad Administrator (Administrator) has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug...

  2. Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Mamoudou; Cohen, Keira; Baya, Bocar; Srikrishna, Geetha; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sanogo, Moumine; Somboro, Anou M; Diarra, Bassirou; Diallo, Mariam H; Mazumdar, Varun; Yoder, Christian; Orsega, Susan; Belson, Michael; Kassambara, Hamadoun; Goita, Drissa; Murphy, Robert L; Dao, Sounkalo; Polis, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane; Timmins, Graham S; Dodd, Lori; Earl, Ashlee M; Bishai, William R

    2016-01-01

    Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H. pylori testing. Oral UBT had a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 70% (46-88%) and 11% (3-26%), respectively, to diagnose culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis disease among patients without H. pylori, and 100% sensitivity (69-100%) and 11% specificity (3-26%) to diagnose H. pylori among patients without pulmonary TB. Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing organisms, which likely explains the low specificity of oral UBT in this setting and in other reports of oral UBT studies in Africa. PMID:27532494

  3. Differential effects of chronic alcohol administration to rats on the activation of aromatic amines to mutagens in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C M; Ioannides, C

    1986-05-01

    Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on alcohol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations derived from these animals were more efficient than control in activating 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-aminofluorene to mutagens in the Ames test. The alcohol-induced enhancement in mutagenicity was not inhibited by dimethylsulphoxide indicating that the generation of hydroxyl radicals is not involved. The activation of 2-naphthylamine was not affected by the treatment with alcohol but the mutagenicities of 2-aminoanthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene were inhibited. The same treatment markedly increased hepatic microsomal aniline p-hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities and to a lesser extent benzphetamine N-demethylase and microsomal levels of total cytochromes P-450. It is concluded that chronic alcohol administration to rats modulates the metabolic activation of pre-carcinogens to their reactive intermediates presumably by causing the redistribution of cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3009048

  4. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and... 25 percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety-...

  5. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and... 25 percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety-...

  6. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and... 25 percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety-...

  7. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  8. Urease-positive bacteria in the stomach induce a false-positive reaction in a urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Takako; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of urease-positive non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria on the results of a urea breath test (UBT) to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a UBT using film-coated [(13)C]urea tablets. The UBT was performed in 102 patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. Urease-producing bacteria other than H. pylori were isolated and identified from the oral cavity and stomach. In 4/102 patients, the UBT gave false-positive results. These false-positive results were found to be caused by the presence of urease-positive bacteria in the oral cavity and stomach. Five bacterial species with urease activity (Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus) were subsequently isolated from the oral cavity and/or stomach. As there was no correlation between the in vitro urease activity of urease-positive non-H. pylori bacteria and the UBT value, and all of the patients with a false-positive UBT result were suffering from atrophic gastritis, it is possible that the false-positive results in the UBT were a result of colonization of urease-positive bacteria and gastric hypochlorhydric conditions. Thus, for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection using a UBT, the influence of stomach bacteria must be considered when interpreting the results. PMID:18566138

  9. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xie; Nan Luo; Hin-Peng Lee

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the populationbased Hdlicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT)with eradication therapy.METHODS: A tarkov model simulation was carried out in all 237900 Chinese males with age between 35 and 44 from the perspective of the public healthcare provider in Singapore. The main outcome measures were the costs, number of gastric cancer cases prevented, life years saved, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)gained from screening age to death. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio was addressed by one-way sensitivity analyses.RESULTS: Compared to no screening, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $16166 per life year saved or $13571 per QALY gained for the serology screening, and $38792 per life year saved and $32525 per QALY gained for the UBT. The ICER was $477079 per life year saved or $390337 per QALY gained for the UBT compared to the serology screening. The costeffectiveness of serology screening over the UBT was robust to most parameters in the model.CONCLUSION: The population-based serology screening for H pylori was more cost-effective than the UBT in prevention of gastric cancer in Singapore Chinese males.

  10. The 14CO2 breath test: Facilities and limitations of a rapid and noninvasive method for in vivo evaluation of modified hepatic cytochrome P-450 - a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the breath test technique the cascade from O-demethylations to CO2 was investigated after pretreatment of mice with warfarin, phenobarbital, cobaltous chloride, sodium vanadate and metyrapone. It was the intention to examine the validity of the technique with respect to cytochrome P-450 activity. Therefore three different radioactive labeled substrates, i.e., hydrogen carbonate, formate and xenobiotics, were applied at three different levels of the one-carbon pathway and were utilized to demonstrate possible interference of the modifiers with the sequence from O-demethylation to CO2. Real in vivo information about a modified cytochrome P-450 system can be obtained using model substrates carefully selected with regard to the type of expected modification of the monooxygenase system. In addition, a parallel monitoring of the consecutive reaction sequence by measuring the conversion of formate to CO2 is necessary in order to guarantee the validity of the in vivo technique in visualizing the activity of the hepatic monooxygenase system. (orig.)

  11. Pre-treatment urea breath test results predict the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chih Lai; Jyh-Chin Yang; Shih-Hung Huang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment 13C-urea breath test (UBT) results with H pyloridensity and efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers.METHODS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients with active duodenal ulcer and H pyloriinfection were recruited. H pylori density was histologically graded according to the Sydney system. Each patient received lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. According to pre-treatment UBT values, patients were allocated into low (<16%o),intermediate (16-35%o), and high (>35%o) UBT groups.RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between pre-treatment UBT results andHpyloridensity (P<0.001).H pylorieradication rates were 94.9%, 94.4% and 81.6%in the low, intermediate and high UBT groups, respectively (per protocol analysis, P=0.11). When patients were assigned into two groups (UBT results ≤35%o and >35%o),the eradication rates were 94.7% and 81.6%, respectively (P=0.04).CONCLUSION: The intragastric bacterial load of H pylori can be evaluated by UBT, and high pre-treatment UBT results can predict an adverse outcome of eradication therapy.

  12. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  13. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94 % in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer, stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values

  14. Alcohol fueled farm tractors compete favorably, with diesel in Brazil tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, E.O.; Brandini, A.

    1984-08-01

    Heavy duty alcohol powered engines are suitable to tractors. In Brazil diesel and alcohol tractors of the same configuration, weight, and engine size running side by side, indicated superior field performance of the alcohol tractor and a time saving of about 5-10% for the same work schedule. Lifetime and maintenance factors, chemical energy to mechanical work conversion efficiencies, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, starting procedure and other considerations are discussed.

  15. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  16. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  17. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  18. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester AJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arie J Wester,1 Judith C van Herten,2 Jos IM Egger,2–4 Roy PC Kessels1,2,5 1Korsakoff Clinic, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 4Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Purpose: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test's diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005. The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02, but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion: The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment

  19. Conscientiousness, Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Use: Testing for Mediated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…

  20. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  1. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  2. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  3. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  4. A simple test of one minute heart rate variability during deep breathing for evaluation of sympathovagal imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the magnitude of the fluctuation in the number of heart beats per minute in conjunction with respiration. HRV with deep breathing (HRVdb) has recently become a popular non-invasive research tool in cardiology. This study was carried out to determine and compare the HRV in patients with Type 2 DM with those of Non diabetic controls. Methods: Sixty diabetic patients attending out patient department in Karnataka Institute of Diabetology, Bangalore and 60 age-matched controls were enrolled. HRV was performed on all the subjects and the results obtained were compared between the groups. The One minute HRV was analysed during deep breathing and defined as the difference in beats/minute between the shortest and the longest heart rate interval measured by lead II electrocardiographic recording during six cycles of deep breathing. Results: Statistically significant decrease in mean minimal heart rate and 1 minute HRV (16.30 +- 6.42 vs 29.33 +- 8.39) was observed during deep breathing among Type 2 Diabetic patients on comparison with that of healthy controls. There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate between the groups. Conclusion: Significant decrease in HRV in Type 2 DM patients is suggestive of reduced parasympathetic activity or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity in them. Hence HRVdb provides a sensitive screening measure for parasympathetic dysfunction in many autonomic disorders. (author)

