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Sample records for alcohol breath tests

  1. Breath alcohol test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breath alcohol test measures the amount of alcohol in the blood by testing exhaled air. The test is performed by blowing ... breath machine 15 minutes after alcohol consumption. The test determines how much alcohol it takes to raise the blood-alcohol level ...

  2. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  4. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  5. Results of the first semi-annual qualification testing of devices to measure breath alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Eight evidential breath testers were performance tested according to the Standard for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol Federal Register, Vol 38, No. 212, November 5, 1973. In addition, a prototype breath tester not commercially available was tested....

  6. The Effect of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Vapors on Evidential Breath Alcohol Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawsine, Ellen; Lutmer, Brian

    2017-11-16

    This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code. These status codes were caused by ethanol vapors either in the room air or their inhalation by the subject, thereby causing a mouth alcohol effect. Replicate subject samples did not yield any consecutive positive numeric results. As ABHS application can cause a transitory mouth alcohol effect via inhalation of ABHS vapors, EBT operators should forego the use of ABHS in the 15 min preceding subject testing. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Evaluation of innovative state and community alcohol projects : breath alcohol testing program effectiveness, impact and transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) programs in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico are evaluated in regard to effectiveness, impact, and transferability of the special DWI enforcement squads and their use of BAT Mobiles. Squad activity effectiveness is me...

  8. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath... Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The collector shall perform the initial breath test as soon as practical after the donor indicates that he or...

  9. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  10. A study of characteristics of a reliable and practical breath alcohol screening test. Part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate several commercially available breath-alcohol screening test devices of the length-of-stain type, under standardized laboratory conditions, with respect to their ability satisfactorily to detect an...

  11. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No, other types of alcohol tests (e,g., blood and urine) are not authorized for testing done under this part...

  12. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  13. Breath alcohol test precision: an in vivo vs. in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, R G

    1989-12-01

    Random error is associated with breath alcohol measurements, as with all analytical methods. The total random uncertainty of a group of n measurements is typically determined by computing the standard deviation and requiring it to be less than some appropriate level (i.e., +/- 0.0042 g/210 l). The total random uncertainty has two primary sources; the instrumental method and the sample source. These are typically inseparable values. In breath alcohol testing the two primary sample sources are simulators and human breath. The present study evaluates ten groups of simulator samples consisting of ten measurements each on BAC Verifier Datamaster instruments. The data also includes ten breath alcohol measurements from each of 21 individuals following alcohol consumption. The range of standard deviations for the simulator samples was 0.0003-0.0022 g/210 l. The range of standard deviations for the human breath samples was 0.0015-0.0089 g/210 l. Two statistics that test for homogeneity for variances were applied. The simulator samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.5000 and an Fmax test of 48.9. The human breath samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.1519 and an Fmax test of 27.3. All were significant at P less than 0.001. The statistical tests demonstrated that the intragroup variability among the human subjects was comparable to the intragroup variability among the simulator samples. The data also demonstrates that the sample source (simulator or human) is probably the largest contributor to total random uncertainty. Therefore, when duplicate breath alcohol testing from individuals shows variability in the second decimal place the cause is differences in breath samples provided and not instrumental imprecision.

  14. Evaluation of the analytical performance of a fuel cell breath alcohol testing instrument: a seven-year comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    Between 2003 and 2009, 54,255 breath test sequences were performed on 129 AlcoSensor IV-XL evidential instruments in Orange County, CA. The overall mean breath alcohol concentration and standard deviation from these tests was 0.141 ± 0.051 g/210 L. Of these test sequences, 38,580 successfully resulted in two valid breath alcohol results, with 97.5% of these results agreeing within ±0.020 g/210 L of each other and 86.3% within ±0.010 g/210 L. The mean absolute difference between duplicate tests was 0.006 g/210 L with a median of 0.004 g/210 L. Of the 2.5% of duplicate test results that did not agree within ±0.020 g/210 L, 95% of these had a breath alcohol concentration of 0.10 g/210 L or greater and 77% had an alcohol concentration of 0.15 g/210 L or greater. The data indicate that the AlcoSensor IV-XL can measure a breath sample for alcohol concentration with adequate precision even amid the effects of biological variations. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A comparison of blood alcohol levels as determined by breath and blood tests taken in actual field operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    During its 1972 session, the General Assembly of Virginia enacted Senate Bill 104, which authorizes the breath test, as well as the blood test used previously, as a proper chemical test to determine the alcoholic content of the blood. Any person arre...

  16. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the...

  17. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.243 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...

  18. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex difference in the effects of alcohol on gastric emptying in healthy volunteers: a study using the (13)C breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Miyuki; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Sekime, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on alcohol and gastric emptying using the (13)C breath test showed that alcohol consumption delayed gastric emptying of meals in healthy male subjects. However, they did not employ female subjects, and the retention time of alcoholic beverages in the stomach has not been examined, yet. We examined the retention time (= gastric emptying rate) of alcoholic beverages in the stomach in healthy male and female subjects. We also examined whether the congeners (nonalcoholic components) of red wine have any effect on gastric emptying. The retention time of 60 mL of red wine, vodka, congeners of red wine, or mineral water, was measured using a (13)C labeled acetic acid breath test. In male subjects, the retention time of wine and vodka was significantly longer than that of congeners and mineral water. In female subjects, although the (13)C content in the breath was slightly but significantly decreased by wine and congeners, but not by vodka, and the parameters for gastric emptying did not differ significantly among the 4 drinks. That is, alcohol hardly influenced the retention time in female subjects. In conclusion, there are sex differences in the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  20. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  1. Isopropanol interference with breath alcohol analysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, B K; Gullberg, R G; Elenbaas, J K

    1994-07-01

    The presence of interfering substances, particularly acetone, has historically been a concern in the forensic measurement of ethanol in human breath. Although modern infrared instruments employ methods for distinguishing between ethanol and acetone, false-positive interferant results can arise from instrumental or procedural problems. The case described gives the analytical results of an individual arrested for driving while intoxicated and subsequently providing breath samples in two different BAC Verifier Datamaster infrared breath alcohol instruments. The instruments recorded ethanol results ranging from 0.09 to 0.17 g/210 L with corresponding interferant results of 0.02 to 0.06 g/210 L over approximately three hours. Breath and venous blood specimens collected later were analyzed by gas chromatography and revealed in the blood: isopropanol 0.023 g/100 mL, acetone 0.057 g/100 mL and ethanol 0.076g/100 mL. Qualitative analysis of the breath sample by GCMS also showed the presence of all three compounds. This individual had apparently consumed both ethanol and isopropanol with acetone resulting from the metabolism of isopropanol. An important observation is that the breath test instruments detected the interfering substances on each breath sample and yet they did not show tendencies to report false interferences when compared with statewide interferant data.

  2. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasch M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%. cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1. Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  3. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  4. Examination of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) classification, and intended plans for getting home among bar-attending college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The college student population is one of the heaviest drinking demographic groups in the US and impaired driving is a serious alcohol-related problem. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and "plans to get home" among a sample of college students. We conducted four anonymous field studies to examine associations between breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) classification, and plans for getting home among a sample of bar-attending college students (N = 713). The vast majority of participants in our sample (approximately 95%) were not intending to drive and the average BrAC% of those intending to drive was .041. Our one-way ANOVAs indicated that (1) participants classified by the AUDIT-C as not having an alcohol problem had a significantly lower BrAC% than those classified as having a potential problem and (2) participants planning to drive had a significantly lower BrAC% than those with a plan that did not involve them driving and those without a plan to get home. Although it is encouraging that most of our sample was not intending to drive, it is important to continue to attempt to reduce impaired driving in this population. This study helps college health professionals and administrators to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and plans to get home among college students. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their respective...

  6. Results of an investigation of the performance of the Smith and Wesson Breathalyzer Model 1000 Breath Alcohol Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    The performance of breath alcohol test equipment used by : police is a major concern of the alcohol countermeasures effort : of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). : A Qualified Products List (QPL) has been established to ensu...

  7. Breath alcohol measurement variability associated with different instrumentation and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2003-01-09

    Breath alcohol measurement has variability resulting from instrumental, procedural and biological components. Reliable estimates of the standard deviation (S.D.) are necessary for calculating uncertainty in the form of confidence intervals. These estimates are concentration dependant and can be obtained from models derived from duplicate breath test data. Duplicate data from four state jurisdictions (Alabama using the Drager 7110, Minnesota using the Intoxilyzer 5000, Washington using the BAC Datamaster and Wisconsin using the Intoximeter EC/IR) were analyzed to derive predictive models for standard deviation as a function of concentration. All jurisdiction/instrument combinations yielded forensically acceptable variation while showing a general linear increase in standard deviation with concentration. This is consistent with a multiplicative error model. Jurisdictions using the same instruments but not performing duplicate analyses could also employ the straightforward models derived here to estimate standard deviations for their measurement results.

  8. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  9. The clinical value of breath hydrogen testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chu K; Tuck, Caroline J

    2017-03-01

    Breath hydrogen testing for assessing the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption is frequently applied to refine dietary restrictions on a low fermentable carbohydrate (FODMAP) diet. Its application has also been extended for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Recently, several caveats of its methodology and interpretation have emerged. A review of the evidence surrounding its application in the management of patients with a functional bowel disorder was performed. Studies were examined to assess limitations of testing methodology, interpretation of results, reproducibility, and how this relates to clinical symptoms. A wide heterogeneity in testing parameters, definition of positive/negative response, and the use of clinically irrelevant doses of test carbohydrate were common methodological limitations. These factors can subsequently impact the sensitivity, specificity, and false positive or negative detection rates. Evidence is also increasing on the poor intra-individual reproducibility in breath responses with repeated testing for fructose and lactulose. On the basis of these limitations, it is not surprising that the diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth based on a lactulose breath test yields a wide prevalence rate and is unreliable. Finally, symptom induction during a breath test has been found to correlate poorly with the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption. The evidence suggests that breath hydrogen tests have limited clinical value in guiding clinical decision for the patient with a functional bowel disorder. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  11. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated with...

  12. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  13. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  14. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a breathing...

  15. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance shall...

  16. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  17. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  19. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked before...

  20. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and after...

  2. The effect of breath alcohol simulator solution volume on measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, P R; McElroy, A J; Gullberg, R G

    1991-01-01

    Breath alcohol simulator devices (simulators) containing alcohol and water solutions are used to calibrate and test breath-testing instruments. The manufacturers of simulators design them to contain 500 mL of solution. This study evaluated the variability observed among three different groups of data: one group (experimental) in which the solution volume varied from 400 mL to 600 mL, one group (control) in which the simulator volume remained constant at 500 mL for each aliquot, and finally one group consisting of field simulator measurements collected over time. The infrared breath test instrument employed was a BAC Verifier Datamaster. A one-way analysis of variance and the Cochran's C for equal variances were applied to the data. The results indicated that when the solution volume remained at 500 mL, there was nearly as much or greater within-run variability as when the volumes were varied from 400 mL to 600 mL. Both the experimental and control groups showed statistical significance for the one-way ANOVA and were considered within-run measurements. The high within-run instrumental precision (CV approx. 1%) probably accounts for these results. The field data, considered between-day measurements, had larger within-group variability and resulted in a nonsignificant ANOVA. Small variations from the 500-mL volume in a simulator do not result in a statistically significant difference where between-day measurements are evaluated.

  3. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  4. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability.

  5. Hydrogen Breath Test in the Diagnosis of Digestive Tract Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the information about the mo-dern method for evaluating the state of small intestine — hydrogen breath test. Two main indications for its use — bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine and lactase deficiency are separately analyzed. The theoretical and practical aspects of using hydrogen breath test are shown. The main provisions of Rome I criteria on the use of hydrogen breath test are considered. The paper presents the results of our own researches.

  6. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...... circumstances, and it may be used for studies in children and for field studies. Compared to classical tolerance tests the hydrogen breath test is more sensitive. It is concluded that the hydrogen breath test is a useful tool for investigations of dietary carbohydrates....

  7. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to...

  8. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Trembach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n=14, 45 to 60 years (n=13, 60 to 75 years (n=12, and older than 75 years (n=8. Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2 test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r=0.13 and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r=0.07. In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  9. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods . The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years ( n = 14), 45 to 60 years ( n = 13), 60 to 75 years ( n = 12), and older than 75 years ( n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO 2 ) test was performed the following day. Results . No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding ( r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO 2 ( r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO 2 test. Conclusion . A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  10. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and drugs...

  11. Aminopyrine breath test for evaluation of liver function. How to analyse the 14CO2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bircher, J.; Platzer, R.; Gikalov, I.; Kuepfer, A.; Preisig, R.

    1976-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that breath analysis of 14 CO 2 , following administration of specifically labelled 14 C-dimethylaminoantipyrine, allows assessment of Vsub(max) and Ksub(m) of in vivo demethylation in the rat. Consequently, this procedure was modified for application in man. Whereas in 23 liver normals the disappearance constant ksub(B) of 14 CO 2 from breath was 21+-SD4%/h, ksub(B) was significantly reduced in 14 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (8+-4%/h). Breath analysis is suggested as a non-invasive, convenient and valid method for measuring hepatic microsomal demethylation. Breath analysis discriminates between liver normals and patients with impaired liver function as well as established quantitative liver function tests (disappearance rate of BSP, galactose elimination capacity)

  12. The glyceryl [14C] tripalmitate breath test: A reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, R.C.; Reid, J.; Holton, D.; Percy-Robb, I.W.; Jewell, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Several reports have been published commending the use of 14 C-labelled triglyceride breath tests in the assessment of fat malabsorption. The authors report further studies using glyceryl [ 14 C]tripalmitate. Corrections for age, weight or metabolic rate failed to improve the test's ability to discriminate between malabsorbers and control subjects. A correction for respiratory quotient improved the linear correlation observed between the breath test results and daily faecal fat excretion. The significance of these findings is discussed and a number of problems identified which, at present, are preventing the introduction of breath tests for fat malabsorption into routine clinical practice. (Auth.)

  13. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoos, Y.; Geypens, B.; Maes, B.; Hiele, M.; Rutgeerts, P.

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13 C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13 CO 2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13 CO 2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13 C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13 C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Semiquantitative assessment of breath hydrogen testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S; Kalubovila, Udaya; Irving, Peter M; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-09-01

    A major use of breath hydrogen testing is to assess absorptive capacity for sugars to assist dietary design for management of gut symptoms. Qualitative reporting takes no account of the vigor of hydrogen response and provides little insight into degrees of malabsorption. This study aimed to describe a semiquantitative reporting method and to compare results with those reported qualitatively. In consecutive Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease (n = 87), ulcerative colitis (59), functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) (162), and healthy controls (76), area under the curve was calculated for lactulose (15 g). This was compared with that for lactose (50 g) and fructose (35 g). Degree of malabsorption was categorized into arbitrary groups. Semiquantitative results for ≥ 30% (designated "convincing") malabsorption was most similar to those using a qualitative cutoff value of 20 ppm, but in 38% and 21% of patients, the classification of malabsorption (nil or clinically significant) changed for fructose and lactose, respectively. Using a cutoff of 10 ppm, 49% and 5% were classified differently. Crohn's disease had a higher prevalence (42%) of convincing fructose malabsorption than controls (24%) or patients with FGID (33%) (P malabsorption (38%) was in ulcerative colitis, greater than controls (18%) and FGID (18%) (P < 0.02). Semiquantitative assessment provides different results with different clinical implications in more than one third of patients, but disease-related alterations in prevalence are similar to those defined qualitatively. This method may be preferable because it lessens the confounding influence of the vigor of the hydrogen response. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Comparison of the analytical capabilities of the BAC Datamaster and Datamaster DMT forensic breath testing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinn, Michele; Adatsi, Felix; Curtis, Perry

    2011-11-01

    The State of Michigan uses the Datamaster as an evidential breath testing device. The newest version, the DMT, will replace current instruments in the field as they are retired from service. The Michigan State Police conducted comparison studies to test the analytical properties of the new instrument and to evaluate its response to conditions commonly cited in court defenses. The effects of mouth alcohol, objects in the mouth, and radiofrequency interference on paired samples from drinking subjects were assessed on the DMT. The effects of sample duration and chemical interferents were assessed on both instruments, using drinking subjects and wet-bath simulators, respectively. Our testing shows that Datamaster and DMT results are essentially identical; the DMT gave accurate readings as compared with measurements made using simulators containing standard ethanol solutions and that the DMT did not give falsely elevated breath alcohol results from any of the influences tested. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    OpenAIRE

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test ...

  17. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  18. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  19. Breath alcohol concentrations of college students in field settings: seasonal, temporal, and contextual patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D; Johnson, Mark B; Shillington, Audrey M; Lange, James E; Voas, Robert B

    2008-03-01

    Seasonality in alcohol consumption has implications for epidemiology and prevention. In this research we examined seasonal, temporal, and contextual variation in drinking among college students at a large West Coast university. We used a field survey (across a 3-year period) to collect anonymous breath alcohol concentrations from students sampled randomly as they walked on and near the campus on weekend nights. After controlling for student demographics, we found that the breath alcohol concentration samples we collected during the spring and winter were significantly higher than those collected during the fall. Subsequent analyses indicated that this difference could be attributed to fewer students drinking in the fall rather than to students consuming smaller quantities of alcohol. Seasonal trends in college student drinking mirror seasonal trends demonstrated in the general population. This research may help guide future intervention or prevention efforts.

  20. Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smaller structures called bronchi. The process of breathing (respiration) is divided into two distinct phases, inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation). During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward while the muscles between the ribs contract and pull upward. This ...

  1. Predictive value of 14CO2 breath tests for clinical use of 13CO2 breath tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.M.H.

    1975-01-01

    The knowledge of the efficiency of 14 CO 2 breath tests makes possible the comparison of the efficiency of analogous tests using the stable isotope 13 C. 14 CO 2 exhalation studies render overall information. After parenteral administration of a 14 C labeled substrate, 14 CO 2 breath tests permit insight into the metabolism of the 14 C substrate and the associated intermediary metabolism. If the 14 C substrate is given orally or by intraduodenal instillation, 14 CO 2 breath tests supply information not only about gastrointenstinal absorption and digestion but also about the intermediary metabolism yielding 14 CO 2 , after the administered substrate or its degradation products have been absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The fraction of 14 CO 2 arising from absorption, digestion and intermediary metabolism can be estimated only by additional methods. 14 CO 2 breath tests are unable to delineate single metabolic reactions involved in the formation of carbon dioxide. Under these considerations the clinical application of 14 CO 2 breath tests may provide diagnostically useful results, especially in internal medicine and surgery. The tests are suitable for intraindividual assessment of the course of a disease and of therapeutic effects. They may be important in the research of the metabolism of 14 C labeled substrates

  2. [Irregular breathing during the cardiopulmonary exercise test - from mildly irregular breathing pattern to periodic breathing of oscillatory ventilation type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várnay, František; Mífková, Leona; Homolka, Pavel; Dobšák, Petr

    The fluctuating course of tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (DF) and minute ventilation (VE) during the cardio-pulmonary exercise test using a ramp incremental protocol occurs not only in patients, but relatively frequently also in healthy individuals. It can account for a number of irregularities in the course of the curves VO2, VCO2 and in particular of those of ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2 (EQO2, EQCO2) as well as curves of partial pressure of end-tidal oxygen and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETO2, PETCO2), which are also used, inter alia, to establish ventilatory thresholds. The presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) reflects the severity of heart failure and it is an independent predictor of the increased morbidity, cardiac and total mortality and sudden death caused by heart failure. However there is not a generally accepted universal definition of EOV available at present, as different criteria are used. We have not found a comparison which would indicate whether and how the "strength" of the prognostic criteria for EOV - established according to different methods - differs. Therefore it is very important to specify what method, or what criteria were used in the establishment of EOV.Key words: breathing pattern - EOV - exercise oscillatory ventilation - periodic breathing.

  3. Challenging the two-minute tidal breathing challenge test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, Anne J; Hagedoorn, Paul; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) bronchial challenge test, AMP is usually administered according to dosing protocols for methacholine. We investigated whether the 2-min tidal breathing challenge test for methacholine is applicable to AMP. Parameters known to affect nebulizer

  4. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  5. Development of Highly Sensitive and Selective Breathing Sensors Using Molecular Imprinted Filtering for Diabetic and Alcoholic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Saleh Akram

    Wellness sensor technology is an emerging diagnostic test research field, which mostly deal with the point of care of the patients in the recent days. Due to the lack of awareness from the patients, most diseases cannot be detected in due time. This led to worse conditions, such as diabetic and alcoholic syndrome. Therefore, many research groups have been working to develop portable sensor devices that can track serious diseases. These include diabetic and alcoholic biomarkers in breathing. These devices have very high selectivity and reliability. However, the major limitation of biomarkers is that it deals with the bio-molecular based sensing mechanism. Extensive challenges exist in the selectivity and reliability of breathing sensors. These require development of proper materials and effective detection methods. Thus, selection of proper materials, correct sensing parameters, effective device architecture and simple fabrication processing are substantially critical. The goal of this work is to develop graphene based breathing sensors with high selectivity and sensitivity using a novel molecular imprinted filtering technique. The sensors have various applications including Point of Care Testing (POCT) device for personalized home and clinical use in early detection of diabetic and alcoholic patients. Different fabrication procedures were used to optimize the sensor performance. The optimized results demonstrate that a proper biomarker molecule imprinting process could selectively detect diabetes and alcohol. The graphene layer was optimized by maintaining spray coating time, pattern and distance between the substrate and spray coater. Graphene adhesion to the substrate was also improved using polyvinyl pyrrolidone. The molecular imprinting filter made on top of the graphene layer improved the performance of acetone and ethanol molecule detection, indicated by the change of resistance in the graphene layer. The sensors showed poor performance for long-time exposure

  6. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of 14 C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14 CO 2 . This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14 C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14 CO 2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites [fr

  7. Effects of artificial sweeteners on breath alcohol concentrations in male and female social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol is often mixed with various nonalcoholic beverages. While consumption of food with alcohol will decrease peak breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC), recent evidence has suggested that mixing alcohol with diet beverages can result in higher BrAC when compared with mixing the same amount of alcohol with sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine this phenomenon using two different moderate alcohol doses. Twenty participants (10 males) attended five sessions where they received 1 of 5 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka+3.64 ml/kg of diet soda, 0.91 ml/kg vodka+3.64 of regular soda, 1.82 ml/kg vodka+7.28 ml/kg diet soda, 1.82 ml/kg vodka+7.28 ml/kg regular soda, and a placebo beverage). BrAC was recorded repeatedly up to 180 min after dose administration. Participants had significantly higher BrAC when the mixer was diet as compared to regular for both alcohol dose conditions. No gender differences were observed. Mixing alcohol with diet beverages can result in higher BrAC when compared to the same amount of alcohol administered with a similar sweetened beverage. Individuals who consume diet mixers with alcohol may reduce caloric intake but increase the harms associated with higher BrACs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective perceptions associated with the ascending and descending slopes of breath alcohol exposure vary with recent drinking history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Leah; Morzorati, Sandra L; Foroud, Tatiana; Windisch, Kyle; Darlington, Todd; Zimmerman, Ulrich S; Plawecki, Martin H; O'Connor, Sean J

    2012-06-01

    The differentiator model predicts that individuals with a positive family history of alcoholism (FHA) or heavy alcohol consumers will feel more sensitive to the effects of alcohol on the ascending phase of the blood alcohol content while feeling less sedated on the descending phase. This study tested whether subjective perceptions are sensitive to the slope of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and whether that sensitivity is associated with an FHA and/or recent drinking history (RDH). Family-history-positive (FHP, n = 27) and family-history-negative (FHN, n = 27) young adult nondependent drinkers were infused intravenously with alcohol in 2 sessions separated by 1 week. After 20 minutes, one session had an ascending BrAC (+3.0 mg%/min), while the other session had a descending BrAC (-1 mg%/min). The BrAC for both sessions at this point was approximately 60 mg%, referred to as the crossover point. Subjective perceptions of intoxication, high, stimulated, and sedation were sampled frequently and then interpolated to the crossover point. Within-subject differences between ascending and descending responses were examined for associations with FHA and/or RDH. Recent moderate drinkers reported increased perceptions of feeling intoxicated (p Subjective perceptions in young adult social drinkers depend on the slope of the BrAC when examined in association with RDH. These results support the differentiator model hypothesis concerning the ascending slope and suggest that moderate alcohol consumers could be at risk for increased alcohol consumption because they feel more intoxicated and high on the ascending slope. Subjects did not feel less sedated on the descending slope, contrary to the differentiator model but replicating several previous studies. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. (13)C breath tests in personalized medicine: fiction or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Anil S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of personalized medicine is gathering momentum as various biomarkers are being discovered and developed to lead to genotype and phenotype diagnostic tests, which will enable physicians to individualize therapy. Noninvasive, rapid (13)C breath tests have the potential to serve as clinically significant diagnostic tools, especially for evaluating the enzyme activity of polymorphic enzymes. This would enable physicians to rapidly identify responders/nonresponders to various drugs primarily metabolized by these enzymes prior to initiation of therapy. With the information on enzyme activity, the physician can prescribe the right drug, at the right dose, at the right time, to the right individual, for the right clinical outcome. However, the promise of the era of personalized medicine, including the novel (13)C breath tests, will have to overcome several regulatory, business and financial hurdles for diagnostic tests to become part of routine mainstream clinical practice over the next decade.

  10. The importance of methane breath testing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B P J; Ledochowski, M; Ratcliffe, N M

    2013-06-01

    Sugar malabsorption in the bowel can lead to bloating, cramps, diarrhea and other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome as well as affecting absorption of other nutrients. The hydrogen breath test is now a well established noninvasive test for assessing malabsorption of sugars in the small intestine. However, there are patients who can suffer from the same spectrum of malabsorption issues but who produce little or no hydrogen, instead producing relatively large amounts of methane. These patients will avoid detection with the traditional breath test for malabsorption based on hydrogen detection. Likewise the hydrogen breath test is an established method for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) diagnoses. Therefore, a number of false negatives would be expected for patients who solely produce methane. Usually patients produce either hydrogen or methane, and only rarely there are significant co-producers, as typically the methane is produced at the expense of hydrogen by microbial conversion of carbon dioxide. Various studies show that methanogens occur in about a third of all adult humans; therefore, there is significant potential for malabsorbers to remain undiagnosed if a simple hydrogen breath test is used. As an example, the hydrogen-based lactose malabsorption test is considered to result in about 5-15% false negatives mainly due to methane production. Until recently methane measurements were more in the domain of research laboratories, unlike hydrogen analyses which can now be undertaken at a relatively low cost mainly due to the invention of reliable electrochemical hydrogen sensors. More recently, simpler lower cost instrumentation has become commercially available which can directly measure both hydrogen and methane simultaneously on human breath. This makes more widespread clinical testing a realistic possibility. The production of small amounts of hydrogen and/or methane does not normally produce symptoms, whereas the production of higher levels can

  11. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  12. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides for... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31...

