WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol ads targeting

  1. Reducing Youth Exposure to Alcohol Ads: Targeting Public Transit

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure. To address this problem, the Marin Institute, an alcohol industry watchdog group in Northern California, conduct...

  2. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking.

  3. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking. PMID:25580931

  4. Serious Concerns Over Alcoholic Beverages with Added Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Espanol Serious Concerns Over Alcoholic Beverages with Added Caffeine Please share copies of this printer-friendly PDF ( ... beverages, or CABs, are alcoholic beverages that contain caffeine as an additive and are packaged in combined ...

  5. Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158890.html Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day: Study Researchers say billboards, signs and TV ads may encourage ... at greater risk if they're exposed to alcohol advertising," said study leader ... She is a researcher with the Rand Corp., a nonprofit global policy ...

  6. Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.

    Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads or soft liquor ads…

  7. Windowless target: Design of the XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the XT-ADS spallation target is performed within the European integrated project EUROTRANS (FP6 Contract FI6W-516520) that has started in April 2005. At the current status of the spallation target design process, the boundary conditions for the spallation target loop with respect to the XT-ADS performance requirements and the design of the subcritical core and primary system have been established. The next steps will concentrate on further development of the spallation target nozzle, the vacuum and spallation product confinement system and the pumping, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and cooling system

  8. Radio Daze: Alcohol Ads Tune in Underage Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Through the years and every passing fad, radio has continued to be a basic fact of life for youth in the United States. The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth commissioned Virtual Media Resources (VMR) to audit alcohol radio advertising in 2001 and 2002 and to conduct a case study of alcohol radio advertising in December 2002 and January 2003…

  9. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Targeted Ad-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven M.

    Thanks to its low product-promotion cost and its efficiency, targeted online advertising has become very popular. Unfortunately, being profile-based, online advertising methods violate consumers' privacy, which has engendered resistance to the ads. However, protecting privacy through anonymity seems to encourage click-fraud. In this paper, we define consumer's privacy and present a privacy-preserving, targeted ad system (PPOAd) which is resistant towards click fraud. Our scheme is structured to provide financial incentives to all entities involved.

  10. Investigation of the Compatibility Between ADS Target Material With Coolant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At present, the program of the compatibility study on ADS project of China Institute of Atomic Energy is focused on the compatibility tests for the tungsten with water and sodium. An ADS verification facility is proposed in next phase of ADS project, an existent swimming pool reactor will be repack as the subcritical reactor system, and tungsten will be used as the target. On the other hand, our CEFR is being constructed now, it may be one of the options as the subcritical reactor system of ADS, thus, it is necessary to understand the compatibility characteristics of tungsten with sodium and water.

  11. Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising on Billboards: Targeting with Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Caroline; Basil, Michael D.

    A study examined whether billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products is differentially targeted toward White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic neighborhoods. The study analyzed 901 billboards in neighborhood commercial districts in San Francisco, California, giving particular attention to tobacco and alcohol billboards. Neighborhood census…

  12. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  13. Alcohol-induced hypertension: an important healthcare target in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, F; de Timary, P; Dom, G; Dor, B D; Duprez, D; Lengelé, J-P; Matthys, F; Peuskens, H; Rehm, J; Stärkel, P

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol intake is one of the leading causes of premature death in Europe and particularly in Belgium. Belgian people are consuming more alcohol per year than the European average. It is well established that excessive alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of the development of hypertension (HTN). Two million adults in Belgium suffer from HTN and this number will increase to three million by 2025. Less than 50% of Belgian people treated for HTN are well-controlled. Alcohol reduction in patients with HTN can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After reviewing the epidemiology of HTN and alcohol disorders in Belgium, this paper will focus on the rationale for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. It will also describe the barriers to alcohol screening, and what could be the benefits of alcohol screening for our healthcare system. The authors believe that early identification through alcohol screening and brief intervention in general practice can help to improve the management of patients with HTN, to reach the targets of the WHO Global Action Plan, i.e., a 25% relative reduction in the risk of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases. They are also convinced that this would allow achieving major healthcare savings. PMID:26135944

  14. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  15. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions. PMID:27442880

  16. Association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and visual acuity-the AdRem Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C. C.; Stolk, R. P.; Adler, A. I.; Patel, A.; Chalmers, J.; Neal, B.; Poulter, N.; Harrap, S.; Woodward, M.; Marre, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Beulens, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and deterioration of visual acuity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cohort analysis of 1239 participants with Type 2 diabetes aged 55-81 years enrolled in the AdRem study, a sub-study

  17. Targeting collagen expression in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyle J Thompson; Iain H McKillop; Laura W Schrum

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver disease and liver-related deaths globally, particularly in developed nations. Liver fibrosis is a consequence of ALD and other chronic liver insults, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma if left untreated. Liver fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of excess extracellular matrix components, including type Ⅰ collagen, which disrupts liver microcirculation and leads to injury. To date, there is no therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis; thus treatments that either prevent the accumulation of type Ⅰ collagen or hasten its degradation are desirable. The focus of this review is to examine the regulation of type Ⅰ collagen in fibrogenic cells of the liver and to discuss current advances in therapeutics to eliminate excessive collagen deposition.

  18. Justidrusamides A-D, new 2-aminobenzyl alcohol derivatives from Justicia gendarussa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiren, Yuko; Deguchi, Jun; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Morita, Hiroshi; Prajogo, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    Justidrusamides A-D (1-4), four new alkaloids containing 2-aminobenzyl alcohol, succinic acid, and 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) butanoic acid skeletons have been isolated from leaves of Justicia gendarussa, and their structures were elucidated using 2D NMR data and chemical means. This is the first report of a 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) butanoic acid derivative in nature. PMID:25099953

  19. Molecular targets in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashwin D Dhanda; Richard WL Lee; Peter L Collins; C Anne McCune

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol related costs to health and society are high.One of the most serious complications of alcohol misuse to the individual is the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH),a clinical syndrome of jaundice and progressive inflammatory liver injury in patients with a history of recent heavy alcohol use.It has a poor outcome and few existing successful therapies.The use of glucocorticoids in patients with severe AH is still controversial and there remains a group of patients with glucocorticoid-resistant disease.However,as our understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition improves there are opportunities to develop new targeted therapies with specific actions to control liver inflammation without having a detrimental effect on the immune system as a whole.In this article we review the molecular mechanisms of AH concentrating on the activation of the innate and adaptive immune response.We consider existing treatments including glucocorticoids,anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and pentoxifylline and their limitations.Using our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis we discuss possible novel therapeutic approaches.New targets includepro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17,chemokines and their receptors (for example IL-8,CXCL9 and CXCR3) and augmentation of anti-inflammatory molecules such as IL-10 and IL-22.And there is also future potential to consider combination therapy to selectively modulate the immune response and gain control of disease.

  20. Study on ADS Pb (Pb/Bi) spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron yield and double differential cross section of outgoing neutron produced in p+Pb spallation reaction up to 1.6 GeV have been investigated by some theoretical. Residual radioactivity, energy deposition and radiation damage of the Pb target were studied as well. A verification facility commented of a swimming pool reactor driven by a pulsed low energy high current accelerator (150-300 MeV/3mA) is planned in the next phase of our project. Pb-Bi eutectic is one of the options as the target material in the facility. In order to investigate the material compatibility and the thermohydraulics of Pb-Bi eutectic, a simplified small-scale loop is under designing. (author)

  1. The FLUKA study of the secondary particles fluence in the AD-Antiproton Decelerator target area

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present Monte Carlo FLUKA simulations [1, 2] carried out to investigate the secondary particles fluence emerging from the antiproton production target and their spatial distribution in the AD target area. The detailed quantitative analysis has been performed for different positions along the magnet dog-leg as well as after the main collimator. These results allow tuning the position of the new beam current transformers (BCT) in the target area, in order to have a precise pulse-by-pulse evaluation of the intensity of negative particles injected in the AD-ring before the deceleration phase.

  2. Mechanism of ad5 vaccine immunity and toxicity: fiber shaft targeting of dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviral (rAd vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines.

  3. Epigenetic Targets for Reversing Immune Defects Caused by Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Brenda J.; Zahs, Anita; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption alters factors that modify gene expression without changing the DNA code (i.e., epigenetic modulators) in many organ systems, including the immune system. Alcohol enhances the risk for developing several serious medical conditions related to immune system dysfunction, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), liver cancer, and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Binge and chronic drinking also render patients more susceptible to many infectious pathogens and advance...

  4. Overexposed: Youth a Target of Alcohol Advertising in Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This report analyzes $320 million in alcohol product advertising in magazines during calendar year 2001. The first section analyzes the amount of magazine advertising delivered to youth and adults by different alcoholic beverage brands. For many beer and distilled spirits brands, the youth population received more advertising than the adult…

  5. Molecular targets of alcohol action: translational research for pharmacotherapy development and screening

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, Giorgio; Bell, Richard L.; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are multifaceted disorders with neurobiological, psychological, and environmental components. Research on other complex neuropsychiatric diseases suggests that genetically influenced intermediate characteristics affect the risk for heavy alcohol consumption and its consequences. Diverse therapeutic interventions can be developed through identification of reliable biomarkers for this disorder and new pharmacological targets for its treatment. Advances in the fields...

  6. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sathamurthy; L M Gantayet; A K Ray

    2007-02-01

    Department of Atomic Energy, India has taken up the development of ADS in view of many attractive features like inherent safety, capability to transmute large quantities of nuclear waste, better utilization of thorium etc. A roadmap has been finalized for the development of ADS. One of the key components of the ADS is the spallation target. Considering the neutron yield, thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage issues, we are proposing to develop spallation target based on heavy density liquid metals like lead and lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE). Both window and windowless target configurations are presently being studied. In view of the various advantages we are also studying liquid metal flow circulation based on gas lift mechanism. An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the existing ones are utilized to design the entire target loop as well as sub-systems. In this presentation the details of these activities are presented.

  7. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Gantayet, L. M.; Ray, A. K.

    2007-02-01

    Department of Atomic Energy, India has taken up the development of ADS in view of many attractive features like inherent safety, capability to transmute large quantities of nuclear waste, better utilization of thorium etc. A roadmap has been finalized for the development of ADS. One of the key components of the ADS is the spallation target. Considering the neutron yield, thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage issues, we are proposing to develop spallation target based on heavy density liquid metals like lead and lead{bismuth{eutectic (LBE). Both window and windowless target configurations are presently being studied. In view of the various advantages we are also studying liquid metal flow circulation based on gas lift mechanism. An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the existing ones are utilized to design the entire target loop as well as sub-systems. In this presentation the details of these activities are presented.