  5. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  6. Estimation of Validation and Reliability of Screening Test of Tobacco, Alcohol and Addictive Drugs in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Hooshyari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of the present study was the estimation of validation and reliability test of ASSIST instrument in Iran. Method: our research populations were Iranian alcohol and drugs users and abusers in the year 1390 that had referred to rehabilitation camps and addiction treatment centers for self-improving. Sample sizes of 2600, average age 36/5, were selected by cluster random sampling in eight provinces. The ASSIST and demographic form exercised for all of sample group. Also in order to validity estimation, 300 number of main sample we interviewed by ASI, SDS, DAST and DSM-IV criteria. Findings: ASSIST reliability estimated by Cronbach’s alpha for all of domains was between %79 to %95. Data analyses showed fair criteria, construct, discriminate and multi dimension validity. These types of validity for other domains were Discriminative validity of the ASSIST was investigated by comparison of ASSIST scores as groupes of dependence, abuser and user. There were significant confirmation between this scores and DSM-IV scores. Construct validity of the ASSIST was investigated by statistical comparison with health scores. ASSIST's cut off points classify clients in 3 categories in term of intensity of addiction. Conclusion: we surely recommend researchers to use this instrument in research and screening purposes or other situations in Iran.

  7. Breath-holding Test Evaluation of Smoking on Brain Vascular Function%吸烟对大脑中动脉血流速度及搏动指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 杨雪霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:吸烟对大脑中动脉( MCA)血流速度及搏动指数( PI)的影响。方法:入住神经内科的男性患者60例,根据吸烟情况分为吸烟组(n=30)和对照组(不吸烟,n=30);采用经颅多普勒超声(TCD)技术结合屏气试验检测2组受试者屏气前、屏气20 s后双侧MCA的平均血流速度( Vm)、PI、收缩期与舒张期血流速度比值( S/D),同时计算3项指标的变化率以及屏气指数( BHI),评价吸烟对患者脑血管功能的影响。结果:屏气前,吸烟组Vm明显低于对照组,PI、S/D均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);屏气后2组患者MCA的Vm均显著高于屏气前,PI、S/D 均显著低于屏气前,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);吸烟组屏气后MCA的Vm、PI及S/D3项指标的变化率均显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);吸烟组BHI显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论:长期吸烟可使脑血管反应性及顺应性降低。%Objective:To explore the ihfluehce of smokihg oh middle cerebral artery(MCA)ahd pulsatility ihdex( PI). Method:60 cases of male patiehts hospitalized ih heurology departmeht were ehrolled ih this study ahd divided ihto smokihg group( n=30 )ahd cohtrol group( ho smokihg,n=30). TCD by trahscrahial combihed with breath holdihg test was adopted to detect average blood flow velocity( Vm),PI ahd systolic/diastolic ratio( S/D)ih bilateral MCA 20 secohds before breath ahd 20 secohds after breath. Meahwhile,the rate of chahge of the above three ihdexes ahd breath holdihg ihdex( BHI)were calculated ahd the ihfluehce of smokihg oh cerebrovascular fuhctioh of patiehts was evaluated. Results:Before breath,the MCA Vm ih smokihg group was sighificahtly lower thah that of cohtrol group while PI ahd S/D ih smokihg group were sighificahtly higher thah their couhterparts ih cohtrol group,ahd the differehces were statistically

  8. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  9. Investigation of Metabolism of Exogenous Glucose at the Early Stage and Onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats Using [1, 2, 3-13C]Glucose Breath Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Sho; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism at the early stage and onset of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Specifically, after the oral administration of [1, 2, 3-13C]glucose, the levels of exhaled 13CO2, which most likely originated from pyruvate decarboxylation and tricarboxylic acid, were measured. Eight OLETF rats and eight control rats (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) were administered 13C-glucose. Three types of 13C-glucose breath tests were performed thrice in each period at 2-week intervals. [3-13C]glucose results in a 13C isotope at position 1 in the pyruvate molecule, which provides 13CO2. The 13C at carbons 1 and 2 of glucose is converted to 13C at carbons 2 and 1 of acetate, respectively, which produce 13CO2. Based on metabolic differences of the labeled sites, glucose metabolism was evaluated using the results of three breath tests. The increase in 13CO2 excretion in OLETF rats was delayed in all three breath tests compared to that in control rats, suggesting that OLETF rats had a lower glucose metabolism than control rats. In addition, overall glucose metabolism increased with age in both groups. The utilization of [2-13C]glucose was suppressed in OLETF rats at 6–12 weeks of age, but they showed higher [3-13C]glucose oxidation than control rats at 22–25 weeks of age. In the [1-13C]glucose breath test, no significant differences in the area under the curve until 180 minutes (AUC180) were observed between OLETF and LETO rats of any age. Glucose metabolism kinetics were different between the age groups and two groups of rats; however, these differences were not significant based on the overall AUC180 of [1-13C]glucose. We conclude that breath 13CO2 excretion is reduced in OLETF rats at the primary stage of prediabetes, indicating differences in glucose oxidation kinetics between OLETF and LETO rats. PMID:27483133

  10. Clinical application of 13C breath test in pediatric abdominal pain%13C呼气试验在儿科腹痛症状疾病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨13C 呼气试验对儿科腹痛疾病的诊断价值。方法:收治腹痛患儿446例,采用13C 呼气试验法检测,主要检测幽门螺杆菌感染。对确诊幽门螺杆菌感染的患者实施针对性治疗,于治疗后2个月进行回访调查,统计治疗前后感染症状的差异性。结果:本次13C呼气试验检测阳性169例,阳性率37.9%。患儿感染症状表现反酸、胃灼热、胃痛、口臭、上腹部不适等症状。结论:13C呼气试验是临床检测幽门螺杆菌的有效方法,对儿科腹痛诊断具有较高价值。%Objective:To explore the diagnostic value of 13C breath test in pediatric abdominal pain.Methods:446 patients with abdominal pain were selected.They were given 13C breath test for detection of helicobacter pylori infection.Patients diagnosed with helicobacter pylori infection were given targeted therapy.After 2 months of treatment,all patients received a return visit survey.We compared the differences of symptoms before and after treatment.Results:In this 13C breath test,169 cases were positive,and the positive rate was 37.9%.Symptoms of infection were mainly acid reflux,heartburn,stomach pain,bad breath,abdominal discomfort and other symptoms.Conclusion: 13C breath test was an effective method for clinical detection of helicobacter pylori,and it was of high value in the diagnosis of pediatric abdominal pain.

  11. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  12. Experimental use of Olomouc test of figural fluency in people addicted to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lečbych; Martin Vaverka

    2014-01-01

    Problem: The study of cognitive deficits in patients who are addicted to alcohol is an important topic of contemporary research. Several studies demonstrate that for this group of patients is typical diffused cognitive deficit that impairs more cognitive abilities including executive functions. Recent researches shows that executive dysfunctions among this patients is connected with poor therapeutic prognosis and coping with alcohol addiction. Diagnostic of executive functions among this grou...

  13. Testing the Effects of Peer Socialization versus Selection on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Treated Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community ...