  13. 13C-breath test: a practical diagnostic stool in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qiqi; Sun Xu; Yan Weili

    2009-01-01

    As a stable isotope, 13 C-breath test provide a non-invasive method to quantitatively assess organ functions. It is relatively simple to take 13 C-breath test, which have good sensitivity and specificity. This review is aimed at providing advance in research of 13 C-breath test and looking into the future of the art. (authors)

  14. Mixing of the intestinal content and variations of fermentation capacity do not affect the results of hydrogen breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Michele; Miceli, Emanuela; Malservisi, Simona; Missanelli, Antonio; Strocchi, Alessandra; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2003-07-01

    Although the hydrogen (H(2)) breath test has been in use for many years for diagnosis of sugar malabsorption, research is still underway to improve its diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we investigated whether possible confusing factors caused by the ingestion of the test solution itself (such as the delivery to the colon of other fermentable substrates pre-existing in the small bowel lumen, the release of preformed H(2) trapped in the feces, or differences in the fermenting capacity of the colonic bacteria) may interfere with the increase of breath H(2) concentration, an expression of malabsorption of the test substrate. In 25 patients with untreated celiac disease and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers, breath H(2) excretion was measured after ingestion of a 250-ml solution containing sorbitol, a poorly absorbed alcohol sugar. On 2 other separate days, 12 randomly selected subjects in each group underwent breath H(2) excretion measurement after ingestion of 250 ml of a sugar free, nonabsorbable electrolyte solution and 250 ml of a solution containing lactulose, a nonabsorbable disaccharide. After sorbitol ingestion, celiac disease patients showed a significantly higher breath H(2) excretion than did healthy volunteers. Otherwise, breath H(2) responses to electrolyte solution and lactulose showed no difference between the two groups of subjects. In a group of patients with sugar malabsorption, increased breath H(2) excretion does reflect malabsorption. The washout or the mixing of the intestinal content or intergroup difference of fermenting activity of the colonic bacteria do not represent interfering factors and do not modify the accuracy of the H(2) breath test in day-to-day clinical practice.

  15. Do variable rates of alcohol drinking alter the ability to use transdermal alcohol monitors to estimate peak breath alcohol and total number of drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Lake, Sarah L; Roache, John D; Cates, Sharon E; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-10-01

    Transdermal alcohol monitoring is a noninvasive method that continuously gathers transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC) in real time; thus, its use is becoming increasingly more common in alcohol research. In previous studies, we developed models that use TAC data to estimate peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and standard units consumed when the rate of consumption was tightly controlled. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 21 to 52 who reported consuming alcohol on 1 to 4 days per week were recruited from the community. The final study sample included 11 men and 8 women. Both TAC and BrAC were monitored while each participant drank 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 beers in the laboratory on 5 separate days. In contrast to previous studies, a self-paced alcohol administration procedure was used. While there was considerable variation in the times it took to consume each beer, key TAC parameters were not affected by pace of drinking. TAC data were then used in combination with the previously derived equations and estimated peak BrAC and standard units of alcohol consumed. Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to reliably estimate peak BrAC and standard number of units consumed regardless of the rate of consumption, further demonstrating its usefulness in clinical research. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. [Breath tests in children with suspected lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, P Ángela; Furió, C Simone; Arancibia, A Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Up to 70% of the world population is lactose intolerance. However, there are no epidemiological studies among Chilean pediatric population affected by this condition. Clinical characterization of a series of children who underwent the lactose intolerance breath test for lactose intolerance study, establishing intolerance and malabsorption frequencies, the most frequent symptoms, and test performance depending on the origin. Patients under 18 years old who took the lactose intolerance breath test in the Gastroenterology Laboratory of the Catholic University of Chile, and who were admitted due to clinically suspected lactose intolerance. Malabsorption was considered when there was as an increase of ≥20ppm above the baseline (H2) or ≥34ppm of H2 and methane (CH4) combined. Intolerance was considered when the above was associated with a symptom intensity score ≥7 during registration. The analysis included194 patients aged 1 to17 years of age. Of these, 102 (53%) presented with malabsorption, and 53 (27%) were intolerant. The frequency of lactose intolerance varied from 7.1 to 45.4%, and it occurred more frequently at older ages. The most common reported symptoms were abdominal pain, bloating and rumbling. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance can be investigated from the first years of life using the lactose breath test plus a symptom questionnaire. An increase in the frequency of intolerance with age, and a greater number of positive tests, if they were requested by a gastroenterologist, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid 14 C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of 14 C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO 2 in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective

  18. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  19. Training in multiple breath washout testing for respiratory physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Katherine; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M; O'Neill, Philip; Rowan, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Bradley, Judy M

    2018-03-01

    The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists. The respiratory Multidisciplinary Team in the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust (BHSCT) identified a need for MBW testing to be available to facilitate clinical research and assessment. A 2day training programme consisting of prereading preparation, self-directed learning, theory presentations, practical demonstrations and hands-on practice was developed and delivered. All participants underwent a certification process. We have demonstrated the successful training and certification of clinical and research physiotherapists and encourage other respiratory physiotherapists to consider MBW test training. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14 C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14 C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled 14 CO 2 which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The 14 C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture

  1. Workplace Breathing Rates: Defining Anticipated Values and Ranges for Respirator Certification Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caretti, David M; Gardner, Paul D; Coyne, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    .... For air-purifying respirators (APRs), the primary performance tests most affected by airflow rate are filter gas-life capacity, particulate filter efficiency, and respirator breathing resistances...

  2. Judgement of Breath Alcohol Concentration Levels Among Pedestrians in the Night-Time Economy-A Street-Intercept Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M P; Roskruge, M J; Droste, N; Miller, P G

    2018-01-10

    To evaluate how well people in the night-time economy can assess their own breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), in the context of a change in breath alcohol limits for driving. We conducted a field study of 242 participants over 5 nights in the central business district of a university town in New Zealand. Participants completed a short survey, which included questions on their self-reported level of intoxication and the self-estimated BrAC. At the conclusion of the interview each participant was breath-tested. We compared actual and self-estimated BrAC using a scatter plot and multiple regression methods. The average BrAC error was 61.7 μg/l, meaning that on average participants overestimate their BrAC. Participants with a BrAC below 487 μg/l tended to overestimate their BrAC on average, and those with a BrAC above 487 μg/l tended to underestimate their BrAC on average. Regression results supported this observation, but also found that men who are not 'out on a typical night' overestimate their BrAC by more. Drinkers in this naturalistic setting have little idea of their level of intoxication, as measured by BrAC. However, this uncertainty may be advantageous to public health outcomes, since if drinkers are uncertain about their level of intoxication relative to the legal limit, this may lead them to avoid drunk driving. A field study of drinkers in the night-time economy of a New Zealand university town was conducted to evaluate how well drinkers can assess their breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). Drinkers in this setting inaccurately estimate their intoxication, and those with higher BrAC tended to underestimate their BrAC on average. © The Author(s) 2018. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. UREA BREATH TEST – ITS ROLE IN DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Each year many patients visit their physicians complaining of digestive symptoms, most commonly functional dyspepsia (»indigestion« or gastroesophageal reflux (»heartburn«. However, many patients with abdominal discomfort are actually suffering from gastric or duodenal ulcers that are commonly caused by H. pylori and thus are curable. Clearing the infection usually heals the ulcer and prevents relapse, so an accurate diagnosis is important. There are several options for diagnosing H. pylori infection: serology to detect antibodies against the bacterium; endoscopic biopsy for urease testing (H. pylori produce a urease that breaks down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide; histology with special stains; or culture. Unfortunately, these procedures are invasive, expensive and not always accurate. Serological tests require a blood sample and tell only that a patient has been exposed to H. pylori at some time in the past, but not whether the patient is currently infected. Endoscopy and biopsy can detect current infection — the CLO test urease test allows rapid detection of H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens — but endoscopy and biopsy are unpleasant medical procedures.Recently, noninvasive, sensitive, specific, easy to perform and patient’s well accepted methods had been developed known as urea breath test (UBT. When an infected person swallows a dose of urea labeled with an isotope of carbon — carbon-13 (13C or carbon-14 (14C – H. pylori in the gastric mucosa break down the labeled urea to form ammonia and labeled carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via the lungs. The patient then exhales into a device that measures the level of carbon dioxide. The urea breath test is specific for H. pylori (it detects only urease-producing bacteria, it is sensitive (the labeled urea reaches a large area of the stomach and thus reflects total gastric urease activity and the results can be

  4. Reliability of symptom analysis during carbohydrate hydrogen-breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Relevance of symptom analysis during hydrogen breath test (HBT) for establishing a clinical diagnosis of sugar intolerance is reviewed. Evaluation of symptoms developed in response to the ingestion of 50 g lactose could represent a simple screening test to select patients for lactose intolerance testing. Patients who do not develop symptoms do not need to be referred for HBT. In addition, symptoms reported by patients during a negative HBT cannot be at all times attributed to a false-negative test; instead, a 'nocebo' effect is likely to be implicated. On the other hand, in a double-blind randomized study, a dose of 25 g fructose was suggested as the most appropriate for testing individuals with suspected fructose malabsorption, whereas symptom reliability to diagnose fructose intolerance was inaccurate. Whereas the development of symptoms after a positive HBT may indicate sugar intolerance, it is still not clear whether the absence of symptoms after sugar malabsorption gives any indication as to the role of that sugar in the genesis of patient's complaints. Further studies should evaluate whether the disappearance of symptoms with a sugar-restricted diet after a positive HBT is a better diagnostic criterion of sugar intolerance than the development of symptoms.

  5. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Breath-holding test in evaluation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of using a breath-holding test in assessing the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex compared with the single-breath carbon dioxide test. The study involved 48 healthy volunteers between the ages of 18-29 years. The breath-holding test was performed followed by the single-breath carbon dioxide test on the next day. A month after the first tests, these tests were repeated to evaluate their reproducibility The coefficient of variability in the single-breath carbon dioxide test ranged from 0 to 32% with a mean of 10±7%. The mean coefficient of variability of the breath-holding test was 6±4% (0-19%). A significant inverse correlation between the results of the two tests was noted following analysis (r=-0.82, pbreath-holding test after deep inspiration reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex as defined by the single-breath carbon dioxide test in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655...

  8. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  9. Blood-alcohol proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...

  10. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  11. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [Mobile .MP4 (480x320/29.97fps/13.9MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  12. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [SD .MP4 (640x424/29.97fps/22.6MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  13. Habitual Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jung Choi

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations between amount of habitual alcohol consumption (HAC and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS, sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. We enrolled 683 untreated SDB male patients (age: 54.4 ± 7.80 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI: 29.0 ± 21.53/h. HAC was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed per week during the past 12 months. Anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to diagnose MetS. Clinical data and MetS components were compared according to the reported amounts of HAC (no drinking, light drinking <13, heavy drinking ≥13 drinks/week. As reported, 78.9% of the participants (n = 539 were regular drinkers; 33.7% (n = 230 were habitually heavy drinkers (mean: 30.7 drinks/week, and 45.2% (n = 309 were light drinkers (5.1 drinks/week. The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.9% (n = 252 and was most common in heavy drinkers (40.5%. Compared to non-drinkers and light drinkers, heavy drinkers had the greatest body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were most prevalent in heavy drinkers. Sleep quality and severity of SDB were the worst in heavy drinkers. After adjusting for age, AHI, and BMI, heavy drinkers had a 1.71 times greater risk of MetS when compared with non-drinkers, and light and heavy drinkers had a 2.06 and 2.11 times higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. HAC may increase the prevalence of MetS and deteriorate sleep in relation to amount of alcohol intake. Even light drinkers had more than twice higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers.

  14. [14C]Aminopyrine breath analysis and conventional biochemical tests as predictors of survival in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.A.; Kitchingman, G.; Langman, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with histologically confirmed cirrhosis were followed for up to 3.8 years after [ 14 C]aminopyrine breath analysis. Survival rates were calculated by life-table method and outcome analyzed by log rank test. A normal breath test score was associated with a higher probability of survival than a low score, although the difference was not statistically significant. A normal serum albumin was a better predictor of outcome. Survival curves constructed according to the results of breath analysis and serum albumin differed in that the former appeared to predict early survival and the latter late survival. For this reason, data were reanalyzed by subjects results for both tests. A normal breath test score and a normal serum albumin was associated with a significantly higher probability of survival than an abnormal result for either test

  15. Benefits of breath hydrogen testing after lactulose administration in analysing carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, John P; Irving, Peter M; Barrett, Jacqueline S; Gibson, Peter R

    2010-03-01

    Breath hydrogen testing after lactulose administration may yield findings of clinical value, but whether it should be a routine part of breath testing has not been evaluated. We examined the contribution of breath testing after lactulose administration to the conduct and interpretation of breath hydrogen responses after fructose and lactose administration. Two hundred consecutive patients were given lactulose, fructose or lactose on separate days (at least 2 days apart); breath hydrogen was monitored every 15 min after the administration of each sugar. Peak breath hydrogen levels after lactulose administration correlated with those after fructose (r = 0.26; P = 0.03) and lactose (r = 0.44; P = 0.004). Of the patients with a reduced response to lactulose, 51% had definite or borderline evidence of fructose malabsorption (FM); similarly, 23% of patients had definite or borderline lactose malabsorption. After lactulose administration, an increase in breath hydrogen levels occurred after the same amount of time or longer than after the administration of fructose or lactose (>120 min). The earlier the first rise in breath hydrogen levels after lactulose administration, the more frequently FM occurred, indicating an association between FM and rapid transit and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Routine breath hydrogen testing with lactulose administration before other sugars cannot be used to define non-hydrogen producers, but might, by indicating the vigour of hydrogen production in the individual, allow more rational interpretation of results after testing with other sugars. It permits the duration of testing to be judged and provides information on possible mechanisms of FM.

  16. Influence of short breathing stop on the cardiovascular system during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderienė, Kristina; Trinkūnas, Eugenijus; Poderys, Jonas; Grūnovas, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    Breathing is both a voluntary and an involuntary action, and the changes in breathing intensity or breathing stops has an influence on vegetative functions of the body during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the possible changes in cardiovascular parameters when patients shortly stopped to breath at the beginning of exercise testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Two series of investigation were performed. During the first investigation, the psychomotor tonus was assessed, and the breathing frequency during exercising was monitored in the cohort of 27 healthy adult males who were recruited for the first time to be participants of exercise testing. All the participants performed the Roufier exercise test (30 squats per 45 s). A 12-lead electrocardiogram was continuously recorded during exercise and first two minutes of recovery, and arterial blood pressure was measured at each minute of experiment. During the second investigation, the influence of short breathing stop for 15 s on the changes in cardiovascular functional parameters during exercise test was evaluated. RESULTS. The results obtained during the study showed that patients who had increased psychomotor tonus stopped the breathing involuntary more frequently at the beginning of exercise testing. An involuntary or voluntary breathing stop at the beginning of exercising had an influence on the dynamics of cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery: heart rate increased more slowly; lesser changes in the JT interval of electrocardiogram, a trend toward an increase in the arterial blood pressure, and a significantly slower recovery of cardiovascular parameters were documented. CONCLUSION. An involuntary breathing stop caused the changes in cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery; therefore, functional status might be assessed not so accurately.

  17. Inward contaminant leakage tests of the S-Tron Corporation emergency escape breathing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    At the request of S-Tron Corporation, to support their contract with the U.S. Navy, performance tests of the Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) were conducted in the Environmental Physiology Research Section contaminant leakage chamber. Sulfur ...

  18. EVALUATION OF CLINICAL AND HOME PERFORMANCE OF THE C-13-UREA BREATH TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THIJS, WJ; THIJS, JC; KLEIBEUKER, JH; ELZINGA, H; STELLAARD, F

    Objective: This study analyses the C-13-urea breath test with the aim of determining the optimal time interval between dosing and breath sampling and examines the feasibility of having patients perform the test without supervision at home. Design: Prospective study comparing the C-13-urea breath

  19. Methodology and application of 13C breath test in gastroenterology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Weili; Jiang Yibin

    2002-01-01

    13 C breath test has been widely used in research of nutrition, pharmacology and gastroenterology for its properties such as safety, non-invasion and so on. The author describes the principle, methodology of 13 C breath test and its application in detection to Helico-bacteria pylori infection in stomach and small bowl bacterial overgrowth, measurement of gastric emptying, pancreatic exocrine function and liver function with various substrates

  20. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  1. Acute and chronic effects of alcohol on trail making test performance among underage drinkers in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Anne M; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Johansen, Gerard E; Spear, Linda P

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol's effects on executive functioning are well documented. Research in this area has provided much information on both the acute and chronic effects of alcohol on processes such as working memory and mental flexibility. However, most research on the acute effects of alcohol is conducted with individuals older than 21 years of age. Using field recruitment methods can provide unique empirical data on the acute effects of alcohol on an underage population. The current study examined the independent effects of acute alcohol intoxication (measured by breath alcohol content) and chronic alcohol use (measured by years drinking) on a test of visuomotor performance and mental flexibility (Trail Making Test) among 91 drinkers ages 18-20 years recruited from a field setting. Results show that breath alcohol predicts performance on Trails B, but not on Trails A, and that years drinking, above and beyond acute intoxication, predicts poorer performance on both Trails A and B. These data suggest that, independent of the acute effects of alcohol, chronic alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on executive functioning processes among underage drinkers. Our discussion focuses on the importance of these data in describing the effect of alcohol on adolescents and the potential for engaging in risky behavior while intoxicated.

  2. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

  3. [14C-urea breath test to diagnose gastric Helicobacter pylori colonization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L G; Chausson, Y; Passos, M C; Sadala, R U; Costa, E L; Sabino, C V; Queiroz, D M; Mendes, E N; Rocha, G A; Oliveira, C A

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), ex-Campylobacter pylori, is now considered to be the causative agent of active chronic gastritis in humans and may be diagnosed by histology, gram-stain, culture, urease test or noninvasively by 14C-urea breath test. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the breath test as compared with the microbiological (culture) "gold standard". Forty-one subjects were studied. Gastroscopy was performed in all participants and 2 antral mucosa biopsy specimens were taken for urease test and microbiological (gram-stain and culture) studies. The breath test was performed within one week after the gastroscopy. After fasting overnight, a control breath sample was obtained and a standard meal was offered to delay gastric emptying. Then, the participants drank 5 microCi of 14C-urea in 20 ml of water and breath samples were collected at 10, 15, 30 and 60 min in a hyamine-ethanol solution with a p-H indicator. A repeat test was performed in 9 subjects to assess test reproducibility. Twenty-nine subjects (71 percent) were Hp positive and 12 (29 percent) H. pylori negative. A highly significant difference (p less than 0.0001) was observed in 14CO2 exhalation in colonized and non-colonized subjects in samples collected at all times studied. As compared with culture we found that the breath test was 97 percent sensitive and 100 percent specific. We conclude that 14C-urea breath test is a simple, inexpensive, sensitive, and reliable method to detect H. pylori colonization. It is a useful test to epidemiologic and therapeutic trials.

  4. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  5. Diagnostic value of 14C urea breath test for Hp-associated peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jimin; Xiang Zuqiong; Chen Ying; Xiao Shudong; Zhang Darong; Liu Wenzhong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of 14 C urea breath test and to evaluate the accuracy of the method in clinical diagnosis. Methods: Helicobacter pylori(Hp)-positive patients were defined either by positive bacterial culture or by positive rapid urease test of endoscopic biopsy specimens. 1384 patients with suspected peptic disease were underwent 14 C urea breath test. Of them, 44 patients underwent dynamic test at various intervals to determine the optimal time for expiratory air collection. Results: Dynamic breath test showed that the highest point of 14 C counts was at 30 min after administration of 14 C urea. When a cut-off value of 3.5 was selected, the sensitivity and specificity was of the test for detecting Hp infection 96.7% and 96.5% respectively. Hp positive rate detected by 14 C urea breath test in 1092 adults and 292 children was 50.4% and 81.2%. Conclusions: This study suggests that 14 C urea breath test is a simple and reliable method for detection of Hp infection and is of high sensitivity and specificity

  6. A metabolic simulator for unmanned testing of breathing apparatuses in hyperbaric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frånberg, Oskar; Loncar, Mario; Larsson, Åke; Ornhagen, Hans; Gennser, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    A major part of testing of rebreather apparatuses for underwater diving focuses on the oxygen dosage system. A metabolic simulator for testing breathing apparatuses was built and evaluated. Oxygen consumption was achieved through catalytic combustion of propene. With an admixture of carbon dioxide in the propene fuel, the system allowed the respiratory exchange ratio to be set freely within human variability and also made it possible to increase test pressures above the condensation pressure of propene. The system was tested by breathing ambient air in a pressure chamber with oxygen uptake (Vo₂) ranging from 1-4 L · min(-1), tidal volume (VT) from 1-3 L, breathing frequency (f) of 20 and 25 breaths/min, and chamber pressures from 100 to 670 kPa. The measured end-tidal oxygen concentration (Fo₂) was compared to calculated end-tidal Fo₂. The largest average difference in end-tidal Fo₂during atmospheric pressure conditions was 0.63%-points with a 0.28%-point average difference during the whole test. During hyperbaric conditions with pressures ranging from 100 to 670 kPa, the largest average difference in Fo₂was 1.68%-points seen during compression from 100 kPa to 400 kPa and the average difference in Fo₂during the whole test was 0.29%-points. In combination with a breathing simulator simulating tidal breathing, the system can be used for dynamic continuous testing of breathing equipment with changes in VT, f, Vo2, and pressure.

  7. Change of central hemodynamics of qualified athletes for testing the use of controlled breathing and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Romanchuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using spiroarteriocardiorhythmography surveyed 174 qualified athletes (121 male and 53 female. The examination consisted of three consecutive two-minute registrations - spontaneous, controlled breathing 6 and 15 breaths per minute. Found that the hemodynamic change substantially when the respiratory tests in the first place, cardiac output, cardiac index, total peripheral vascular resistance and specific peripheral vascular resistance. To develop criteria for evaluation of hemodynamic changes carried percentile variance analysis of all indicators in the performance tests. Testing of the evaluation criteria for different types of hemodynamics in athletes allowed to establish that eukinetic type characteristic is the reduction in heart rate and pulse blood pressure under test with controlled breathing 6 times per minute for hypokinetic – pronounced increase in systolic blood pressure and pulse blood pressure during the breath tests 6 and 15 times per minute for hyperkinetic – reducing end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, in vivo performance of both tests and an increase in systemic vascular resistance during test 15 breaths per minute.

  8. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types of... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225...

  9. Drug and alcohol testing in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secondiak, E.J. [ECS Safety Services Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding substance abuse in the workplace, many employers are implementing Drug and Alcohol Testing programs. Various Provincial Human Rights Commissions and the Canadian Human Rights Commission have published position papers on some of the controversial testing policies. The Commissions generally do not support any testing except for reasonable cause and/or post accident testing. Other forms of testing may be acceptable in cases where a genuine occupational requirement can be established. Bill C-45 imposes a legal duty on both employees and employers to take reasonable measure to protect employees and enhance public safety. It was suggested that the industry could take guidance from recent court cases in Alberta, Quebec and British Columbia which have supported Drug and Alcohol Testing.

  10. The relationship between aminopyrine breath test and severity of liver disease in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, A.; Narducci, F.; Pelli, M.A.; Farroni, F.; Vedovelli, A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with cirrhosis were evaluated by the 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test, the conventional liver tests and two systems for grading the severity of liver disease. Twenty-three patients with noncirrhotic liver disease and 15 controls were also studied. Reduced 14CO2 values were found in 21 of the 22 cirrhotic patients and seven of those had noncirrhotic liver disease associated with severe functional reserve impairment. The values in patients with minor liver diseases or cholestasis were normal. In the cirrhotic patients 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test scores correlated with prothrombin time, retention of bromosulfalein, fasting serum bile acid, albumin, bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase and, above all, with the scores of the two clinical rating systems. The 2 hr.-(C14)-aminopyrine breath test was superior to conventional tests in quantifying the degree of hepatic functional reserve and forecasting the prognosis

  11. The frequency of apparent acetone in a group of breath alcohol data: statistical treatment and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, R G

    1994-06-28

    The potential presence of interfering substances (specifically acetone) is a concern in the forensic reporting of evidential breath alcohol analysis. As a result, manufacturers have designed instruments to monitor its occurrence through various hardware and software features. This paper is a retrospective study where 35,945 duplicate breath samples from BAC Verifier DataMaster instruments are evaluated for the frequency of 'interferant' values > or = 0.010 g per 210 l ethanol equivalent. A total of 264 (0.74%) of the duplicate samples had an interferant value on the first sample only, while 235 (0.66%) had interferant values on the second samples only. A total of 77 (0.21%) of the duplicate samples had in interferant values on both breath samples and only in these cases could the presence of measurable acetone even be considered. The occurrence of interferant results appeared also to be instrument-dependent with 55.7% of the interferant values on the first breath sample occurring on nine (13%) of the instruments displaying such results. The occurrences of interferant values on the first breath sample did not conform to the Poisson distribution (P < 0.0001) for the instrument with the largest number of occurrences, while there was conformance for other instruments evaluated. Finally, approximately 23 cases (0.064%) remained where the presence of acetone is a possible consideration. Several issues are presented that the forensic scientist should consider when attempting to explain an apparent interferant result in an individual case. It should be remembered that measurement results need to be interpreted in their context, and data analysis concerning an instrument's performance should be considered.

  12. Perceptions and experiences of random breath testing in Queensland and the self-reported deterrent impact on drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barry; Freeman, James

    2007-03-01

    The present study explored the impact of random breath testing (RBT) on the attitudes, perceptions, and self-reported behavior of motorists in the Australian state of Queensland. Particular attention was given to how exposure to RBT impacted motorists' perceived risk of apprehension and self-reported behavior, relative to other variables of interest such as alcohol consumption. The study involved a telephone survey of 780 motorists drawn from throughout the state of Queensland. Participants were volunteers recruited from a random sample of all listed telephone numbers in the state, adjusted according to district population figures. The survey questionnaire collected information relating to the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, drinking and drunk driving behaviors, attitudes toward drunk driving and RBT, and experiences and perceptions of RBT. The analysis indicated that a large proportion of the sample had both observed RBT and been breath tested within the last six months and believed the practice served an important role in improving road safety. However, a considerable percentage also reported drunk driving at least once in the last six months without being detected, with further analysis indicating that the threat of apprehension associated with RBT did not appear to greatly influence their offending behavior. Rather, a higher frequency of alcohol consumption, combined with more favorable attitudes to drunk driving and lower levels of support for RBT, appeared to be associated with offending behavior. While the results confirm the high levels of exposure to RBT achieved in Queensland, the direct impact of recent exposure on drunk driving behavior appears less important than other factors such as alcohol consumption and attitudes to drunk driving and RBT. Further research is required to better understand how recent and lifetime exposure to RBT impacts on motorists' perceived risk of apprehension and subsequent drunk driving behavior.

  13. A methodological aspect of the 14C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with 14 C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with 14 C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author)

  14. [14C]urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, J E; Talley, N J; Carpenter, H A; Shorter, R G; Conley, C R; Wilson, W R; DiMagno, E P; Zinsmeister, A R; Phillips, S F

    1990-07-01

    H. pylori is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the [14C]- and [13C]urea breath tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection also is known to increase with advancing age; however, the individual patient's age has not routinely been considered when interpreting urea breath test results. The aim of this study was to validate a short, age-adjusted [14C]urea breath test for use in diagnosing H. pylori infections. Forty-one subjects (28 volunteers, 13 patients) underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies. Subjects were defined as being H. pylori-positive if histology or culture was positive. In addition, all subjects completed a 120-min [14C]urea breath test. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age was used to estimate the probability of H. pylori positivity as a function of the 14C values generated. Sixteen subjects were H. pylori-positive, and 25 were H. pylori-negative. The 14C values generated between 15 and 80 min were found to be equally predictive in identifying H. pylori-positive subjects. Advancing age was associated with a higher probability of H. pylori-positivity. By taking advantage of the statistical probabilities, older patients could be accurately diagnosed with H. pylori at lower 14C values. We found that [14C]urea breath test to be both a sensitive and specific test that can be abbreviated to a 30-min examination (total test time). Moreover, our mathematical model indicates that a patient's age should be considered in order to optimize interpretation of the [14C]urea breath test, although further observations are needed to confirm this model.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  16. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  17. Reduction of sources of error and simplification of the Carbon-14 urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Carbon-14 urea breath testing is established in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate possible further simplification and identification of error sources in the 14 C urea kit extensively used at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Thirty six patients with validated H. pylon status were tested with breath samples taken at 10,15, and 20 min. Using the single sample value at 15 min, there was no change in the diagnostic category. Reduction or errors in analysis depends on attention to the following details: Stability of absorption solution, (now > 2 months), compatibility of scintillation cocktail/absorption solution. (with particular regard to photoluminescence and chemiluminescence), reduction in chemical quenching (moisture reduction), understanding counting hardware and relevance, and appropriate response to deviation in quality assurance. With this experience, we are confident of the performance and reliability of the RAPID-14 urea breath test kit now available commercially

  18. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease.