  8. Epigenetic Modifications, Alcoholic Brain and Potential Drug Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Pandey, Suryanarayan; Choubey, Priyansha; Rajput, Prabha; Saroha, Babita; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. The research activities over the past years have demonstrated a crucial role of epigenetic mechanisms in causing long lasting and transient changes in the expression of several genes in diverse tissues, including brain. This has stimulated recent research work that is aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the long lasting and transient effects of alcohol abuse on the brain in humans and animal models of alcohol addiction. In this study, we update our current understanding of the impact of alcohol exposure on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain and refurbish the knowledge of epigenetics in the direction of new drugs development. PMID:27780992

  9. Design and thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of helium-cooled solid target for ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Driven Sucritial Reactor System (ADS) is a kind of nuclear reactor which can burn minor actinide waste products produced from conventional reactors with inherent safety features. Because of the characteristics of a sub-critical reaction process, the fission chain reaction is maintained by additional neutrons generated in spallation target induced by proton beams. In this paper, a helium-cooled solid target was designed for a 10 MW helium-cooled prismatic-type experimental ADS. Tungsten is choosen as the spallation target material and is modeled into the honeycomb structure. High pressure helium, which flows in honeycomb holes, removes heat deposited by the proton beam in the target. FLUENT code was used to calculate the temperature distribution of target under steady condition, with UDF solving the flow of helium in channels. In order to analyze the transient characteristics of spallation target cooling system, a RELAP5-3DTarget coupling model for cooling system was established. A simplified method was developed to simulate the heat transfer in target. The method avoids fine grid and gets a solution quickly. The simulated results indicate that the peak temperature in the target is lower than the limiting value under operating state as well as three typical transient scenarios with protected system. (and others)

  10. Ultrapotent vinblastines in which added molecular complexity further disrupts the target tubulin dimer-dimer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Daniel W; Lukesh, John C; Brody, Daniel M; Brütsch, Manuela M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-08-30

    Approaches to improving the biological properties of natural products typically strive to modify their structures to identify the essential pharmacophore, or make functional group changes to improve biological target affinity or functional activity, change physical properties, enhance stability, or introduce conformational constraints. Aside from accessible semisynthetic modifications of existing functional groups, rarely does one consider using chemical synthesis to add molecular complexity to the natural product. In part, this may be attributed to the added challenge intrinsic in the synthesis of an even more complex compound. Herein, we report synthetically derived, structurally more complex vinblastines inaccessible from the natural product itself that are a stunning 100-fold more active (IC50 values, 50-75 pM vs. 7 nM; HCT116), and that are now accessible because of advances in the total synthesis of the natural product. The newly discovered ultrapotent vinblastines, which may look highly unusual upon first inspection, bind tubulin with much higher affinity and likely further disrupt the tubulin head-to-tail α/β dimer-dimer interaction by virtue of the strategic placement of an added conformationally well-defined, rigid, and extended C20' urea along the adjacent continuing protein-protein interface. In this case, the added molecular complexity was used to markedly enhance target binding and functional biological activity (100-fold), and likely represents a general approach to improving the properties of other natural products targeting a protein-protein interaction. PMID:27512044

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Efficient target tracking with an ad-hoc network of omni-directional sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin

    2015-05-01

    Ad-hoc networks of omni-directional sensors provide an efficient means to obtain low-cost, easily deployed, reliable target tracking systems. To remove target position dependency on the target power, a transformation to another coordinate system is introduced. It can be shown that the problem of sensing target position with omni-directional sensors can be adapted to the conventional Kalman filter framework. To validate the proposed methodology, first an analysis is conducted to show that by converting to log-ratio space and at the same time reducing the number of parameters to track, no information about target position is lost. The analysis is done by deriving the CRLBs for the position estimation error in both original and transformed spaces and showing that they are the same. Second, to show how the traditional Kalman filter framework performs, a particle filter that works off the transformed coordinates is designed. The number of particles is selected to be sufficiently large and the result is used as ground truth to compare with the performance of the Kalman tracker. The comparisons are done for different target movement speeds and sensor density modes. The results provide an insight into Kalman tracker performance in different situations.

  13. Neutronics of LBE target-cooled ADS for MA transmutation: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose and goal: JAEA's reference design of ADS is a tank type 800 MWth subcritical reactor to transmute about 250 kg of minor actinides annually. A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is used as both the primary coolant and the spallation target. A superconducting linear accelerator (SC-LINAC), whose proton energy and maximum current are 1.5 GeV and 20 mA (30 MW), is connected to produce spallation neutrons. The (MA, Pu) N fuel diluted by ZrN is used in the subcritical core. Because the relatively high power peaking factor will be observed at the burnup stage of low HII value, where the influence of the spallation neutrons is strong, Pu is added at the beginning of the first burnup cycle to mitigate the rapid increase of the burnup reactivity

  14. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  15. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  16. Effect of Target Configuration on the Neutronic Performance of the Gas-Cooled ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biss, K; Shetty, N; Nabbi, R

    2013-01-01

    With the utilization of nuclear energy transuranic elements like Pu, Am and Cm are produced causing high, long term radioactivity and radio toxicity, respectively. To reduce the radiological impact on the environment and to the repository Partitioning and Transmutation is considered as an efficient way. In this respect comprehensive research works are performed at different research institutes worldwide. The results show that the transmutation of TRU is achieved with fast neutrons due to the higher fission probability. Based on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) those neutrons are used in a particular system, in which mainly liquid metal eutectic (lead bismuth) is used as coolant. The neutronic performance of an ADS system based on gas cooling was studied in this work by using the simulation tool MCNPX. The usage of the Monte-Carlo method in MCNPX allows the simulation of the physical processes in a 3D-model of the core. In dependence of the spallation target material and design several parameters like the mult...

  17. Targeting Kupffer cells in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Why and how?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas; Lanthier

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)development are under investigation in an era of increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Previous findings have pointed to the role of adipose tissue, adipose tissue macrophages and their secretory products in the development of a chronic inflammatory status inducing insulin resistance and a higher risk of liver steatosis called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The activation of resident macrophages [Kupffer cells(KC)] and the recruitment of blood derived monocytes/macrophages into the diseased liver have now been identified as key elements for disease initiation and progression. Those cells could be activated through gut flora modifications and an altered gut barrier function but also through the internalization of toxic lipid compounds in adjacent hepatocytes or in KC themselves. Due to the role of activated KC in insulin resistance, fibrosis development and inflammation amplification, they became a target in clinical trials. A shift towards an anti-inflammatory KC phenotype through peroxisome proliferator activator-receptorδ agonists, an inhibition of macrophage recruitment through anti-C-C chemokine receptor 2 action and a specific blocking of internalization of toxic lipoxidation or glycation compounds into KC by galectin-3 receptor inhibitors are now under investigation in human NASH.

  18. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J. K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models f...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD Associated Neural Defects: Complex Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Marrs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.

  20. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  1. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  2. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    OpenAIRE

    Byoungjip Kim; Seungwoo Kang; Jin-Young Ha; Junehwa Song

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit pattern...

  3. Antagonistic molecular interactions of photosynthetic pigments with molecular disease targets: a new approach to treat AD and ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Kumari, S S Sreeja; Mukhopadhyay, Sudit Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases that affect the neurons in the brain and the spinal cord. Neuroinflamation and apoptosis are key players in the progressive damage of the neurons in AD and ALS. Currently, there is no drug to offer complete cure for both these diseases. Riluzole is the only available drug that can prolong the life time of the ALS patients for nearly 3 months. Molecules that offer good HIT to the molecular targets of ALS will help to treat AD and ALS patients. P53 kinase receptor (4AT3), EphA4 (3CKH) and histone deacetylase (3SFF) are the promising disease targets of AD and ALS. This paper discusses on a new approach to combat neurodegenerative diseases using photosynthetic pigments. The docking studies were performed with the Autodock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin on these targets. The β carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin had higher binding energies indicating the antagonistic activity to the disease targets. These pigments serve as a potential therapeutic molecule to treat neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the AD and ALS patients. PMID:26053508

  4. Hydraulic analysis of the heavy liquid metal free surface in the windowless XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A windowless spallation target is currently developed within the EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS). The target couples an Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) to a subcritical reactor core. In ADS heavy liquid metal (HLM) can be used as coolant and spallation target. Within EUROTRANS, the first advanced design of an approximately 50 to 100 MWth eXperimental facility demonstrating the technical feasibility of Transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (XT-ADS) is extensively investigated. In the target, HLM is flowing downwards through a concentric feeder surrounding the beam tube and forms a conical free surface, which is subjected to a beam current. Above the free surface vacuum is desired. This requires that the incoming flow out of feeder to the spallation region should be at a pressure near the cavitation pressure. The thermal-hydraulics of the target must ensure that heat deposited into the HLM can be safely removed. This necessitates minimizing the resulting recirculation near the spallation region where high heat is deposited. The proposed target geometry is based on earlier numerical and experimental studies. In this article, hydraulic analysis of the proposed target is presented. The investigations are carried out using the Star-CD and Star-CCM codes. Different computational domains and flow conditions are investigated. The analysis show that the proposed target geometry results in a stable free surface which fulfills the flow characteristics in the target. Consequently, sufficient thermal performance of the target is expected for the investigated flow conditions. (author)

  5. Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence, confidence ratings, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kneller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance and examine whether accurate decisions from intoxicated witnesses could be postdicted by confidence and response times. One hundred and twenty participants engaged in a study examining the effects of intoxication (control, placebo, and mild intoxication and target presence on identification performance. Participants viewed a simultaneous lineup one week after watching a mock crime video of a man attempting to steal cars. Ethanol intoxication (0.6 ml/kg was found to make no significant difference to identification accuracy and such identifications from intoxicated individuals were made no less confidently or slowly than those from sober witnesses. These results are discussed with respect to the previous research examining intoxicated witness identification accuracy and the misconceptions the criminal justice system holds about the accuracy of such witnesses.

  6. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H

    2014-02-01

    Underage alcohol use is a global public health problem and alcohol advertising has been associated with underage drinking. The alcohol industry regulates itself and is the primary control on alcohol advertising in many countries around the world, advising trade association members to advertise only in adult-oriented media. Despite high levels of compliance with these self-regulatory guidelines, in several countries youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television has grown faster than adult exposure. In the United States, we found that exposure for underage viewers ages 18-20 grew from 2005 through 2011 faster than any adult age group. Applying a method adopted from a court in the US to identify underage targeting of advertising, we found evidence of targeting of alcohol advertising to underage viewers ages 18-20. The court's rule appeared in Lockyer v. Reynolds (The People ex rel. Bill Lockyer v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, GIC764118, 2002). We demonstrated that alcohol companies were able to modify their advertising practices to maintain current levels of adult advertising exposure while reducing youth exposure. PMID:24424494

  7. Optimization studies of photo-neutron production in high- metallic targets using high energy electron beam for ADS and transmutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah; H C Soni; S Kotaiah

    2007-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed using MCNP code to study the optimization of photo-neutron yield for different electron beam energies impinging on Pb, W and Ta cylindrical targets of varying thickness. It is noticed that photo-neutron yield can be increased for electron beam energies ≥ 100 MeV for appropriate thickness of the target. It is also noticed that it can be maximized by further increasing the thickness of the target. Further, at higher electron beam energy heat gradient in the target decreases, which facilitates easier heat removal from the target. This can help in developing a photo-neutron source based on electron LINAC by choosing appropriate electron beam energy and target thickness to optimize the neutron flux for ADS, transmutation studies and as high energy neutron source etc. Photo-neutron yield for different targets, optimum target thickness and photo-neutron energy spectrum and heat deposition by electron beam for different incident energy is presented.