  14. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. PURPOSE: To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. METHOD: Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. RESULTS: Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  15. Not to catch but to deter : simple, less intrusive drug and alcohol tests can improve workplace safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2009-04-15

    Canadian employees who test positive for drug use have access to a wide range of substance counselling and rehabilitation options. As a result of Canadian human right legislation, drug dependence is considered a disability, and Canadian employers are required to accommodate the employee and retain their position when they are deemed fit for work. While Alberta is considered an employee-friendly province, the oil and gas industry has significant hazards that require a lucid and attentive workforce. As a result, Alberta courts approved pre-employment drug testing in a recent court case. The decision involved an employee who tested positive for traces of marijuana. After being fired, the employee filed a complaint. Although the Queen's Bench decided in favour of the employee, the Alberta Court of Appeal stated that the company's pre-employment drug testing policy did not discriminate against the employee on the basis of a disability. Drug use amongst construction workers and employees in the energy industry has now reached upwards of 24 per cent. While urine testing is a commonly used drug testing method, oral fluid testing is now being more widely adopted in industry. Oral fluids can be used to detect recent drug and alcohol use rather than historical use and can be conducted in the presence of a test administrator. It was concluded that the aim of drug and alcohol testing is to deter substance abuse on the job. 3 figs.

  16. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  17. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  18. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  19. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: Testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Fleming, Kimberly A.; VERGÉS, ALVARO; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to rep...

  20. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of {sup 14}C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    {sup 14}C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used {sup 14}C-breath tests: {sup 14}C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low {sup 14}C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform {sup 14}C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of {sup 14}C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and {sup 14}C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the {sup 14}C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  1. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  2. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  3. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  4. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  5. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  6. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  7. Oxygen breathing regularity of eggs in storage period monitoring by non-invasive micro-test technique%基于非损伤微测技术监测贮期鸡蛋氧呼吸规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧华; 张涛; 马美湖

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is an important physiological activity of egg as a living organism, and it has a great influence on its storage, conveyance and incubation. Therefore, it is of great significance to study egg’s breathing regularity and respiration intensity in a day and during its storage time in a month. In this paper, non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT) was used to real-time monitor O2 flux passing in and out the eggs through the eggshell and study the breathing regularity and the respiration intensity of the eggs. With this method, gas exchange (O2) was measured and it was confirmed that breathing indeed exists. In order to study egg’s respiration in a day, a customized micro-testing examination platform was constructed for the real-time monitoring of the intensity and rate of oxygen exchange between an egg and its external environment at 4 time points (6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00). On the other hand, egg’s O2 flux was measured at the same time in a day during a month as to seeking for breathing regularity in its storage time. It was indicated that the optimal distance of probe towards the egg surface was 50μm and the blunt end of the egg was selected as the optimum measurement location via the pre-experiment. The results show that there are three breathing patterns of eggs, consuming O2, exhaust O2, and both including consuming and exhausting O2. After group A testing, it is concluded that both fertilized and non-fertilized eggs breathe strong at dawn and weak at noon regularly in a day and the respiration intensity of the two types of eggs perform difference at different time points. Fertilized eggs have more active physical activity and the process of metabolism than those of non-fertilized ones. Fertilized egg respiration shows significant difference (P<0.05) at noon and dawn in a day, but non-fertilized egg does not. In addition, after group B testing, it is intended that during storage time in a month, there exists two breathing peaks in its storage

  8. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce periodic ventilation of the submarine's interior and thus put a greater burden on the various maintenance systems. We note that the spaceflight community has similar issues; their energy production mechanisms are essentially air independent in that they rely almost entirely on photovoltaic arrays for electricity generation, with only emergency back-up power from alcohol fuel cells. In response to prolonged underwater submarine AIP operations, months-long spaceflight operations onboard the ISS and planning for future years-long missions to Mars, there has been an increasing awareness that bio-monitoring is an important factor for assessing the health and awareness states of the crewmembers. SAMAP researchers have been proposing various air and bio-monitoring instruments and methods in response to these needs. One of the most promising new methodologies is the non-invasive monitoring of exhaled breath. So, what do the IABR and SAMAP communities have in common? Inhalation toxicology. We are both concerned with contamination from the environment, either as a direct health threat or as a confounder for diagnostic assessments. For example, the exhaled breath from subjects in a contaminated and enclosed artificial environment (submarine or spacecraft) can serve as a model system and a source of contamination for their peers in a cleaner environment. In a similar way, exhaled anaesthetics can serve as a source of contamination in hospital/clinical settings, or exhalation of occupational exposures to tetrachloroethylene can impact family members at home. Instrumentation development. Both communities have similar needs for better, more specific and more sensitive instruments. Certainly, the analytical instruments to be used onboard submarines and spacecraft have severe restrictions on energy use, physical size and ease of operation. The medical and clinical communities have similar long

  9. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Mason; Matteo Vandoni; Giacomo deBarbieri; Erwan Codrons; Veena Ugargol; Luciano Bernardi

    2013-01-01

    Slow breathing increases cardiac-vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), improves oxygen saturation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces anxiety. Within the yoga tradition slow breathing is often paired with a contraction of the glottis muscles. This resistance breath “ujjayi” is performed at various rates and ratios of inspiration/expiration. To test whether ujjayi had additional positive effects to slow breathing, we compared BRS and ventilatory control under different breathing patterns (equal/...

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  11. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  12. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  13. Testing Demographic Differences for Alcohol Use Initiation among Adolescents for the Decisional Balance and Situational Temptations Prevention Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Sillice, Marie A.; Andrea L. Paiva; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather A.; Rossi, Joseph R.; REDDING, Colleen A.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were a...

  14. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  15. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  16. CAGE, RAPS4, RAPS4-QF and AUDIT Screening Tests for Men and Women Admitted for Acute Alcohol Intoxication to an Emergency Department: Are Standard Thresholds Appropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Geneste, J.; Pereira, B; Arnaud, B.; Christol, N.; Liotier, J.; Blanc, O.; Teissedre, F.; Hope, S; Schwan, R.; Llorca, P.M.; J. Schmidt; Cherpitel, C.J.; Malet, L.; Brousse, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: A number of screening instruments are routinely used in Emergency Department (ED) situations to identify alcohol-use disorders (AUD). We wished to study the psychometric features, particularly concerning optimal thresholds scores (TSs), of four assessment scales frequently used to screen for abuse and/or dependence, the cut-down annoyed guilty eye-opener (CAGE), Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4), RAPS4-quantity-frequency and AUD Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaires, particula...

  17. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  18. Long-Term Testing of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2013 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2013-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research since 2005 to develop a catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) into mixed alcohols for use in liquid transportation fuels. Initially, research involved screening possible catalysts based on a review of the literature, because at that time, there were no commercial catalysts available. The screening effort resulted in a decision to focus on catalysts containing rhodium and manganese. Subsequent research identified iridium as a key promoter for this catalyst system. Since then, research has continued to improve rhodium/manganese/iridium-based catalysts, optimizing the relative and total concentrations of the three metals, examining baseline catalysts on alternative supports, and examining effects of additional promoters. Testing was continued in FY 2013 to evaluate the performance and long-term stability of the best catalysts tested to date. Three tests were conducted. A long-term test of over 2300 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was conducted with the best carbon-supported catalyst. A second test of about 650 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed for comparison using the same catalyst formulation on an alternative carbon support. A third test of about 680 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed using the best silica-supported catalyst tested to date.