  19. Pathophysiology of dyspnea evaluated by breath-holding test: studies of furosemide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takashi

    2009-05-30

    Breath-holding is one of the most powerful methods to induce the dyspneic sensation, and the breath-holding test gives us much information on the onset and endurance of dyspnea. In conscious subjects, immediately after the start of breath-holding at functional residual capacity (FRC), there is a certain period of no particular respiratory sensation lasting for 20-30s, which is designated "no respiratory sensation period". This period is terminated by the onset of dyspnea and followed by a progressive increase in the intensity of dyspnea until the breaking point of breath-holding. The measurement of the period of no respiratory sensation provides us with information about the threshold of dyspneic sensation whereas the measurement of the total breath-holding time is a behavioral measure of the tolerable limit of dyspneic sensation. The behavioral measure of tolerable limit of dyspnea can permit the study of dyspnea even in anesthetized animals while observing escape behavior in response to airway occlusion. Inhaled furosemide causes prolongation of both the period of no respiratory sensation and total breath-holding time in conscious subjects, indicating that inhaled furosemide alleviates experimentally induced dyspnea. Alleviation of dyspnea with inhaled furosemide in conscious subjects is also consistent with the result of animal studies in which inhaled furosemide suppresses the escape behavior in the lightly anesthetized condition. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the usefulness of breath-holding test as a tool for evaluation of dyspnea. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of alleviation of dyspnea with inhaled furosemide are highlighted.

  20. Automated 13CO2 analyzing system for the 13C breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Kuroda, Akira; Maeda, Masahiro; Hinaga, Kou; Watanabe, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    An automated 13 CO 2 analyzing system for the 13 C breath test was designed, built and evaluated. The system, which was designed to be controlled by a micro-computer, includes CO 2 purification, 13 CO 2 abundance measurement, data processing and data filing. This article gives the description of the whole system with flow charts. This system has proved to work well and it has become feasible to dispose of 5 to 6 CO 2 samples per hour. With such a system, the 13 C breath test will be carried out much more easily and will obtain much greater popularity. (author)

  1. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P.

    1997-01-01

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO 2 after correction of endogenous production of CO 2 . In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, 14 C-UBT and 13 C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the 13 C-UBT

  2. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  3. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  4. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...-0688; Notice No. 12-04] RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal... tour operations to combine the drug and alcohol testing required for each operation into one testing... programs while maintaining the level of safety intended by the current drug and alcohol testing regulations...

  5. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that complies... testing for drugs and alcohol on the individuals identified in § 26.4(f), random testing must— (1) Be...

  6. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  7. Ability of the normal human small intestine to absorb fructose: evaluation by breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S C; Attaluri, Ashok; Anderson, Leslie; Stumbo, Phyllis

    2007-08-01

    Fructose consumption is increasing, and its malabsorption causes common gastrointestinal symptoms. Because its absorption capacity is poorly understood, there is no standard method of assessing fructose absorption. We performed a dose-response study of fructose absorption in healthy subjects to develop a breath test to distinguish normal from abnormal fructose absorption capacity. In a double-blind study, 20 healthy subjects received 10% solutions of 15, 25, and 50 g of fructose and 33% solution of 50-g fructose on 4 separate days at weekly intervals. Breath samples were assessed for hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) during a period of 5 hours, and symptoms were recorded. No subject tested positive with 15 g. Two (10%) tested positive with 25 g fructose but were asymptomatic. Sixteen (80%) tested positive with 50 g (10% solution), and 11 (55%) had symptoms. Breath H2 was elevated in 13 (65%), CH4 in 1 (5%), and both in 2 (10%). Twelve (60%) tested positive with 50 g (33% solution), and 9 (45%) experienced symptoms. The area under the curve for H2 and CH4 was higher (P fructose, whereas many exhibit malabsorption and intolerance with 50 g fructose. Hence, we recommend 25 g as the dose for testing subjects with suspected fructose malabsorption. Breath samples measured for H2 and CH4 concentration at 30-minute intervals and for 3 hours will detect most subjects with fructose malabsorption.

  8. The Ability of the Normal Human Small Intestine to Absorb Fructose: Evaluation by Breath Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S.C; Attaluri, Ashok; Anderson, Leslie; Stumbo, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    Background Fructose consumption is rising and its malabsorption causes common gastrointestinal symptoms. Because its absorption capacity is poorly understood, there is no standard method of assessing fructose absorption. We performed a dose response study of fructose absorption in healthy subjects in order to develop a breath test to distinguish normal from abnormal fructose absorption capacity. Methods In a double-blind study, 20 healthy subjects received 10% solutions of 15g, 25g and 50g of fructose and 33 % solution of 50g fructose on 4 separate days, at weekly intervals. Breath samples were assessed for hydrogen and methane over five hours, and symptoms were recorded. Results No subject tested positive with 15g. Two (10%) tested positive with 25g fructose but were asymptomatic. Sixteen (80 %) tested positive with 50g (10% solution) and 11 (55%) had symptoms. Breath H2 was elevated in 13 (65%), CH4 in 1 (5%) and both in 2 (10%). Twelve (60%) tested positive with 50g (33% solution) and 9 (45%) experienced symptoms. The area under the curve for H2 and CH4 was higher (pfructose whereas many exhibit malabsorption and intolerance with 50g fructose. Hence, we recommend 25g as the dose for testing subjects with suspected fructose malabsorption. Breath samples measured for H2 and CH4 concentration at 30 minute intervals and for 3 hours will detect most subjects with fructose malabsorption. PMID:17625977

  9. Accuracy of the 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Thereza Britto Gomes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The development of simple, accurate and low-expense techniques for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection has great relevance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of a rapid 14C-urea breath test (UBT employing a very simple device for breathed air collection. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Hospital das Clinicas of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and thirty-seven adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Clinical Hospital. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Histology for Helicobacter pylori (HP; urease test; urea breath test (UBT. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were infected by HP (HP+ according to both histology and the urease test, and 22 patients were HP-negative (HP-, according to the same two tests. UBT was capable of discriminating between HP+ and HP- in a way that was similar to the combination of urease test and histology. When this combination of results is taken as the "gold standard" for HP infection, the sensitivity and specificity of UBT are both greater than 90% for a range of cut-off points and breathed air collection times. CONCLUSION: The rapid UBT employing a simple device for air collection has a high accuracy in determining HP infection.

  10. Significance of hydrogen breath tests in children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Däbritz, Jan; Mühlbauer, Michael; Domagk, Dirk; Voos, Nicole; Henneböhl, Geraldine; Siemer, Maria L; Foell, Dirk

    2014-02-27

    Hydrogen breath tests are noninvasive procedures frequently applied in the diagnostic workup of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review hydrogen breath test results and the occurrence of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption in pediatric patients; and determine the significance of the findings and the outcome of patients with carbohydrate malabsorption. We included 206 children (88 male, 118 female, median age 10.7 years, range 3-18 years) with a total of 449 hydrogen breath tests (lactose, n = 161; fructose, n = 142; sorbitol, n = 146) into a retrospective analysis. Apart from test results, we documented symptoms, the therapeutic consequences of the test, the outcome and the overall satisfaction of the patients and families. In total, 204 (46%) of all breath tests were positive. Long-term follow-up data could be collected from 118 patients. Of 79 patients (67%) who were put on a diet reduced in lactose, fructose and/or sorbitol, the majority (92%, n = 73) reported the diet to be strict and only 13% (n = 10) had no response to diet. Most families (96%, n = 113) were satisfied by the test and the therapy. There were only 21 tests (5%) with a borderline result because the criteria for a positive result were only partially met. Hydrogen breath tests can be helpful in the evaluation of children with gastrointestinal symptoms including functional intestinal disorders. If applied for a variety of carbohydrates but only where indicated, around two-third of all children have positive results. The therapeutic consequences are successfully relieving symptoms in the vast majority of patients.

  11. Drug and alcohol testing results 2000 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2000 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United State during 2000. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana (...

  12. Drug and alcohol testing results 1999 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1999 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1999. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...

  13. Drug and alcohol testing results 1998 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1998 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1998. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...

  14. Application of the glycocolate 14C breath test in the stydy of rosacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woscoff, A.; Wainer, S.; Gaon, D.; Pisarello de Troparevsky, M.L.; Arciprete, C.P.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Small bowel bacterial contamination was determined in patients affected by rosacea normal or gastric hyposecretors. The Breath Test 14 C was used with glycocolate 14 C Na. The study was completed by determination of gastric acidity, Key test, Schilling test and d xilosa test with positive results. Metronidazol was administered to these patients, thus normalizing the small bowel contamination and, at the same time, improving the dermatological process. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Abnormal breath tests to lactose, fructose and sorbitol in irritable bowel syndrome may be explained by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, G; Gabrielli, M; Lupascu, A; Lauritano, E C; Santoliquido, A; Cremonini, F; Cammarota, G; Tondi, P; Pola, P; Gasbarrini, G; Gasbarrini, A

    2005-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sugar malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) may play a role in irritable bowel syndrome. The lactulose breath test is a reliable and non-invasive test for the diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The lactose, fructose and sorbitol hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect specific sugar malabsorption. To assess the extent to which small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may influence the results of hydrogen sugar breath tests in irritable bowel syndrome patients. We enrolled 98 consecutive irritable bowel syndrome patients. All subjects underwent hydrogen lactulose, lactose, fructose and sorbitol hydrogen breath tests. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth patients were treated with 1-week course of antibiotics. All tests were repeated 1 month after the end of therapy. A positive lactulose breath test was found in 64 of 98 (65%) subjects; these small intestinal bacterial overgrowth patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of positivity to the lactose breath test (P fructose breath test (P fructose and sorbitol breath tests positivity (17% vs. 100%, 3% vs. 62%, and 10% vs. 71% respectively: P malabsorption misdiagnosis.

  16. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  17. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    .... FAA-2008-0937; Amendment No. 120-0A, 135-117A] RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing Program... Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations published on May 14...; added wording to the sections describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests; directed readers...

  18. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    .... No. 120-1] RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., and post-accident drug and alcohol testing. Parts of this rule, for example those sections dealing... air tours. Part 121 and part 135 each contain requirements for drug and alcohol testing. Until 2007...

  19. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility not...

  20. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each...

  1. Diagnostic Limitations of 13C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test in Patients after Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Rusyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive examination of 136 patients after cholecystectomy are provided. High efficiency and informativeness of the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test for determining exocrine pancreatic insufficiency at its early stages was noted in patients after cholecystectomy.

  2. 14C-urea breath test as a method to detect Campylobacter pylori colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.; van Royen, E. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori may cause type B gastritis. C. pylori produces urease, and the presence of this enzyme in gastric mucosal biopsies is a marker for colonization with the microorganism. The value of a breath test to detect C. pylori colonization in non-ulcer dyspepsia patients was investigated.

  3. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent. 634.37 Section 634.37 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC...

  4. System for routine testing of self-contained and airline breathing equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, H.J.; Hermens, G.A.

    1980-07-01

    A system for routine testing of self-contained and airline breathing equipment, developed by Shell Oil Co., for testing breathing equipment at one of its refineries, consists of an 80 psig air supply for airline respirators; a 500-2100 psig air supply for self-contained units; a regulator test system which uses a mannequin head that simulates human inhalation and which tests the ability of the regulator to keep the mask interior at the correct positive pressure; and an exhalation valve test system which identifies a leaky or sticking valve. The testing system has been in use for about 30 mo and has led to increased acceptance of respiratory protective equipment by workers.

  5. L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath test in patients with chronic liver disease of different etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Segundo; Gallardo-Wong, Irazu; Rodriguez-Leal, Gustavo; McCollough, Paulina; Mendez, Jorge; Castaneda, Beatriz; Milke, Pilar; Jacobo, Janet; Dehesa, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oxidation of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine ((13)C-PheOx) in patients with chronic liver failure due to different etiologies using L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine breath test. Breath samples were collected before the administration of 100 mg L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine, and every 10 min thereafter until completion of 1 h. Control subjects (n=9) presented a larger cumulative percentage of (13)C dose recovery (CPDR) than patients (n=124) with chronic liver disease, regardless of the etiology (7.5+/-0.7 vs. 4.2+/-0.2, p=0.001). No differences in CPDR were found considering the Child-Pugh (CP) class or etiology: alcoholic (CP A=7.7+/-0.7, CP B=4.1+/-0.5, CP C=2.0+/-0.3), hepatitis C virus (CP A=5.4+/-0.5, CP B=4.0+/-0.2, CP C=2.2+/-0.3), hepatocellular carcinoma (CP A=5.5+/-1.6, CP B=3.6+/-1.8, CP C=2.2+/-1.0); or cryptogenic cirrhotic patients (CP A=7.4+/-1.5, CP B=4.4+/-0.4, CP C=2.1+/-0.7). Results confirm that (13)C-PheOx decreases in patients with cirrhosis with respect to controls, notwithstanding the etiology.

  6. Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome: Possibilities of a New Breath Test in a Dolphin Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Aksenov, Alexander A.; Yeates, Laura C.; Pasamontes, Alberto; Davis, Cristina E.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring. PMID:24324455

  7. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  8. Effect of posture on (13)C-urea breath test in partial gastrectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Fan; Shi, Dong-Mei; Xiang, Ping; Xiao, Li; Huang, Yi-Qin; Zhang, Gan-Sheng; Bao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether posture affects the accuracy of (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) detection in partial gastrectomy patients. We studied 156 consecutive residual stomach patients, including 76 with H. pylori infection (infection group) and 80 without H. pylori infection (control group). H. pylori infection was confirmed if both the rapid urease test and histology were positive during gastroscopy. The two groups were divided into four subgroups according to patients' posture during the (13)C-UBT: subgroup A, sitting position; subgroup B, supine position; subgroup C, right lateral recumbent position; and subgroup D, left lateral recumbent position. Each subject underwent the following modified (13)C-UBT: 75 mg of (13)C-urea (powder) in 100 mL of citric acid solution was administered, and a mouth wash was performed immediately; breath samples were then collected at baseline and at 5-min intervals up to 30 min while the position was maintained. Seven breath samples were collected for each subject. The cutoff value was 2.0‰. The mean delta over baseline (DOB) values in the subgroups of the infection group were similar at 5 min (P > 0.05) and significantly higher than those in the corresponding control subgroups at all time points (P 0.05). Utilization of the left lateral recumbent position during the procedure and when collecting the last breath sample may improve the diagnostic accuracy of the (13)C-UBT in partial gastrectomy patients.

  9. Kinetics of ethanol decay in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath measured on-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry following varying doses of alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Pysanenko, Andriy; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2010), s. 1066-1074 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * blood-alcohol * breath Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.846, year: 2010

  10. 13C Urea Breath Testing to Diagnose Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Deslandres

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa and gastritis has been proven. Endoscopy and subsequent histological examination of antral biopsies have been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing H pylori gastritis. The 13C urea breath test is a noninvasive test with a high specificity and sensitivity for H pylori colonization. Increasingly, it is becoming an important tool for use in diagnosing H pylori infection in paediatric populations. This test is particularly well suited for epidemiological studies evaluating reinfection rates, spontaneous clearance of infection and eradication rates after therapy. However, few groups have validated the test in the pediatric age group. The testing protocol has not yet been standardized. Variables include fasting state, dose of urea labelled with 13C, delta cutoff level of 13C carbon dioxide, choice of test meal and timing of collection of expired breath samples. Further studies are urgently needed to evaluate critically the impact of H pylori infection in children. The 13C urea breath test should prove very useful in such prospective studies.

  11. Drug and alcohol testing results 2009 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is the 15th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2009, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  12. Drug and alcohol testing results 2007 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  13. Drug and alcohol testing results 2006 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This is the 12th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2006, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol t...

  14. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  15. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  16. The Modification of Fuel Cell-Based Breath Alcohol Sensor Materials to Improve Water Retention of Sensing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Jesse

    Fuel cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrASs) are one of the most important tools used by law enforcement today. The ability to screen potentially intoxicated subjects with the ease, speed, and flexibility the BrAS can provide is unmatched by any other device of its kind. While these devices are used globally, they all suffer from a common deficiency: reliance on water. The ability of the fuel cell sensor to manage water content is one of the greatest fundamental challenges facing this technology today. In order to evaluate the fuel cell sensor device, a methodology was required that would allow in-house sensor testing to be coupled with a diagnostic testing method to not only test materials sensing performance, but also determine why a sensor behaved how it did. To do this, a next-generation fuel cell was designed specifically for sensor testing along with a test station that allowed for rapid response and sensor characteristics of a given material. The fuel cell was designed to allow in-situ testing of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of interest using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The in-house design was validated against a commercial cell to provide feedback on how materials in the in-house cell would behave in a commercial designed unit. The results showed that our cell with a commercial MEA behaved identically to a commercial cell with the same MEA. Following validation of our cell, common membrane materials were investigated to identify their suitability in a senor role. The materials chosen were designed for power generating devices, so they provided a benchmark to identify which properties would be important for sensor operation. It was found that while the Nafion membrane and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) did show performance increases over the commercial MEA, the thin characteristics of these membranes limited performance in drier conditions. From these results, it was determined that thicker membrane materials

  17. Two-stage triolein breath test differentiates pancreatic insufficiency from other causes of malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    In 24 patients with malabsorption, [ 14 C]triolein breath tests were conducted before and together with the administration of pancreatic enzymes (Pancrease, Johnson and Johnson, Skillman, N.J.). Eleven patients with pancreatic insufficiency had a significant rise in peak percent dose per hour 14 CO 2 excretion after Pancrease, whereas 13 patients with other causes of malabsorption had no increase in 14 CO 2 excretion (2.61 +/- 0.96 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.45, p less than 0.001). The two-stage [ 14 C]triolein breath test appears to be an accurate and simple noninvasive test of fat malabsorption that differentiates steatorrhea secondary to pancreatic insufficiency from other causes of steatorrhea

  18. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Antonio E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% (n=13 PD patients, 14.8% (n=4 SAD patients, 9.5% (n=2 GAD patients had a panic attack after the test (c²= 21.44, df= 2, p=0.001. There was no heart rate or anxiety levels difference among the groups before and after the test. CONCLUSION: In this breath-holding challenge test the panic disorder patients were more sensitive than other anxiety disorder patients.

  19. [Rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A; Liang, Z; Tan, T; Chen, D; Ma, H; Si, K; Ouyang, Q

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) with a simplified protocol for detecting the infection of hilicobacter pylori (HP). 157 fasting patients who underwent endoscopy with histological examination and rapid urease test (RUT) were given a drink of 37 kBq of 14C-urea. Samples of breath carbon dioxide (1 mmol) were collected at baseline and 10, 20 and 30 min after administration by trapping in hyamine solution. 14C activity was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Results were expressed as cpm. Histolal examination and RUT were used as gold standard for the detection of HP infection. The cutoff value was selected as 200 cpm at 10 min. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 94.79%, 90.16%, 93.81%, 91.60% and 92.99% respectively. In this study, a 10 min, single sample, 37 kBq 14C-urea breath test for detection HP was developed. The test has good diagnostic accuracy with minimal radiation exposure and low cost. Thus, the authors considered the test to be reliable, safe, convenient and cost-effective to clinical use.

  20. Validation of {sup 14} C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar, Rejane; Silva, Fernando Marcuz; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; Laudanna, Antonio Atilio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Gastroenterologia]. E-mail: shiroineko@uol.com.br

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the {sup 14} C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of {sup 14} C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p < 0.0001). At 20 min, the test gave 100% sensitivity and specificity with a cut-off value of 562 cpm. Females were higher expirers than males (p=0.005). {sup 14} C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  1. Role of Breathing Conditions During Exercise Testing on Training Prescription in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Bergamin, Marco; Weiss, Gertraud; Ermolao, Andrea; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether different breathing conditions during exercise testing will influence measures of exercise capacity commonly used for training prescription in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec = 45.6 [9.4]%) performed three maximal exercise tests within 8 days, but at least 48 hrs apart. Subjects were thereby breathing either room air through a tightly fitting face mask like during any cardiopulmonary exercise test (MASK), room air without mask (No-MASK), or 10 l/min of oxygen via nasal cannula (No-MASK + O2). Cycling protocols were identical for all tests (start = 20 watts, increment = 10 males/5 females watts/min). Maximal work rate (90.4 [33.8], 100.3 [34.8], 107.4 [35.9] watts, P MASK when compared with No-MASK and No-MASK + O2, respectively, whereas maximal heart rate did not differ significantly. Submaximal exertion (Borg rating of perceived exertion = 12-14) was perceived at lower intensity (P = 0.008), but higher heart rate (P = 0.005) when MASK was compared with No-MASK and No-MASK + O2. Different breathing conditions during exercise testing resulted in an 18.8% difference in maximal work rate, likely causing underdosing or overdosing of exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Face masks reduced whereas supplemental oxygen increased patients' exercise capacity. For accurate prescription of exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, breathing conditions during testing should closely match training conditions.

  2. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... technique was determined in 20 patients following ingestion of lactulose. The increment between consecutive means of duplicate samples indicative of a significant rise of H2 concentration never exceeded 10 p.p.m., the mean coefficient of variation of the duplicate samples was below 5%. Fasting H2 levels...

  3. Mobile Sensor System AGaMon for Breath Control: Numerical Signal Analysis of Ternary Gas Mixtures and First Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Seifert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative mobile sensor system for breath control in the exhaled air is introduced. In this paper, the application of alcohol control in the exhaled air is considered. This sensor system operates semiconducting gas sensor elements with respect to the application in a thermo-cyclic operation mode. This operation mode leads to so-called conductance-over-time-profiles (CTPs, which are fingerprints of the gas mixture under consideration and can be used for substance identification and concentration determination. Especially for the alcohol control in the exhaled air, ethanol is the leading gas component to be investigated. But, there are also other interfering gas components in the exhaled air, like H2 and acetone, which may influence the measurement results. Therefore, a ternary ethanol-H2-acetone gas mixture was investigated. The establishing of the mathematical calibration model and the data analysis was performed with a newly developed innovative calibration and evaluation procedure called ProSens 3.0. The analysis of ternary ethanol-H2-acetone gas samples with ProSens 3.0 shows a very good substance identification performance and a very good concentration determination of the leading ethanol component. The relative analysis errors for the leading component ethanol were in all considered samples less than 9 %. First field test performed with the sensor system AGaMon shows very promising results.

  4. When Breathing Interferes with Cognition: Experimental Inspiratory Loading Alters Timed Up-and-Go Test in Normal Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierat, Marie-Cécile; Demiri, Suela; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Allali, Gilles; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Adler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Human breathing stems from automatic brainstem neural processes. It can also be operated by cortico-subcortical networks, especially when breathing becomes uncomfortable because of external or internal inspiratory loads. How the "irruption of breathing into consciousness" interacts with cognition remains unclear, but a case report in a patient with defective automatic breathing (Ondine's curse syndrome) has shown that there was a cognitive cost of breathing when the respiratory cortical networks were engaged. In a pilot study of putative breathing-cognition interactions, the present study relied on a randomized design to test the hypothesis that experimentally loaded breathing in 28 young healthy subjects would have a negative impact on cognition as tested by "timed up-and-go" test (TUG) and its imagery version (iTUG). Progressive inspiratory threshold loading resulted in slower TUG and iTUG performance. Participants consistently imagined themselves faster than they actually were. However, progressive inspiratory loading slowed iTUG more than TUG, a finding that is unexpected with regard to the known effects of dual tasking on TUG and iTUG (slower TUG but stable iTUG). Insofar as the cortical networks engaged in response to inspiratory loading are also activated during complex locomotor tasks requiring cognitive inputs, we infer that competition for cortical resources may account for the breathing-cognition interference that is evidenced here.

  5. Study on Urea Breath Test (UBT) a tool for helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Bhade, S.P.D.; Reddy, Priyanka; Singh, Rajvir; Gadgil, Anita; Bhandarkar, Prashant; Roy, N.; Patil, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori commonly called as H. pylori resides in the gastric epithelial mucosa and induces an inflammatory response leading to gastritis, peptic nicer disease and gastric malignancies. Detection and eradication of H.pylori infection is thus an important measure to prevent these. H.pylori has a worldwide prevalence rate of about 50%, with a higher prevalence in developing countries. Urea breath test, an outpatient noninvasive technique achieves up to 95% sensitivity and specificity at half the cost compared to histology, in detecting H. Pylori infection. Indian studies on the use of UBT and its standard protocol are sparse. The present paper discusses the application of Carbon-14 Urea breath test for the diagnosis of H pylori bacterial infection in 261 adult patients

  6. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  7. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  8. 75 FR 59105 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... 2105-AE03 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug..., Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202... Part 40 Administrative practice and procedures, Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug...

  9. Methacholine challenge test: Comparison of tidal breathing and dosimeter methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, Ahlam; Lands, Larry C; Zielinski, David

    2018-02-01

    Methacholine Challenge Test (MCT) is used to confirm, assess the severity and/or rule out asthma. Two MCT methods are described as equivalent by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the tidal breathing and the dosimeter methods. However, the majority of adult studies suggest that individuals with asthma do not react at the same PC 20 between the two methods. Additionally, the nebulizers used are no longer available and studies suggest current nebulizers are not equivalent to these. Our study investigates the difference in positive MCT tests between three methods in a pediatric population. A retrospective, chart review of all MCT performed with spirometry at the Montreal Children's Hospital from January 2006 to March 2016. A comparison of the percentage positive MCT tests with three methods, tidal breathing, APS dosimeter and dose adjusted DA-dosimeter, was performed at different cutoff points up to 8 mg/mL. A total of 747 subjects performed the tidal breathing method, 920 subjects the APS dosimeter method, and 200 subjects the DA-dosimeter method. At a PC 20 cutoff ≤4 mg/mL, the percentage positive MCT was significantly higher using the tidal breathing method (76.3%) compared to the APS dosimeter (45.1%) and DA-dosimeter (65%) methods (P < 0.0001). The choice of nebulizer and technique significantly impacts the rate of positivity when using MCT to diagnose and assess asthma. Lack of direct comparison of techniques within the same individuals and clinical assessment should be addressed in future studies to standardize MCT methodology in children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The clinical value of 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuwen; Zhang Yongxian; Zhang Jinming; Ding Yong; Shao Mingzhe; Liu Zilai; Tian Jiahe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a rapid microdose 14 C-urea breath test ( 14 C-UBT) with a simplified protocol for detecting the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). 244 fasting patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms undergo the 14 C-UBT and 124 cases appear positive. 89 patients of those undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and confirmed as HP infection. The sensitivity and specificity of the 14 C-UBT is 100% when compared with the endoscopy. The test has good diagnostic accuracy with minimal radiation exposure and low cost. Thus, the test is reliable, safe, convenient and cost-effective to clinical use

  11. Confirmation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Bhasin, D.K.; Sharma, B.C.; Roy, P.; Vaiphei, K.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the 14 C-urea breath test (UBT). 14 C-UBT is being used as a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There is paucity of reports on the utility of this test to confirm the H. pylori eradication after its treatment. The study was conducted to determine the utility of 14 C-UBT in confirming the eradication of H. pylori

  12. Development of a new non-dispersed infrared analyzer for 13C breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatori, Kazuhiko; Chiyoda, Takeshi; Ishii, Toshihiro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Masao

    2002-01-01

    A new small infrared analyzer for 13 C breath tests was developed by using a Golay cell as a non-dispersed detector. This analyzer, equipped with an automatic sampling system, does not require a thermoregulator and liquid nitrogen. By the device of the optical system and the piping, the measurement became possible in the amount of one sample of 100 mL. Moreover, the measurement time of a one-set sample, which consists of two samples, was able to be carried out within 8 min. The reproducibility was S.D. ≤Δ0.8 per mille, and the linearity of Δ per mille value measured by this analyzer was good as compared with IRMS. In measurement of breath samples, the correlation between Δ per mille value measured by this analyzer and those measured by MS was also good, when CO 2 concentration is more than 2.5%. (author)

  13. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-15

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  14. Animal model for the comparison of 13C-with 14C-breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Oh-hara, H.; Maeda, T.; Someya, K.; Sano, M.