  8. Physical Design of Critical Experiment Facility for Verifying Characteristics and Effects of Coupling Between Reactor and Spallation Target of ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Sheng-gui; ZHOU; Qi; LI; Yan

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of studying and verifying characteristics and effects of coupling between reactor and spallation target of ADS,based on the critical experimental facility design criteria and the availableexperiment condition,physical design of a critical experiment facility with lead coolant is completed,using critical calculation code MONK-9A.The contents of physical designs mainly include nuclear fuel,array of fuel rods,neutron source

  9. The Effect of Beam Intensity on Temperature Distribution in ADS Windowless Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Spallation Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spallation target is the component coupling the accelerator and the reactor and is regarded as the “heart” of the accelerator driven system (ADS. Heavy liquid metal lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is served as core coolant and spallation material to carry away heat deposition of spallation reaction and produce high flux neutron. So it is very important to study the heat transfer process in the target. In this paper, the steady-state flow pattern has been numerically obtained and taken as the input for the nuclear physics calculation, and then the distribution of the extreme large power density of the heat load is imported back to the computational fluid dynamics as the source term in the energy equation. Through the coupling, the transient and steady-state temperature distribution in the windowless spallation target is obtained and analyzed based on the flow process and heat transfer. Comparison of the temperature distribution with the different beam intensity shows that its shape is the same as broken wing of the butterfly. Nevertheless, the maximum temperature as well as the temperature gradient is different. The results play an important role and can be applied to the further design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target.

  10. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol.

  11. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay Uptake of Drinking and Decrease Risk of Alcohol-Related Problems when Delivered by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mackie, Clare J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Al-Khudhairy, Nadia; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This trial examined the efficacy of teacher-delivered personality-targeted interventions for alcohol-misuse over a 6-month period. Method: This randomized controlled trial randomly allocated participating schools to intervention (n = 11) or control (n = 7) conditions. A total of 2,506 (mean age, 13.7 years) were assessed for elevated…

  12. TRAP: using TaRgeted Ads to unveil Google personal Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Cozza, Vittoria; Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Conti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the advertisement market spread significantly in the web and mobile app system. Its effectiveness is also due thanks to the possibility to target the advertisement on the specific interests of the actual user, other than on the content of the website hosting the advertisement. In this scenario, became of great value services that collect and hence can provide information about the browsing user, like Facebook and Google. In this paper, we show how to maliciously exploit th...

  13. Eyelid conditioning to a target amplitude: adding how much to whether and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Joy C; Mauk, Michael D

    2010-10-20

    Conceptual and practical advantages of pavlovian eyelid conditioning facilitate analysis of cerebellar computation and learning. Even so, eyelid conditioning procedures are unrealistic in an important way. The error signal to the olivocerebellar system does not decrease as learning adapts response amplitude or gain. This inherently limits the utility of eyelid conditioning for studies investigating how cerebellar learning mechanisms acquire and store an adaptive response amplitude. We report the development and characterization of a training procedure in which conditioned response amplitude is brought under experimental control with contingencies that more closely parallel natural conditions. In this procedure, the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (US) is made contingent on conditioned response amplitude: the US is delivered for responses that fail to reach a specified target amplitude and is omitted for responses that meet or exceed the target. We find that rabbits trained with either a tone or with mossy fiber stimulation as the conditioned stimulus learn responses that approach target amplitudes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. Inactivating the interpositus nucleus with muscimol infusions abolished these conditioned responses, indicating that cerebellar involvement in eyelid conditioning is not tied explicitly to the use of pavlovian procedures. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that response amplitude is learned and encoded in the cerebellum during eyelid conditioning. As such, these results provide a foundation for systematic and controlled investigations of the cerebellar mechanisms that learn and encode the proper amplitude of adaptive movements.

  14. Discovery and in vivo evaluation of alcohol-containing benzothiazoles as potent dual-targeting bacterial DNA supercoiling inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James T; Axford, Lorraine C; Barker, Stephanie; Bennett, James M; Blair, Michael; Collins, Ian; Davies, David T; Ford, Leigh; Gannon, Carlie T; Lancett, Paul; Logan, Alastair; Lunniss, Christopher J; Morton, Craig J; Offermann, Daniel A; Pitt, Gary R W; Rao, B Narasinga; Singh, Amit K; Shukla, Tarun; Srivastava, Anil; Stokes, Neil R; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Yadav, Anju; Haydon, David J

    2014-09-01

    A series of dual-targeting, alcohol-containing benzothiazoles has been identified with superior antibacterial activity and drug-like properties. Early lead benzothiazoles containing carboxylic acid moieties showed efficacy in a well-established in vivo model, but inferior drug-like properties demanded modifications of functionality capable of demonstrating superior efficacy. Eliminating the acid group in favor of hydrophilic alcohol moieties at C(5), as well as incorporating solubilizing groups at the C(7) position of the core ring provided potent, broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial activity, lower protein binding, and markedly improved efficacy in vivo.

  15. Histamine H3 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in alcohol dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti ePanula

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain histaminergic system is one of the diffuse modulatory neurotransmitter systems which regulate neuronal activity in many brain areas. Studies on both rats and mice indicate that histamine H3 receptor antagonists decrease alcohol drinking in several models, like operant alcohol administration and drinking in the dark paradigm. Alcohol-induced place preference is also affected by these drugs. Moreover, mice lacking H3R do not drink alcohol like their wild type littermates, and they do not show alcohol-induced place preference. Although the mechanisms of these behaviors are still being investigated, we propose that H3R antagonists are promising candidates for use in human alcoholics, as these drugs are already tested for treatment of other disorders like narcolepsy and sleep disorders.

  16. Targeting central melanocortin receptors: a promising novel approach for treating alcohol abuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eOlney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC peptides are produced centrally by propiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and act through five seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled melanocortin receptor (MCR subtypes. The MC3R and MC4R subtypes, the most abundant central MCRs, are widely expressed in brain regions known to modulate neurobiological responses to ethanol, including regions of the hypothalamus and extended amygdala. Agouti-related protein (AgRP, also produced in the arcuate nucleus, is secreted in terminals expressing MCRs and functions as an endogenous MCR antagonist. This review highlights recent genetic and pharmacological findings that have implicated roles for the MC and AgRP systems in modulating ethanol consumption. Ethanol consumption is associated with significant alterations in the expression levels of various MC peptides/protein, which suggests that ethanol-induced perturbations of MC/AgRP signaling may modulate excessive ethanol intake. Consistently, MCR agonists decrease, and AgRP increases, ethanol consumption in mice. MCR agonists fail to blunt ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC4R, suggesting that the protective effects of MCR agonists are modulated by the MC4R. Interestingly, recent evidence reveals that MCR agonists are more effective at blunting binge-like ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC3R, suggesting that the MC3R has opposing effects on the MC4R. Finally, mutant mice lacking AgRP exhibit blunted voluntary and binge-like ethanol drinking, consistent with pharmacological studies. Collectively, these preclinical observations provide compelling evidence that compounds that target the MC system may provide therapeutic value for treating alcohol abuse disorders and that the utilization of currently available MC-targeting compounds- such as those being used to treat eating disorders- may be used as effective treatments to this end.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets totreat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in theunderstanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptionfactors that modulate the expression of genes involved inlipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation,being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimentalevidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulatorof hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedlydecreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta iscrucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing proteinO subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulationof enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. Inaddition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellatecells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult.On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF dietsmaximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenicfactors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis.Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma,triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipiddroplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARsto treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alphaagonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis byincreasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reducedlipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulinresistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis atpostprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation canexert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis.However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits,mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expressionand decreased insulin resistance. Further studies arenecessary aiming at translational approaches useful totreat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs.

  18. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user's place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense. PMID:26193275

  19. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjip Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.

  20. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Linden

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk taking behaviour used to be a typical part of the adolescence period during which teenagers start learning to drink alcohol in their responsible way. Risky alcohol use has become a major concern among public health practioners in Europe. After years of increasing numbers of episodic binge drinking among young people, since 2010/2011 consumption levels of the male youth appear to be dropping, while we see no change in risky drinking patterns among young women, however at lower...

  1. The intestinal microbiome and the leaky gut as therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Wei-Chung; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses hepatic steatosis, which may progress to alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. It remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and worldwide. The severity of liver disease correlates with plasma levels of bacterial products in patients, and experimental ALD depends on the level of gut derived bacterial products in rodents. Since intestinal decontamination and deficiency of bacterial product receptors or their downstream signali...

  2. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, P; Yan, J; Schwandt, M L; Stangl, B L; Caparelli, E C; Momenan, R; Jerlhag, E; Engel, J A; Hodgkinson, C A; Egli, M; Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Goldman, D; Heilig, M; Ramchandani, V A; Leggio, L

    2015-06-16

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates appetite and food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation also attenuates the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rodents. The present translational study is based on four human genetic association studies and one preclinical study providing data that support the hypothesis that GLP-1R may have a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Case-control analysis (N = 908) was performed on a sample of individuals enrolled in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) intramural research program. The Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (N = 3803) was used for confirmation purposes. Post hoc analyses were carried out on data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA; N = 81) in social drinkers and from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 22) subjected to a Monetary Incentive Delay task. In the preclinical study, a GLP-1R agonist was evaluated in a mouse model of alcohol dependence to demonstrate the role of GLP-1R for alcohol consumption. The previously reported functional allele 168Ser (rs6923761) was nominally associated with AUD (P = 0.004) in the NIAAA sample, which was partially replicated in males of the SAGE sample (P = 0.033). The 168 Ser/Ser genotype was further associated with increased alcohol administration and breath alcohol measures in the IV-ASA experiment and with higher BOLD response in the right globus pallidus when receiving notification of outcome for high monetary reward. Finally, GLP-1R agonism significantly reduced alcohol consumption in a mouse model of alcohol dependence. These convergent findings suggest that the GLP-1R may be an attractive target for personalized pharmacotherapy treatment of AUD.