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  20. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  1. Xylitol improves compliance of patients to 13C- urea breath test%木糖醇改善13C-尿素呼气试验患者的依从性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园; 吴本俨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of xylitol on the texture of reagents used in 13C- urea breath test and the value of DOB test. Methods One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 0.05g or 0.10g xylitol group and non xylitol group. Texture of reagents used in 13C-urea breath test was assessed by the patients themselves in the xylitol group. DOB value was detected twice by paired test. Results The acceptable texture was significantly higher in 0.05g and 0.11g xylitol group than in non xylitol group(43.3% and 66.7% vs 20.0% and 33.3%, P<0.05) and in patients receiving 0.10g xylitol than in those receiving 0.05g xylitol(P<0.05). However, no difference was observed in DOB value between patients receiving 0.05g or 0.l0g xylitol(P>0.05). Conclusion Adding an appropriate amount of xylitol can improve the texture and compliance of patients to 13C-urea breath test. The best result can be achieved by adding 0.10g xylitol with no effect on the DOB value in 13C-urea breath test.%目的 观察木糖醇对13C-尿素呼气试验检测试剂的口感及DOB检测值的影响.方法 120例病人同时进行不添加和添加木糖醇0.05g和0.10g组,自评检测的试剂口感,并配对检验两次检测的DOB值变化.结果 木糖醇0.05g组和0.10g组,口感可接受百分比分别为43.3%和66.7%,显著高于未添加木糖醇时检测(分别为20.0%和33.3%,P<0.05),添加木糖醇0.10g口感可耐受百分比显著高于添加0.05g组(P<0.05).两种剂量木糖醇对DOB检测值均无显著性影响(P>0.05).结论 在13C-尿素呼气试验检查试剂中加入适量木糖醇可改善口感、提高病人依从性、其中添加0.10g木糖醇效果最优,对13C-尿素呼气试验的DOB值无影响.

  2. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  3. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to...... participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  4. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alco...

  5. Posttraumatic Stress and Alcohol Use Motives: A Test of the Incremental and Mediating Role of Distress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Marshall-Berenz, Erin C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation first examined the incremental validity of distress tolerance in terms of alcohol use coping motives within a trauma-exposed community sample of adults, beyond the variance contributed by posttraumatic stress symptom severity, difficulties in emotion regulation, alcohol consumption, and other (noncriterion) alcohol use motives. Secondly, the potential mediating role of distress tolerance in the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and alcohol use coping...

  6. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D’Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two a...

  7. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  8. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  9. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  10. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Attitudes About the Use of Genetic Testing for Clinical Care Among Patients with an Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Strobel, Brittany; McManus, Lauren; Leong, Shirley; Blow, Frederic; Slaymaker, Valerie; Berrettini, Wade; Gordon, Adam J.; O'Brien, Charles; Oslin, David

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Modification and individualization of medical treatments due to genetic testing has the potential to revolutionize healthcare delivery. As evidence mounts that genetic testing may improve treatment decisions for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), we explored patient concerns and attitudes toward genetic testing. Methods: Subjects of two USA cross-sectional AUD studies were surveyed regarding their attitudes regarding the use of genetic testing for AUD treatment. Results: Four hund...

  12. Estado nutricional e teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado com lactose e lactulose em crianças indígenas terenas Nutritional status and breath hydrogen test with lactose and lactulose in Terena Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildney Maria dos Santos Alves

    2002-04-01

    ão Verde and Córrego Seco in Mato Grosso do Sul. The nutritional status was assessed based upon weight and height, using NCHS data as reference. The breath hydrogen test after an oral lactose (18g administration was used for evaluation of lactose absorption and tolerance. The occurrence of bacterial overgrowth was evaluated using the breath hydrogen test after the administration of lactulose (5g. Results: the median z scores of weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age were, respectively, in infants under 1 year (n=34: -0.66, +0.60 and -0.85. Between 1 and 5 years (n=111, the values were: -0.50, +0.28 and -1.17. Between 5 and 10 years (n=119, these anthropometric values were, respectively: -0.09, +0.50 and -0.60. Deficient lactose absorption or malabsorption was verified only after the fourth year of age in 89.3% of the 197 evaluated children. Lactose intolerance was found in 37.1% of them. Small-bowel overgrowth was detected in 11.5% of the Terena Indian children (n=252. Conclusions: the prevalence of recent malnutrition was low, but the median height-for-age was lower than the NCHS reference. The prevalence of ontogenetic lactase deficiency was high. Bacterial overgrowth may be considered as evidence of the occurrence of nonsymptomatic environmental enteropathy in Terena Indian children.

  13. Preclinical testing of a new clot-retrieving wire device using polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, Fumio; Yilmaz, Hasan; Abdo, German; San Millan, Diego; Augsburger, Luca; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.; Lovblad, Karl-Olof [University Hospital of Geneva, Neuroradiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Sekoranja, Lucka; Sztajzel, Roman; Perren, Fabienne [University Hospital of Geneva, Neurology Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Goto, Katsuya [Ohta Memorial Hospital, Neuroendovascular Section, Brain Attack Center, Ohta (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Cerebral embolism is the principal cause of cerebral infarction. Recently, mechanical embolectomy has been proposed as an effective method. We performed a preclinical evaluation of a new mechanical clot-retrieving wire. This clot-retrieving wire consisted of three nitinol loops at the tip of a microguidewire. These three loops could be collapsed into a 0.018-inch wire compatible microcatheter. Each loop was 8 mm long and 3.5 mm wide. For simulation, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) vascular anatomical models of the human carotid (eight models) and vertebrobasilar (three models) circulation were constructed. A pulsatile flow circulation system was used. Embolic clots were produced using pig blood plasma. The microcatheter and the microguidewire were advanced beyond the clot. The wire was then exchanged for the retrieving wire. The microcatheter was then pulled slightly back to open the loops. The clot was then caught by withdrawal of the system. Once caught, the clot was retrieved to the guiding catheter tip. We investigated the following points: ease of device deployment, clot capture ability, clot removal against blood flow and removal of the clot out of the introducer system. A total of 104 procedures were performed in 11 PVA models and evaluated. The drop rate was 19%. We succeeded in partial and total recanalization in 51.0% of the procedures (53/104) within 30 minutes. This new clot-retrieving wire could be useful for mechanical clot extraction in stroke. (orig.)

  14. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  15. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation. PMID:26465334

  16. Avaliação do teste de respiração espontânea na extubação de neonatos pré-termo Spontaneous breathing trial evaluation in preterm newborns extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza Andrade

    2010-06-01

    workload. The spontaneous breathing trial (SBT, performed immediately before extubation, can provide useful information on the patient's spontaneous breathing ability. This study aimed to assess the SBT effectiveness for extubation success prediction in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. METHODS: After Ethics Committee approval, an observational, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted. A sample of 60 preterm infants compliant with the weaning criteria was categorized in two groups: 'SBT' group (n=30, with the patients who underwent 30 minutes spontaneous breathing trial (SBT with continuous positive pressure airway (CPAP, and the control group (n=30 where the extubation was performed without spontaneous breathing trial. The heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, pulse oxymetry oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the Silverman-Andersen score were recorded before and 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the spontaneous breathing trial. Were also assessed for both groups, and versus extubation success or failure, the weight, gestational age, Apgar score, mean airway pressure, inspired oxygen concentration, and tracheal tube time. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normal distribution. Extubation success was defined as a 48 hours period with no reintubation requirement. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified between the groups for the analyzed variables, except for the mean airway pressure. A significant association was shown between spontaneous breathing trial and successful extubation. CONCLUSION: The significant association between SBT and extubation success may contribute for prediction of successful weaning in preterm infants.