    1975-01-01

    As a preliminary study prior to the clinical application of a 13 C-breath test, an animal experiment using the rat was carried out for the comparison of 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 excretion after administration of 14 C- and 13 C-compounds. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the trachea of male rats of Wister strain was cannulated and the cannula was connected to a Harvard rodent respirator. After the animal woke up, muscle relaxant was administered and the respiration was kept under control. Vials were attached to the outlet of the respirator and CO 2 in the exhaled breath was collected by the neutralization of the alkaline solution. 14 C and 13 C specific activity in exhaled CO 2 was measured in a liquid scintillation counter and a mass spectrometer, respectively. Excretion of 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 after simultaneous administration (i.v. and p.o.) of 14 C- and 13 C-1-glycine was identical. Serial administration of 13 C-glycine and then 14 C-glycine 120 minutes later suggests the possibility that the trace dose of 14 C-compounds and loading dose of 13 C-compounds may cause different results in the breath test

  15. Drug and alcohol testing results : 1997 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1997 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1997. The report covers testing results for the following drug type...

  16. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Dinesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test.

  17. Spontaneous breathing test in the prediction of extubation failure in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Milena Siciliano; Rebello, Celso Moura; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Santos, Érica; Prado, Cristiane do

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether the spontaneous breathing test can predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. A prospective and observational study that evaluated data of inpatients at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between May 2011 and August 2013, receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours followed by extubation. The patients were classified in two groups: Test Group, with patients extubated after spontaneous breathing test, and Control Group, with patients extubated without spontaneous breathing test. A total of 95 children were enrolled in the study, 71 in the Test Group and 24 in the Control Group. A direct comparison was made between the two groups regarding sex, age, mechanical ventilation time, indication to start mechanical ventilation and respiratory parameters before extubation in the Control Group, and before the spontaneous breathing test in the Test Group. There was no difference between the parameters evaluated. According to the analysis of probability of extubation failure between the two groups, the likelihood of extubation failure in the Control Group was 1,412 higher than in the Test Group, nevertheless, this range did not reach significance (p=0.706). This model was considered well-adjusted according to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p=0.758). The spontaneous breathing test was not able to predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. Avaliar se o teste de respiração espontânea pode ser utilizado para predizer falha da extubação na população pediátrica. Estudo prospectivo, observacional, no qual foram avaliados todos os pacientes internados no Centro de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, no período de maio de 2011 a agosto de 2013, que utilizaram ventilação mecânica por mais de 24 horas e que foram extubados. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: Grupo Teste, que incluiu os pacientes extubados depois do teste de respiração espontânea; e Grupo Controle, pacientes foram sem teste de respiração espont

  18. Tidal Volume Single Breath Washout of Two Tracer Gases - A Practical and Promising Lung Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Background Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). Methods The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. Results USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. Conclusion The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing. PMID:21423739

  19. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlates with hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Olsen, A K; Stentoft, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) and tacrolimus may result from differences in the activity of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A). The erythromycin breath test is an in vivo assay of hepatic CYP3A activity......, but the method has never been directly validated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlated with the hepatic CYP3A protein level and catalytic activity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 18 liver transplant recipients, the erythromycin...... breath test was performed within 2 hours after transplantation. A graft biopsy was obtained during surgery and analyzed for the CYP3A protein level by Western blotting and for CYP3A activity with erythromycin demethylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation assays. RESULTS: The erythromycin breath...

  20. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  1. Drug and alcohol testing results 2002 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This the 7th annual report of the results of the FTA Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. The report summarizes the new reporting requirements introduced for calendar year 2001, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol testing program, the resul...

  2. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... anti-drug and alcohol misuse program in compliance with this part. (b) If the Administrator determines... and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect recent amendments to the law. The final... prior proposal because it merely incorporates recent statutory changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing...

  3. Evidence of Validity for the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Suzanne H.; Yanico, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    The convergent validity of an abbreviated version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was tested and supported. Extends a previous validity study by examining the CAST relationship to a measure that specifically addresses triangulation, individuation, intimacy, and personal authority between children of alcoholics and children of…

  4. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-11213, Notice No. 14] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011... random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  5. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-11213, Notice No. 13] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing... percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0... effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  6. Biofuel cell for generating power from methanol substrate using alcohol oxidase bioanode and air-breathed laccase biocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhuri; Barbora, Lepakshi; Das, Priyanki; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-09-15

    We report here an alcohol oxidase (AOx) based third generation bioanode for generating power from methanol substrate in a fuel cell setup using air breathed laccase biocathode. A composite three dimensional microporous matrix containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon paste and nafion was used as electroactive support for immobilization of the enzymes on toray carbon paper as supporting electrode in the fabrication of the bioelectrodes. Polyethylenimine was used to electrostatically stabilize the AOx (pI 4.3) on the anode operating on direct electrochemistry principle. Osmium tetroxide on poly (4-vinylpyridine) was used to wire the laccase for electron transfer in the biocathode. The enzymatic biofuel cell (EFC) generated an open circuit potential of 0.61 (±0.02) V with a maximum power density of 46 (±0.002) µW cm(-2) at an optimum of 1M methanol, 25 °C and an internal resistance of 0.024 µΩ. The operation and storage half life (t1/2) of the EFC were 17.22 h and 52 days, respectively at a fixed load of 1.85 Ω. The findings have demonstrated the feasibility of developing EFC using AOx based bioanode and laccase based biocathode without applying any toxic free mediator and metal electrode supports for generating electricity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at an...

  8. Evaluation of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with functional dyspepsia through H2 breath test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bafutto Gomes Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Functional dyspepsia is a condition in which symptoms are not related to organic underlying disease; its pathogenesis is not well known. The small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by the increase in the number and/or type of colonic bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The hypothesis of SIBO being associated to functional dyspepsia must be considered, since the impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the main etiologic factors involved on both pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is SIBO in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Case-control study, evaluating 34 patients: 23 functional dyspeptic and 11 non-dyspeptic (control group. Questionnaire applied based on Rome III criteria. The patients underwent H2-lactulose breath test, considered positive when: H2 peak exceeding 20 ppm, in relation to fasting, or two peaks exceeding 10 ppm sustained until 60 minutes. RESULTS: Of the 23 dyspeptic patients, 13 (56.5% obtained positive results for SIBO trough the H2-lactulose breath test. On control group, SIBO was not observed. The association between the dyspeptic group and the control group regarding SIBO was statistically significant, with P = 0.0052. In the group of dyspeptic patients, 12 (52.2% were using proton pump inhibitor; of these 9 (75% were positive for SIBO. In the control group, none of the 11 patients used proton pump inhibitors and SIBO was not observed. The association of the dyspeptic group using proton pump inhibitor that were positive for SIBO and the control group was statistically significant, with P = 0.0011. CONCLUSION: It was found that, patients with functional dyspepsia presented SIBO, when they underwent to H2-lactulose breath test, compared to the non-dyspeptic. In addition, it was observed a higher prevalence of SIBO in dyspeptic patients that were using proton pump inhibitors, compared to control group.

  9. Breath Tests Application in Order to Improve the Outcomes of Treatment for Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.Yu. Gubskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data from an own study on modern opportunities to improve the effectiveness of treatment of patients with celiac disease (n = 41. All patients were on a gluten-free diet, nonetheless effectiveness of treatment was regarded as unsatisfactory. Due to the use of modern carbon and hydrogen breath tests and diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth syndrome, lactase deficiency and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which were the causes for the persistence of clinical symptoms, we obtained reasons for their correction and achieved a complete remission of the underlying disease.

  10. Drug and alcohol testing results 1996 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1996. The report covers testing results for the following drug types: marijuana (THC), cocaine, phencyclidine (P...

  11. Results from the 2013 drug and alcohol testing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2013 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) that test positive fo...

  12. Results from the 2008 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2008 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses who test positive for controlled sub...

  13. Variations in colonic H-2 and CO2 production as a cause of inadequate diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion in breath tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Pasterkamp, S; de Bruijn, S; Stellaard, F

    Background: Lactose maldigestion is usually diagnosed by means of the H-2 breath test. When C-13-lactose is used as substrate, a (CO2)-C-13 breath rest can be performed simultaneously. In an earlier publication we described the relation between both the H2 and (CO2)-C-13 exhalation in breath and the

  14. Minimally invasive (13)C-breath test to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Murthy, Gayathri; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma. Phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity monitoring are currently limited to conventional blood dot testing. 1-(13)C-phenylalanine, a stable isotope can be used to examine phenylalanine metabolism, as the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine occurs in vivo via PAH and subsequently releases the carboxyl labeled (13)C as (13)CO2 in breath. Our objective was to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with PKU using a minimally-invasive 1-(13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PBT). Nine children (7 M: 2 F, mean age 12.5 ± 2.87 y) with PKU participated in the study twice: once before and once after sapropterin supplementation. Children were provided 6 mg/kg oral dose of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine and breath samples were collected at 20 min intervals for a period of 2h. Rate of CO2 production was measured at 60 min post-oral dose using indirect calorimetry. The percentage of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine exhaled as (13)CO2 was measured over a 2h period. Prior to studying children with PKU, we tested the study protocol in healthy children (n = 6; 4M: 2F, mean age 10.2 ± 2.48 y) as proof of principle. Production of a peak enrichment (Cmax) of (13)CO2 (% of dose) in all healthy children occurred at 20 min ranging from 17-29% of dose, with a subsequent return to ~5% by the end of 2h. Production of (13)CO2 from 1-(13)C-phenylalanine in all children with PKU prior to sapropterin treatment remained low. Following sapropterin supplementation for a week, production of (13)CO2 significantly increased in five children with a subsequent decline in blood phenylalanine levels, suggesting improved PAH activity. Sapropterin treatment was not effective in three children whose (13)CO2 production remained unchanged, and did not show a reduction in blood phenylalanine levels and improvement

  15. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...? (6) Circumvention testing. The 1992 Model Specifications offer a number of procedures for evaluating... believe that they represent a broad consensus in the industry. F. Tampering and Circumvention Testing There was some criticism that the 1992 Model Specifications for tampering and circumvention testing are...

  16. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014... December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, W38...-493-6313); or Sam Noe, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Specialist, (telephone 615-719- 2951). Issued in...

  17. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing...: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25, Federal... Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955). Issued in...

  18. Passive alcohol sensors tested in 3 states for youth alcohol enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Passive alcohol sensors were tested in three states to determine their effectiveness in enforcing zero tolerance or low BAC laws for under 21 age drivers. The passive alcohol sensor was designed to sample the air immediately around the suspect for si...

  19. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  20. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... kept by part 40 of this title, each railroad must maintain alcohol misuse prevention program records in... prevention program (if required to submit the report under § 219.801(a)). (c) Each railroad must maintain the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901...

  1. Predicting outcome of paracetamol poisoning by using 14C-aminopyrine breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, J.B.; Wright, N.; Lewis, K.O.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 C-aminopyrine ( 14 C-amidopyrine) breath test, carried out within 24 to 36 hours of an overdosage of paracetamol, was used to predict the extent of liver damage in 30 seriously poisoned patients. Mean 14 C0 2 excretion was 4.4% in 20 healthy control subjects; 5.5% in six patients who escaped injury; and 2.9%, 1.5%, and 0.2% in those with mild to moderate (12 patients), severe (eight patients), and fatal (four patients) liver damage respectively. This test proved to be a more reliable predictor of the extent of liver damage than plasma paracetamol concentration or half life or the results of conventional liver function tests and may enable treatment of hepatic failure to be started at an early stage. (author)

  2. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  3. Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SPECIAL REPORT RDMR-AE-15-02 TEST RECORD OF FLIGHT TESTS USING ALCOHOL -TO-JET/JP-8 BLENDED FUEL Franklin D Cox and George...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol -to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel 5...be certified for use in these air vehicles. 14. SUBJECT TERMS UH-60, CH-47, alternative fuel , Alcohol -to-Jet, ATJ blend, flight test, longevity

  4. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation test... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol...

  5. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  6. Simple diagnostic tests to detect toxic alcohol intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurologic disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, whereas the latter is caused by accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly decrease their rates of morbidity and mortality. Currently, detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid-based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive, and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications.

  7. Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.J.; Surveyor, I.

    1988-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of 14 C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of 14 C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of 14 C in sample)/(mmol of CO 2 collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO 2 than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy

  8. Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.J.; Surveyor, I.

    1988-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of /sup 14/C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of /sup 14/C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of /sup 14/C in sample)/(mmol of CO/sub 2/ collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO/sub 2/ than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy.

  9. Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This is the 14th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing : Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2008, the requirements of the overall : drug and alcoh...

  10. Drug and alcohol testing results 2001 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This is the sixth annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. The report summarizes the new reporting requirements introduced for calendar year 2001, the requirements of the overall dru...

  11. Validation of the 13C-urea breath test for use in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with Helicobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Citino, Scott; Munson, Linda; Konopka, Stanley

    2004-06-01

    Historically, therapeutic monitoring for prescribed eradication treatment of Helicobacter in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with associated gastritis has been accomplished only through endoscopic biopsies. The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) can offer an alternative to repeated biopsies for therapeutic monitoring. Five male and five female cheetahs and one male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris) were studied. All were clinically healthy before and after this investigation. Breath samples of end-tidal expiration were taken before and after administration of a 13C-enriched urea solution through a gastroesophageal tube. Twenty-milliliter breath samples were taken at 10, 20, 30, and 40 min after administration of the urea solution. The results of the breath analysis were compared with the results of rapid urease testing, histopathologic examination, and impression smears of gastric biopsies taken at the time of the breath test. The sensitivity and specificity for the 13C-UBT in this investigation were 100%. and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were both 100%. Although the 13C-UBT is a good noninvasive diagnostic tool for monitoring the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa, endoscopy should still be used for initial diagnosis and grading of gastritis and for monitoring the progression of disease in cheetahs. The 13C-UBT is a valuable, simple, accurate, and sensitive tool for monitoring eradication of Helicobacter during therapy for clinical gastritis.

  12. The 14C-Triolein Breath Test as a screening of the presence or absence of steatorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallares, M.; Pique, J.M.; Piera, C.; Navarro, S.; Setoain, J.; Vilar Bonet, J.; Gassull, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 14 C-Triolein Breath Test expressed as the percentage of 14 C administered exhaled during the period between 3 and 6 hours and as the maximal percentage eliminated (peak) of 14 C during the period between 3 and 6 hours was proved to be a good screening test to detect the presence or absence of steatorrhoea in patients with long standing diarrhoea

  13. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.253 What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT conducting an alcohol... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol...

  14. 49 CFR 199.223 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.223 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. Each operator shall require a covered employee to submit to a post-accident alcohol... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a required alcohol test. 199...

  15. 49 CFR 40.231 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.231 What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests? (a... section are the only devices you may use to conduct alcohol confirmation tests under this part. Note that... use in confirmation testing in the DOT alcohol testing program. (b) To conduct a confirmation test...

  16. Fluorometric Sniff-Cam (Gas-Imaging System) Utilizing Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Imaging Concentration Distribution of Acetaldehyde in Breath and Transdermal Vapor after Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Kenta; Sato, Toshiyuki; Naisierding, Munire; Hayakawa, Yuuki; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2018-02-20

    Understanding concentration distributions, release sites, and release dynamics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the human is expected to lead to methods for noninvasive disease screening and assessment of metabolisms. In this study, we developed a visualization system (sniff-cam) that enabled one to identify a spatiotemporal change of gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) in real-time. AcH sniff-cam was composed of a camera, a UV-LED array sheet, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-immobilized mesh. A reverse reaction of ADH was employed for detection of gaseous AcH where a relationship between fluorescence intensity from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and the concentration of AcH was inversely proportional; thus, the concentration distribution of AcH was measured by detecting the fluorescence decrease. Moreover, the image differentiation method that calculated a fluorescence change rate was employed to visualize a real-time change in the concentration distribution of AcH. The dynamic range of the sniff-cam was 0.1-10 ppm which encompassed breath AcH concentrations after drinking. Finally, the sniff-cam achieved the visualization of the concentration distribution of AcH in breath and skin gas. A clear difference of breath AcH concentration was observed between aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 active and inactive subjects, which was attributed to metabolic capacities of AcH. AcH in skin gas showed a similar time course of AcH concentration to the breath and a variety of release concentration distribution. Using different NADH-dependent dehydrogenases in the sniff-cam could lead to a versatile method for noninvasive disease screening by acquiring spatiotemporal information on various VOCs in breath or skin gas.

  17. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by carbon-13 urea breath test using a portable mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreekumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: In the non-invasive detection of markers of disease, mass spectrometry is able to detect small quantities of volatile markers in exhaled air. However, the problem of size, expense and immobility of conventional mass spectrometry equipment has restricted its use. Now, a smaller, less expensive, portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system has been developed. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the development of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Objectives: To compare the results obtained from the presence of H. pylori by a carbon-13 urea test using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system with those from a fixed mass spectrometer in a hospital-based clinical trial. Methods: Following ethical approval, 45 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital exhaled a breath sample into a Tedlar gas sampling bag. They then drank an orange juice containing urea radiolabelled with carbon and 30 min later gave a second breath sample. The carbon-13 content of both samples was measured using both quadrupole mass spectrometer systems. If the post-drink level exceeded the pre-drink level by 3% or more, a positive diagnosis for the presence of H. pylori was made. Results: The findings were compared to the results using conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry using a laboratory-based magnetic sector instrument off-site. The results showed agreement in 39 of the 45 patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer is a potential alternative to the conventional centralised testing equipment. Future development of the portable quadrupole mass spectrometer to reduce further its size and cost is indicated, together with further work to validate this new equipment and to enhance its use in mass spectrometry diagnosis of other medical conditions.

  18. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by carbon-13 urea breath test using a portable mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, J; France, N; Taylor, S; Matthews, T; Turner, P; Bliss, P; Brook, Alan H; Watson, Ajm

    2015-01-01

    In the non-invasive detection of markers of disease, mass spectrometry is able to detect small quantities of volatile markers in exhaled air. However, the problem of size, expense and immobility of conventional mass spectrometry equipment has restricted its use. Now, a smaller, less expensive, portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system has been developed. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the development of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. To compare the results obtained from the presence of H. pylori by a carbon-13 urea test using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system with those from a fixed mass spectrometer in a hospital-based clinical trial. Following ethical approval, 45 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital exhaled a breath sample into a Tedlar gas sampling bag. They then drank an orange juice containing urea radiolabelled with carbon and 30 min later gave a second breath sample. The carbon-13 content of both samples was measured using both quadrupole mass spectrometer systems. If the post-drink level exceeded the pre-drink level by 3% or more, a positive diagnosis for the presence of H. pylori was made. The findings were compared to the results using conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry using a laboratory-based magnetic sector instrument off-site. The results showed agreement in 39 of the 45 patients. This study suggests that a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer is a potential alternative to the conventional centralised testing equipment. Future development of the portable quadrupole mass spectrometer to reduce further its size and cost is indicated, together with further work to validate this new equipment and to enhance its use in mass spectrometry diagnosis of other medical conditions.

  19. Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Krawielitzki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a

  20. Evaluation of Breath-Holding Test in Assessment of Peripheral Chemoreflex Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of peripheral chemoreflex is a marker of the severity of heart failure and the prognosis of the outcome in these patients. The assessment of chemosensitivity in these patients remains an actual problem. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between a Breath-Holding Test (BHT) and single-breath carbon dioxide test and to evaluate the reliability of both tests in patients with Heart Failure (HF). The study was performed in 43 patients with chronic heart failure. All subjects underwent BHT and single-breath carbon dioxide (CB-CO 2 ), the evaluation of both tests was repeated a month later. Relationship of two test was evaluated by correlation analysis. Reliability was assessed with calculation of Standard Error of Measurement (SEM), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The duration of the breath-holding was inversely correlated to the result of CB-CO 2 test (r = -0.86 at first measurement and r = -0.79 after a month) The ICC was 0.87 (95%CI: 0.78-0.93) for SB-CO 2 test and 0,93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.96) for BHT, the CV was 24% for SB-CO 2 and 13% for BHT. SEM for SB-CO 2 test was 0.04 L / min / mmHg and limits of variation was 0.11 L / min / mmHg; SEM for BHT was 3.6 sec and limits of variation was10 sec. Breath-holding test is a reliable and safe method for assessing the sensitivity of peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in patients with heart failure.

  1. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013...., Washington, DC 20590, (telephone 202-493- 1342); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist... from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has...

  2. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace is probably about .30. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES94 Drug Abuse , Alcohol...8217Rev 2 89’ toyAS’I 0 13 zoo Integrity and Substance A-buseý Va-idity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and %Lcohol Abuse Frank L. Schmidt...nflegri’ty and S, c ,s EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Drug and alcohol abuse is a major problem in the workplace . In this report,

  3. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time...

  4. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  5. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271 Section 40.271 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing...

  6. 49 CFR 40.255 - What happens next after the alcohol confirmation test result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.255 What happens next after the alcohol confirmation test result? (a) After the EBT has printed the result of an alcohol confirmation test, you must, as the BAT, take the following additional steps: (1) Sign...

  7. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  8. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B...

  9. Non-invasive detection of low-intestinal lactase activity in children by use of a combined (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Stellaard, F; Bijleveld, CMA; Elzinga, H; Boverhof, R; van der Meer, R; Vonk, RJ; Sauer, PJJ

    Background: The aim of the study was to diagnose hypolactasia with a higher accuracy than with the traditional H-2 breath test. Methods: We used a combined C-13-lactose (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath test, which was performed in 33 patients in whom lactase activity was measured. Results: Lactase activity was

  10. The 13carbon urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in subjects with atrophic gastritis: evaluation in a primary care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, A.; van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Sabbe, L. J. M.; den Hartog, G.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (13)Carbon urea breath testing is reliable to detect current infection with Helicobacter pylori but has been reported to be of limited value in selected patients with atrophic body gastritis or acid-lowering medication. AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of (13)carbon urea breath testing for

  11. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs” (65 FR 41944; August 9, 2001) to collect specimens... that the licensee's or other entity's staff possesses the necessary training and skills for the tasks... or drug metabolites in Federal workplace drug testing programs and the licensee or other entity...

  12. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.93 Preparing... shall— (1) Ask the donor whether he or she, in the past 15 minutes, has had anything to eat or drink...

  13. 13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Jassal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test format as the basis of a novel biomarker and diagnostic for pulmonary TB. Sensitized New-Zealand White Rabbits underwent bronchoscopic infection with either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rabbits were treated with 25 mg/kg of isoniazid (INH approximately 2 months after infection when significant cavitary lung pathology was present. [(13C] urea was instilled directly into the lungs of intubated rabbits at selected time points, exhaled air samples analyzed, and the kinetics of delta(13CO(2 formation were determined. Samples obtained prior to inoculation served as control samples for background (13CO(2 conversion in the rabbit model. (13CO(2, from metabolic conversion of [(13C]-urea by mycobacterial urease activity, was readily detectable in the exhaled breath of infected rabbits within 15 minutes of administration. Analyses showed a rapid increase in the rate of (13CO(2 formation both early in disease and prior to treatment with INH. Following INH treatment, all evaluable rabbits showed a decrease in the rate of (13CO(2 formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urea breath testing may provide a useful diagnostic and biomarker assay for tuberculosis and for treatment response. Future work will test specificity for M. tuberculosis using lung-targeted dry powder inhalation formulations, combined with co-administering oral urease inhibitors together with a saturating oral dose of unlabeled urea, which would prevent the delta(13CO(2 signal from urease-positive gastrointestinal organisms.

  14. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  15. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  16. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Houben

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2 excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO, and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  17. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  18. Abbreviation modalities of nitrogen multiple-breath washout tests in school children with obstructed lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Ejlertsen, Jacob S; Madsen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    , the lung clearance index, calculated as lung volume turnovers required to reach 2.5% of the starting N2 concentration (LCI2.5 ). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of triplicate N2 MBW measurements obtained in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (N = 60), primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients (N = 28......RATIONALE: Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2 MBW) is a promising tool for assessing early lung damage in children with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it can be a time-consuming procedure. We compared alternative test-shortening endpoints with the most commonly reported N2 MBW outcome...... MBW runs in each session. N2 MBW endpoints were analyzed as z-scores calculated from healthy controls. RESULTS: In PCD, Cn@TO6 and LCI2.5 exhibited similar values (mean [95%CI] difference: 0.33 [-0.24; 0.90] z-scores), reducing the test duration by one-third (5.4 min; 95%CI: 4.0; 6.8). All other...

  19. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  20. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortness of breath; Breathlessness; Difficulty breathing; Dyspnea ... There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people ... even though they don't have a medical condition. Others may ...

  1. Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Ali; Buresi, Michelle; Lembo, Anthony; Lin, Henry; McCallum, Richard; Rao, Satish; Schmulson, Max; Valdovinos, Miguel; Zakko, Salam; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. Methods: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting. Using an evidence-based approach, 28 statements were finalized and voted on anonymously by a working group of specialists. Results: Consensus was reached on 26 statements encompassing all five domains. Consensus doses for lactulose, glucose, fructose and lactose BT were 10, 75, 25 and 25 g, respectively. Glucose and lactulose BTs remain the least invasive alternatives to diagnose SIBO. BT is useful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion, methane-associated constipation, and evaluation of bloating/gas but not in the assessment of oro-cecal transit. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. by 90 min during glucose or lactulose BT for SIBO was considered positive. Methane levels ≥10 p.p.m. was considered methane-positive. SIBO should be excluded prior to BT for carbohydrate malabsorption to avoid false positives. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. from baseline during BT was considered positive for maldigestion. Conclusions: BT is a useful, inexpensive, simple and safe diagnostic test in the evaluation of common gastroenterology problems. These consensus statements should help to standardize the indications, preparation, performance and interpretation of BT in clinical practice and research. PMID:28323273

  2. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2017-09-06

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. 49 CFR 382.211 - Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....211 Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test. No driver shall refuse to submit to a post-accident alcohol or controlled substances test required under § 382.303, a random alcohol or controlled substances test required under § 382.305, a reasonable suspicion alcohol or...

  4. 27 CFR 19.750 - Records of alcohol content and fill tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and fill tests. 19.750 Section 19.750 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Processing Account § 19.750 Records of alcohol content and fill tests. (a) Proprietors shall record the results of all tests of alcohol content and quantity (fill) conducted. (b) The record shall be maintained...

  5. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  6. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... 2105-AE01 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of...: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey..., Alcohol abuse, Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  7. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Newberry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO’s association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03. In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97–1.00. Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age.

  8. On-line, Simultaneous Quantification of Ethanol, some Metabolites and Water Vapour in Breath Following the Ingestion of Alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Wang, T.; Španěl, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2002), s. 477-489 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * breath analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2002

  9. Reliability Generalization of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Alan L.; Caruso, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the reliability of scores from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. Sounders and others, 1993) in a reliability generalization study based on 17 empirical journal articles. Results show AUDIT scores to be generally reliable for basic assessment. (SLD)

  10. Laboratory testing of a saliva-alcohol test device by Enzymatics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the accuracy of a new saliva-alcohol test device (Enzymatics, Inc. "Q.E.D.-A150") at nine different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) under three temperature conditions. However, it did not assess the saliva collection procedure...