  3. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Brief Alcohol Intervention and Added Value of Normative Feedback in Reducing Underage Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, R.; Roek, M.A.E.; Vermulst, A.A.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Huiberts, A.M.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Current insights indicate that Web-based delivery may enhance the implementation of brief alcohol interventions. Previous research showed that electronically delivered brief alcohol interventions decreased alcohol use in college students and adult problem drinkers. To date, no study has

  4. Natural antioxidants for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: molecular targets and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Federico; Godos, Justyna; Zelber-Sagi, Shira

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is emerging as a main health problem in industrialized countries. Lifestyle modifications are effective in the treatment of NAFLD; however, the long-term compliance is low. Therefore, several pharmacological treatments have been proposed but none has shown significant efficacy or long-term safety. Natural polyphenols are a heterogeneous class of polyphenolic compounds contained in vegetables, which are being proposed for the treatment of different metabolic disorders. Although the beneficial effect of these compounds has traditionally related to their antioxidant properties, they also exert several beneficial effects on hepatic and extra-hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis. Furthermore, natural polyphenols exert antifibrogenic and antitumoural effects in animal models, which appear relevant from a clinical point of view because of the association of NASH with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several polyphenols, such anthocyanins, curcumin and resveratrol and those present in coffee, tea, soy are available in the diet and their consumption can be proposed as part of a healthy diet for the treatment of NAFLD. Other phenolic compounds, such as silymarin, are commonly consumed worldwide as nutraceuticals or food supplements. Natural antioxidants are reported to have beneficial effects in preclinical models of NAFLD and in pilot clinical trials, and thus need clinical evaluation. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the potential role of natural antioxidants in the treatment of NAFLD and examine possible future clinical applications. PMID:26436447

  5. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression: Adding biological significance to microRNA target predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Iterson (Mat); S. Bervoets (Sander); E.J. de Meijer (Emile); H.P. Buermans (Henk); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); R.X. Menezes (Renée); J.M. Boer (Judith)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCurrent microRNA target predictions are based on sequence information and empirically derived rules but do not make use of the expression of microRNAs and their targets. This study aimed to improve microRNA target predictions in a given biological context, using in silico predictions, mi

  6. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: Lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Craig S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Underage alcohol use is a global public health problem and alcohol advertising has been associated with underage drinking. The alcohol industry regulates itself and is the primary control on alcohol advertising in many countries around the world, advising trade association members to advertise only in adult-oriented media. Despite high levels of compliance with these self-regulatory guidelines, in several countries youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television has grown faster than adul...

  7. A multi-site randomized study to compare the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) added to TAU versus TAU to reduce craving and drinking behavior in alcohol dependent outpatients: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Markus, W; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background Addiction constitutes a major public health problem, and despite treatment, relapse rates remain very high. Preliminary findings suggest that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, may also reduce craving and relapse rates when applied in substance abuse. This study aims to determine the feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness of EMDR when added to treatment as usual (TAU) for addiction in alcohol dependent outpatients, compared ...

  8. Perfil sociodemográfico e adesão ao tratamento de dependentes de álcool em CAPS-ad do Piauí Perfil socio-demográfico y la adhesión al tratamiento de la dependencia del alcohol en CAPS-ad do Piauí Sociodemographic profile and adhesion to treatment for alcohol dependents at CAPS-ad in Piauí state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Ferreira de Souza Monteiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa tem como objetivo levantar o perfil sociodemográfico e a adesão ao tratamento de dependentes do álcool no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas. Trata-se de um estudo de natureza quantitativa, realizado no município de Teresina-PI. Os dados foram colhidos através do levantamento de informações presentes nos prontuários dos 227 sujeitos participantes desta pesquisa. Verificou-se que a maioria dos usuários era do sexo masculino (88,9%, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos (87,6%, solteiros (50,2%, com ensino fundamental (40%, empregados (48,6% e católicos (42,7%. A maior parte dos sujeitos faz uso diário de bebida alcoólica (55,% e 29% fazem uso de drogas ilícitas, sendo a maconha a mais consumida (95,3%. Em relação à adesão, 43,1% permaneceram em tratamento após três meses de admissão no CAPSad. Portanto, constatou-se a grande importância desse centro, com base em uma quantidade satisfatória de pacientes que aderem e que permanecem com o tratamento.El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el perfil socio-demográfico e y la adhesión al tratamiento de la dependencia del alcohol en CAPS-ad. Se trata de un estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa, realizada en el CAPS-ad localizado en el municipio de Teresina, Piauí. Los datos fueron colectados analizando informaciones presentes en los prontuarios de los 227 sujetos participantes de esta investigación. Se verificó que la mayoría de los usuarios era del sexo masculino (el 88,9%, con edad entre 19 a 59 años (el 87.6% y solteros (el 50,2%, con enseñanza fundamental (el 40%, empleados (el 48,6%, y católicos (el 42,7%. La mayor parte de los sujetos hace uso diario de bebida alcohólica (el 55,%, y el 29% hace uso de drogas ilícitas, siendo la marihuana la más consumida (el 95,3%. En relación a la adhesión (el 43,1% permanecieron en tratamiento después de tres meses a partir de la admisión a CAPS-ad. Por lo tanto, se constató la gran importancia de ese

  9. β-Secretase 1’s Targeting Reduces Hyperphosphorilated Tau, Implying Autophagy Actors in 3xTg-AD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Diego; Castro-Alvarez, John Fredy; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Villegas-Lanau, Andres; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Gallego-Gomez, Juan Carlos; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2016-01-01

    β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) initiates APP cleavage, which has been reported to be an inducer of tau pathology by altering proteasome functions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the exact relationship between BACE1 and PHF (Paired Helical Filaments) formation is not clear. In this study, we confirm that BACE1 and Hsc70 are upregulated in the brains of AD patients, and we demonstrate that both proteins show enhanced expression in lipid rafts from AD-affected triple transgenic mouse brains. BACE1 targeting increased Hsc70 levels in the membrane and cytoplasm fractions and downregulated Hsp90 and CHIP in the nucleus in the hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice. However, these observations occurred in a proteasome-independent manner in vitro. The BACE1miR-induced reduction of soluble hyperphosphorylated tau was associated with a decrease in MAPK activity. However, the BACE1 RNAi-mediated reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau was only blocked by 3-MA (3-methyladenine) in vitro, and it resulted in the increase of Hsc70 and LAMP2 in lipid rafts from hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice, and upregulation of survival and homeostasis signaling. In summary, our findings suggest that BACE1 silencing neuroprotects reducing soluble hyperphosphorylated tau, modulating certain autophagy-related proteins in aged 3xTg-AD mice. PMID:26778963

  10. Adding Soft-Skills to the Hard Target of Adequacy: The Case for Rearticulation Based on a Multifocal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Brewer, Curtis A.; Lindle, Jane Clark; First, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the definition of adequacy by adding soft skills as a measure of school productivity. The singular focus on academic standards inherent in education policy has prevented scholars from seeing the concept of adequacy through myriad perspectives and has contributed to a resegregation of schools. Education policy…

  11. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  12. Berberine target key enzymes and amino acid inibitiors in AD treatment-----creation from berberine-based structure screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main components of berberine from coptis have a variety of pharmacological activity include the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The principle of berberine is inhibiting the lower activity of enzyme and amino acid to prevent (AD. Enzyme like acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE, butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BchE and monoamine oxidase (MAO; Amino acid like beta-amyloid (Aβ. Unfortunately, the single chemical structures of berberine is no significance to regulation effect. As a part of our consideration, the review paper studies on chemically modified and synthesis from berberine-derivatives. Results show that the structures of (23, (10, (86, (52, and (61 have a potential effect for AchE, BuChE and Aβ-amyloid inhibitors for the first time. Especially in (23 and (52 also has better than two western medicine were compared.

  13. Comparative experimental and numerical analysis of the hydraulic behaviour of free-surface flow in the water experiment of the XT-ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the long-living actinides contained in nuclear waste are subjected to an intense neutron flux, nuclear reactions convert them into less toxic short living actinides. This process, called transmutation, may be accomplished by Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The required neutron flux is generated by bombarding a spallation target with high energy protons emerging from an accelerator. In the windowless target currently developed in the Integrated Project EUROTRANS of the European Community the target material is HLM (heavy liquid metal). The HLM flows downwards through a concentric nozzle surrounding the beam tube and forms a conical free surface which is subjected to the beam current. The thermal-hydraulics of the target must ensure that the high amount of heat deposited into the HLM can be safely removed. The current target design was developed by a close interaction of numerical and experimental studies resulting in a profound understanding of the hydraulic behavior. The water experiment built at UCL (Belgium)) has similar geometry and dimensions as the XT-ADS spallation target. The experimental results are used to validate the numerical methods that will be used in the analysis of the real HLM target. In the current paper the experimental results obtained from the water experiment are compared to numerical results obtained by applying Volume of Fluid methods in combination with cavitation models. The comparison covers the nominal flow case corresponding to a flow rate of 10 l/s and sensitivity study of free surface level to various flow rates and outlet conditions. Numerical results where obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics code STAR-CD. This code is selected for its capability to predict sharper free surfaces compared to other CFD codes implemented in the target study. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement, so that the numerical model is considered validated. The results demonstrate that the hydraulic behaviour of the target

  14. Use of the PHM Framework to Create Safe-Sex Ads Targeted to Mature Women 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cynthia R; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-01-01

    This research applies the Witte's persuasive health message (PHM) framework to the development of creative concepts that promote sexual health strategies to senior-aged women. The PHM framework proposes an integrated approach to improving message effectiveness and maximizing persuasion in health communication campaigns. A focus group method was used to explore two research questions focused on message effectiveness and persuasion. The findings suggest the PHM framework can be a useful starting point for ensuring that health communicators identify the criteria most relevant to successful ad promotions. PMID:26075543

  15. Use of the PHM Framework to Create Safe-Sex Ads Targeted to Mature Women 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cynthia R; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-01-01

    This research applies the Witte's persuasive health message (PHM) framework to the development of creative concepts that promote sexual health strategies to senior-aged women. The PHM framework proposes an integrated approach to improving message effectiveness and maximizing persuasion in health communication campaigns. A focus group method was used to explore two research questions focused on message effectiveness and persuasion. The findings suggest the PHM framework can be a useful starting point for ensuring that health communicators identify the criteria most relevant to successful ad promotions.