  17. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  18. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  19. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  20. One-year follow-up study of Helicobacter pylori eradication rate with 13C-urea breath test after 3-d and 7-d rabeprazole-based triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hwang-Huei Wang; Jen-Wei Chou; Kuan-Fu Liao; Zong-Yi Lin; Hsueh-Chou Lai; Chang-Hu Hsu; Chih-Bin Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term role of a 3-d rabeprazole based triple therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)-infected active peptic ulcers.METHODS: We prospectively studied 115 consecutive patients with H pylori-infected active peptic ulcers. H pylori infection was confirmed if any two of H pylori DNA,histology, and rapid urease test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labeled 3-d course of oral amoxicillin 1 000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.,and rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., or 7-d course of oral amoxicillin 1 000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.,and rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. Subsequently, all patients received oral rabeprazole 20 mg once daily until the 8th wk. Three months after therapy, all patients were followed-up endoscopically for the peptic ulcer, H pylori DNA, histology, and rapid urease test. One year after therapy, Hpyioriinfection was tested using the 13C-urea breath test.RESULTS: The ulcer healing rates 3 mo after therapy were 81.0% vs 75.4% for the 3-d and 7-d groups [intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, P = 0.47] respectively,and 90.4% vs 89.6% for the 3-d and 7-d groups [perprotocol (PP) analysis, P= 0.89] respectively. The eradication rates 3 mo after therapy were 75.9% vs 73.7% for the 3-dand 7-d groups (ITT, P = 0.79) respectively, and 84.6%vs 87.5% for the 3-d and 7-d groups (PP, P = 0.68)respectively. One year after therapy, seventy-five patients returned to receive the 13C-urea breath test, and the eradication rates were 78.4% vs 81.6% in 3-d and 7-dgroups (PP, P = 0.73) respectively.CONCLUSION: Our study showed the eradication rates against H pyloriinfection 3 and 12 mo after triple therapy were not different between the 3-d and 7-d rabeprazolebased groups. Therefore, the 3-d rabeprazole-based triple therapy may be an alternative treatment for peptic ulcers with H pylori infection.

  1. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  2. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  3. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Karen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.

  4. Usability Testing of a Website about Alcohol and Health: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tognolli, Gabrio; Marcatto, Francesco; Plet, Sabrina; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Wallace, Paul; Ferrante, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    Many health online resources addressed to the general public lack usability and their content is frequently difficult to understand. This case study evaluates the usability and the effectiveness of information presentation of the “Alcol e Salute” website, using two methods: heuristic evaluation and user testing. The results of the usability testing analysis revealed several key weaknesses with respect both to navigation and information display. These results will be used ...

  5. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment in Testing the Effectiveness of an Alcohol Intervention: A Two-Arm Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. Methods Data were used from a two-arm paralle

  6. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  7. Biomolecules and Biomarkers Used in Diagnosis of Alcohol Drinking and in Monitoring Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu M. Nanau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quantitative, measurable detection of drinking is important for the successful treatment of alcohol misuse in transplantation of patients with alcohol disorders, people living with human immunodeficiency virus that need to adhere to medication, and special occupational hazard offenders, many of whom continually deny drinking. Their initial misconduct usually leads to medical problems associated with drinking, impulsive social behavior, and drunk driving. The accurate identification of alcohol consumption via biochemical tests contributes significantly to the monitoring of drinking behavior. Methods: A systematic review of the current methods used to measure biomarkers of alcohol consumption was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases (2010–2015. The names of the tests have been identified. The methods and publications that correlate between the social instruments and the biochemical tests were further investigated. There is a clear need for assays standardization to ensure the use of these biochemical tests as routine biomarkers. Findings: Alcohol ingestion can be measured using a breath test. Because alcohol is rapidly eliminated from the circulation, the time for detection by this analysis is in the range of hours. Alcohol consumption can alternatively be detected by direct measurement of ethanol concentration in blood or urine. Several markers have been proposed to extend the interval and sensitivities of detection, including ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine, phosphatidylethanol in blood, and ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters in hair, among others. Moreover, there is a need to correlate the indirect biomarker carbohydrate deficient transferrin, which reflects longer lasting consumption of higher amounts of alcohol, with serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, another long term indirect biomarker that is routinely used and standardized in laboratory medicine.

  8. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  9. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, Kristian; Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan;

    2007-01-01

    population of high social class (a group with a suspected high prevalence of sensitization). METHODS: A total of 1,668 students aged 18 to 35 years recruited from universities in Copenhagen, Denmark, underwent skin prick testing (SPT) in October or November 2002 and completed a questionnaire about...

  10. 75 FR 5722 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 RIN 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and... procedures dealing with laboratory testing of urine specimens. Some of the proposed changes will also affect the roles and standards applying to collectors and Medical Review Officers. The proposed changes...

  11. Using ecological momentary assessment in testing the effectiveness of an alcohol intervention: a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V Voogt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption of college students has a fluctuating nature, which might impact the measurement of intervention effects. By using 25 follow-up time-points, this study tested whether intervention effects are robust or might vary over time. METHODS: Data were used from a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial applying ecological momentary assessment (EMA with 30 data time-points in total. Students between 18 and 24 years old who reported heavy drinking in the past six months and who were ready to change their alcohol consumption were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 456: web-based brief alcohol intervention and control condition (n = 451: no intervention. Outcome measures were weekly alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and heavy drinking status. RESULTS: According to the intention-to-treat principle, regression analyses revealed that intervention effects on alcohol consumption varied when exploring multiple follow-up time-points. Intervention effects were found for a weekly alcohol consumption at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks follow-up, b frequency of binge drinking at 1, 2, 7, and 12 weeks follow-up, and c heavy drinking status at 1, 2, 7, and 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that the commonly used one and six month follow-up time-points are relatively arbitrary and not using EMA might bring forth erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, future trials in alcohol prevention research and beyond are encouraged to apply EMA when assessing outcome measures and intervention effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2665.

  12. General practitioners' habits and knowledge in relation to the management of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and their views about a locally available 13-carbon urea breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, A; Collins, J. S.; Watson, P. R.; Kalin, R M

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of general practitioners' views on Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia and use of screening tests in the community. The use of office serology tests in screening is of concern as independent validation in specialist units has been disappointing.

  13. General practitioners' habits and knowledge in relation to the management of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and their views about a locally available 13-carbon urea breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, A; Collins, J S; Watson, P R; Kalin, R M

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of general practitioners' views on Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia and use of screening tests in the community. The use of office serology tests in screening is of concern as independent validation in specialist units has been disappointing. PMID:10750235

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose cryogels and their testing as carriers for a bioactive component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel physically cross-linked cryogels containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained by freezing/thawing technique. The main goal of this study was to improve the properties and the performances of the pure PVA cryogels. The morphological aspects of the cryogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to reveal the presence of the interactions between the two polymers. Changes in crystallinity of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The modification of the thermal behavior induced by cellulose was studied by thermogravimetry. Rheological analysis revealed higher values of storage modulus (G′) for the cryogels containing higher amounts of cellulose. The degree and rate of swelling were controlled by the presence of the natural polymer in the network. The potential application as bioactive compound carriers was tested, using vanillin as an active agent. Highlights: ► Novel PVA/microcrystalline cellulose cryogels were obtained by freezing/thawing. ► The main advantage of this technique is that no chemical crosslinker is being used. ► The presence of cellulose improves the swelling properties and the cryogels' strength. ► The potential application as carriers for bioactive components was tested.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose cryogels and their testing as carriers for a bioactive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduraru, Oana Maria; Ciolacu, Diana; Darie, Raluca Nicoleta; Vasile, Cornelia, E-mail: cvasile@icmpp.ro

    2012-12-01

    Novel physically cross-linked cryogels containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and various amounts of microcrystalline cellulose were obtained by freezing/thawing technique. The main goal of this study was to improve the properties and the performances of the pure PVA cryogels. The morphological aspects of the cryogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to reveal the presence of the interactions between the two polymers. Changes in crystallinity of the samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The modification of the thermal behavior induced by cellulose was studied by thermogravimetry. Rheological analysis revealed higher values of storage modulus (G Prime ) for the cryogels containing higher amounts of cellulose. The degree and rate of swelling were controlled by the presence of the natural polymer in the network. The potential application as bioactive compound carriers was tested, using vanillin as an active agent. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PVA/microcrystalline cellulose cryogels were obtained by freezing/thawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main advantage of this technique is that no chemical crosslinker is being used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cellulose improves the swelling properties and the cryogels' strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential application as carriers for bioactive components was tested.