  11. Validation of a simplified carbon-14-urea breath test for routine use for detecting Helicobacter [correction of Heliobacter] pylori noninvasively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, E; Malfertheiner, P; Clausen, M; Burkhardt, H; Adam, W E

    1990-12-01

    A carbon-14 (14C) urea breath test for detecting Helicobacter pylori with multiple breath sampling was developed. Carbon-14-urea (110 kBq) administered orally to 18 normal subjects and to 82 patients with Helicobacter infection. The exhaled 14C-labeled CO2 was trapped at 10-min intervals for 90 min. The total 14C activity exhaled over 90 min was integrated and expressed in %activity of the total dose given. In normals, a mean of 0.59% +/- 0.24% was measured, resulting in an upper limit of normal of 1.07%. In 82 patients, a sensitivity of 90.2%, a specificity of 83.8%, and a positive predictive value of 90.2% was found. The single probes at intervals of 40-60 min correlated best with the integrated result, with r ranging from 0.986 to 0.990. The test's diagnostic accuracy did not change at all when reevaluated with the 40-, 50-, or 60-min sample data alone. Thus, the 14C-urea breath test can be applied routinely as a noninvasive, low-cost and one-sample test with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting Helicobacter pylori colonization.

  12. Effects of the neurokinin-1 antagonist maropitant on canine gastric emptying assessed by radioscintigraphy and breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Silke; Fink, Tamara; Failing, Klaus; Borsch, Christian; Kunz, Clemens; Clemence, Richard; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Neiger, Reto

    2016-06-16

    Delayed gastric emptying is a well-recognised phenomenon in a number of canine disease conditions. Only a limited number of drugs have been reported to have some gastrokinetic effect in the dog. The aim of this study was to investigate prokinetic effects of maropitant. In a cross-over study 24 healthy adult Beagle dogs were randomised to receive either maropitant (2 mg/kg q24 h PO), cisapride (1 mg/kg q12 h PO) or placebo (vitamin-B12, 10 µg/dog q24 h PO) for 7 days with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Gastric emptying was measured simultaneously via 99mTechnetium radioscintigraphy and 13C-sodium acetate breath testing for 6 hours post-feeding. The decrease in radioactive counts in the stomach and the increase in 13CO2 concentration in exhaled breath (measured via gas chromatography) were plotted against time. The area under the curve was determined for each test and the time to 25%, 50% and 75% gastric emptying was calculated for each method. Friedman test was used to compare gastric emptying times. With both methods, no difference for gastric emptying times was observed for any treatment. Neither maropitant nor cisapride were shown to have an effect on gastric emptying in healthy beagles using radioscintigraphy or breath test when compared to placebo. Consequently, neither drug can be recommended as a gastric prokinetic in dogs.

  13. Alcohol feeding blocks methacholine-induced airway responsiveness in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenburg, P. J.; Wyatt, T. A.; Factor, P. H.; Sisson, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Historical accounts of alcohol administration to patients with breathing problems suggest that alcohol may have bronchodilating properties. We hypothesized that acute alcohol exposure will alter airway responsiveness (AR) in mice. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed either 20% alcohol in drinking water (fed) or received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alcohol (3 g/kg). Control groups received regular drinking water or ip saline. AR was assessed by means of ventilation or...

  14. DYNAMIC CHANGES IN SPECTRAL HEART RATE VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PACED BREATHING TEST IN PATIENT WITH UNCONTROLLED ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND POLYMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oyeleye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of a patient with uncontrolled hypertension and polymorbidity. The paced breathing test was made, was found prevalence of low frequency influences at the initial stage and its intensification at the resting stage, growth of the total power of heart rate variability spectrum (TP with respiratory modulation. The course of the disease worsened the appearance of new-onset atrial fibrillation (registered paroxysm on Holter monitoring; the general deterioration of the patient’s state reflected HRV changes on sinus rhythm tracing - significantly reduced TP growth in response to paced breathing, an increase in LF/HF (ratio of low frequency to high frequency waves, as well as switching to the neurohormonal level of heart rate regulation at the resting stage. After the treatment the growth of TP in response to the test has increased and LF/HF level has decreased.

  15. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same EBT...

  16. 14 CFR 61.16 - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to... INSTRUCTORS General § 61.16 Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. A refusal to submit to a test to indicate the percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when requested by a law...

  17. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  18. Influence of oral and esophageal commensal microflora on 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Bhasin, D.K.; Sharma, B.C.; Singh, B.; Vaiphei, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Seventeen gastritis patients (12M: 5F; mean age: 40 y) were studied to evaluate the influence of oral and esophageal urease producing commensal microflora on the 14 C-urea breath test(UBT). To determine the influence of oral bacterial on UBT, 111 kBq 14 C-urea in 10 ml water was given orally to 6 H.pylori negative subjects, with the instructions to expectorate the tracer after 30 sec. To evaluate the influence normal esophageal flora on UBT, the tracer was given to 11 patients (4 H.pylori-ve :7 H.pylori +ve) in the capsule and again after 6 h in water. One mmol C0 2 was collected before and up to 30 min. of tracer administration and 14 C content measured. When given as mouth wash, 14 C-urea liquid caused an immediate peak of 14 C0 2 at 2 min (4263 ± 1024 dpm) and thereafter declined sharply reaching base line value after 10 min (208 ±62 dpm). When tracer was given in capsule, 14 C0 2 level in H.pylori +ve patients increased significantly within 5 min and peaked at 10-15 min. (8644 ± 987 dpm at 15 min). However, when the tracer was given in liquid, 14 CO 2 levels were almost similar to those of 14 C-urea mouth wash experiment in H.pylori -ve patients. It is therefore, concluded that normal commensal microflora present in the oropharynx and esophagus contribute significantly to 14 C-UBT. For the accurate diagnosis of H.pylori infection, the tracer should therefore, be given in the capsule

  19. Polysomnography test and sleep disordered breathing in Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea- Iulia Dobrescu1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Prader Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare condition and represents the most frequent cause of syndromic obesity. Sleep apnea is a life-threatening affection and is documented as the main cause of sudden death in PWS. OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of our study was to evaluate sleep disorders in PWS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used a portable monitor that recorded time in bed (TIB, the air flow in the upper airways, oxygen saturation, heart rate and snoring. The included patients had a positive clinical and molecular diagnosis of PWS. RESULTS The mean of TIB was 439.3±117.19 minutes. We recorded obstructive, central and mixed apnea, hypopnea and short wakes caused by respiratory events that were variable number and duration, in all patients. cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improved life quality. Moreover, small doses of these drugs proved to be effective even in patients where hemodialysis alone was enough to control blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Sleep disorders are present in most PWS patients, not only obese ones according to their anatomical particularities. These events prevent the use of growth hormone therapy, the only available treatment that decreases the adipose mass and increase both prognosis and life quality in PWS patients. Graphical abstract: Polysomnography Test in a PWS patient. REFERENCES 1. Vandeleur M, Davey MJ, Nixon GM. Are sleep studies helpful in children with Prader-Willi syndrome prior to commencement of growth hormone therapy? J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49:238–41. 2. Giordano L, Toma S, Palonta F, Teggi R, Zucconi M, Candia SD, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in Prader-Willi syndrome: risks and advantages of adenotonsillectomy. Pediatr Med Chir. 2015;37(2. 3. Pavone M, Caldarelli V, Khirani S, Colella M, Ramirez A, Aubertin G, et al. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: A multicenter study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015;50:1354–9

  20. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-06-28

    To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P lactose doses in both groups. Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  1. 49 CFR 40.225 - What form is used for an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What form is used for an alcohol test? 40.225... Testing § 40.225 What form is used for an alcohol test? (a) The DOT Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) must be used for every DOT alcohol test. The ATF must be a three-part carbonless manifold form. The ATF is...

  2. First-time urea breath tests performed at home by 36,629 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Søren; Andersen, Rikke Charlotte; Nielsen, Birgitte Sperling Wilms

    2011-01-01

    population was approximately 700,000 people. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2009, 44,487 UBTs were performed. Of these, 36,629 were first-time UBTs. In total, 726 of 45,213 breath bags received (1.6%) were unable to be analyzed because of errors with the bags. For both women and men who were ≤ 45 years of age...

  3. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar

  4. Advantages of breath testing for the early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Sule-Suso, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-257 ISSN 1473-7159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * breath analysis * lung cancer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.652, year: 2010

  5. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol... Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the initial... the donor that a confirmatory test for alcohol is required. ...

  6. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol... Specimens for Testing § 26.103 Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. (a) A confirmed positive test result for alcohol must be declared under any of the following conditions: (1) When the...

  7. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under the...

  8. Usefulness of N-dimethyl-13 C-aminopyrine breath test in the diagnosis of liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Shiratori, Yasushi; Motogi, Tatsuya; Murao, Satoru

    1984-01-01

    N-dimethyl- 13 C-aminopyrine breath test was performed in patients with liver disease and healthy controls to compare cumulative 13 CO 2 % dose per 3 hrs expired during breathing. Expired cumulative values were significantly lower in patients with liver cirrhosis than in healthy controls. They were also significantly lower in cirrhosis patients with a history of hepatic insufficiency than in patients without it. However, there was no significant difference between patients with esophageal varices and patients without it. A significant difference was observed between patients with chronic active hepatitis than in healthy controls, but not observed between patients with chronic inactive hepatitis and healthy controls. They did not correlate with sGOT or sGPT, but correlated with prothrombin levels or serum albumin levels. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. 49 CFR 40.13 - How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non-DOT tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do DOT drug and alcohol tests relate to non... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.13 How do DOT drug and... non-DOT drug and alcohol testing programs. This prohibition includes the use of the DOT forms with...

  10. Does smoking abstinence influence distress tolerance? An experimental study comparing the response to a breath-holding test of smokers under tobacco withdrawal and under nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Anna Aldi, Giulia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-09-30

    Distress tolerance has been operationalized as task persistence in stressful behavioral laboratory tasks. According to the distress tolerance perspective, how an individual responds to discomfort/distress predicts early smoking lapses. This theory seems weakly supported by experimental studies since they are limited in number, show inconsistent results, do not include control conditions. We tested the response to a stressful task in smokers under abstinence and under no abstinence to verify if tobacco abstinence reduces task persistence, thus distress tolerance. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used. Twenty smokers underwent a breath holding test after the administration of nicotine on one test day and a placebo on another test day. Physiological and psychological variables were assessed at baseline and directly before and after each challenge. Abstinence induced a statistically significant shorter breath holding duration relative to the nicotine condition. No different response to the breath holding test was observed when nicotine and placebo conditions were compared. No response to the breath holding test was found when pre- and post-test values of heart rate, blood pressure, Visual Analogue Scale for fear or discomfort were compared. In brief, tobacco abstinence reduces breath holding duration but breath holding test does not influence discomfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived Physical Availability of Alcohol at Work and Workplace Alcohol Use and Impairment: Testing a Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and two dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  12. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-03-10

    Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6) and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF(6) and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6) and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6) and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  13. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  14. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? 40.267 Section 40.267 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.267 What problems...

  15. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the...

  16. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 199 [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0335] Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing AGENCY... operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol tests of..., operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either contributed to the...

  17. 75 FR 5722 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., Senior Policy Advisor (S- 1), Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE..., Alcohol testing, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Laboratories, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Safety...

  18. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a) Each...

  19. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not comply...

  20. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  1. Imaging and retention measurements of selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine, and the carbon 14 glycochol breath test to document ileal dysfunction due to late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Olmos, R.; Hartog Jager, F. den; Hoefnagel, C.; Taal, B.; Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess ileal dysfunction in patients with complaints after pelvic radiation therapy, retention measurements and scintigraphic imaging with selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine ( 75 Se-HCAT), combined with the carbon 14 clycochol breath test, were evaluated in 39 patients. In 22 patients without ileal resection the results of the 75 Se-HCAT test and the breath test differentiated between a normal functioning ileum (both tests negative) and ileal dysfunction as a cause of complaints (one or both tests positive). Among the patients with ileal dysfunction, the combination of both tests permitted those with bacterial overgrowth (breath test positive, 75 Se-HCAT negative) to be separated from patients with evidence of bile acid malabsorption ( 75 Se-HCAT positive, breath test positive or negative). In 17 patients with small-bowel resection, the 75 Se-HCAT test helped to estimate the severity of bile acid malabsorption with implications for therapy. In this group the breath test was false-negative in 7 cases with abnormal 75 Se-HCAT. Additional systematically performed scintigraphic imaging improved the accuracy of the 75 Se-HCAT test, revealing cases with prolonged colonic accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical, causing spurious retention values. In conclusion, assessment of ileal dysfunction by nuclear medicine techniques in post-irradiation conditions provides information about the aetiology and therefore the possibility of adjustment in the clinical management. (orig.)

  2. Eradication Rate of Helicobacter pylori on the US-Mexico Border Using the Urea Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Roy P; Romero, Roberta; Sarosiek, Jerzy; Dodoo, Christopher; Dwivedi, Alok K; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is prevalent worldwide, especially in Latin America. Triple and quadruple antibiotic therapies have been relatively effective; however, resistance has emerged in recent years. The treatment success rate of these regimens on the border of the United States and Mexico is unknown. Our study attempted to determine eradication rates of two major regimens based on urea breath test (UBT) results in patients previously diagnosed as having H. pylori in a single center in El Paso, Texas, a city on the geographic border with Mexico. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with H. pylori who underwent UBT after being treated with triple therapy (amoxicillin/clarithromycin/proton pump inhibitor for 14 days), quadruple therapy (tetracycline/metronidazole/bismuth/proton pump inhibitor, usually for 10 days), or both for H. pylori from 2010 to 2015 in a county hospital. Patients were excluded if they did not complete therapy or if their treatment regimen was unknown. The Student t test and the χ 2 test were used to analyze the data. The cumulative incidence and 95% confidence interval (CI) for treatment success were estimated. A total of 104 patients completed the treatment for H. pylori and had UBT. Mean age was 53 years, 76% were women, 85% were Hispanic, and mean body mass index was 30.5 kg/m 2 . Of the 104 patients diagnosed as having H. pylori , 88 received triple therapy (84.6%) and 16 received quadruple therapy: 12 (11.5%) standard quadruple therapy, 4 (3.9%) triple therapy plus metronidazole. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, or ethnicity. Overall, 90 (86.5%, 95% CI 78-92) patients had negative UBT after initial treatment. Based on posttreatment UBT, the triple therapy group had a similar eradication rate compared with the quadruple therapy group (78/88, 88.6% vs 12/16, 75.0%, P = 0.22). Of the 14 patients with positive posttreatment UBT, 12 (85.7%) received retreatment (2 were lost to follow

  3. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  4. Correlation of single-breath count test and neck flexor muscle strength with spirometry in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Bakri; Arnold, W David; Gharibshahi, Shahram; Reynolds, Jerold; Freimer, Miriam; Kissel, John T

    2016-01-01

    Although formal spirometry is the gold standard for monitoring respiratory function in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), such testing is often delayed or unavailable. There is a need for a simple bedside test that can accurately measure respiratory function. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single-blind study in adults with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive MG. Participants performed the single breath count test (SBCT) and underwent manual muscle strength testing, and a respiratory therapist performed spirometry blinded to SBCT and strength results. Thirty-one patients, aged 57 ± 19 years participated. SBCT showed significant correlations with forced vital capacity (FVC), negative inspiratory force, and neck flexor strength (P strength (P = 0.02) but no correlation with shoulder abductor strength. These data suggest that the SBCT and neck flexor strength testing are valuable tools for bedside assessment of respiratory function in MG patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Influence of citric acid solution as a test drink in the 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobactor pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Khanduja, K.L.; Bhasin, D.K.; Ray, P.; Nada, R.

    2001-01-01

    Different test meals are used in the 14 C-urea breath test (UBT) for the detection of H.pylori infection. The purpose of using test meals is to slow gastric emptying and to maximise the distribution of the urea substrate within the stomach so as to increase the area and time of contact between bacteria and substrate. Recently, citric acid has been suggested as an improved liquid test meal. The mechanism is not known and could act by delaying gastric emptying, decreasing the pH at the site of the bacteria, or both

  6. Drink driving in Hong Kong: the competing effects of random breath testing and alcohol tax reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Wong, Alvin H; Goggins, William B; Lau, Joseph; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the competing effects of increased anti-drink driving legislation and the recent elimination of excise taxes on wine and beer. Serial cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2006 (n = 9860) and 2011 (n = 4800). Hong Kong, China. Chinese adults (≥18 years of age). Respondents were asked about their drinking patterns, past-year experience of driving within 2 hours of drinking, drinking-related attitudes and reported deterrents to drink driving. Following the legislative changes, the age-standardized past-year prevalence of drink driving decreased significantly from 5.2 to 2.8% (P Hong Kong, the current anti-drink driving strategy appears to reduce drink driving in males and prevent increased levels among females. Binge drinkers, however, remain a high-risk group that should be monitored continually. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1) Drug...

  8. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Pozo, Antonio M; Anera, Rosario G; Soler, Margarita

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment.

  9. 75 FR 2926 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    .... PHMSA-2009-0408] Pipeline Safety: Reporting Drug and Alcohol Test Results for Contractors and Multiple... Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS), is modifying the Drug & Alcohol... begin collecting annual drug and alcohol testing data for contractor employees with Management...

  10. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office... technical amendments to its drug and alcohol testing procedures to authorize employers to begin using the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance...

  11. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD67 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... employers in the Department's drug and alcohol testing program to disclose to State commercial driver licensing (CDL) authorities the drug and alcohol violations of employees who hold CDLs and operate...

  12. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... 2105-AD64 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of..., U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey.... PART 40--PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS 0 Accordingly, the...

  13. 75 FR 49850 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... 2105-AD95 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of... Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590; telephone... methodology upon which DOT can rely in making its drug and alcohol testing regulations; we follow the HHS...

  14. Microdose 14C urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: a survey in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dowlatabadi Bazaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon -14 urea breath test (UBTis a non-invasive and simple method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Attempts have been made to use lower doses of 14C-urea in the UBT in order to reduce the radiation risk of the test. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a microdose (1 µCi [37 KBq] 14C-UBT in Iranian population for validation of its diagnostic accuracy against gold standard methods. Eighty and two patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as 14C-UBT in one week. Rapid urease test and histological examinations were used as gold standard. Breath samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 minute after ingestion of 1 µCi of 14C- urea solution and their activities were measured using a scintillation counter and expressed as counts per minute (cpm and disintegration per minute (dpm. Good agreement was observed between the 14C-UBT and gold standard for samples which were collected 20 minutes after 14C-urea administration. The 14CUBT showed 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 95.45% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 97.50% accuracy. The results of this study showed good concordance between the 14C-UBT and invasive methods.

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  18. Lactose Malabsorption Testing in Daily Clinical Practice: A Critical Retrospective Analysis and Comparison of the Hydrogen/Methane Breath Test and Genetic Test (C/T-13910 Polymorphism Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Enko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a retrospective evaluation and comparison of the hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4 breath test and genetic test (C/T−13910 polymorphism results in lactose malabsorption testing. In total 263 consecutive patients with suspected lactose malabsorption were included in this study. They underwent the H2/CH4 breath test following the ingestion of 50 g lactose and were tested for the C/T−13910 polymorphism. In total 51 patients (19.4% had a C/C−13910 genotype, indicating primary lactose malabsorption. Only 19 patients (7.2% also had a positive H2/CH4 breath test. All in all 136 patients (51.69% had a C/T−13910 and 76 patients (28.91% a T/T−13910 genotype, indicating lactase persistence. Four patients (1.5% with the C/T−13910 genotype and one patient (0.4% with the T/T−13910 genotype had a positive H2/CH4 breath test result, indicating secondary lactose malabsorption. Cohen's Kappa measuring agreement between the two methods was 0.44. Twenty patients (7.6% with a positive H2/CH4 peak within 60 minutes after lactose ingestion were classified as patients with lactose-dependent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. In conclusion, only moderate agreement between the breath test and the genetic test was shown. Secondary lactose malabsorption as well as preanalytical limitations of the combined H2/CH4 breath test procedure can cause discrepant results. This trial is registered with K-42-13.

  19. Evaluation of 13C-urea breath test in the detection of Helicobacter pylori and in monitoring the effect of tripotassium dicitratobismuthate in non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, S; Payne-James, J J; Misiewicz, J J; Grimble, G K; McSwiggan, D; Pathak, K; Wood, A J; Scrimgeour, C M; Rennie, M J

    1990-11-01

    Sixty nine patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia have been studied with endoscopy, biopsy, quick urease (CLO) test, Helicobacter pylori culture, and the 13C-urea breath test before and after treatment with tripotassium dicitratobismuthane (DeNol) two tablets twice daily for four weeks. Symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia were recorded using a standard questionnaire. Using H pylori culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test was 90%, the specificity 98.6%, and the accuracy 94.8% with a positive predictive value of 98.2% and a negative predictive value of 92.5%. Conversion rate from H pylori positive to negative status after treatment with tripotassium dicitratobismuthate was 17.9%. Symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia improved appreciably after treatment irrespective of H pylori status. The 13C-urea breath test is an accurate research tool suitable for serial testing and population surveys.

  20. The aminopyrine breath test as a measure of liver function: a quantitative description of its metabolic basis in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, C.S.; Schoeller, D.A.; Nakamura, K.I.; Baker, A.L.; Klein, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A dual-isotope kinetic study of aminopyrine disposition and metabolism has been carried out on five normal adult subjects. Oral administration of 13 C-aminopyrine (2 mg/kg) accompanied by simultaneous intravenous injection of 14 C-aminopyrine was followed by serial measurements of aminopyrine and monomethylaminopyrine in plasma and urine over 6 hr. Timed collections of respiratory CO 2 were analyzed for the content of excess 13 CO 2 and for 14 CO 2 . On separate days, an intravenous bolus of 13 C-labeled NaHCO 3 was administered to obtain estimates of the kinetic parameters of CO 2 elimination in each subject. These data were fitted simultaneously to a multicompartmental model that, in addition to providing hitherto unavailable quantitative information, has revealed that (1) demethylation is the major elimination pathway for aminopyrine; (2) a major alternative pathway not involving demethylation exists for monomethylaminopyrine; and (3) only 50% of the labeled carbon generated by demethylation eventually is oxidized to HCO 3 - . The sensitivity of seven types of APBT scores to 50% reductions in the rates of aminopyrine absorption, metabolism of monomethylaminoantipyrine, intermediate carbon metabolism, and bicarbonate kinetics was evaluated with breath test curves simulated using the APBT model. Every APBT score currently in use was affected by variations in both gastrointestinal output of aminopyrine and bicarbonate kinetics. There is a need for further development of selective scoring methods in the aminopyrine breath test

  1. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    to feeding (15.5 h after the previous meal) on the day when the 5 h sample was taken. In the breath test four pregnant sows were placed in respiration chambers and the 13C marker was added in the morning meal and air samples were collected up to 18 h at the outlet from the chambers and detected on an infra......A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran...... and a low dietary fibre diet. Six gastric cannulated pregnant sows used in the total evacuation study were fed each of the diets for one week and the stomach content were evacuated in a randomized order 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 h after feeding on 5 subsequent days. In addition, a sample was taken 0.5 h prior...

  2. Turnover of carbon in the 13C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of 13 C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the 13 C in the 13 C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio 13 C/ 12 C in expired CO 2 from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to 13 C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  3. Simultaneous assessments of exocrine pancreatic function by cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and measurement of plasma p-aminobenzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schteingart, C. D.; Hofmann, A. F.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    Two noninvasive tests for assessing pancreatic exocrine function, the cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and the HPLCN-benzoyl-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid/p-aminosalicylic acid (NBT-PABA/PAS) test, were simultaneously performed in nine patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to

  4. Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and prevalence of alcohol use among Iranian psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Shams, Jamal; Faghihimohamadi, Mohamadmahdi; Zahiroddin, Hanieh; Hallgren, Mats; Kallmen, Hakan

    2018-01-30

    Iran is a developing and Islamic country where the consumption of alcoholic beverages is banned. However, psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders are often co-occurring. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and examined the psychometric properties of the test among psychiatric outpatients in Teheran, Iran. AUDIT was completed by 846 consecutive (sequential) patients. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of alcohol use, reliability and construct validity. 12% of men and 1% of women were hazardous alcohol consumers. Internal reliability of the Iranian version of AUDIT was excellent. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the construct validity and the fit of previous factor structures (1, 2 and 3 factors) to data were not good and seemingly contradicted results from the explorative principal axis factoring, which showed that a 1-factor solution explained 77% of the co-variances. We could not reproduce the suggested factor structure of AUDIT, probably due to the skewed distribution of alcohol consumption. Only 19% of men and 3% of women scored above 0 on AUDIT. This could be explained by the fact that alcohol is illegal in Iran. In conclusion the AUDIT exhibited good internal reliability when used as a single scale. The prevalence estimates according to AUDIT were somewhat higher among psychiatric patients compared to what was reported by WHO regarding the general population.

  5. A comparison between lactose breath test and quick test on duodenal biopsies for diagnosing lactase deficiency in patients with self-reported lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Manuele; Bonfanti, Daria; Parodi, Andrea; Franzè, Jolanda; Savarino, Edoardo; Bruzzone, Luca; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Di Mario, Francesco; Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    A lactose breath test (LBT) is usually used to diagnose lactase deficiency, and a lactose quick test (LQT) has been proposed as a new test on duodenal biopsies to detect this disorder. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBT and LQT and their ability to predict the clinical response to a lactose-free diet in patients with self-reported lactose intolerance. Fifty-five patients (age 47 ± 14 y; M/F 15/36) underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 25g-LBT. Two duodenal biopsies were taken to determine lactase deficiency (normal, mild, or severe) by LQT and to rule out other causes of secondary lactose malabsorption. Patients with a positive LBT and normal LQT also underwent a glucose breath test to exclude small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as a cause of the former result. The severity of gastrointestinal symptoms was measured with a GSS questionnaire, under basal condition and 1 month after a lactose-free diet. Lactose malabsorption was detected in 31/51 patients with LBT and in 37/51 patients with LQT (P = NS). Celiac disease was found in 2 patients. Two LBT+ patients showed a positive glucose breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Eight patients had a mild hypolactasia by LQT and a negative LBT, but they had a significant improvement of symptoms after diet. LQT and LBT were concordant in 83% of cases and predicted the response to a lactose-free diet in 98% and 81% of the cases, respectively (P = 0.03). LQT is as sensitive as LBT in detecting lactase deficiency; however, it seems to be more accurate than LBT in predicting the clinical response to a lactose-free diet.

  6. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and urine). Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol...

  7. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration

  8. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium))

    1991-06-01

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration.

  9. Effects of low oxygen dead space ventilation and breath-holding test in evaluating cerebrovascular reactivity: A comparative observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ke-Ju; Zhong, Ling-Ling; Ni, Xiao-Yu; Xia, Lei; Xue, Liu-Jun; Cheng, Guan-Liang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application prospect of low oxygen dead space ventilation (LODSV) in evaluating vasomotor reactivity (VMR) by comparison between LODSV and breath-holding test (BHT). Outpatient or inpatient patients who underwent transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) were enrolled into this study. These patients successively underwent BHT and LODSV. The cooperation degree, tolerance conditions and adverse reactions in patients were recorded, and VMR was calculated, compared and analyzed. Patients had poor cooperation during BHT. Except for compensatory tachypnea after BHT, patients basically had no adverse reaction. The main manifestations of patients undergoing LODSV were deepened breathing and accelerated frequency in the end of the ventilation, and increased heart rate and a slight decline in pulse oxygen that rapidly recovered after ventilation. The increase rate of blood flow velocity in patients undergoing LODSV was significantly higher than in BHT (P<0.001), and its calculated VMR value was approximately 15% higher than BHT (P<0.001). BHT revealed a monophasic curve that slightly descends and rapidly increases, and LODSV revealed a curve that descends for a short time and slowly increases with a platform. LODSV can effectively eliminate the affect of poor cooperation in patients, and avoid intolerance caused by hypoxia. Hence, VMR value is more accurate than that determined by BHT; and this can reflect the maximum reaction ability of the blood vessels. Therefore, this method has higher clinical application value.