  16. Experimental and numerical study on the flow pattern of the ADS windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream using model fluid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zhenqin, E-mail: zqxiong@sjtu.edu.cn; Gu, Hanyang; Gong, Shenjie

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A windowless spallation target with a buffer tank is tested. • Shape of the main free surface is recorded. • Streamline is obtained with the planar laser induced fluorescence method. • Stability of free surface is improved by the buffer tank. • Flow structure is simulated using RNG k-e turbulence model and VOF model. - Abstract: The windowless spallation targets are a promising design solution for accelerator driven system (ADS) due to their extended life compared to the spallation targets with a window. Keeping the stability of the free surface and reducing the recirculation zone is one of the key tasks for the design of a windowless spallation target. A windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream (which is a buffer used to stabilize the main free surface of the flow) is studied experimentally and numerically using water at atmospheric pressure. By using planar laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF), the flow pattern inside the target zone is visualized for Reynolds numbers varying between 3.5 × 10{sup 4} and 7.0 × 10{sup 4} and pressure differences from 100 to 804 Pa. The experimental results reveal that the stability of the free surface is improved by adding a buffer in the downstream thus making it easier to control the height of the surface. The effect of the pressure difference between the void above the second free surface (high pressure side) and beam pipe (low pressure side) on the flow pattern is analyzed, as well as the inlet flow rate. The height of the surface length decreases with an increase in the pressure difference. The formation of the spallation zone is simulated with Fluent using the LES turbulence model and VOF model. The interface predicted agrees well with the experimental results.

  17. Experimental and numerical study on the flow pattern of the ADS windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream using model fluid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A windowless spallation target with a buffer tank is tested. • Shape of the main free surface is recorded. • Streamline is obtained with the planar laser induced fluorescence method. • Stability of free surface is improved by the buffer tank. • Flow structure is simulated using RNG k-e turbulence model and VOF model. - Abstract: The windowless spallation targets are a promising design solution for accelerator driven system (ADS) due to their extended life compared to the spallation targets with a window. Keeping the stability of the free surface and reducing the recirculation zone is one of the key tasks for the design of a windowless spallation target. A windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream (which is a buffer used to stabilize the main free surface of the flow) is studied experimentally and numerically using water at atmospheric pressure. By using planar laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF), the flow pattern inside the target zone is visualized for Reynolds numbers varying between 3.5 × 104 and 7.0 × 104 and pressure differences from 100 to 804 Pa. The experimental results reveal that the stability of the free surface is improved by adding a buffer in the downstream thus making it easier to control the height of the surface. The effect of the pressure difference between the void above the second free surface (high pressure side) and beam pipe (low pressure side) on the flow pattern is analyzed, as well as the inlet flow rate. The height of the surface length decreases with an increase in the pressure difference. The formation of the spallation zone is simulated with Fluent using the LES turbulence model and VOF model. The interface predicted agrees well with the experimental results

  18. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T Welzel

    Full Text Available Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  19. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  20. Deregulation of miRNA-181c potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of AD by targeting collapsin response mediator protein 2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Kang; Yu, Wenjun; Xie, Bing; Cui, Dongsheng; Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Qingfu; Xu, Shunjiang

    2016-08-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is usually accompanied by abnormal gene expression. The 20 to 25 nucleotide (nt) tiny regulators, known as micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs), have been found to play important roles in the etiology and pathogenesis of various biological processes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the aberrant expression of microRNAs in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model and to investigate its potential role during the progression of AD. The results from microarray analysis showed that several miRNAs were deregulated in the hippocampus tissue of SAMP8 mice compared to SAMR1 mice. Among the deregulated miRNAs, a significant decrease in miR-181c was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that miR-181c might be involved in the regulation of axon guidance, MAPK signaling, dorso-ventral axis formation and long-term depression. Moreover, the results of a luciferase activity assay, western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining showed that over-expression of miR-181c targets the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of collapsin response mediator protein 2 (crmp2) through its binding sites and down-regulates crmp2 protein abundance at the post-transcriptional level. Taken together, these findings suggested that crmp2 is a target of miR-181c and that the abnormally low expression of miR-181c in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice could lead to an increase of the crmp2 protein level in AD mice, which might potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27423553

  1. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION OF 1-BENZOYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE - THE ROLE OF PAIRWISE AND TRIPLET GIBBS ENERGY INTERACTION PARAMETERS IN DESCRIBING THE EFFECTS OF ADDED SALTS AND ADDED ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDMAN, WH; BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBF; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient-pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic-data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  2. Kinetics of hydrolysis in aqueous solution of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole; the role of pairwise and triplet Gibbs energy interaction parameters in describing the effects of added salts and added alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  3. Altered hepatic lipid metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed alcohol: a targeted lipidomic and gene expression study[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clugston, Robin D.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Piantedosi, Roseann; Yuen, Jason J.; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Lewis, Michael J.; Gottesman, Max E.; Huang, Li-Shin; Goldberg, Ira J.; Berk, Paul D.; Blaner, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with fatty liver disease in mammals. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in alcohol-fed C57BL/6 mice using a targeted lipidomic approach. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze several lipid classes, including free fatty acids, fatty acyl-CoAs, fatty acid ethyl esters, sphingolipids, ceramides, and endocannabinoids, in plasma and liver samples from control and alcohol-fed mice. The interpretation of lipidomic data was augmented by gene expression analyses for important metabolic enzymes in the lipid pathways studied. Alcohol feeding was associated with i) increased hepatic free fatty acid levels and decreased fatty acyl-CoA levels associated with decreased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acyl-CoA synthesis, respectively; ii) increased hepatic ceramide levels associated with higher levels of the precursor molecules sphingosine and sphinganine; and iii) increased hepatic levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide associated with decreased expression of its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. The unique combination of lipidomic and gene expression analyses allows for a better mechanistic understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21856784

  4. Increased brain uptake of targeted nanoparticles by adding an acid-cleavable linkage between transferrin and the nanoparticle core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Davis, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Most therapeutic agents are excluded from entering the central nervous system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Receptor mediated transcytosis (RMT) is a common mechanism used by proteins, including transferrin (Tf), to traverse the BBB. Here, we prepared Tf-containing, 80-nm gold nanoparticles with an acid-cleavable linkage between the Tf and the nanoparticle core to facilitate nanoparticle RMT across the BBB. These nanoparticles are designed to bind to Tf receptors (TfRs) with high avidity on the blood side of the BBB, but separate from their multidentate Tf-TfR interactions upon acidification during the transcytosis process to allow release of the nanoparticle into the brain. These targeted nanoparticles show increased ability to cross an in vitro model of the BBB and, most important, enter the brain parenchyma of mice in greater amounts in vivo after systemic administration compared with similar high-avidity nanoparticles containing noncleavable Tf. In addition, we investigated this design with nanoparticles containing high-affinity antibodies (Abs) to TfR. With the Abs, the addition of the acid-cleavable linkage provided no improvement to in vivo brain uptake for Ab-containing nanoparticles, and overall brain uptake was decreased for all Ab-containing nanoparticles compared with Tf-containing ones. These results are consistent with recent reports of high-affinity anti-TfR Abs trafficking to the lysosome within BBB endothelium. In contrast, high-avidity, Tf-containing nanoparticles with the acid-cleavable linkage avoid major endothelium retention by shedding surface Tf during their transcytosis. PMID:26392563

  5. Separation of no-carrier-added {sup 66,67}Ga produced in heavy ion-induced cobalt target using alginate biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Banerjee, Anupam [University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019 (India); Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in

    2007-08-15

    Heavy ion activation of natural cobalt foil with 84 MeV {sup 12}C results in the formation of no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 66,67}As radionuclides, along with their corresponding decay products, {sup 66,67}Ge and {sup 66,67}Ga, in the matrix. Because arsenic and germanium radionuclides are short-lived, after a cooling period of 10 h only nca gallium radionuclides remain in the matrix. We attempted to separate the nca gallium radionuclides from the target matrix cobalt by biopolymeric calcium alginate (CA) and Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads. A complete separation has been achieved by adsorbing {sup 66,67}Ga and a lesser amount of bulk cobalt at pH 3 on Fe-CA beads, followed by desorbing cobalt from the beads with 0.4 M NaNO{sub 2}.

  6. Design of a molten heavy-metal coolant and target for fast-thermal accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor physics design of a 750 MWth one way coupled fast-thermal ADS was evolved in BARC earlier. This indicated that a fairly large thermal power output was possible with a proton beam of 1 GeV and current 2-3 mA. We also carried out preliminary studies on the molten Pb/Pb-Bi coolant and spallation-target system in the fast zone of this ADS. The thermal power in this zone was estimated to be about 109 MW. In these studies, analyses related to thermal hydraulics have been carried out for a buoyancy driven system to determine the coolant parameters for both lead as well as lead-bismuth eutectic. This design is similar to the passive lead coolant system design of CERN-EA. Appropriate equations for buoyancy pressure head, pressure drop in the reactor core; coolant velocity, heat transport etc. have been solved for different coolant inlet and outlet temperatures, fuel-pin pitch distances, fuel-power densities etc. The analyses show that coolant height required for generating buoyancy pressure head is a very strong function of power density of the fuel-pin and ΔT (difference between outlet and inlet temperature) of the coolant. Main advantage of lead-bismuth eutectic comes from the inlet temperature that can be significantly lower than that of lead; thus larger ΔT can be obtained which in turn will reduce required coolant height. This will result in saving of coolant inventory and cost. In this paper, preliminary engineering design of coolant and target for the 109 MW fast reactor zone is presented. In addition, the proposed Indian programmes to study thermal-hydraulics and materials for the technology development are discussed. (author)

  7. ADS无窗散裂靶件水模拟实验研究%Studies on Free Surface Flow in ADS Windowless Spallation Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强成文; 赵强; 李龙; 王飞; 杨伟峰; 张学智; 张雪荧

    2015-01-01

    As the coupling component between accelerator and subcritical core, the spallation target is of crucial importance to the operation safety of the whole system. Hence, the spallation target is one of the most important parts in ADS corresponding researches. Due to lifetime limitation of material, the windowless target which has a stable free surface attracts more and more attention. The present paper deals with the experimental investigation on the free surface behavior in an approximately 1:1 size windowless target model using water as test fluid. We can get the flow and pressure conditions of windowless spallation target water simulation experiment from the platform. The free surface and field visualization were obtained by particle imaging velocimetry. The results show that the position and flow pattern of the free surface depend on experimental pressure, flow velocity and geometry of the target.%散裂靶件作为加速器和次临界堆芯的耦合部件,是ADS系统相关研究最主要的组成部分之一。无窗靶巧妙地利用了液体的自由液面特性,避免了质子束对结构材料直接轰击,是一种很有前景的散裂靶靶件形式。采用水作为实验工质搭建了一套无窗散裂靶水模拟实验台架,该实验系统覆盖了无窗散裂靶水模拟实验所需的流量及压力条件,采用粒子图像测速仪(PIV)对自由界面的流场进行可视化观察与分析,得到了自由界面的基本表征参数之间关系和可视化界面的流场信息。结果表明,无窗靶自由液面的位置和形状受到回路整体流量、压力和靶件几何尺寸的影响。

  8. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed. PMID:22054026

  9. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  10. An Impact Evaluation of Two Versions of a Brief Intervention Targeting Alcohol Use and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Anna E.; Werch, Chudley (CHAD); Michniewicz, Mara; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the immediate impact of two new versions of the Project SPORT program, a brief one-on-one tailored consult addressing alcohol use and physical activity for adolescents. One new version was a brief interactive CD-ROM (Study one) and a second was a brief small group consultation (Study two). In study one,…