  16. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  17. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise; Kristensen, Peter Lommer

    2010-01-01

    To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol.......To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol....

  18. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects. Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer( The parameter percentage 13C excretion rate 13CERt (% 13C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13C-Phe application)The parameters such as maximum value of 13C excretion rate, 13CERmax (% 13C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C: 3.6±1.2), 13C excretion rate at 30 min, 13CER30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9; Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13Ccum60 (% 13C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7; Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13C excretion rate, T1/2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5; Child B: 102.0±17.3; Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C); T1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure. (authors)

  19. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Li; LIN Xiang-Tong; JIANG Yi-Bin; SUN Su; SUN Da-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects.Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The parameter percentage 13C excretion rate 13CER, (%13C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13C-Phe application. The parameters such as maximum value of 13C excretion rate, 13CERmax (% 13C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C:3.6±1.2), 13C excretion rate at 30min, 13CER30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9;Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13Ccum60 (% 13C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7;Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13C excretion rate, T1/2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5;Child B: 102.0±17.3;Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C);T1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure.

  20. Field test of single well DNAPL characterization using alcohol injection/extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and groundwater beneath an abandoned process sewer line in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) contain elevated levels of volatile organic compounds, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), two common chlorinated solvents. These compounds have low aqueous solubilities, thus when released to the subsurface in sufficient quantity, tend to exist as immiscible fluids or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Because chlorinated solvents are also denser than water, they are referred to by the acronym DNAPLs, or dense non-aqueous phase liquids. Technologies targeted at efficient characterization or removal of DNAPL are not currently proven. The authors performed injection/extraction characterization tests in six existing wells in A/M Area. Water concentrations for TCE and/or PCE in these wells ranged from 0% to 100% of solubility. For each test, small amounts of solubilizing solution were used to try to confirm or deny the presence or absence of DNAPL in the immediate vicinity of the well screen

  1. Breathe Analysis in Tuberculosis Disease Recognition in New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To control the tuberculosis pandemic we need rapid, inexpensive finding tool. To assess the worth of exhaled breath analysis in tuberculosis case detection. A wide-ranging exploration of documents was done in indexed literatures and website-based research reports. Thirty-eight studies were identified on more than 200 potentially relevant articles related to breath analysis on tuberculosis. A broad criterion was formed in the absence of universally accepted method by the researchers on exhaled breathe analysis, irrespective of their criteria for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of uniformity in criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. These non-invasive breathe tests of tuberculosis and exploring factual and surrogate markers in primary bacterial activity as well as during interventions. Prospective utility of breath analysis by varied methods deserve their proportional weightage. The study reviewed non-judgmentally on the ongoing work in the field of breath analysis that may be worth developing and evaluating as a cost-effective entrant in diagnostic and prognostic algorithms of tuberculosis. Time has come to explore this to the fullest extent for a superior conceptual design of the factors for a futuristic model of non-invasive direct point-of-care diagnostic understanding of the factors influencing diagnosis and prognosis.

  2. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  3. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  4. TCD breath-holding test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity in smoking men%TCD屏气试验评价男性吸烟者的脑血管反应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To apply transcranial doppler (TCD) combined with breath-holding test for evaluat ing cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy smoking men. Methods Thirty healthy smoking men were selected as the smoking group, and 40 healthy non-smoking men were selected as the control group. All the subjects received the ex amination before and after breath-holding test. The velocity of flow and Doppler spectra of bilateral MCA were moni tored by TCD. Then the change rates of mean flow velocity of MCA and pulsatiity index (PI) were calculated to ana lyze the cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Results Before breath-holding test, the peak velocity (Vp), end of diastol ic velocity (Vd) and mean flow velocity (Vm) of MCA of the smoking group was significantly slower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the smoking group was significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). After breath-holding test, the peak velocity, end of diastolic velocity and mean flow velocity of MCA of all the subjects all have varying degrees of increase (P<0.01), with the spectrum in creased slowly, pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) significantly decreased (P<0.01). The change rate of mean flow velocity of MCA in the smoking group [(25.60±3.53)%] was significantly lower than that in the control group (28.54±4.57)%], P<0.01. The change rate of PI in the smoking group [(19.02±4.20)%] was significantly lower than that of the control group [(21.10±4.63)%], P<0.01. Conclusion The cerebrovascular reactivity of healthy men with long-term smoking shows a decreasing trend.%目的 应用经颅多普勒超声(TCD)结合屏气试验评价健康吸烟者的脑血管反应性.方法 应用TCD检查70例健康男性(其中30例吸烟者为吸烟组,40例不吸烟者为对照组)静息状态下及屏气30s后双侧大脑中动脉(MCA)血流速度及频谱形态,计算MCA平均血流速度增加率及搏

  5. Effect of ethylic alcohol on attentive functions involved in driving abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivona, Umberto; Garbarino, Sergio; Rigon, Jessica; Buzzi, Maria Gabriella; Onder, Graziano; Matteis, Maria; Catani, Sheila; Giustini, Marco; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Formisano, Rita

    2015-09-01

    The burden of injuries due to drunk drivers has been estimated only indirectly. Indeed, alcohol is considered one of the most important contributing cause of car crash injuries and its effect on cognitive functions needs to be better elucidated. Aims of the study were i) to examine the effect of alcohol on attentive abilities involved while driving, and ii) to investigate whether Italian law limits for safe driving are sufficiently accurate to prevent risky behaviours and car crash risk while driving. We conducted a cross-over study at IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia Rehabilitation Hospital in Rome. Thirty-two healthy subjects were enrolled in this experiment. Participants were submitted to an attentive test battery assessing attention before taking Ethylic Alcohol (EA-) and after taking EA (EA+). In the EA+ condition subjects drank enough wine until the blood alcohol concentration, measured by means of Breath Analyzer, was equal to or higher than 0.5 g/l. Data analysis revealed that after alcohol assumption, tonic and phasic alertness, selective, divided attention and vigilance were significantly impaired when BAC level was at least 0.5 g/l. These data reveal that alcohol has a negative effect on attentive functions which are primarily involved in driving skills and that Italian law limits are adequate to prevent risky driving behaviour. PMID:26742670

  6. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... sensing as other systems rely on either measuring the airflow at the mouth and nose through a mask or with a stretchable wire around the chest. In this paper a wireless system that is able to measure the breath rate of a human from a distance is presented. The system is based on a commercially available...

  7. EFFECT OF DEEP BREATHING ON RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Context: Breathing is the most vital function for maintenanc e of life. Slow and deep breathing is an integral part of Pranayama and it r educes dead space ventilation and renews air throughout the lungs. The reported beneficial effec ts of deep breathing as a part of either long term or short term practice of pranayama on pulmonary fu nctions are well documented. However our knowledge about the effects of deep breathing on hu man respiratory parameters is poor. In the present study, we examined the relationship between exposure to deep breathing and performance on Respiratory parameters before and after the deep breathing. Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of deep breathing on respirator y parameters. S ettings & Design: The present study was a comparative prospective study consistin g of 30 male healthy subjects of 18-20 years age. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of physi ology, Adichunchanagiri institute of medical sciences, Man dya after the institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. The particip ants were asked to perform deep breathing. The duration of the study was twelve weeks. Pre and pos t deep breathing respiratory functions were assessed by measuring respiratory rate, chest expan sion and breath holding time. The parameters were analyzed by Student‘t’ test and p<0.05 was con sidered the level of significance. Results: There was significant decrease in respiratory rate, and s ignificant increase in chest expansion and breath holding time compared to pre deep breathing practic e. Conclusions: This study showed beneficial effects of deep breathing on respiratory functions in normal healthy individuals

  8. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  9. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2009-01-01

    flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places......This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...