  10. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14 C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14 C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  11. Pursed-lips breathing reduces dynamic hyperinflation induced by activities of daily living test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Cintia Laura Pereira; Karloh, Manuela; Dos Reis, Cardine Martins; Palú, Marina; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation leads to dyspnoea and consequent limitations in functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been shown that the response to pursed-lips breathing in terms of dynamic hyperinflation and lower-limb exercise capacity is variable, and its effects on activities of daily living are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pursed-lips breathing on dynamic hyperinflation and functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a lower-limb exercise test and in a multiple-task activities of daily living test. Randomized cross-over study. Twenty-five patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (16 men, mean age 64 ± 7 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) = 41.7 ± 14.7% predicted). Patients randomly performed two 6-min walk tests (6MWT) with and without pursed-lips breathing (6MWT(PLB) and 6MWT(Non-PLB)) and two Glittre-ADL tests with and without pursed-lips breathing (TGlittre(PLB) and TGlittre(Non-PLB)). Inspiratory capacity was assessed at baseline and immediately after the tests. The 6MWT(Non-PLB) and TGlittre(Non-PLB) induced similar magnitude dynamic hyperinflation (0.22 ± 0.24 l and 0.31 ± 0.23 l, respectively; p > 0.05). Pursed-lips breathing did not improve dynamic hyperinflation induced by the 6MWT (0.24 ± 0.20 and 0.22 ± 0.24 l, respectively, with and without pursed-lips breathing; p > 0.05). Dynamic hyperinflation in the TGlittre(PLB) was significantly lower than in the TGlittre(Non-PLB) (0.19 ± 0.20 l and 0.31 ± 0.23 l, respectively; p = 0.02). Pursed-lips breathing did not improve 6MWT or TGlittre performance. Pursed-lips breathing reduced dynamic hyperinflation in the TGlittre, but not in the 6MWT. However, pursed-lips breathing did not improve functional capacity.

  12. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the {sup 14}C-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglioglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan, E-mail: drayhant@hotmail.com [Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  13. The ad-libitum alcohol 'taste test': secondary analyses of potential confounds and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Button, Emily; Rose, Abigail K; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Di Lemma, Lisa; Field, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Motivation to drink alcohol can be measured in the laboratory using an ad-libitum 'taste test', in which participants rate the taste of alcoholic drinks whilst their intake is covertly monitored. Little is known about the construct validity of this paradigm. The objective of this study was to investigate variables that may compromise the validity of this paradigm and its construct validity. We re-analysed data from 12 studies from our laboratory that incorporated an ad-libitum taste test. We considered time of day and participants' awareness of the purpose of the taste test as potential confounding variables. We examined whether gender, typical alcohol consumption, subjective craving, scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and perceived pleasantness of the drinks predicted ad-libitum consumption (construct validity). We included 762 participants (462 female). Participant awareness and time of day were not related to ad-libitum alcohol consumption. Males drank significantly more alcohol than females (p alcohol consumption (p = 0.04), craving (p alcohol consumption. The construct validity of the taste test was supported by relationships between ad-libitum consumption and typical alcohol consumption, craving and pleasantness ratings of the drinks. The ad-libitum taste test is a valid method for the assessment of alcohol intake in the laboratory.

  14. Experimental exposure to alcohol as a model for the evaluation of neurobehavioural tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooisma, J.; Twisk, D.A.M.; Platalla, S.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The performance characteristics of 4 computerized psychological tests were studied using alcohol as a model compound. Subjects received alcohol (0.5 ml/kg) or placebo in a cross-over design and performance was assessed using the Simple Reaction Time test, the Switching Attention test, the Hand/Eye

  15. Ecological Relevance of Memory Tests and the Prediction of Relapse in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; And Others

    Recent research suggests that alcoholic inpatients' performance on neuropsychological tests is predictive of their drinking status following discharge from alcohol rehabilitation programs, although no single test itself has been predictive of relapse. This study seeks to develop a ecologically relevant memory test that would predict relapse and…

  16. Test-retest reliability of the underlying latent factor structure of alcohol subjective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Joseph A; Childs, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol subjective experiences are multi-dimensional and demonstrate wide inter-individual variability. Recent efforts have sought to establish a clearer understanding of subjective alcohol responses by identifying core constructs derived from multiple measurement instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal stability of this approach to conceptualizing alcohol subjective experiences across successive alcohol administrations in the same individuals. Healthy moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 104) completed six experimental sessions each, three with alcohol (0.8 g/kg), and three with a non-alcoholic control beverage. Participants reported subjective mood and drug effects using standardized questionnaires before and at repeated times after beverage consumption. We explored the underlying latent structure of subjective responses for all alcohol administrations using exploratory factor analysis and then tested measurement invariance over the three successive administrations using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analyses on responses to alcohol across all administrations yielded four factors representing "Positive mood," "Sedation," "Stimulation/Euphoria," and "Drug effects and Urges." A confirmatory factor analysis on the separate administrations indicated acceptable configural and metric invariance and moderate scalar invariance. In this study, we demonstrate temporal stability of the underlying constructs of subjective alcohol responses derived from factor analysis. These findings strengthen the utility of this approach to conceptualizing subjective alcohol responses especially for use in prospective and longitudinal alcohol challenge studies relating subjective response to alcohol use disorder risk.

  17. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  18. 14 CFR 63.12a - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. 63.12a Section 63.12a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 63.12a Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. A refusal to submit to a test...

  19. Testing a model of caffeinated alcohol-specific expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Stamates, Amy L

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to further understand the association between caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) use and alcohol-related risks. In particular, we focused on the role of two identified expectancies specific to CAB use: intoxication enhancement and avoidance of negative consequences. Although outcome expectancies are consistent predictors of substance use, limited research has examined expectancies related to CAB use and their association with alcohol-related behaviors, such as protecting themselves from alcohol-related harms. Consequently, the present study examined CAB-specific expectancies and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as mediators of CAB use and negative consequences. Participants were 322 (219 women) college drinkers who completed self-report measures of typical CAB and alcohol use, CAB-specific expectancies, PBS use, and alcohol-related harms. Structural equation modeling revealed, after controlling for typical non-CAB heavy alcohol use, a significant indirect effect of CAB use to alcohol-related problems through avoidance of negative consequences CAB expectancies and PBS use. However, intoxication enhancement expectancies did not mediate this association. Our findings indicate that heavier CAB use was associated with stronger expectations that drinking CABs can help avoid negative consequences. These beliefs were related to using fewer PBS when drinking and a greater likelihood of experiencing problems. Given that these expectancies may be underlying mechanisms of CAB use, their inclusion in existing alcohol interventions may be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  1. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Pastrana, Erika; Candia Plata, Maria del Carmen; Alvarez, Gerardo; Valencia, Mauro E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ 13CO2 (‰), r = −0.41 (P = 0.001). After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ 13CO2 (‰) and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ 13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7) and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9). Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention. PMID:22848216

  2. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh Kumar, K K; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Yaddanapudi, Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2-8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The children were induced with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. TPZ or JT was performed after 1 min of start of sevoflurane and then every 20 s till the test was negative, when end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration was noted. Classic LMA of requisite size was inserted by a blinded anesthetist and conditions at the insertion of LMA, insertion time, and the number of attempts of LMA insertion were recorded. The mean LMA insertion time was significantly longer ( P insertion was comparable in the two groups. LMA insertion conditions were similar in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups regarding total number of attempts of LMA insertion. Heart rate (HR) decreased in both groups after LMA insertion ( P insertion ( P = 0.03). Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test.

  3. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  4. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described as moist, dry, fine, and coarse. Rhonchi. Sounds that resemble snoring. They occur when air is blocked or air flow becomes rough through the large airways. Stridor. Wheeze-like sound heard when a person breathes. Usually it is ...

  5. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  6. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Fiorenza; Di Camillo, Mauro; Marinaro, Vanessa; Foglietta, Tiziana; Avallone, Veronica; Cannella, Carlo; Vernia, Piero

    2008-10-28

    To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm) +/- 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm +/- 40.01 SD; P lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  7. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a... drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater, or refuses to submit to a... performing a safety-sensitive function. (3) If an employee refuses to submit to a drug or alcohol test...

  8. Results from the 2014 drug and alcohol testing survey : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2014 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  9. Results from the 2015 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey : analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2015 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  10. Results from the 2016 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey : Analysis Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2016 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of commercial drivers license (CDL) drivers who test positive for contro...

  11. Results from the 2012 drug and alcohol testing survey : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2012 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) who test positive for...

  12. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14 C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14 C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  13. [Cerebral vasoreactivity: Concordance of breath holding test and acetazolamide injection in current practice: 20 cases of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bortoli, M; Maillet, A; Skopinski, S; Sassoust, G; Constans, J; Boulon, C

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) is the ability of the brain's vascular system to keep cerebral blood inflow stable. Impaired CVR is a risk marker of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The gold standard to assess CVR with transcranial ultrasound is acetazolamide (ACTZ) injection. The breath holding test (BHT) might be easier to perform. CVR proved to be efficient in laboratory conditions but not in routine practice. To study the validity of BHT versus ACTZ in routine practice in a vascular exploration unit in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Study of concordance of BHT and ACTZ, to assess CVR in patients consecutively explored on the same day. Eighteen patients with 20 carotid stenosis were included. The temporal window was missing in 20% of cases. Only 11 out of the 20 procedures were analyzed. Concordance was low between BHT and ACTZ to assess CVR (k=0.3714). BHT cannot replace ACTZ injection. It might be a first-step test so that ACTZ injection might be avoided if CVR is normal. Our present results must be confirmed by further study enrolling many more patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luwen; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Youran; An, Zijiang; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2011-10-01

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min-1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  15. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  16. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and... Testing § 40.261 What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? (a) As an employee, you are considered to have refused to take an alcohol test if you: (1) Fail to appear for any...

  17. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a BAT or STT, or employer, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur, unless...

  18. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  19. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  20. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  1. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...

  2. 49 CFR 40.321 - What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.321 What is the general confidentiality rule for drug and alcohol test... DOT drug or alcohol testing process, you are prohibited from releasing individual test results or...

  3. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases

  4. The rate of dissipation of mouth alcohol in alcohol positive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kari

    2012-05-01

    Seven subjects participated in a two-part study to evaluate mouth alcohol dissipation in alcohol positive subjects. In part one, subjects rinsed their mouths with a vodka solution and were breath tested after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min intervals. On average, breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) decreased 20.4% (range 3.2-47.9%) between 1 and 2 min after rinsing. In part two of the study, multiple breath tests were administered after rinsing once with the vodka solution. The BrAC decreased more than 0.020 g/210 L between the first and second tests for all subjects (average 0.095 g/210 L, range 0.021-0.162 g/210 L). The average time for subjects to reach their unbiased BrAC was 9.35 min (range 4-13 min) after rinsing. This study reaffirms the need for duplicate breath testing and confirms that the minimum of a 15-min observation period is sufficient for mouth alcohol to dissipate in alcohol positive subjects. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Purge Procedures and Leak Testing for the Morgan Breathing System (MBS) 2000 Closed-Circuit Oxygen Rebreather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fothergill, David

    2005-01-01

    .... Since purging accounts for most of the O2 used when breathing on the MBS 2000, optimizing the purge procedure will maximize the duration of the O2 supply and minimize oxygen leaks into the chamber atmosphere...

  6. The performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in a population of depressed or anxious persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it

  7. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  8. Comparative diagnostic value of the breath test and the urine test with 14C-urea in the detection of the Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanski, Z.; Jung, A.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Kuc, T.; Schlegel-Zawadzka, M.; Witkowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    Among 92 patients with chronic gastritis we conducted a synchronous diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using a culture and a serological test (IFP), in conjunction with breath and urine tests involving 14 C-urea (BTU-C14 and UTU-C14). The infection was confirmed by isolation in 71 persons (77.2%), the presence of specific IgG in the blood serum was found in 75 (81.5%). In comparison, the BTU-C14 indicated a group of 77 people (83.7%) as infected, and the UTU-C14 a group of 76 (82.6%). In order to determine the diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and efficiency) of the latter tests, the results were compared with those of the culture and of the serological tests. It was found that the BTU-C14 test used showed a 100% sensitivity, a 89.5% specificity and a 97.9% efficiency. The UTU-C14 test showed a 100.0% sensitivity, a 94.4% specificity and a 98.9% efficiency in the detection of the H. pylori infection. (author)

  9. Analysis of fat digestive and absorptive function after subtotal gastrectomy by a 13C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Morifuji, Masahiko; Uemura, Kenichiro; Hayashidani, Yasuo; Sudo, Takeshi; Ohge, Hiroki; Sueda, Taijiro

    2009-01-01

    In the choice of reconstructions, digestive and absorptive disturbances, resulting in weight loss after subtotal gastrectomy, remain a problem. The aim of this study was to compare fat absorptive function after Billroth I (B-I) and Roux-en-Y (RY) reconstructions after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. A (13)C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test was performed in 31 patients after subtotal gastrectomy and in 15 healthy volunteers to assess fat digestive and absorptive function. Seventeen B-I reconstructions and 14 RY reconstructions were performed after subtotal gastrectomy. Fat digestive and absorptive function was determined by percent (13)CO(2) cumulative dose at 7 h. Relationship between fat absorptive function and perioperative factors were analyzed. Gender distribution, mean age, pathological staging, level of lymph node dissection, preservative procedure of the vagus nerve and mean follow-up period in the two surgical groups did not differ significantly. Only the type of reconstruction (p = 0.024) was associated with differences in fat digestive and absorptive function by univariate analysis: B-I reconstruction was superior to RY reconstruction. Fat digestive and absorptive function after B-I reconstruction was superior to that after RY reconstruction, probably because the B-I reconstruction was the procedure that permitted food passage through the duodenum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Intragastric acidification increases the sensitivity of 14C-urea breath test in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yongjian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if intragastric acidification at the ingestion of 14 C-urea can decrease the likelihood of false-negative (FN) results of urea breath test (UBT) in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Methods: Twenty-three patients with positive 14 C-UBT (UBT-1) results underwent an acid suppression treatment with omeprazole 40 mg/d for 14 d. On day 13, patients underwent second standard UBT (YBT-2). On day 14, patients underwent a modified UBT (UBT-3), which included consuming 200 mL of 0.1 mol/L citric acid solution 30 min before and at the administration of 14 C-urea. Mean 14 CO 2 expiration and the number of FN results were compared for the three UBTs. Results: Omeprazole caused a significant decrease in mean 14 CO 2 excretion between UBT-1[(5.57 +- 3.90) Bq/mmol] and UBT-2[(1.98 +- 1.42) Bq/mmol, t=5.867, P=0.000]. Omeprazole caused 10(43.5%) FN UBT-2 results. Mean 14 CO 2 expiration in UBT-3 [(4.93 +- 3.77) Bq/mmol] was greater than that in UBT-2 (t=-4.538, P=0.000). UBT-3 caused only 2 FN results (8.7%, x 2 =6.66, P 14 C-urea increases 14 Co 2 expiration and decreases FN 14 C-UBT results in patients taking PPI

  11. 14C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent 14 C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO 2 absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative cheaper and safer) CO 2 absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

  12. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  13. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  14. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF UREA BREATH TEST FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH DYSPEPSIA IN COMPARISON TO HISTOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HONAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Helicobacter pylori infection is the gram negative bacillus with the close association with chronic antral gastritis. Objective - In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of urea breath test (UBT with carbon isotope 13 in comparison with histopathology of gastric antrum for detection of H. pylori infection in children with dyspepsia. Methods - This cross-sectional study was performed at specialized laboratory of Shiraz Gastroenterohepatology Research Center and Nemazee Hospital, Iran, during a 12-months period. This study investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of UBT in comparison with biopsy-based tests. We included a consecutive selection of 60 children who fulfilled Rome III criteria for dyspepsia. All children were referred for performing UBT with carbon isotope 13 (C13 as well as endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from antrum of stomach and duodenum. The pathologic diagnosis was considered as the standard test. Results - The mean age of the participants was 10.1±2.6 (range 7-17 years. From our total 60 patients, 28 (46.7% had positive UBT results and 32 (53.3% had negative UBT results. Pathologic report of 16 (57.1% out of 28 patients who had positive UBT were positive for H. pylori and 12 (42.9% ones were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Conclusion - Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Another multicenter study from our country is recommended.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If you...

  16. 14 CFR 120.11 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.11 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 61 certificate holder. (a) This...

  17. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... other entity relies on drug and alcohol tests that were conducted before the individual applied for...

  18. 14 CFR 120.15 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.15 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 65 certificate holder. (a) This...

  19. 14 CFR 120.13 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Individuals Certificated Under Parts 61, 63, and 65 § 120.13 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test by a Part 63 certificate holder. (a) This...

  20. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drug and alcohol testing requirements? 40.15 Section 40.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements? (a...

  1. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Michael J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical work on the effe...

  2. Sex differences in urea breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisdorfer, Ido; Shalev, Varda; Goren, Sophy; Chodick, Gabriel; Muhsen, Khitam

    2018-01-02

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer only in a subset of infected persons. Sex differences were shown in results of urea breath test (UBT), a commonly used test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, factors that might explain these differences, or affect UBT values, are not fully understood. We examined differences in UBT values between H. pylori-infected men and women while adjusting for background characteristics such as age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using coded data from the computerized database of Maccabi Health Services in Israel. Included were adults examined for UBT during 2002-2012 and were found H. pylori positive (UBT > 3.5‰). Multivariable linear mixed models were performed to assess the relationship between sex and UBT quantitative results, while adjusting for background characteristics. A total of 76,403 patients were included (52% of examined patients during the study period). Adjusted mean UBT value was significantly higher in women 33.8‰ (95% CI 33.4, 34.1) than in men 24.9‰ (95% CI 24.5, 25.3). A significant (P sex and smoking, showing diminished sex-differences in UBT results in smokers. Adjusted mean UBT values increased significantly with age and decreased with BMI, and it was higher in people who lived in low vs high socioeconomic status communities and lower in smokers vs non-smokers. Systemic differences exist between men and women in quantitative UBT results. Host-related and environmental factors might affect UBT quantitative results. These findings have clinical implications regarding confirmation of the success of H. pylori eradication after treatment in various subgroups.

  3. Prognostic value of (13)C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Wong, I; Morán, S; Rodríguez-Leal, G; Castañeda-Romero, B; Mera, R; Poo, J; Uribe, M; Dehesa, M

    2007-09-14

    To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of (13)C-phenylalanine oxidation ((13)C-PheOx) obtained by (13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure. The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox. Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78, 0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI: 0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, age and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival. Percentage of (13)C-PheOx obtained by (13)C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease.

  4. Prognostic value of 13C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Wong, I; Morán, S; Rodríguez-Leal, G; Castañeda-Romero, B; Mera, R; Poo, J; Uribe, M; Dehesa, M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of 13C-phenylalanine oxidation (13C-PheOx) obtained by 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure. METHODS: The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of 13C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox. RESULTS: Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78, 0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI: 0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, age and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSION: Percentage of 13C-PheOx obtained by 13C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:17729409

  5. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth (and tongue!) for at least two minutes twice ... and drinks. This helps prevent damage to your teeth and is great for your overall health. Brush after sweets. If you eat or drink sugary ...

  6. Functional13C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered to alter the bacterial flora in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at investigating the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with active H. pylori infection assessed by functional breath testing. A total of 109 outpatients, who were referred for the H. pylori 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) by general practitioners and specialists, were also tested for the presence of SIBO by the glucose hydrogen (H 2 )/methane (CH 4 ) breath test (HMBT). A detailed anamnesis was carried out about the history of H. pylori infection, eradication therapies, proton pump inhibitor intake, and comorbidities. In total, 36/109 (33.0%) patients had a positive H. pylori 13 C-UBT, and 35/109 (32.1%) patients had a positive glucose HMBT, the latter being indicative of SIBO. Interestingly, individuals with a positive H. pylori 13 C-UBT were significantly more often associated with a positive glucose HMBT (p=0.002). Cohen's κ measuring agreement between the 13 C-UBT and the glucose HMBT was 0.31 (confidence intervals: 0.12-0.50) (p=0.001). Altogether, 19 of 54 (35.2%) patients, who had completed up to four eradication therapies, were diagnosed with SIBO by HMBT. H. pylori infection was found to be significantly associated with the presence of SIBO as determined by functional breath testing. In addition, SIBO rates appeared to have increased after completed eradication therapies. However, further longitudinal studies are warranted to fully elucidate the relationship and treatment modalities of coincident H. pylori infection and SIBO. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... was significant (P=0.03), values generally being lower during fasting, indicating a lower rate of leucine oxidation. It was concluded that the present results clearly demonstrate differences in rate of oxidation of leucine between fed and fasted animals....... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...

  9. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  10. Explaining reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption: a test of an extended social identity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; McCafferty, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    To test the role of group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol consumption to a group identity in shaping reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption. The study had a 2 (behaviour: identity-defining/alcohol vs. non-identity defining/caffeine) × 2 (norm: low vs. heavy consumption) between-subjects factorial design. Group identification and personal attitudes towards alcohol/caffeine consumption were included as measured predictors. Participants were 83 undergraduate students (44 female, 38 male, one unspecified) at a University in Scotland. Predictor and outcome variables included questionnaire measures of group (student) identification, personal attitudes to alcohol/caffeine consumption, the perceived importance of alcohol/caffeine consumption to group identity, and behavioral intentions to consume alcohol/caffeine. Personal attitude and group identification moderated the impact of norm information on consumption intentions, but only for alcohol consumption, and not caffeine consumption. For alcohol, norm information did affect intended consumption (ps ≤ .034), with the crucial exception of high identifiers who had favourable personal attitudes towards alcohol consumption. Instead, these individuals resist norm information (ps = .458 and .174), showing no decrease in intentions in the face of norm information that emphasised relatively 'low' levels of consumption. The impact of norm information on alcohol consumption intentions depends on group-based factors such as group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol to a group identity. When both of these factors are high, and an individual also personally favours the behaviour, the potential for norm-based interventions to fail is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experience with the 14C-aminopyrine breath test in hepatic cirrhosis and under the influence of diclofenac-sodium (Voltaren/sup R/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinicke, C.; Hippius, M.

    1983-01-01

    The 14 C-aminopyrine breath test is a simple procedure for the non-invasive determination of the microsomal function of the liver. After oral administration of 74 kBq 14 C-aminopyrine the 14 CO 2 activity of the expired breath air is determined in hourly intervals. There is a close correlation between its decrease and the elimination of aminopyrine from the plasma. Both the elimination constant of 14 CO 2 and the maximal specific 14 CO 2 activity are useful quantitative parameters of the test. They allow conclusions as to the hepatic demethylation capacity. Both parameters were significantly lower in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis than in 12 control patients. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac-sodium did not significantly influence the demethylation of 14 C-aminopyrine in 5 patients with rheumatic diseases and in 2 healthy probands. Further experience with the breath test is necessary, especially with respect to its suitability for prospective investigation. (author)

  12. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C) for patients with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Jung; Chu, Hsin; Huang, Chang-Chih; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST-C). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the MAST-C were examined in this study. The MAST-C had an internal consistency of 0.83 and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. It had a good content validity index of 0.92. Factor analysis identified four factors and the optimal cutoff point for the MAST-C was a score of 6/7, which yielded a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.83, a positive predictive value of 0.92, and a negative predictive value of 0.83. The MAST-C provides a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for clinically diagnosing alcoholism and clinical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-0155] RIN 2130-AC24 Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For program and technical issues, contact Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug..., as part of its accident investigation program, FRA has conducted post-accident alcohol and drug tests...

  14. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain legal...

  15. An applied test of the social learning theory of deviance to college alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory.

  16. Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Seiichi; Minoura, Takanori; Iinuma, Kazuie; Konno, Mutsuko; Tajiri, Hitoshi; Matsuhisa, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    As noninvasive tests for Helicobacter pylori infection, the 13 C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen test have been widely used. In children, however, there are few studies reporting which test shows superior performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the 13 C-UBT and stool antigen test for their accuracy in diagnosing. H. pylori infection in children. A total of 123 Japanese children, ages 2 to 17 years (mean, 12 years) who underwent gastric biopsies for H. pylori infection were studied. The diagnoses included gastritis (n=55), gastric ulcer (n=5), duodenal ulcer (n=20), iron-deficiency anemia (n=7), and other conditions (n=36). The cutoff value of the 13 C-UBT was defined to be 3.5 per mille. The stool antigen test was performed using the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Premier Platinum HpSA). In 16 patients who received eradication therapy, the 13 C-UBT and HpSA were repeated 2 months after treatment. Based on biopsy tests, 60 children were infected with H. pylori and 63 children were not. For the 13 C-UBT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.1%-99.0%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.5%-100%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.9%), respectively. For the HpSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 983.% (95% CI, 90.8%-100%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%), and 98.3% (95% CI, 96.0%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the performance of these two tests. In the assessment of H. pylori eradication, the results of 13 C-UBT and HpSA agreed with those of biopsy tests. The 13 C-UBT and the HpSA are equally accurate for the diagnosis of active H. pylori infection in Japanese children. (author)

  17. Thermal Stability Test of Sugar Alcohols as Phase Change Materials for Medium Temperature Energy Storage Application

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Aran; Neumann, Hannah; Niedermaier, Sophia; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Palomo, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Sugar alcohols are potential phase change materials candidates as they present high phase change enthalpy values, are non-toxic and low cost products. Three promising sugar-alcohols were selected: D-mannitol, myo-inositol and dulcitol under high melting enthalpy and temperature criterion. Thermal cycling tests were performed to study its cycling stability which can be determining when selecting the suitable phase change material. D-mannitol and dulcitol present poor thermal stability...

  18. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of 14C-urea breath test according to counting method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Woo; Lim, Seok Tae; Lee, Seung Ok; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2005-01-01

    14 C-urea breath test (UBT) is a non-invasive and reliable method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylon, (HP) infection. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a new and rapid 14 C-UBT (Heliprobe method), which was equipped with Geiger-Muller counter and compared the results with those obtained by using the conventional method. Forty-nine patients with dyspepsia underwent gastroduodenoscopy and 14 C-UBT. A 37 KBq 14 C-urea capsule was administered to patients and breath samples were collected. In Heliprobe method, patients exhaled into a Heliprobe BreathCard for 10 min. And then the activities of the BreathCard were countered using Heliprobe analyzer. In the conventional method, results were countered using liquid scintillation counter. During gastroduodenoscopy, 18 of 49 patients were underwent biopsies. According to these histologic results, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of two different methods and compared them. Also we evaluated the concordant and disconcordant rates between them. In all 49 patients, concordant rate of both conventional and Heliprobe methods was 98% (48/49) and the discordant rate was 2% (1/49). thirteen of 18 patients to whom biopsies were applied, were found to be HP positive on histologic results. And both Heliprobe method and conventional method classified 13 of 13 HP-positive patients and 5 of 5 HP-negative patients correctly (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, accuracy 100%). The Heliprobe method demonstrated the same diagnostic performance compared with the conventional method and was a simpler and more rapid technique

  19. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Dan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13 C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13 CO 2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t 1/2 ) and lag phase (t lag ) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t 1/2 and t lag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t 1/2 , 19.4% for t lag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t 1/2 , 28.2% for t lag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t 1/2 and t lag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13 C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  20. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  1. Using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Test as a measure of implicit attitudes towards alcohol : Relationship with drinking behavior and alcohol problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; van de Braak, Marten; Huijding, Jorg

    In apparent contrast to the alleged importance of positive alcohol expectancies in alcohol (ab)use, a series of studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; [Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit

  2. Using the Extrinsic Affective Simon Test as a measure of implicit attitudes towards alcohol: Relationship with drinking behavior and alcohol problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, P.J. de; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Braak, M. van de; Huijding, J.