  11. Hairy AdS Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.

  12. Enhanced tumour uptake and in vitro radiotoxicity of no-carrier-added [131I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine: implications for the targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro and in vivo neuroblastoma models were used to determine whether improvements in tumour targeting in vivo and therapeutic efficacy in vitro could result from the use of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [131I]MIBG. Results were compared with use of the conventional therapy MIBG preparation (ex.[131I]MIBG)of lower specific activity which is produced by iodide exchange reaction. The efficacy of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG was compared with that of [131I]MIBG over a range of specific activities by the assessment of neuroblastoma spheroid growth delay. Whereas n.c.a. [131I]MIBG at a radioactivity concentration of 2 MBq/ml prevented the regrowth of 84% of spheroids, toxicity was significantly reduced by the addition of non-radiolabelled MIBG to the incubation medium. The time-dependent biodistribution of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG in nude mice bearing human neuroblastoma xenografts was compared with that of the conventional therapy radiopharmaceutical. The n.c.a. agent gave improved tumour uptake but also significantly greater accumulation in normal tissues known to accumulate MIBG such as heart, adrenal and skin. However, uptake and retention in the blood was unaltered. For all tissues examined, the 3-day cumulative tumour to normal tissue radiation dose ratio was greater for n.c.a. [131I]MIBG. Theoretical calculations were undertaken to predict organ to tumour dose ratios which would result in human neuroblastoma patients with each of the [131I]MIBG preparations. These results suggest that significant therapeutic gain may be achieved by the use of n.c.a. [131I]MIBG as a treatment agent in neuroblastoma. (Author)

  13. Adalimumab added to a treat-to-target strategy with methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone in early rheumatoid arthritis increased remission rates, function and quality of life. The OPERA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Hetland, Merete Lund; Junker, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An investigator-initiated, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, treat-to-target protocol (Clinical Trials:NCT00660647) studied whether adalimumab added to methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone as first-line treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) increased the frequency......-label biologics after 6-9 months. Efficacy was assessed primarily on the proportion of patients who reached treatment target (DAS28CRP

  14. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  15. Craving and Physiological Reactivity to Trauma and Alcohol Cues in PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Henslee, Amber M.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Landy, Noah

    2010-01-01

    The high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) has been firmly established. Although laboratory studies have examined self-reported craving in response to trauma and alcohol cues, no studies have reported on alcohol-related physiological responding in response to trauma cues in PTSD-AD individuals. Using a cue reactivity paradigm, this study examined the impact of personalized trauma-image cues and in vivo alcohol cues on alcohol-related responding (e...

  16. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  17. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  18. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  19. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  20. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete;

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  1. Interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors%介入导入Ad-p53基因联合超声辐照治疗兔VX2肝癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐劲松; 杨瑞民; 赵鹏; 张铭秋; 崔红凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors, as well as its impact on VEGF and MMP2. Methods Forty-two Chinchilla rabbits were collected and VX2 cancer cells were injected into the left lobe of liver on the observation in rabbits. The growth of cancer was monitored by ultrasound. Thirty rabbit models were successfully made and divided into 3 groups (each n=10) randomly. Fourteen days after transplantation of cancer cells, Ad-p53 was administrated through hepatic artery (in Ad-p53 group) or combined with ultrasound wave irradiation (in Ad-p53 + US group), while the same amount of saline was given for rabbits in control group. Three days later, the tumor size was observed with ultrasound, and then all rabbits were sacrificed, the serum VEGF level was measured by ELISA, the hepatic tissue expression of p53, MMP2 and VEGF were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry, and expression level of wild type p53 was measured using Western blot. Results No difference of tumor size was found between 3 groups before therapy. All tumor sizes increased, but the tumors in Ad-p53 + US group were relatively smaller. The efficiency of Ad-p53 transfection was improved in Ad-p53 group compared with control group, which was the highest in Ad-p53 + US group. Furthermore, the serum VEGF level decreased in Ad-p53 + US group, so did the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in Ad-p53 group and Ad-p53 + US group, more obviously in Ad-p53 + US group. Conclusion Ad-p53 can suppress the growth of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbit models. The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-p53 can be improved by interventional targeting administration combining with ultrasound irradiation.%目的 探讨介入导向下联合超声辐照对兔VX2肝癌模型Ad-p53转染效率及该基因对VEGF、MMP2的影响.方法 青紫蓝兔42只,直视下手术,将VX2肿瘤细胞种植于肝左叶,以超声检测

  2. Wormholes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan; Maoz, Liat

    2004-01-01

    We construct a few Euclidean supergravity solutions with multiple boundaries. We consider examples where the corresponding boundary field theory is well defined on each boundary. We point out that these configurations are puzzling from the AdS/CFT point of view. A proper understanding of the AdS/CFT dictionary for these cases might yield some information about the physics of closed universes.

  3. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  4. Optimal design and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyvinyl alcohol for targeted delivery and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Simchi, Abdolreza; Imani, Mohammad; Milani, Abbas S; Stroeve, Pieter

    2008-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with narrow size distribution and stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were synthesized. The particles were prepared by a coprecipitation technique using ferric and ferrous salts with a molar Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of 2. Using a design of experiments (DOE) approach, the effect of different synthesis parameters (stirring rate and base molarity) on the structure, morphology, saturation magnetization, purity, size, and size distribution of the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles was studied by various analysis techniques including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. PVA not only stabilized the colloid but also played a role in preventing further growth of SPION followed by the formation of large agglomerates by chemisorption on the surface of particles. A rich behavior in particle size, particle formation, and super paramagnetic properties is observed as a function of molarity and stirring conditions. The particle size and the magnetic properties as well as particle shape and aggregation (individual nanoparticles, magnetic beads, and magnetite colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs) are found to be influenced by changes in the stirring rate and the base molarity. The formation of magnetic beads results in a decrease in the saturation magnetization, while CNCs lead to an increase in saturation magnetization. On the basis of the DOE methodology and the resulting 3-D response surfaces for particle size and magnetic properties, it is shown that optimum regions for stirring rate and molarity can be obtained to achieve coated SPION with desirable size, purity, magnetization, and shape.

  5. Differential Impact of a Dutch Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Adolescents and Parents Separately and Simultaneously: Low Self-Control and Lenient Parenting at Baseline Predict Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.M.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including

  6. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6 Is a Novel Nutritional Therapeutic Target for Hyperlipidemia, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-woong Go

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6 is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and has a unique structure, which facilitates its multiple functions as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling and as a ligand receptor for endocytosis. The role LRP6 plays in metabolic regulation, specifically in the nutrient-sensing pathway, has recently garnered considerable interest. Patients carrying an LRP6 mutation exhibit elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose, which cooperatively constitute the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Since the discovery of this mutation, the general role of LRP6 in lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and atherosclerosis has been thoroughly researched. These studies have demonstrated that LRP6 plays a role in LDL receptor-mediated LDL uptake. In addition, when the LRP6 mutant impaired Wnt-LRP6 signaling, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis developed. LRP6 regulates lipid homeostasis and body fat mass via the nutrient-sensing mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Furthermore, the mutant LRP6 triggers atherosclerosis by activating platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-dependent vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. This review highlights the exceptional opportunities to study the pathophysiologic contributions of LRP6 to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, which implicate LRP6 as a latent regulator of lipid metabolism and a novel therapeutic target for nutritional intervention.

  7. Statistical assessment and targets. Contribution to the PIARC XIXth World Road Congress, Ad hoc Group IV : road safety, Marrakesh, Morocco, 22-28 September 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The intention of this paper was to ensure that road safety would be assigned a more prominent place in the decision making process over a period of years. Among other things, attention is paid to: (1) realistic and quantitative targets; (2) specification of targets; (3) quality of road safety data; (4) strategies for preventive measures; and (5) organisational aspects.

  8. ADS National Programmes: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial preliminary studies in India on ADS concepts were aimed toward applications such as, one way coupled booster reactor concept, thorium burner concept, enhancement of breeding rate of thorium– fueled fast reactors, and to incinerate Pu and minor actinides discharged from heavy water and fast reactors. These studies led to a roadmap on development of ADS subsystems in India, which was chalked out initially in June 2001. It was realized in these studies that the most challenging subsystem in terms of technology development and capital investment for ADS in India would be the high intensity proton accelerator, and that it must be accomplished in phased manner. Of the two alternative accelerator types, viz. the cyclotron and linear accelerator (linac), it is concluded that only linac would provide the necessary intense beam current for ADS applications. The energy amplifier (EA) scheme, with lead (45.5%) bismuth (55.5%) eutectic (LBE) as target & coolant, which was proposed in the early nineties would be one of the desired configurations of ADS for Indian applications. Additionally, subcritical reactor core of Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), with advantages of its low fission power density, and neutron economy is also a candidate among various ADS reactor configurations. These options of ADS configurations for thorium utilization are based on the neutronic properties of 233U isotope as fissile fuel, which are more or less similar in thermal and in moderately fast neutron spectra

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  10. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the ..alpha..-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the ..beta..-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  11. Representação social de enfermeiros de centros de atenção psicossocial em álcool e drogas (CAPS AD sobre o dependente químico Representación social de las enfermeras de los centros de atención psicosocial para alcohol y drogas (CAPS AD, sobre el dependiente químico Social representation from nurses from psychosocial care centers for alcohol and drugs (CAPS AD, about the chemical dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório de abordagem qualitativa que objetivou identificar as representações sociais de enfermeiros de serviços especializados em álcool e outras drogas sobre o dependente químico. Os sujeitos foram 16 enfermeiros de 13 serviços localizados na cidade de São Paulo-SP. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas as quais foram gravadas e analisadas de acordo com o referencial da Teoria de Representações Sociais. Os resultados evidenciaram que, na representação dos enfermeiros, os dependentes químicos são indivíduos acometidos por uma doença, que têm dificuldade de limites, são manipuladores e responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento da dependência. Conclui-se que as representações desses profissionais são calcadas no senso comum, e apontam-se estratégias para o enfrentamento dessa problemática e a mudança dessas representações.Estudio exploratorio cualitativo que tuvo como objetivo identificar las representaciones sociales de los enfermeros del servicio de especialistas en alcohol y otras drogas en comparación con la dependencia química. Los sujetos fueron 16 enfermeras procedentes de 13 oficinas ubicadas en la ciudad de São Paulo (SP. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas que fueron grabadas y analizadas de acuerdo a la teoría de las representaciones sociales de referencia. Los resultados mostraron que, en la representación de las enfermeras, los adictos son personas que sufren de una enfermedad que tiene límites de dificultad, y los controladores son responsables del desarrollo de la dependencia. Llegamos a la conclusión de que las representaciones de estos profesionales son las aceras en el sentido común y apuntan estrategias para el enfrentamiento de esa problemática y cambios de estas representacionesQualitative exploratory study aimed to identify the social representations of nurses from specialist services in alcohol and other drugs compared to the addicts. The subjects were 16

  12. Low-Pressure Alcohol Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Zur Burg, F. W.; Cody, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Heat requirements lowered for process. Temperature requirements lowered enough to make solar heat absorbed by flat-plate collectors feasible energy source. Alcohol produced without adding other solvents, eliminating need for dehydration or hydrocarbon stripping as final step.