  10. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  11. Reliability and Determinants of Self-Evaluation of Breathing Questionnaire (SEBQ) Score: A Symptoms-Based Measure of Dysfunctional Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A J; Bacon, C J; Moran, R W

    2016-03-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is characterised by an abnormal breathing pattern leading to respiratory symptoms. The 25-item Self Evaluation of Breathing Questionnaire (SEBQ) has been developed to measure breathing-related symptoms and their severity but lacks thorough evaluation. To determine reproducibility, internal consistency and predictors of SEBQ score, 180 participants completed an online SEBQ with additional demographic and lifestyle questions. Two weeks later, 155 of those repeated SEBQ. Test-retest correlation of the SEBQ was high [intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1) = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.85-0.92]. There was no difference in SEBQ score between test and retest (15.1 (11.6) [mean (SD)] versus 14.7 (12.4); P = 0.4) and the score showed a typical error (standard error of measurement) of 4.0. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α = 0.93), and a single factor structure for items was shown. Smoking status, reported respiratory disease, recent respiratory illness and female gender were positively-associated predictors of SEBQ score, and together explained 25.6 % of score variance (P ≤ 0.001). The SEBQ has high test-retest reproducibility and its score may be predicted by current smoking, chronic respiratory disease, recent respiratory illness and female gender, thus may be a useful clinical screening tool for dysfunctional breathing. PMID:26400252

  12. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  13. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to...... compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  14. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  15. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  16. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  17. A laboratory-based test of the relation between adolescent alcohol use and panic-relevant responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Cloutier, Renee M; Zamboanga, Byron L; Bunaciu, Liviu; Knapp, Ashley A

    2015-10-01

    A burgeoning literature supports a link between alcohol use and panic-spectrum problems (e.g., panic attacks, disorder) among adolescents, but the direction of influence has yet to be properly examined. From a theoretical perspective, panic-spectrum problems may increase risk for problematic drinking via affect regulation efforts (e.g., self-medication), and problematic consumption also may increase or initiate panic-relevant responding (e.g., learning or kindling models). The objective of the current investigation was to examine the role of prior alcohol use in predicting panic-relevant responding, as well as panic symptom history in predicting the desire to consume alcohol, in the context of either a voluntary hyperventilation or a low-arousal task. Participants were community-recruited adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 92, Mage = 15.42, SD = 1.51; 39.1% girls). Results indicated that prior alcohol use predicted panic-relevant responding among those undergoing the hyperventilation task (but not the low-arousal task), and that this finding was robust to the inclusion of theoretically relevant covariates (i.e., age, sex, negative affectivity). However, panic symptom history did not predict the desire to consume alcohol as a function of either the hyperventilation or low-arousal condition. This work sheds further light on the nature of the relation between panic-spectrum problems and problematic alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, the current findings suggest that frequent alcohol use may increase panic vulnerability among adolescents, whereas acute panic symptoms may not elicit the immediate (self-reported) desire to drink. PMID:26053320

  18. Correlación entre la termoestabilidad y prueba de alcohol de la leche a nivel de un centro de acopio lechero Correlation between heat stability and alcohol test of milks at a milk collection center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. MOLINA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La prueba de alcohol se utiliza en la industria lechera como prueba de recepción de leche a fin de medir su termoestabilidad; la concentración de etanol recomendada inicialmente fue de 68% v/v, la cual ha sido aumentada por las industrias hasta 78% (v/v, lo cual podrían producirse rechazos de leche no justificadamente, ya que desde el punto de vista de la calidad higiénica y composicional no presentan problemas. \tEl presente estudio tuvo como finalidad determinar la correlación entre prueba de alcohol y termoestabilidad de la leche, además de relacionar dicha prueba con otros parámetros de calidad, como acidez, pH, recuento de células somáticas y recuento total de bacterias aerobias mesófilas. \tSe analizaron 96 muestras de leche cruda de 11 predios de pequeños productores del Centro de Acopio Lechero (CAL de Reumén, ubicado en la provincia de Valdivia, efectuándose un total de 8 muestreos entre los meses de septiembre y diciembre de 1999. Los análisis de calidad se realizaron de acuerdo a normas nacionales y la prueba de termoestabilidad se realizó según el método descrito por Davies y White (1966a, modificado. La prueba de alcohol se llevó a cabo a nivel de CAL con cuatro concentraciones de etanol (70, 75, 80 y 85% v/v. \tLos valores promedios de análisis de acidez y pH estuvieron dentro del rango permitido en Chile, según el Ministerio de Salud (2000. En los parámetros de calidad higiénica de la leche se obtuvieron promedios para recuento de células somáticas de 299,000(cél/ml ± 69,950 y para recuento total de bacterias log 4,58 (ufc/ml ± 0,40. En la prueba de termoestabilidad se obtuvo un promedio de 63,38 (s ± 3,96. Las variables termoestabilidad, pH y recuento total de bacterias presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (pThe alcohol test is used by the milk industry as reception test for milk in the plant, to measure the heat stability of milk. The initial recommended ethanol concentration was

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  20. Practice makes perfect, even for breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jack L.; Kam, Kaiwen; Janczewski, Wiktor A.

    2009-01-01

    Breathing relies on a respiratory rhythm generator. A study characterizes an early emerging oscillatory group of Phox2b-expressing parafacial cells that entrain and couple with the preBötzinger Complex at the onset of fetal breathing.

  1. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates

  2. Imposed work of breathing during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation : a bench study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, Marc; van Genderingen, Huib R.; Leenhoven, Tom; Roubik, Karel; Ploetz, Frans B.; Markhorst, Dick G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The ventilator and the endotracheal tube impose additional workload in mechanically ventilated patients breathing spontaneously. The total work of breathing (WOB) includes elastic and resistive work. In a bench test we assessed the imposed WOB using 3100 A/3100 B SensorMedics high-frequ

  3. Results of an injection test using ethyl alcohol as tracer at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Resultados de una prueba de inyeccion de alcohol empleado como trazador, en el campo geotermico de Los humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    Los Humeros is the third Mexican geothermal field where ethyl alcohol was used as organic tracer to test communication between wells. The first Mexican geothermal field where this kind of test was used Los Azufres, Michoacan. The second was Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur. In both cases, connections between wells were observed. The injection well H-29 is in the north-central sector of Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico. At a depth of 1580 meters, 600 liters of ethyl alcohol was pumped through a 60.35 mm (23/8 inch) diameter tube after 2.7 m{sup 3} of geothermal fluids were displaced, allowing the alcohol to reach the formation. Then, the normal injection process continued with water and condensed steam (130 t/h). On the basis of the experience acquired with similar tests conducted at Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, and with the goal of detecting the tracer, samples of condensed steam were collected in nearby wells (H-15, H-16, H-17, H-30, H-33, H-36 and H-8) and in distant wells-named special samples (H-32, H-1, H-11, H-12, H-19, H-20, H-35, H-37, H-39, H-6 and H-9). Condensed steam samples were collected every 12 hours, the every week and finally every 15 days, making a total of 592 samples. The chemical analysis were done in two stages because of probable with the chromatograph. In the first stage, 441 samples were run and the rest were run in the second stage. No evidence of the tracer was observed in the monitoring wells. The results confirm the existence of a low-to-moderate permeability, as was previously interpreted using pressure log data. [Spanish] Los Humeros es el tercer campo geotermico de Mexico en el que se realiza una prueba de trazadores organicos empleando alcohol etilico con la finalidad principal de conocer si existe comunicacion entre pozos. El primer campo geotermico en el que se realizo esta prueba fue el de Los Azufres, Michoacan y el segundo el de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur; en ambos casos se encontro