    2007-01-01

    In apparent contrast to the alleged importance of positive alcohol expectancies in alcohol (ab)use, a series of studies using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; [Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit

  3. 77 FR 26471 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...). Consumption of food products (e.g., poppy seeds) must not be considered a legitimate medical explanation for... 2105-AE14 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine... Department is amending certain provisions of its drug testing procedures for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), a...

  4. The effect of alcohol and fatigue on an FAA readiness-to-perform test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Readiness to perform (RTP) testing is considered by some to be a broad-based alternative or supplement to biochemical testing for drugs and alcohol. Since it is also thought to detect impairment due to other sources (e.g., fatigue, illness, depressio...

  5. Schools as Good Parent: Symbolism versus Substance in Drug and Alcohol Testing of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the decision to implement a drug and alcohol testing program, analyzing how such programs fit within the traditional functions of criminal and administrative law, pinpoints some messages conveyed by testing programs, and discusses factual premises that should underlay such programs. Reviews recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings and gauges…

  6. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing ...

  7. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  8. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea; Heart failure - orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  9. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  10. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  11. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

  12. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000066.htm Traveling with breathing problems To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most ...

  14. Testing for drug and alcohol аbuse at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kavrakovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace represents a great risk to employee’s health and safety. More than 50% of the employees worldwide are related to easily accessible drug abuse, while 70% of the employees are related to alcohol abuse in the workplace. Tests for detecting drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace should be part of a new regulation, compulsory for all employees in the Republic of Macedonia. Implementing this sort of testing program should at the same time be a step towards devising particular solutions that shall bring about greater safety in the working environment. A key element in the implementation is to devise and establish an adequate policy that shall determine the risk factors within a working establishment which shall clearly express its position regarding drug and alcohol abuse during working hours. Along with the risk factors, the policy may also include the program for testing both, employees and the ones who are about to be employed, for drug and alcohol abuse. In order to implement this sort of test, it must be in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (Official gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, No 92/07, 2007 and a legal framework has to be defined, that shall regulate and solve numerous aspects of this issue, in order to fully implement the program for drug free working environment pursuant to the Declaration and the decrees of the United Nations General Assembly in 1998.

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  16. MIN 14C UBT: A combination of gastric basal transit and 14C-urea breath test for the detection of helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubillaga, M.; Oliveri, P.; Calcagno, M.L.; Goldman, C.; Caro, R.; Mitta, A.; Degrossi, O.; Boccio, J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the 14 C-urea breath test (UBT) performed at different times combined with the study of the gastric basal transit, which evaluates the intragastric displacement of a labeled solution under fasting conditions, has the advantage of being representative of the whole stomach surface and constitutes a non-aggressive test for the detection of H. pylori. This test, which has been called MIN 14 C UBT, is a modification of the conventional 14 C UBT in which low volumes of a solution of 14 C-urea together with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid are administered. The 99m Tc-sulfur colloid is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and has the great advantage of allowing the 'visualization' of the transit of the 14 C-urea within the gastrointestinal tract. This modification allows the simultaneous determination of the production of the 14 CO 2 and the place where this process occurs. The results show that there is a good correlation between the images obtained and the breath samples collected. We found that this test has a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 96% for H. pylori detection

  17. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 14C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    14 C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used 14 C-breath tests: 14 C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low 14 C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform 14 C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of 14 C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: 14 C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, 14 C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, 14 C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and 14 C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the 14 C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  18. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  19. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bradypnea. Labored or difficult breathing is known as dyspnea. ... Premature birth Seizures Common causes of breathing trouble (dyspnea) in adults include: Allergic reaction that causes tongue, ...

  20. Influence of Alcohol Smell and Imagination on the Condition of the Human Organism and Subjective Human Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Berezina, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    In this study, alcohol smell and imagination of alcohol has been shown to change the condition of a human organism.In this study, alcohol smell has been shown to change the condition of a human organism. Based on the test results, the presence of alcohol was observed upon breathing out, but was rarely observed in spits and much rarer in urines. This effect is most evident shortly after an olfactory perception of alcohol and continues for 60 min for some test persons. The test persons also not...

  1. Optimizing test procedures for estimating daily methane and carbon dioxide emissions in cattle using short-term breath measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, P F; Barchia, I M; Weber, C; Bird-Gardiner, T; Donoghue, K A; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R S

    2017-02-01

    Respiration chambers are considered the reference method for quantifying the daily CH production rate (MPR) and CO production rate (CPR) of cattle; however, they are expensive, labor intensive, cannot be used in the production environment, and can be used to assess only a limited number of animals. Alternative methods are now available, including those that provide multiple short-term measures of CH and CO, such as the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring (GEM) system. This study was conducted to provide information for optimizing test procedures for estimating MPR and CPR of cattle from multiple short-term CH and CO records. Data on 495 Angus steers on a 70-d ad libitum feedlot diet with 46,657 CH and CO records and on 121 Angus heifers on a 15-d ad libitum roughage diet with 7,927 CH and CO records were used. Mean (SD) age and BW were 554 d (SD 92) and 506 kg (SD 73), respectively, for the steers and 372 d (SD 28) and 348 kg (SD 37), respectively, for the heifers. The 2 data sets were analyzed separately but using the same procedures to examine the reduction in variance as more records are added and to evaluate the level of precision with 2 vs. 3 min as the minimum GEM visit duration for a valid record. The moving averages procedure as well as the repeated measures procedure were used to calculate variances for both CH and CO, starting with 5 records and progressively increasing to a maximum of 80 records. For both CH and CO and in both data sets, there was a sharp reduction in the variances obtained by both procedures as more records were added. However, there was no substantial reduction in the variance after 30 records had been added. Inclusion of records with a minimum of 2-min GEM visit duration resulted in reduction in precision relative to a minimum of 3 min, as indicated by significantly ( < 0.05) more heterogeneous variances for all cases except CH4 in steers. In addition, more records were required to achieve the same level of precision relative to data with

  2. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  3. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  4. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  5. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as an uncommon cause of false positive lactose hydrogen breath test among patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilin; Xiong, Lishou; Gong, Xiaorong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xiangsong; Chen, Minhu

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may lead to false positive diagnoses of lactose malabsorption (LM) in irritable bowel syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of SIBO on lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) results in these patients. Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients with abnormal lactose HBTs ingested a test meal containing (99m) Tc and lactose. The location of the test meal and the breath levels of hydrogen were recorded simultaneously by scintigraphic scanning and lactose HBT, respectively. The increase in hydrogen concentration was not considered to be caused by SIBO if ≥ 10% of (99m) Tc accumulated in the cecal region at the time or before of abnormal lactose HBT. LM was present in 84% (31/37) of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Twenty of these patients agreed to measurement of oro-cecal transit time. Only three patients (15%) with abnormal lactose HBT might have had SIBO. The median oro-cecal transit time between LM and lactose intolerance patients were 75 min and 45 min, respectively (Z=2.545, P=0.011). Most of irritable bowel syndrome patients with an abnormal lactose HBT had LM. SIBO had little impact on the interpretation of lactose HBTs. The patients with lactose intolerance had faster small intestinal transit than LM patients. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Testing the Relations Among Family Disorganization, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frances L; Pandika, Danielle; Chassin, Laurie; Lee, Matthew; King, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Delay discounting is a potential etiological factor in adolescents' alcohol use, making it important to understand its antecedents. Family disorganization might contribute to delay discounting, but few studies have tested this relation. Moreover, because delay discounting is heritable, the effects of family disorganization on delay discounting might be moderated by adolescents' genetic risk for delay discounting. Thus, the current study examined the role of family disorganization, in interaction with genetic risk, in predicting adolescents' delay discounting and subsequent alcohol use. Adolescents participated in 4 waves of data collection. Adolescents self-reported their family disorganization at T1, completed a delay discounting questionnaire at T3, and self-reported their alcohol use both at T2 (covariate) and T4 (outcome). Using results from an independent sample, we created a polygenic risk score consisting of dopaminergic genes to index genetic risk for delay discounting. Greater family disorganization predicted adolescents' greater delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk for delay discounting. Adolescents with high and mean levels of genetic risk for delay discounting showed elevated delay discounting regardless of their family's disorganization. Greater delay discounting prospectively predicted adolescents' greater alcohol use. Finally, the effects of family disorganization on adolescents' alcohol use were mediated through delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low levels of genetic risk. Results suggest multiple pathways to delay discounting. Although there are genetically influenced pathways to delay discounting, family disorganization might represent an environmental pathway to delay discounting (and subsequent alcohol use) for a subset of adolescents at low genetic risk. These findings reinforce the utility of family interventions for reducing adolescents' delay discounting and alcohol use, at least for a

  7. Violence and Alcohol: A Study of Injury Presentations to Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic and injury circumstances data were collected on trauma patients consecutively presenting to hospitals. Alcohol consumption was assessed by either blood analysis or breath test, using a Lion Alcolmeter-SD2, in patients aged 16 years and above who arrived within an interval of 10 hours from the time of injury.

  8. Application of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry for the evaluation of the 13C-urea breath test: comparison with three concordant methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho L.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the performance of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry (IRIS for the 13C-urea breath test with the combination of the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT, urease test and histologic examination for the diagnosis of H. pylori (HP infection. Fifty-three duodenal ulcer patients were studied. All patients were submitted to gastroscopy to detect HP by the urease test, histologic examination and 14C-UBT. To be included in the study the results of the 3 tests had to be concordant. Within one month after admission to the study the patients were submitted to IRIS with breath samples collected before and 30 min after the ingestion of 75 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 200 ml of orange juice. The samples were mailed and analyzed 11.5 (4-21 days after collection. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square and Mann-Whitney test and by the Spearman correlation coefficient. Twenty-six patients were HP positive and 27 negative. There was 100% agreement between the IRIS results and the HP status determined by the other three methods. Using a cutoff value of delta-over-baseline (DOB above 4.0 the IRIS showed a mean value of 19.38 (minimum = 4.2, maximum = 41.3, SD = 10.9 for HP-positive patients and a mean value of 0.88 (minimum = 0.10, maximum = 2.5, SD = 0.71 for negative patients. Using a cutoff value corresponding to 0.800% CO2/weight (kg, the 14C-UBT showed a mean value of 2.78 (minimum = 0.89, maximum = 5.22, SD = 1.18 in HP-positive patients. HP-negative patients showed a mean value of 0.37 (minimum = 0.13, maximum = 0.77, SD = 0.17. IRIS is a low-cost, easy to manage, highly sensitive and specific test for H. pylori detection. Storing and mailing the samples did not interfere with the performance of the test.

  9. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 13C-tryptophan breath test detects increased catabolic turnover of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Altered tryptophan–kynurenine (KYN) metabolism has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The l-[1-13C]tryptophan breath test (13C-TBT) is a noninvasive, stable-isotope tracer method in which exhaled 13CO2 is attributable to tryptophan catabolism via the KYN pathway. We included 18 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. 13C-tryptophan (150 mg) was orally administered and the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in the breath was monitored for 180 min. The cumulative recovery rate during the 180-min test (CRR0–180; %), area under the Δ13CO2-time curve (AUC; %*min), and the maximal Δ13CO2 (Cmax; %) were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in the controls (p = 0.004, p = 0.008, and p = 0.002, respectively). Plasma tryptophan concentrations correlated negatively with Cmax in both the patients and controls (p = 0.020 and p = 0.034, respectively). Our results suggest that the 13C-TBT could be a novel biomarker for detecting a subgroup of MDD with increased tryptophan–KYN metabolism. PMID:26524975

  11. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104. ...

  12. The Hitch case--saving ampoules for a defendant from a chemical test for alcoholic intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    The author provides a review of the Hitch Case, as decided by the California Supreme Court in 1974, and its subsequent impact in the field of chemical tests for alcoholic intoxication. The report reviews the scientific basis for the Hitch decision an...

  13. I drink therefore I am: validating alcohol-related implicit association tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Westgate, E.; Greenwald, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared with

  14. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 [Docket DOT-OST-2008-0088] RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue of Thursday, February 25, 2010, make the...

  15. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations...) * * * (2) * * * (i) Positive, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for the drug(s) or drug metabolite(s). (ii) Positive-dilute, with drug(s)/metabolite(s) noted, with numerical values for...

  16. A Test of the Salience Asymmetry Interpretation of the Alcohol-IAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    K. Rothermund and D. Wentura (2004) showed how Figure-Ground (FG) asymmetries produce effects on the Implicit Association Task (IAT), independent of associations. Here, the FG account was tested for the robust finding that drinkers show a negative alcohol-IAT effect while being positive on explicit

  17. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 3: Employee Alcohol- and Drug-Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Susan R.; Libbin, Anne E.

    1988-01-01

    The third in a series of four articles, this discusses the legal implications of the use of medical tests to prevent drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace and to reduce absenteeism, tardiness, reduced productivity, and accidents that result from employee substance abuse. Cites recent cases. (JOW)

  18. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-02-01

    Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009-2015 and categorised as 'passive', low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more 'intense' policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in 'passive' areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4-6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  20. A methodological aspect of the {sup 14}C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis; Wybrany aspekt metodologiczny testu oddechowego z mocznikiem znakowanym stosowanego w diagnostyce zakazenia Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B. [Szpital Wojskowy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author) 38 refs, 2 tabs, 1 fig

  1. Clinical value of radionuclide small intestine transit time measurement combined with lactulose hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yanli; Lou, Cen; Huang, Zhongke; Chen, Dongfang; Huang, Huacheng; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Bucheng; Dai, Ning; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhen, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be a pathogenetic factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This syndrome cannot be explained by structural abnormalities and has no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or biomarkers. We studied quantitatively and semi-quantitatively, using lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT), small intestinal transit time (SITT) (99m)technetium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) in order to examine the mobility of small intestine as an indication of bacterial overgrowth in patients. Eighty nine consecutive patients who met Rome criteria for IBS were retrospectively studied. According to the diagnostic criteria, all patients were divided into two groups: the SIBO group and the non-SIBO group. The tracer was a mixture of 10g lactulose, 37MBq (99m)Tc-DTPA and 100mL water. The patient drank the whole mixture during 1min and the SITT study started immediately. The SITT and the LHBT followed every 15min for up to 3h after emptying the urine bladder. Spearman's rank correlation was applied to assess the correlation of oro-cecum transit time (OCTT) between imaging and LHBT. The semi-quantitative index between the SIBO group and the non-SIBO group was analyzed with Wilcoxon's rank sum test. If there was significant group difference, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used. Pintestinal transit time study using a lactose hydrogen breath test and (99m)Tc-DTPA is a real-time test for small intestine bacteria overgrowth in IBS patients and can be used as an indicator of the disease.

  2. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025 and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000. Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary...

  4. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced ...

  5. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT: reliability and validity of the Greek version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratis Dimitris

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with alcohol abuse are recognised by the World Health Organization as a major health issue, which according to most recent estimations is responsible for 1.4% of the total world burden of morbidity and has been proven to increase mortality risk by 50%. Because of the size and severity of the problem, early detection is very important. This requires easy to use and specific tools. One of these is the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Aim This study aims to standardise the questionnaire in a Greek population. Methods AUDIT was translated and back-translated from its original language by two English-speaking psychiatrists. The tool contains 10 questions. A score ≥ 11 is an indication of serious abuse/dependence. In the study, 218 subjects took part: 128 were males and 90 females. The average age was 40.71 years (± 11.34. From the 218 individuals, 109 (75 male, 34 female fulfilled the criteria for alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, and presented requesting admission; 109 subjects (53 male, 56 female were healthy controls. Results Internal reliability (Cronbach α was 0.80 for the controls and 0.80 for the alcohol-dependent individuals. Controls had significantly lower average scores (t test P 8 was 0.98 and its specificity was 0.94 for the same score. For the alcohol-dependent sample 3% scored as false negatives and from the control group 1.8% scored false positives. In the alcohol-dependent sample there was no difference between males and females in their average scores (t test P > 0.05. Conclusion The Greek version of AUDIT has increased internal reliability and validity. It detects 97% of the alcohol-dependent individuals and has a high sensitivity and specificity. AUDIT is easy to use, quick and reliable and can be very useful in detection alcohol problems in sensitive populations.

  6. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Hsu Chungyuan; Lin Wanyu; Huang Chihkua; Chen Granhum

    1993-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8±15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 μCi of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of 14 C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: [(DPM/mmol CO 2 collected)/(DPM administered)]x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min 14 C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  7. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsu Chungyuan (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Lin Wanyu (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Huang Chihkua (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology); Chen Granhum (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1993-08-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8[+-]15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 [mu]Ci of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of [sup 14]C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: (DPM/mmol CO[sub 2] collected)/(DPM administered)x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min [sup 14]C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  8. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  9. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  10. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the Secretary... cancel an alcohol test? (a) As an STT, BAT, employer, or a service agent administering the testing... employer, these errors, even though not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test result, may subject you to...

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  12. Protocol for assessing alcohol withdrawal syndrome by nursing professionals in emergency services: a pilot test

    OpenAIRE

    Luis,Margarita Antonia Villar; Lunetta,Ana Carolina Fuza; Ferreira,Paulo Sérgio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work speaks of a pilot test administered in four public services with emergency care (one at a hospital and three at community clinics) in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, to test an assessment protocol for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. Involved were auxiliaries, technicians and soon-to-be-nurses. The object was to evaluate the protocol´s potential as a guide to nursing care, and to test whether it was adequate in terms of comprehension and applicability. METHODS: A prot...

  13. Total alcoholic acidity and pH tests as quality parameters in stored soybean grains

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Maicon Marinho Vieira; Caneppele, Maria Aparecida Braga; Bianchini, Maria das Graças Assis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the technology available to agriculture, qualitative and quantitative losses occurring during post-harvest are still not controlled, and stored grains may undergo changes in their composition, due to storage conditions. This study aimed at determining the sensitivity of the alcoholic acidity and pH tests in soybean (GB 874RR cultivar) grains with different quality standards obtained during storage. A completely randomized design, in a 3 x 6 x 5 (3 storage conditions x 6 stora...

  14. Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of the lungs. Normal luNg CoPD luNg breathiNg better with a CoPD DiagNosis 3 DiagNosis aND ... Using a machine called a spirometer, this noninvasive breathing test measures the amount of air a person ...

  15. Diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence: genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP C/T-13910 is not consistent with breath test in Colombian Caribbean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Mendoza Torres

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP C/T-13910 located upstream of the lactase gene is used to determine adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence in North-European Caucasian subjects. The applicability of this polymorphism has been studied by comparing it with the standard diagnostic methods in different populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the lactose hydrogen breath test with the genetic test in a sample of the Colombian Caribbean population. METHODS: Lactose hydrogen breath test and genotyping of SNP C/T-13910 were applied to 128 healthy individuals (mean age 35 ± 1. A positive lactose hydrogen breath test was indicative of hypolactasia. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The kappa index was used to establish agreement between the two methods. RESULTS: Seventy-six subjects (59% were lactose-maldigesters (hypolactasia and 52 subjects (41% were lactose-digesters (lactase persistence. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 80%, 20% and 0%, respectively. Genotyping had 97% sensitivity and 46% specificity. The kappa index = 0.473 indicates moderate agreement between the genotyping of SNP C/T-13910 and the lactose hydrogen breath test. CONCLUSION: The moderate agreement indicates that the genotyping of the SNP C/T-13910 is not applicable to determine adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence in the population participating in this study.

  16. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in university students: AUDIT and AUDIT-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carretero, Miguel Ángel; Novalbos Ruiz, José Pedro; Martínez Delgado, José Manuel; O'Ferrall González, Cristina

    2016-03-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and AUDIT-C) in order to detect problems related to the consumption of alcohol in the university population. The sample consisted of 1309 students.A Weekly Alcohol Consumption Diary was used as a gold standard; Cronbach's Alpha, the Kappa index, Spearman's correlation coefficient and exploratory factor analysis were applied for diagnostic reliability and validity, with ROC curves used to establish the different cut-off points. Binge Drinking (BD) episodes were found in 3.9% of men and 4.0% of women with otherwise low-risk drinking patterns. AUDIT identified 20.1% as high-risk drinkers and 6.4% as drinkers with physical-psychological problems and probable alcohol dependence.Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 demonstrates good internal consistency. The best cut-off points for high-risk drinking students were 8 for males and 6 for females. As for problem drinkers and probable ADS, 13 was the best cut-off point for both sexes. In relation to AUDIT-C, 5 and 4 were the best cut-off points for males and females with high-risk patterns, respectively. The criterion validity of AUDIT and AUDIT-C to detect binge drinking episodes was found to have a moderate K value. The results obtained show that AUDIT has good psychometric properties to detect early alcohol abuse disorders in university students; however, it is recommended that the cut-off point be reduced to 8 in men. AUDIT-C improves its predictive value by raising the cut-off point by one unit. Items 2 and 3 should be reviewed to increase its predictive value for BD.

  17. Ademanalyse voor justitiële doeleinden. Artikel in Tijdschrift voor Alcohol, Drugs en andere Psychotrope Stoffen, Vol. 6 , No. 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    At present the blood alcohol content of drivers suspected of having a BAC over the legal limit of 0.5% is being measured by chemical test tube en blood test. This article looks into the possibilities to replace these testing methods with other breath testing devices. Requirements are being suggested

  18. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo ... through your mouth. Smoking is also a major cause of bad breath. There are lots of myths ...

  19. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  20. Validación de la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sánchez-López

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El sesgo atencional para el alcohol se ha mostrado útil para identificar a personas con consumo patológico así como a personas dependientes con altas probabilidades de recaída. El objetivo de este trabajo fue validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol diseñado para evaluar el sesgo atencional en pacientes dependientes del alcohol. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 173 participantes divididos en dos grupos: Un grupo de pacientes (n = 88 cumpliendo criterios de dependencia alcohólica y un grupo control (n = 85 con riesgo bajo de consumo de alcohol, que realizaron el Test de palabras y colores de Stroop (Stroop clásico, el Test de Stroop neutro y el Test de Stroop de Alcohol. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las interferencias para el Stroop Clásico y el Stroop de Alcohol. Los pacientes con dependencia, en comparación a los participantes control, mostraron mayores interferencias para estímulos de contenido alcohólico que para estímulos de contenido neutro. Este efecto fue explicado por un sesgo atencional para información relacionada con el alcohol en pacientes con dependencia. Se calcularon curvas COR, observándose áreas bajo la curva estadísticamente significativas para las interferencias del Stroop clásico y del Stroop de alcohol. Este trabajo sirvió para validar la versión española del Test Stroop de Alcohol para evaluar sesgos atencionales hacia el alcohol en personas con problemas de consumo y dependencia alcohólica.

  1. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  2. Development and field test of a responsible alcohol service program. Volume 3, Final results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    A Program of Responsible Alcohol Service was developed to enable servers and managers in establishments selling alcoholic beverages to exercise responsibility in their service of alcohol in order to prevent injury to and by intoxicated patrons. The P...

  3. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  4. Field test of high molecular weight alcohol flushing for subsurface nonaqueous phase liquid remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W.; Lee, Cindy M.; Brame, Scott E.; Roeder, Eberhard; Coates, John T.; Wright, Charles; Wood, A. Lynn; Enfield, Carl G.

    1999-07-01

    A pilot scale field test of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal using high molecular weight alcohols was conducted at Operable Unit 1, Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Petroleum hydrocarbons and spent solvents were disposed of in chemical disposal pits at this site, and these materials are now present in the subsurface in the form of a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). This LNAPL is a complex mixture of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, and other compounds. The field experiment was performed in a 5 m by 3 m confined test cell, formed by driving interlocking sheet pile walls through the contaminated zone into an underlying clay. The test involved the injection and extraction of about four pore volumes (1 pore volume=7000 L) of a mixture of 80% tert-butanol and 15% n-hexanol. The contaminants were removed by a combination of NAPL mobilization and enhanced dissolution, and the results of postflood soil coring indicate better than 90% removal of the more soluble contaminants (trichloroethane, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzene, naphthalene) and 70-80% removal of less soluble compounds (decane and undecane). The results of preflood and postflood NAPL partitioning tracer tests show nearly 80% removal of the total NAPL content from the test cell. The field data suggest that a somewhat higher level of removal could be achieved with a longer alcohol injection.

  5. Drug detection in breath: non-invasive assessment of illicit or pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Fuchs, Patricia; Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2017-03-20

    Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath-similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests-would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The non-invasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the US and the EU. The detection and monitoring of medical drugs in exhaled breath without the need of drawing blood samples on the other hand, is of high relevance in the clinical environment. This could facilitate a more precise medication and enable therapy control without any burden to the patient. Furthermore, it could be a step towards personalized medicine. This review gives an overview of the current state of drug detection in breath, including both volatile and non-volatile substances. The review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with qualitative detection of drugs (drugs of abuse), while the second is related to quantitative drug detection (medical drugs). Chances and limitations are discussed for both aspects. The detection of the intravenous anesthetic propofol is presented as a detailed example that demonstrates the potential, requirements, pitfalls and limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring by means of breath analysis.

  6. The constitutionality of random drug and alcohol testing of students in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Irene; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent drug and alcohol use is a major public health problem. Multiple studies indicate that substance use is a risk factor for physical and mental disorders in adolescents. Secondary schools and the communities they serve have been facing a long-standing problem of substance abuse. American adolescents have become quite accustomed to drug prevention being a part of their curriculum. However, some policy decisions made by school administrators have been legally challenged. In 1989, Vernonia School District serving a small community in Oregon, instituted a random drug testing policy of its athletes. In 1991, the parents of a seventh grader refused to give their consent for random drug testing. The seventh grader was denied participation in the sport and sued the School District arguing that the school policy violated the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, and Article I, Section 9 of the Oregon Constitution. In 1995, on appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, the School District won the case. The Vernonia School District versus Acton case became a landmark case, but random drug and alcohol testing in secondary schools has been a subject of multiple court cases. The authors discuss three of them. Both Federal and State Courts have recognized that a secondary school environment in itself represents "a special need," for which suspicionless searches are sometimes necessary to maintain order, safety, and discipline. Drug and alcohol testing programs in secondary schools may still be challenged on its legality. Therefore, examining court sanctioned programs and their long-term efficacy statistics is recommended.

  7. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    K K Dinesh Kumar; Neerja Bhardwaj; Sandhya Yaddanapudi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. Material and Methods: After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2?8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The chi...

  8. 49 CFR 40.25 - Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol testing record of employees it is intending to use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Employer Responsibilities § 40.25 Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol testing...

  9. Alcohol sensing of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    variation of sensitivity and ethanol concentration has shown a linear relationship up to 1150 ppm and after ... alcohol on the human breath or even to detect leaks in ... from water vapour. Ethanol was injected by a micro syringe into the test chamber and the sensing characteristics of the sensor were then observed by ...

  10. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  11. The acute effects of alcohol on cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by the head-up tilt test in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viski, Sandor; Orosz, Miklos; Czuriga-Kovacs, Katalin Reka; Magyar, Maria Tunde; Csiba, Laszlo; Olah, Laszlo

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol is a known triggering factor for orthostatic dysfunction, increasing the risk of neurally-mediated syncope. Since orthostatic tolerance may be affected by both systemic and cerebral hemodynamic changes, our aim was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on cerebral vasoreactivity measured during the head-up tilt (HUT) test in 20 healthy subjects. Mean arterial blood pressure (mBP), heart rate, and flow parameters in both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were continuously recorded in the supine and during a 10-minute HUT positions before and after alcohol intake. The HUT test resulted in a more prominent decline of adjusted mBP at the level of MCAs (mBPMCA) and a significantly larger decrease of MCA mean flow velocities (MFVMCA) in the post-alcohol period than before alcohol intake. During the HUT phase, the relative decrease in MFVMCA was significantly smaller than the reduction in mBPMCA before drinking alcohol, while these changes were similar after alcohol ingestion. The cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi) decreased during the HUT phase in the control period, however, it increased after alcohol intake. The similar decrease in mBPMCA and MFVMCA during orthostatic stress after alcohol ingestion together with the increased CVRi indicated the impairment of the compensatory vasodilation of cerebral resistance vessels, i.e. impaired cerebral autoregulation. These findings suggest that alcohol may contribute to impaired orthostatic tolerance not only by a hypotensive response but also by the alteration of cerebral blood flow regulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  13. Blood alcohol test results of motor vehicle deaths as an evaluation method for the Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Fairfax Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP) was started following the June 1971 approval of the proposal and working plan submitted to the Department of Transportation by the Highway Safety Division of Virginia. A total of $2,123,000 was allocat...