  13. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  14. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  15. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  16. Triplex formation at single-stranded nucleic acid target sites of unrestricted sequence by two added strands of oligonucleotides: A proposed model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapane, T.L.; Ts' o, P.O.P. (John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1994-11-16

    By using the standard purine nucleosides, guanosine and adenosine, and the pyrimidine C-nucleosides, pseudoisocytidine and pseudouridine, as complements on a probe strand, it is possible to construct a regular Watson-Crick helix with a single-stranded target sequence having any arrangement of the four naturally-occurring bases found in nucleic acids. The major groove of this helix will have a unique configuration of hydrogen-bonding sites on the probe strand for each of these four base pairs. By using this duplex as a framework, an ensemble of recognition patterns composed of base triads may be constructed. In these patterns, either a homopyrimidine or homopurine third strand binds in the major groove of the duplex formed by the target and probe strands. Ten distinct geometries, or motifs, are shown, each one consisting of four isomorphic base triads built upon recognition of C, G, A, or U(T) residues in the target strand. In order to maintain specific hydrogen bonding and to construct isomorphous triads, the use of several nonstandard bases is proposed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Targeting cognitive-affective risk mechanisms in stress-precipitated alcohol dependence: an integrated, biopsychosocial model of automaticity, allostasis, and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  18. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  19. Is anti-doping analysis so far from clinical, legal or forensic targets?: The added value of close relationships between related disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Jordi

    2009-11-01

    There are many areas of common interest between anti-doping laboratories and those working in the clinical, legal and forensic fields. In addition to methodological similarities, there are aspects of the findings in sport drug testing that overlap with other fields in such a way that sport drug testing and clinical, legal or forensic work may benefit from mutual interaction. Three recent examples are presented from the author's experience. Case report 1 concerns the clinical relevance of hCG findings in sport drug testing as potential indicators of the presence of a (testicular) tumour in athletes. Case report 2 refers to difficulties that accredited laboratories can encounter due to differences between national legal systems and the administrative regulation systems of sport authorities. The example involves a network of blood collection for further autologous transfusion. Case report 3 relates to additional forensic-type investigations needed to interpret a situation where intoxication of a whole delegation was responsible for apparent doping cases. Clinical, legal and forensic fields must recognize the added value that some results and developments coming from anti-doping laboratories may have. At the same time anti-doping analysts should be aware of new issues, methodologies and problems appearing in related fields.

  20. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C.; Hong, Kwangik A.; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  1. Numerical Model Simulation of Free Surface Behavior in Spallation Target of ADS%ADS散裂靶件内部自由界面形态的数值模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴翔; 苏冠宇; 程旭

    2012-01-01

    加速器驱动的次临界系统( ADS)内部的散裂靶件通过加速器装置耦合次临界堆芯.无窗靶件的设计需保证自由界面有着稳定且理想的形状,以避免液态重金属局部过热.为研究无窗靶件内部自由界面的形态,本工作基于开源CFD计算平台OpenFOAM,使用VOF(volume of fluid)方法追踪自由界面,对无窗靶件内部自由界面的形态和特性进行数值模拟,并将结果与商用软件FLUENT计算结果和实验结果进行对比.同时比较多种湍流模型对计算的影响,推荐出较合适的湍流模型.%The spallation target in accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) couples the subcritical reactor core with accelerator. The design of a windowless target has to ensure the formation of a stable free surface with desirable shape, to avoid local overheating of the heavy liquid metal (HLM). To investigate the free surface behavior of the spallation target, OpenFOAM, an opened CFD software platform, was used to simulate the formation and features of the free surface in the windowless target. VOF method was utilized as the interface-capturing methodology. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and numerical results obtained with FLUENT code. The effects of turbulence models were studied and recommendations were made related to application of turbulence models.

  2. The AdMit Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis short note presents the R package AdMit which provides flexible functions to approximate a certain target distribution and it provides an efficient sample of random draws from it, given only a kernel of the target density function. The estimation procedure is fully automatic and thu

  3. ADS National Programmes: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADS related activities within the Netherlands are concentrated at NRG. From 2000 to 2006, NRG supported SCK•CEN in their development of MYRRHA. The support was mainly devoted to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the windowless target option. This collaboration was prolonged within the framework of the EU FP6 EUROTRANS project. Eventually this lead to a solution strategy for the hydraulic (without heat transfer) evaluation of a windowless target with one free surface using an Eulerian-Eulerian modeling approach. As a second free surface was added to the target design later, this approach would need to be revisited. The developed approach was applied to an assess the feasibility of a three feeder windowless target design. This preliminary assessment confirmed that there were no serious show stoppers for a three feeder design. Another study undertaken using related to the windowless target was a preliminary assessment of the risk of lead-bismuth splashing in case of a sudden heat deposition by the beam, e.g. at beam startup or beam interuptions. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CDT project, a window target is currently being assessed thermalhydraulicly in collaboration with SCK•CEN. Within the EU FP5 ASCHLIM project, the state of the art with regard to turbulence modelling for CFD approaches was determined. It was concluded that accurate simulation of heat transport in HLM was not feasible, especially in natural or mixed convection regimes. Within the EU FP7 THINS project this issue is currently being treated. NRG assists the commercial CFD code vendor CD adapco in implementing and testing a promising, academically tested, algebraic heat flux model

  4. LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC): target selection and the first release of value-added catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Haibo; Huo, Zhiying; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu; Zhang, Huihua; Sun, Ningchen; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Yongheng; Luo, Ali; Shi, Jianrong; Li, Guoping; Yuan, Hailong; Dong, Yiqiao; Li, Guangwei; Hou, Yonghui; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    As a major component of the LAMOST Galactic surveys, the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC) aims to survey a significant volume of the Galactic thin/thick discs and halo for a contiguous sky area of over 3,400 deg$^2$ centred on the Galactic anti-centre ($|b| \\leq 30^{\\circ}$, $150 \\leq l \\leq 210^{\\circ}$), and obtain $\\lambda\\lambda$3700 -- 9000 low resolution ($R \\sim 1,800$) spectra for a statistically complete sample of $\\sim 3$\\,M stars of all colours down to a limiting magnitued of $r$ $\\sim$ 17.8\\,mag (to 18.5\\,mag for limited fields). Together with Gaia, the LSS-GAC will yield a unique dataset to advance our understanding of the structure and assemblage history of the Galaxy, in particular its disk(s). In addition to the main survey, the LSS-GAC will also target hundreds of thousands objects in the vicinity fields of M\\,31 and M\\,33 and survey a significant fraction (over a million) of randomly selected very bright stars (VB; $r \\le 14$ mag) in the northern hemisphere. ...

  5. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  6. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  7. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises wheth

  8. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  9. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  10. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  11. The Methylene Alkoxy Carbamate Self-Immolative Unit: Utilization for the Targeted Delivery of Alcohol-Containing Payloads with Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Robert V; Haelsig, Karl T; Emmerton, Kim K; Leiske, Chris I; Miyamoto, Jamie B; Cochran, Julia H; Lyon, Robert P; Senter, Peter D; Jeffrey, Scott C

    2016-07-01

    A strategy for the conjugation of alcohol-containing payloads to antibodies has been developed and involves the methylene alkoxy carbamate (MAC) self-immolative unit. A series of MAC β-glucuronide model constructs were prepared to evaluate stability and enzymatic release, and the results demonstrated high stability at physiological pH in a substitution-dependent manner. All the MAC model compounds efficiently released alcohol drug surrogates under the action of β-glucuronidase. To assess the MAC technology for ADCs, the potent microtubule-disrupting agent auristatin E (AE) was incorporated through the norephedrine alcohol. Conjugation of the MAC β-glucuronide AE drug linker to the anti-CD30 antibody cAC10, and an IgG control antibody, gave potent and immunologically specific activities in vitro and in vivo. These studies validate the MAC self-immolative unit for alcohol-containing payloads within ADCs, a class that has not been widely exploited. PMID:27198854

  12. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  13. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  14. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27230732

  15. Material Developing for ADS Beam Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.

  16. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyong Yu; Weiping Jia; ZengKui Guo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans w...

  17. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  18. Epigenetics—Beyond the Genome in Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Starkman, Bela G.; Sakharkar, Amul J.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of alcoholism. Whole-genome expression profiling has highlighted the importance of several genes that may contribute to alcohol abuse disorders. In addition, more recent findings have added yet another layer of complexity to the overall molecular mechanisms involved in a predisposition to alcoholism and addiction by demonstrating that processes related to genetic factors that do not manifest as DNA sequence changes (i.e., epigen...

  19. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  20. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  2. Alcohol Abuse and the Young Offender: Alcohol Education as an Alternative to Custodial Sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problem of how to address relationship between alcohol abuse and criminal offending. Suggests that Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) offer workable alternative to custodial sentencing. AECs offer various techniques that target abusive alcohol consumption level of the population, the problem of offending, or both. Asserts that evaluation…

  3. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  4. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy...

  5. Eternal Black Holes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial entangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information loss paradox and its resolution.

  6. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  7. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  8. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol. PMID:27188823

  9. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  10. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  11. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  12. Instability corners in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V; Lippert, Matthew; Yang, I-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

  13. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  14. Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.

  15. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  16. Collaborative research and action to control the geographic placement of outdoor advertising of alcohol and tobacco products in Chicago.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackbarth, D. P.; Schnopp-Wyatt, D.; Katz, D; J. Williams; Silvestri, B.; Pfleger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Community activists in Chicago believed their neighborhoods were being targeted by alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertisers, despite the Outdoor Advertising Association of America's voluntary code of principles, which claims to restrict the placement of ads for age-restricted products and prevent billboard saturation of urban neighborhoods. A research and action plan resulted from a 10-year collaborative partnership among Loyola University Chicago, the American Lung Association of Metropolitan...

  17. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  18. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  19. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  20. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  1. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  2. Refined holographic entanglement entropy for the AdS solitons and AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss–Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are: (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdSd+1 soliton for d=4,5 are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive-definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS5 soliton even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state

  3. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  4. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  5. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  6. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  7. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  8. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may ... alcohol content). If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. ...

  9. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  10. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law. PMID:19435114

  11. A controlled examination of two coping skills for daily alcohol use and PTSD symptom severity among dually diagnosed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-03-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  12. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, P; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present a formalism which allows to explicitly find the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes of states in w=1 sectors. We give a precise prescription to solve this system of linear differential equations in cases that are relevant to obtain three and four point functions involving spectral flowed string states. We specifically compute three point functions with two and three one-unit spectral flowed operators and also discuss four point functions.