  4. Non-invasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian; Seitz, Helmut Karl; Rausch, Vanessa

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world. For many reasons, it is underestimated and underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis is absolutely essential since it (1) helps to identify patients at genetic risk for ALD; (2) can trigger efficient abstinence namely in non-addicted patients; and (3) initiate screening programs to prevent life-threatening complications such as bleeding from varices, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or hepatocellular cancer. The two major end points of ALD are alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the rare and clinically-defined alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The prediction and early diagnosis of both entities is still insufficiently solved and usually relies on a combination of laboratory, clinical and imaging findings. It is not widely conceived that conventional screening tools for ALD such as ultrasound imaging or routine laboratory testing can easily overlook ca. 40% of manifest alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (Fibroscan), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging or shear wave elastography have significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Present algorithms allow either the exclusion or the exact definition of advanced fibrosis stages in ca. 95% of patients. The correct interpretation of liver stiffness requires a timely abdominal ultrasound and actual transaminase levels. Other non-invasive methods such as controlled attenuation parameter, serum levels of M30 or M65, susceptometry or breath tests are under current evaluation to assess the degree of steatosis, apoptosis and iron overload in these patients. Liver biopsy still remains an important option to rule out comorbidities and to confirm the prognosis namely for patients with AH. PMID:25356026

  5. Regulation of Breathing under Different Pulmonary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The breathing pattern of preterm infants is immature and is associated with a variety of reflexes. In a patient on the ventilator these reflexes interfere with spontaneous breathing. A better understanding of the immature control of breathing could lead to further improvements in ventilatory techniques. This thesis concerns studies of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) and phrenic nerve activity as part of the regulation of breathing in an animal model. During assist/control ventilation with th...

  6. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  10. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  11. 口臭患者14C呼气试验检测的结果分析%Analysis of 14C-Urea Breath Test in Patients with Halitosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建中; 张旭峰; 张斌; 李黎; 童妙春; 陈驰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between halitosis and the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). Methods The results of l4C-urea breath test of 59 normal people, 50 patients with halitosis only and 56 patients infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were analyzed. Results It showed that the 14C content and HP positive rate in group infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were much higher than that of halitosis only group and normal people group (P <0.05). Conclusion The infection of Helicobacter pylori is an important factor but not only factor of halitosis.%目的 探讨口臭与幽门螺旋杆菌及其它因素的关系.方法 对59名正常组、50例单纯口臭组患者、56例口臭伴消化道疾病组患者14C 呼气试验的结果进行分析.结果 分析结果表明,口臭伴消化道疾病组14C呼气试验含量明显高于单纯口臭组和正常组(P<0.05),阳性率也明显高于单纯口臭组和正常组(P<0.05).结论 幽门螺旋杆菌感染是口臭的重要原因,但不是唯一原因.

  12. Interactions between breathing rate and low-frequency fluctuations in blood pressure and cardiac intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, H M; Peebles, K C; Tzeng, Y C

    2015-10-01

    Evidence derived from spontaneous measures of cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) suggests that slow breathing at 6 breaths/min augments BRS. However, increases in BRS associated with slow breathing may simply reflect the frequency-dependent nature of the baroreflex rather than the modulation of baroreflex function by changes in breathing rate per se. To test this hypothesis we employed a crossover study design (n = 14) wherein breathing rate and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) oscillation induced via the application of oscillating lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) were independently varied at fixed frequencies. Breathing rate was controlled at 6 or 10 breaths/min with the aid of a metronome, and SAP oscillations were driven at 0.06 Hz and 0.1 Hz using OLBNP. The magnitudes of SAP and R-R interval (cardiac period) oscillations were quantified using power spectral analysis, and the transfer function gain between SAP and R-R interval was used to estimate BRS. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the main effects and interactions between breathing rate and OLBNP frequency. There was no statistical interaction between breathing and OLBNP frequency (P = 0.59), indicating that the effect of breathing rate on BRS did not differ according to OLBNP frequency (and vice versa). Additionally, there was no main effect for breathing rate (P = 0.28). However, we observed a significant main effect for OLBNP frequency (P = 0.01) consistent with the frequency-dependent nature of baroreflex. These findings suggest that increases in spectral indices of BRS reflect the frequency dependence of the baroreflex and are not due to slow breathing per se. PMID:26205543

  13. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eRochet-Capellan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000, Brain Research, 862(1-2, p. 194. The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers or slow speech (female only. These recordings were then played back to forty-eight female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialogue, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  14. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  15. 13C-美沙西丁呼气试验对儿童肝脏疾病的诊断价值%13C-methacetin breath test for evaluating of children's liver disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔桂萍; 刘志峰; 金玉

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨13C-美沙西丁呼气试验对儿童肝脏疾病的诊断价值,并进一步分析其对儿童肝脏功能损害程度的预测价值.方法 连续入组40例病因和病情严重程度不同的肝病患儿作为病例组,并将其分为Child-PughA级和B级以下(包括1例C级)两级,分别为28、12例,按随机数字表法选取18例健康体检儿童作为健康对照组.所有受试者口服13C-美沙西丁2 mg/kg进行呼气试验肝功能检测,同时常规检测肝功能指标,如血清转氨酶、胆红素、清蛋白和凝血酶原时间等,采用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计分析.结果 1.病例组13C-美沙西丁呼气试验指标30 min前代谢速率峰值(MVmax30)(46.64±27.93)和120 min累积丰度(CUM120) (59.29±30.73)显著低于健康对照组(73.56±26.03和102.97±41.80,t=2.450、3.165,P均<0.05);2.MVmax30和CUM120与清蛋白、总胆红素、直接胆红素、凝血酶原时间有明显相关性(P<0.05);3.MVmax30和CUM120可以很好地预测儿童肝病,CUM120的预测作用更明显,当CUM120=85.80时,约登指数达最大值0.578,此时敏感度为77.8%,特异度为80.0%;4.B级及以下肝病患儿CUM120显著低于A级肝病患儿(P <0.001);5.CUM120可以很好地预测肝病患儿肝功能的严重程度,当CUM120 =56.15时,约登指数达最大值0.857,此时敏感度为85.7%,特异度为100.0%.结论 13C-美沙西丁呼气试验指标CUM120对儿童肝病具有一定的诊断价值,并可以很好地评估肝功能的损害程度.%Objective To explore the clinical value of 13C-methacetin breath test for the assessment of liver disorder and to analyze its predictive value to the severity of liver function injury in children.Methods Eighteen healthy children served as healthy control group,and 40 patients with different etiology and severity served as experimental group,and then the latter were divided into 2 subgroups,28 patients in Child-Pugh classification A,and 12 cases in below B(11 cases in B and 1 case

  16. Waldorf Education: Breathing Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    After 10 years of teaching art in public schools, Carrie Nordlund arrived at a state of query that set in motion her search for alternative approaches to learning. As she was feeling stifled in a seemingly sterile education institution with its overdependence on and pedagogy aimed at standardized tests, she came across a reference to Waldorf…

  17. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  18. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Bayley, Mark;

    The notion that bimodal breathers (animals that breathe both air and water) obtain O2 from the air and exhale CO2 into the water has been well established in the literature. However, while the majority of supporting experiments tested animals maintained in hypoxic water, the freshwater systems that...... bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending on...

  19. Clinical features of panic patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods for inducing panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Nardi; A.M. Valença; F.L. Lopes; Nascimento, I.; M.A. Mezzasalma; W.A. Zin

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the clinical features of panic disorder (PD) patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods of inducing panic attacks. Eighty-five PD patients were submitted to both a hyperventilation challenge test and a breath-holding test. They were asked to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible, four times with a 2-min interval. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. We selected the...

  20. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765