  14. [Reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Yang, G P; Li, Z; Li, X N; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, F Y; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among medical students in China and to provide correct way of application on the recommended scales. Methods: An E-questionnaire was developed and sent to medical students in five different colleges. Students were all active volunteers to accept the testings. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were calculated to evaluate the reliability of AUDIT while content, contract, discriminant and convergent validity were performed to measure the validity of the scales. Results: The overall Cronbach's α of AUDIT was 0.782 and the split-half reliability was 0.711. Data showed that the domain Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were 0.796 and 0.794 for hazardous alcohol use, 0.561 and 0.623 for dependence symptoms, and 0.647 and 0.640 for harmful alcohol use. Results also showed that the content validity index on the levels of items I-CVI) were from 0.83 to 1.00, the content validity index of scale level (S-CVI/UA) was 0.90, content validity index of average scale level (S-CVI/Ave) was 0.99 and the content validity ratios (CVR) were from 0.80 to 1.00. The simplified version of AUDIT supported a presupposed three-factor structure which could explain 61.175% of the total variance revealed through exploratory factor analysis. AUDIT semed to have good convergent and discriminant validity, with the success rate of calibration experiment as 100%. Conclusion: AUDIT showed good reliability and validity among medical students in China thus worth for promotion on its use.

  15. Effect of fructose-reduced diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and its correlation to a standard fructose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Leif Kyrre; Fagerli, Erik; Martinussen, Marit; Myhre, Arnt-Otto; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2013-08-01

    To perform a validation of dairy registrations for use as diagnostic tool in IBS and fructose malabsorption (FM). To investigate the precision of the fructose breath test (FBT) as compared with symptom score reduction on fructose-reduced diet (FRD) in a cohort of patients with Rome II defined irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS patients diagnosed according to the Rome II criteria and with no organic gastrointestinal disease were enrolled. The patients were randomized in an open study design with a 2 week run-in on IBS diet, followed by 4 weeks w/wo additional FRD. FBT was performed in all patients. Dairy registrations of stool frequency and consistency as well as abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating on a visual analog scale (VAS) were performed during the whole study. A total of 182 subjects performed the study according to protocol (88 FRD, 94 controls). The VAS symptom registration performed well in validation procedures, whereas stool data showed less impressive characteristics. FRD improved symptom scores (abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating) significantly whereas no changes were observed in the control group. The effect of FRD on the stool frequency was modest but no effect was observed on the stool consistency. The FBT did not discriminate between patients with and without effect of FRD, and even in the group with a negative FBT significant improvement of symptom scores was observed. VAS measures yield reliable symptom evaluation in dairy registrations of IBS. FRD improves symptom scores in IBS patients independent of results from the FBT.

  16. State of Motor-Evacuation Function of the Stomach According to 13C-Octanoate Breath Test in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Mishchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined 58 patients with erosive form of gastroesophageal reflux disease and 10 healthy volunteers. All patients underwent fibrogastroduodenoscopy, 24 hour pH monitoring in the lower third of esophagus, 13C-octanoate breath test, identified concentration of cholecystokinin-pankreozymin in blood serum. It is found that 44.83 % of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have delayed, 36.21 % — rapid and 18.97 % — normal motor-e­vacuation function of the stomach. In patients with delayed gastric motility we observed prevalence of bile reflux with pH over 6 in the lower third of the esophagus, amounting to 42 % (p = 0.044, and increased concentration in the blood of cholecystokinin-pankreozymin up to (7.12 ± 0.21 ng/ml (p < 0.05, in healthy subjects — (5.91 ± 0.34 ng/ml. In patients with accelerated motility number of refluxes under 4 was 45 %, and cholecystokinin-pankreozymin le­vel — (4.4 ± 1.2 ng/ml. These data support the view of other authors that causes of heartburn as a leading symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease can be duodenogastric reflux and visceral hyperalgesia.

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Alaskans: Factors associated with infection and comparison of urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernyk, Karen M; Bulkow, Lisa R; Gold, Benjamin D; Bruce, Michael G; Hurlburt, Debby H; Griffin, Patricia M; Swerdlow, David L; Cook, Kim; Hennessy, Thomas W; Parkinson, Alan J

    2018-03-14

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections in the world, and studies in Alaska Native people, as well as other Indigenous peoples, have shown a high prevalence of this gastric infection. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) and anti- H. pylori IgG among Alaskans living in four regions of the state and to identify factors associated with infection. A convenience sample of persons > 6 months old living in five rural and one urban Alaskan community were recruited from 1996 to 1997. Participants were asked about factors possibly associated with infection. Sera were collected and tested for anti- H. pylori IgG antibodies; a UBT was administered to participants > 5 years old. We recruited 710 people of whom 571 (80%) were Alaska Native and 467 (66%) were from rural communities. Rural residents were more likely to be Alaska Native compared with urban residents (P  5 years old had a UBT performed. H. pylori prevalence was 69% by UBT and 68% by anti- H. pylori IgG. Among those with a result for both tests, there was 94% concordance. Factors associated with H. pylori positivity were Alaska Native racial status, age ≥ 20 years, rural region of residence, living in a crowded home, and drinking water that was not piped or delivered. Helicobacter pylori prevalence is high in Alaska, especially in Alaska Native persons and rural residents. Concordance between UBT and serology was also high in this group. Two socioeconomic factors, crowding and drinking water that was not piped or delivered, were found to be associated with H. pylori positivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cut-off optimization for13C-urea breath test in a community-based trial by mathematic, histology and serology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe-Xuan; Huang, Lei-Lei; Liu, Cong; Formichella, Luca; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Jun-Ling; Liu, Wei-Dong; Ulm, Kurt; Wang, Jian-Xi; Zhang, Lei; Bajbouj, Monther; Li, Ming; Vieth, Michael; Quante, Michael; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Le-Hua; Suchanek, Stepan; Soutschek, Erwin; Schmid, Roland; Classen, Meinhard; You, Wei-Cheng; Gerhard, Markus; Pan, Kai-Feng

    2017-05-18

    The performance of diagnostic tests in intervention trials of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication is crucial, since even minor inaccuracies can have major impact. To determine the cut-off point for 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) and to assess if it can be further optimized by serologic testing, mathematic modeling, histopathology and serologic validation were applied. A finite mixture model (FMM) was developed in 21,857 subjects, and an independent validation by modified Giemsa staining was conducted in 300 selected subjects. H.pylori status was determined using recomLine H.pylori assay in 2,113 subjects with a borderline 13 C-UBT results. The delta over baseline-value (DOB) of 3.8 was an optimal cut-off point by a FMM in modelling dataset, which was further validated as the most appropriate cut-off point by Giemsa staining (sensitivity = 94.53%, specificity = 92.93%). In the borderline population, 1,468 subjects were determined as H.pylori positive by recomLine (69.5%). A significant correlation between the number of positive H.pylori serum responses and DOB value was found (r s  = 0.217, P mathematical approach such as FMM might be an alternative measure in optimizing the cut-off point for 13 C-UBT in community-based studies, and a second method to determine H.pylori status for subjects with borderline value of 13 C-UBT was necessary and recommended.

  19. Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Mindfulness, Psychosocial Stress, and Alcohol Use among African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Cano, Miguel A; Heppner, Whitney L; Stewart, Diana W; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2015-04-01

    Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers ( N = 399, 51% female, M age = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers.

  20. Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Mindfulness, Psychosocial Stress, and Alcohol Use among African American Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel A.; Heppner, Whitney L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers (N = 399, 51% female, Mage = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers. PMID:25848408

  1. An experimental test of assessment reactivity within a web-based brief alcohol intervention study for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzino, Tera L; Rose, Gail L; Helzer, John E

    2016-01-01

    Web-based brief alcohol intervention (WBI) programs have efficacy in a wide range of college students and have been widely disseminated to universities to address heavy alcohol use. In the majority of efficacy studies, web-based research assessments were conducted before the intervention. Web-based research assessments may elicit reactivity, which could inflate estimates of WBI efficacy. The current study tested whether web-based research assessments conducted in combination with a WBI had additive effects on alcohol use outcomes, compared to a WBI only. Undergraduate students (n=856) from universities in the United States and Canada participated in this online study. Eligible individuals were randomized to complete 1) research assessments+WBI or 2) WBI-only. Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and protective behaviors were assessed at one-month follow up. Multiple regression using 20 multiply imputed datasets indicated that there were no significant differences at follow up in alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, or protective behaviors used when controlling for variables with theoretical and statistical relevance. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a significant decrease in peak estimated blood alcohol concentration in both groups, but no differential effects by randomized group. There were no significant moderating effects from gender, hazardous alcohol use, or motivation to change drinking. Web-based research assessments combined with a web-based alcohol intervention did not inflate estimates of intervention efficacy when measured within-subjects. Our findings suggest universities may be observing intervention effects similar to those cited in efficacy studies, although effectiveness trials are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000053.htm How to breathe when you are short of breath ... Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps to ...

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Cabrera, A.; Sanchez, M. A.; Herrera, X.; Pawong, M.; Moreno, R.; Reyes, D.; Serrano, G.; Diaz, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94 % in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer, stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values

  6. Heart rate variability (HRV) in deep breathing tests and 5-min short-term recordings: agreement of ear photoplethysmography with ECG measurements, in 343 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinschenk, Stefan W; Beise, Reinhard D; Lorenz, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) taken by ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) to assess their agreement. We also analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of PPG to identify subjects with low HRV as an example of its potential use for clinical applications. The HRV parameters: mean heart rate (HR), amplitude, and ratio of heart rate oscillation (E-I difference, E/I ratio), RMSSD, SDNN, and Power LF, were measured during 1-min deep breathing tests (DBT) in 343 individuals, followed by a 5-min short-term HRV (s-HRV), where the HRV parameters: HR, SD1, SD2, SDNN, Stress Index, Power HF, Power LF, Power VLF, and Total Power, were determined as well. Parameters were compared through correlation analysis and agreement analysis by Bland-Altman plots. PPG derived parameters HR and SD2 in s-HRV showed better agreement than SD1, Power HF, and stress index, whereas in DBT HR, E/I ratio and SDNN were superior to Power LF and RMSSD. DBT yielded stronger agreement than s-HRV. A slight overestimation of PPG HRV over HCG HRV was found. HR, Total Power, and SD2 in the s-HRV, HR, Power LF, and SDNN in the DBT showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect individuals with poor HRV. Cutoff percentiles are given for the future development of PPG-based devices. HRV measured by PPG shows good agreement with ECG HRV when appropriate parameters are used, and PPG-based devices can be employed as an easy screening tool to detect individuals with poor HRV, especially in the 1-min DBT test.

  7. Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem As ... However, aging sometimes brings on other more serious breathing problems including incapacitating shortness of breath, chest discomfort, ...

  8. From breathing to respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, limit overuse of the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause frequently to check ...

  10. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  11. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determine whether your company must obtain an Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations... Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations Specification, or whether you need to register with the FAA... operate under parts 121 and/or 135 (i) Have an Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program Operations...

  12. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-06-07

    to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. demonstrar as relações entre vulnerabilidade, autotranscendência e bem-estar na população adulta jovem e o efeito de cada uma destas variáveis na adoção de condutas de baixo risco de consumo. estudo quantitativo, transversal do tipo correlacional que utilizou a análise estatística de Equações Estruturais para comprovar a relação entre as variáveis. evidenciou-se uma relação inversa entre a vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool e a transcendência espiritual (β-0.123, p 0.025) e uma relação direta positiva entre a transcendência espiritual e o bem-estar psicossocial (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusões: as relações das variáveis transcendência espiritual, vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool e bem-estar psicossocial, fundamentadas na Teoria de Reed, são confirmadas no grupo populacional de jovens adultos universitários, concluindo que é possível alcançar o bem-estar psicossocial quando se incrementa a transcendência espiritual, enquanto a vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool se reduz. demostrar las relaciones entre

  13. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  14. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Breathing changes accompanying balance improvement during biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjaková, Zuzana; Neumannová, Kateřina; Kimijanová, Jana; Šuttová, Kristína; Janura, Miroslav; Hlavačka, František

    2017-06-09

    The aim of this study was to determine whether respiration would be altered during visual biofeedback condition while standing on a foam surface. Fifty young, healthy subjects (24 men, 26 women) were divided into a spirometry group, in which additional spirometry analysis was performed, and a control group. All subjects were tested in two conditions: 1) standing on a foam surface and 2) standing on a foam surface with visual biofeedback (VF) based on the centre of pressure (CoP). CoP amplitude and velocity in anterior-posterior (Aap, Vap) and medial-lateral (Aml, Vml) directions were measured by the force platform. Breathing movements were recorded by two pairs of 3D accelerometers attached on the upper chest (upper chest breathing - UCB) and the lower chest (lower chest breathing - LCB). Results showed that significant decreases of CoP amplitude and velocity in both directions were accompanied by a significant decrease of lower chest breathing, and an increase of LCB frequency was seen during VF condition compared to control condition in both groups. Moreover, a significant decrease in tidal volume and increased breathing frequency during VF condition were confirmed by spirometric analysis. Reduced breathing movements and volumes as well as increased breathing frequency are probably part of an involuntary strategy activated to maximize balance improvement during VF condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  17. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...... America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air-gulping motion at the surface, followed by swimming towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of spontaneous air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia...

  18. Alcohol flushing and positive ethanol patch test in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuji; Morita, Sumio; Harada, Eisaku; Shono, Makoto; Morikawa, Yoshinobu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yasue, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm or coronary spastic angina (CSA) is prevalent in Japan. However, the precise mechanisms underlying coronary spasm are unclear. Alcohol intolerance is prevalent among East Asians, and we previously reported that coronary spasm could be induced by alcohol intake in CSA patients. We herein examined whether CSA is associated with alcohol intolerance in Japanese subjects. The study subjects consisted of 80 CSA patients (57 men/ 23 women, mean age 62 ± 12) and 52 non-CSA patients (25 men/27 women, mean age 63 ± 10). The ethanol patch test (EPT) and questionnaire which evaluates flushing after ethanol intake, along with an examination of clinical features and laboratory chemistry data for CHD risk factors were done. Gender (male) and smoking were higher (p=0.007, and p=0.019, respectively) and plasma HDL cholesterol level was lower (p=0.035) in the CSA patients than in the non-CSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, EPT, smoking, and plasma HDL cholesterol level as independent variables revealed that positive EPT and smoking were significant predictors of CSA (p=0.011 and p=0.016, respectively). Positive EPT and alcohol flushing following alcohol intake, as well as smoking and plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, were significantly associated with CSA in Japanese patients. Therefore, alcohol ingestion as well as smoking is a significant risk factor for CSA in Japanese.

  19. A simple test of one minute heart rate variability during deep breathing for evaluation of sympathovagal imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareedabanu, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the magnitude of the fluctuation in the number of heart beats per minute in conjunction with respiration. HRV with deep breathing (HRVdb) has recently become a popular non-invasive research tool in cardiology. This study was carried out to determine and compare the HRV in patients with Type 2 DM with those of Non diabetic controls. Methods: Sixty diabetic patients attending out patient department in Karnataka Institute of Diabetology, Bangalore and 60 age-matched controls were enrolled. HRV was performed on all the subjects and the results obtained were compared between the groups. The One minute HRV was analysed during deep breathing and defined as the difference in beats/minute between the shortest and the longest heart rate interval measured by lead II electrocardiographic recording during six cycles of deep breathing. Results: Statistically significant decrease in mean minimal heart rate and 1 minute HRV (16.30 +- 6.42 vs 29.33 +- 8.39) was observed during deep breathing among Type 2 Diabetic patients on comparison with that of healthy controls. There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate between the groups. Conclusion: Significant decrease in HRV in Type 2 DM patients is suggestive of reduced parasympathetic activity or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity in them. Hence HRVdb provides a sensitive screening measure for parasympathetic dysfunction in many autonomic disorders. (author)

  20. Potential sources of non-petroleum based alcohols for vehicular fleet testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The quantity of alcohol required to supply all of the US Department of Energy's vehicular fleet test fuel needs during the period fiscal year 1980 through 1982 could reach on the order of 1.5 and 1.6 million gallons per year of 200 proof ethanol and fuel-grade methanol, respectively. During the time frame of fiscal year 1982 through 1987, vehicular fleet testing fuel needs could approach 8 and 10 million gallons per year of ethanol and methanol, respectively. In terms of supply, all of the ethanol fleet test fuel requirements can be satisfied by domestic fermentation ethanol from non-petroleum/non-natural gas resources. Initially, the major ethanol fermentation firms are potentially capable of supplying the necessary quantity of ethanol. As the test project progresses and fleet size expands, the outlook for ethanol supply from the major firms as well as from other private sources, both existing and planned, is very promising. This supply outlook could be altered significantly if an expanding Gasohol market demands a major portion of the available ethanol production. It is in the Federal Government's best interest to arrange for ethanol supply agreements as soon as possible so that fleet test volume requirements can be assured. The supply situation for methanol from non-petroleum/non-natural gas resources is not very promising. It appears that methanol produced from coal or biomass will not be available before 1985 at the earliest, assuming that a decision to construct a sizeable plant is made immediately. As such, fuel grade methanol for use in the reliability fleet test project will most likely have to be obtained from the existing petroleum/natural gas-based methanol market. This market is currently operating at a level below maximum capacity and several older mothballed plants can be reactivated if the economic situation warrants.

  1. The Diagnostic Validity of Citric Acid-Free, High Dose (13)C-Urea Breath Test After Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Kichul; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, AeRa; Jeong, Yeon Sang; Oh, Sooyeon; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-06-01

    The (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the (13)C-UBT cutoff value and to identify influencing clinical factors responsible for aberrant results. (13)C-UBT (UBiTkit; Otsuka Pharmaceutical, cutoff value: 2.5‰) results in the range 2.0‰ to 10.0‰ after H. pylori eradication therapy were compared with the results of endoscopic biopsy results of the antrum and body. Factors considered to affect test results adversely were analyzed. Among patients with a positive (13)C-UBT result (2.5‰ to 10.0‰, n = 223) or a negative (13)C-UBT result (2.0‰ to pylori eradication, 73 patients (34.0%) were false positive, and one (1.5%) was false negative as determined by endoscopic biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate for a cutoff value of 2.5‰ were 99.3%, 47.1%, 52.9%, and 0.7%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of the (13)C-UBT were 67.3% and 98.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of two or more previous H. pylori eradication therapies (OR = 2.455, 95%CI = 1.299-4.641) and moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia (OR = 3.359, 95%CI = 1.572-7.178) were associated with a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. The (13)C-UBT cutoff value currently used has poor specificity for confirming H. pylori status after eradication, and this lack of specificity is exacerbated in patients that have undergone multiple prior eradication therapies and in patients with moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia. In addition, the citric-free (13)C-UBT would increase a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Mavoa, Suzanne; Livingston, Michael; David, Stephanie; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-05-01

    Reducing access to alcohol is an important and cost-effective strategy for decreasing alcohol consumption and associated harm. Yet this is a less common approach to alcohol control in Australia. The aim of this research was to ascertain which alcohol outlet density spatial measures were related to long-term health outcomes, and the extent to which this differs for those living in more or less disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Existing Australian state-level spatial alcohol policies were reviewed. No appropriate spatial policies were identified; therefore, the literature was used to identify potential alcohol-related spatial measures. Spatial measures of alcohol outlet density were generated in a geographical information system and linked with health survey data drawn from 3141 adults living in metropolitan Melbourne. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between alcohol outlet density measures, self-rated health and area-level disadvantage. Twelve spatial measures of alcohol outlet density were generated. Alcohol outlet density and self-rated health associations varied by area-level disadvantage. For those living in more disadvantaged areas, not having off-licenses available within 800 m, or on-licenses available within 400 m were protective of self-rated health. Local alcohol outlet density may have a more detrimental effect on self-rated health for those living in more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, compared with those living in more advantaged areas. There is a need for spatial alcohol policies to help reduce alcohol-related harm. This research proposes a set of spatial measures to generate a more consistent understanding of alcohol availability in Australia. [Badland H, Mavoa S, Livingston M, David S, Giles-Corti B. Testing spatial measures of alcohol outlet density with self-rated health in the Australian context: Implications for policy and practice. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:298-306]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol

  3. Alcohol fueled farm tractors compete favorably, with diesel in Brazil tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, E.O.; Brandini, A.

    1984-08-01

    Heavy duty alcohol powered engines are suitable to tractors. In Brazil diesel and alcohol tractors of the same configuration, weight, and engine size running side by side, indicated superior field performance of the alcohol tractor and a time saving of about 5-10% for the same work schedule. Lifetime and maintenance factors, chemical energy to mechanical work conversion efficiencies, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, starting procedure and other considerations are discussed.

  4. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in ... properly. Schwartzstein RM. Approach to the patient with dyspnea. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 4, ...

  5. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where...

  6. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  7. [Autopsy and blood testing for alcohol and drugs/medicine after traffic fatalities is not routinely conducted].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Schumacher, Bente; Freeman, Michael

    2010-09-27

    In some road traffic crashes with fatal outcome, the police investigations lead to charges against and prosecution of a person. The police can request a medico-legal autopsy as well as a toxicological examination, but the extent to which this is done, and the role here of in the legal setting is unknown. Information concerning traffic crashes with fatal outcome in the period 2000-2004 in Aarhus Police District was retrieved and compared. The information included comprised crash specific and legal information, as well as medical data concerning autopsy, examination for alcohol, drugs and/or medicine. In all, 81 traffic crashes had a fatal outcome for 92 persons, of whom 17 (18%) were autopsied, 55 (60%) were tested for alcohol, and five (5%) were examined for drugs/medicine. Twenty-six were charged with negligent homicide, of which 18 were convicted. Autopsy was performed in four of these cases, 19 were tested for alcohol and one was tested for drugs/medicine. This study shows that the police requests few medico-legal autopsies following road traffic fatalities, and that testing for alcohol as well as drugs/medicine is not conducted routinely. As a consequence, important information may not come to the knowledge of the police in cases of negligent homicide. We recommend that postmortem examination be conducted routinely in traffic-related homicide cases to secure the best possible conditions for a legal evaluation.

  8. Effects of congener and noncongener alcoholic beverages on a clinical ataxia test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    It is clear that the ingestion of alcohol can disturb postural measures and it is possible that the effects of alcohol may be manifested at significant stages subsequent to acute intoxication; i.e., during so-called 'hangover' periods. This study was...

  9. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  10. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug...

  11. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, Kristian; Bodtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    A few studies have indicated a positive association between consumption of alcohol and allergic sensitization in age and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations.......A few studies have indicated a positive association between consumption of alcohol and allergic sensitization in age and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations....

  12. Teste de respiração lenta aumenta a suspeita da hipertensão do avental branco no consultório Slow breathing test increases the suspicion of white-coat hypertension in the office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Thalenberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Seria útil dispor de um teste clínico que aumentasse a suspeita da hipertensão do avental branco (HAB durante a consulta. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o teste de respiração lenta (TRL na diferenciação entre hipertensão e HAB. MÉTODOS: Cento e um pacientes hipertensos selecionados em triagem tiveram a medicação suspensa por duas a três semanas. A pressão arterial (PA foi medida antes e depois do TRL em duas visitas. O teste consistiu em respirar por 1 minuto na freqüência de um ciclo respiratório a cada 10 segundos. Dois critérios diagnósticos foram comparados: 1- queda da PA diastólica >10% em pelo menos uma consulta, ou 2- queda da PA para níveis normais (BACKGROUND: It would be useful to have a clinical test that increases the suspicion of white coat hypertension (WCH during the medical consultation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Slow Breathing Test (SBT when differentiating hypertension from WCH. METHODS: 101 hypertensive patients selected at triage had their medication withdrawn for 2-3 weeks. The blood pressure (BP was measured before and after the SBT at two consultations at the office. The test consisted in breathing for 1 minute at the frequency of one respiratory cycle every 10 seconds. Two diagnostic criteria were compared: 1 - decrease in diastolic BP >10% in at least one visit or 2- decrease in BP to normal levels (<140/90 mm Hg in at least one visit. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed while blinded to the clinical measurements. RESULTS: 71 women and 30 men, with a mean age of 51+10 years, with mean pre and post-test BP of 152+17/ 99+11 and 140+18/ 91+11 mm Hg were assessed. Nine patients had normal clinical and ambulatory measurements. Of the 92 patients, 28 (30% were classified as having WCH; 15 had a positive test for Criterion 1 and 21 for the Criterion 2. Among 64 (70% hypertensive individuals, 14 tested positive for Criterion 1 and 12 for Criterion 2. Sensitivity and specificity (95

  13. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester AJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arie J Wester,1 Judith C van Herten,2 Jos IM Egger,2–4 Roy PC Kessels1,2,5 1Korsakoff Clinic, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 4Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Purpose: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test's diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005. The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02, but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion: The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment

  14. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  15. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  16. Total alcoholic acidity and pH tests as quality parameters in stored soybean grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Marinho Vieira Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technology available to agriculture, qualitative and quantitative losses occurring during post-harvest are still not controlled, and stored grains may undergo changes in their composition, due to storage conditions. This study aimed at determining the sensitivity of the alcoholic acidity and pH tests in soybean (GB 874RR cultivar grains with different quality standards obtained during storage. A completely randomized design, in a 3 x 6 x 5 (3 storage conditions x 6 storage times x 5 methods factorial scheme, was used. A correlation was observed among pH, total acidity content (r = 0.888 and grain quality parameters. Deterioration was identified based on the total acidity content, showing a high correlation with fungal incidence (r = 0.864, ether extract (r = -0.781 and electrical conductivity (r = 0.923. The use of phenolphthalein as indicator is more sensitive than pH 8.8. Among the pH determination methods, AOAC was the most suitable for assessing the quality loss during storage.

  17. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  18. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Larry D; Richardson, Kathryn J; Purssell, Roy A; Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Brubacher, Jeffery R; Lepik, Katherine J; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2008-04-28

    The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1) to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2) to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the identification of patients requiring dialysis. In

  19. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  20. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF INVERSE RATIO BREATHING VERSUS DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING ON INSPIRATORY VITAL CAPACITY AND THORACIC EXPANSION IN ADULT HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshipra Baban Pedamkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The normal inspiratory to expiratory ratio is 1:2.However, the duration of inspiration can be increased voluntarily till the ratio becomes 2:1.This is called as inverse ratio breathing. The effects of inverse ratio ventilation have been studied on patients with respiratory failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. No studies have been carried out to study the effects of inverse ratio breathing in voluntarily breathing individuals. Hence this study was carried out to find the immediate effects of inverse ratio breathing versus diaphragmatic breathing on inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion. Methods: 30 healthy adult females in the age group 20-25 years were included in the study. Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostal space was measured using a digital spirometer and an inelastic inch tape respectively. Diaphragmatic breathing was administered for one minute and the same parameters were measured again. A washout period of one day was given and same outcome measures were measured before and after individuals performed inverse ratio breathing with the help of a visual feedback video for one minute. Results: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon test. There was extremely significant difference between the mean increase in the inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at the 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostals space after inverse ratio breathing as compared to diaphragmatic breathing (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion increase significantly after inverse ratio breathing.