  13. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Dopico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most tissues, the function of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (cytosolic calcium, BK subunit composition and posttranslational modifications, and the channel’s lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1 subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus, acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophysial axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction.

  14. A vaccine targeted at CETP alleviates high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wei Liaw

    Full Text Available Low HDL-C levels are associated with atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and increased levels may reduce the risk of these diseases. Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity is considered a promising strategy for increasing HDL-C levels. Since CETP is a self-antigen with low immunogenicity, we developed a novel CETP vaccine (Fc-CETP6 to overcome the low immunogenicity of CETP and for long-term inhibition of CETP activity. The vaccine consists of a rabbit IgG Fc domain for antigen delivery to antigen-presenting cells fused to a linear array of 6 repeats of a CETP epitope to efficiently activate B cells. Rabbits were fed a high fat/cholesterol (HFC diet to induce atherosclerosis and NASH, and immunized with Fc-CETP6 vaccine. The Fc-CETP6 vaccine successfully elicited anti-CETP antibodies and lowered plasma CETP activity. The levels of plasma HDL-C and ApoA-I were higher, and plasma ox-LDL lower, in the Fc-CETP6-immunized rabbits as compared to the unimmunized HFC diet-fed rabbits. Pathological analyses revealed less lipid accumulation and inflammation in the aorta and liver of the Fc-CETP6-immunized rabbits. These results show that the Fc-CETP6 vaccine efficiently elicited antibodies against CETP and reduced susceptibility to both atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis induced by the HFC diet. Our findings suggest that the Fc-CETP6 vaccine may improve atherosclerosis and NASH and has high potential for clinical use.

  15. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...... prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads...... to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%....

  16. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  17. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Originality/value: The study develops a concept of Value Adding Management, which is new in FM literature. It is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts...

  18. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  19. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  20. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  3. Effects of an Online Alcohol Education Course Among College Freshmen: An Investigation of Potential Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Ringwalt, Chris; Wyatt, Todd; DeJONG, WILLIAM

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated possible mediating effects of psychosocial variables (perceived drinking norms, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, personal approval of alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies) targeted by an online alcohol education course (AlcoholEdu for College) as part of a 30-campus randomized trial with 2,400 first-year students. Previous multi-level analyses found significant effects of the AlcoholEdu course on the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use and binge dr...

  4. Ad-blocking Games: Monetizing Online Content Under the Threat of Ad Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Vratonjic, Nevena; Manshaei, Mohammadhossein; Grossklags, Jens; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Much of the Internet economy relies on online advertising for monetizing digital content: Users are expected to accept the presence of online advertisements in exchange for content being free. However, online advertisements have become a serious problem for many Internet users: while some are merely annoyed by the incessant display of distracting ads cluttering Web pages, others are highly concerned about the privacy implications - as ad providers typically track users' behavior for ad target...

  5. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  6. Affect regulation training (ART) for alcohol use disorders: development of a novel intervention for negative affect drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R; Bradizza, Clara M; Schlauch, Robert C; Coffey, Scott F; Gulliver, Suzy B; Gudleski, Gregory D; Bole, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called affect regulation training (ART), which could be added to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N=77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT+ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT+HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT+ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT+ART when compared to CBT+HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers.

  7. Alcohol consumption among adolescents - Current results and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Lange, Cornelia; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Regular alcohol consumption endangers health and is associated with an increased risk of a variety of physical illnesses and mental disorders. This issue's interest is focused on alcohol consumption during adolescence since young people may be viewed as the most important target group for alcohol prevention measures. Attitudes toward alcohol, drinking motives and consumption patterns that form during adolescence often still exist in adulthood. Studies suggest that starting to drink early and ...

  8. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  9. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  10. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  11. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  12. Coopetitive Ad Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, Darrell; Jain, Kamal; Wilkens, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    A single advertisement often benefits many parties, for example, an ad for a Samsung laptop benefits Microsoft. We study this phenomenon in search advertising auctions and show that standard solutions, including the status quo ignorance of mutual benefit and a benefit-aware Vickrey-Clarke-Groves mechanism, perform poorly. In contrast, we show that an appropriate first-price auction has nice equilibria in a single-slot ad auction --- all equilibria that satisfy a natural cooperative envy-freen...

  13. Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients’ approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wiers; C. Eberl; M. Rinck; E.S. Becker; J. Lindenmeyer

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a new cognitive-bias modification (CBM) intervention that targeted an approach bias for alcohol in 214 alcoholic inpatients. Patients were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, in which they were explicitly or implicitly trained to make avoidance movements

  14. Retraining Automatic Action Tendencies Changes Alcoholic Patients’ Approach Bias for Alcohol and Improves Treatment Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Eberl, C.M.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a new cognitive-bias modification (CBM) intervention that targeted an approach bias for alcohol in 214 alcoholic inpatients. Patients were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, in which they were explicitly or implicitly trained to make avoidance movements

  15. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  16. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  17. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  18. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  19. International Programmes on ADS: ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization, created to serve the goal of improving global safety and security. The European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, on the basis of a multinational agreement, established ISTC in 1992. The ISTC focused its efforts on funding research projects related to key safety and security technologies including advanced nuclear technology. Since the first ISTC funded project in 1994, Accelerator Driven Systems, Transmutation research and a holistic approach to the nuclear fuel cycle were the areas where ISTC made a real impact on international development in these fields. Given the international dimension of the problem, the research communities of the ISTC member states quickly realized that ISTC projects offered a very flexible and fruitful cooperation platform to address many difficult issues of the nuclear fuel cycle. Highly competent expert communities of ISTC member states benefited from a well defined and transparent mode of operation of ISTC and objective oriented project funding strategy. The ISTC projects related to transmutation of radioactive waste and ADS can be classified in the following thematic areas: - ADS concepts; - Accelerator development; - Spallation target studies; - Nuclear data and spallation process studies; - Minor actinides studies related to ADS; - Partitioning and extraction

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  1. Drinking buddies and their prospective influence on alcohol outcomes: alcohol expectancies as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Padilla, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    The process by which peers or the social network influence individual alcohol use, particularly among adults, remains a necessary area of research. The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal influence of "drinking buddies" on alcohol outcomes (i.e., alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related problems) as mediated by alcohol expectancies of social facilitation. Participants were 1347 (men = 660, women = 687) newly married individuals recruited from the community. They were assessed at the time of marriage and through the fourth wedding anniversary. Longitudinal mediation across time was evaluated using latent growth modeling. Overall, the prospective association between the number of drinking buddies in the social network and all three alcohol outcomes was mediated by alcohol expectancies. In testing group invariance across gender, findings suggest that social-facilitation expectancies may be more relevant to men than women in predicting typical alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Given that the social network may impact alcohol use at least in part through social expectancies, tailoring alcohol interventions to modify these specific beliefs may be particularly beneficial. In addition, strategies that target drinkers' social networks or their drinking buddies specifically may be useful. PMID:22732054

  2. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  3. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing. PMID:16203455

  4. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  5. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  6. Subjective response to alcohol and associated craving in heavy drinkers vs. alcohol dependents: An examination of Koob's allostatic model in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bujarski, S; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Koob's allostatic model of addiction emphasizes the transition from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement as dependence develops. This study seeks to extend this well-established neurobiological model to humans by examining subjective response to alcohol (SR) as a biobehavioral marker of alcohol reinforcement. Specifically, this study examines (a) differential SR in heavy drinkers (HDs) vs. alcohol dependent individuals (ADs) and (b) whether HDs and ADs differ in terms ...

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  8. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  9. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  10. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  11. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...

  12. Gender Differences in Relationships among PTSD Severity, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol Use in a Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and PTSD Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lehavot, Keren; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinica...

  13. AD in Fortran, Part 2: Implementation via Prepreprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Radul, Alexey; Siskind, Jeffrey Mark

    2012-01-01

    We describe an implementation of the Farfel Fortran AD extensions. These extensions integrate forward and reverse AD directly into the programming model, with attendant benefits to flexibility, modularity, and ease of use. The implementation we describe is a "prepreprocessor" that generates input to existing Fortran-based AD tools. In essence, blocks of code which are targeted for AD by Farfel constructs are put into subprograms which capture their lexical variable context, and these are closure-converted into top-level subprograms and specialized to eliminate EXTERNAL arguments, rendering them amenable to existing AD preprocessors, which are then invoked, possibly repeatedly if the AD is nested.

  14. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  15. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  16. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Ipek; Yavuz; Ulusoy; Sahin,, M.Ö.; Kurt,

    2015-01-01

    Background Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), 44 patients with substance d...

  17. Drops in the Bucket: Alcohol Industry "Responsibility" Advertising on Television in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Following on its recent reports on alcohol advertising in national magazines and on television, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) commissioned Virtual Media Resources (VMR), a media planning and research firm in Natick, Massachusetts, to analyze the alcohol industry's televised "responsibility" ads in 2001, using the same standard…

  18. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M;

    2004-01-01

    days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants......BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms...

  19. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  20. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  1. Extended supersymmetric sigma models in AdS_4 from projective superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel; Lindstrom, Ulf; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    There exist two superspace approaches to describe N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS_4) space: (i) in terms of N=1 AdS chiral superfields, as developed in arXiv:1105.3111 and arXiv:1108.5290; and (ii) in terms of N=2 polar supermultiplets using the AdS projective-superspace techniques developed in arXiv:0807.3368. The virtue of the approach (i) is that it makes manifest the geometric properties of the N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS_4. The target space must be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold endowed with a Killing vector field which generates an SO(2) group of rotations on the two-sphere of complex structures. The power of the approach (ii) is that it allows us, in principle, to generate hyperkahler metrics as well as to address the problem of deformations of such metrics. Here we show how to relate the formulation (ii) to (i) by integrating out an infinite number of N=1 AdS auxiliary superfields and performing a superfield duality transformation. We al...

  2. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  3. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  4. Subjective response as a consideration in the pharmacogenetics of alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel Jo; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Currently available pharmacological treatments for alcoholism have modest efficacy and high individual variability in treatment outcomes, both of which have been partially attributed to genetic factors. One path to reducing the variability and improving the efficacy associated with these pharmacotherapies may be to identify overlapping genetic contributions to individual differences in both subjective responses to alcohol and alcoholism pharmacotherapy outcomes. As acute subjective response to alcohol is highly predictive of future alcohol related problems, identifying such shared genetic mechanisms may inform the development of personalized treatments that can effectively target converging pathophysiological mechanisms that convey risk for alcoholism. The focus of this review is to revisit the association between subjective response to alcohol and the etiology of alcoholism while also describing genetic contributions to this relationship, discuss potential pharmacogenetic approaches to target subjective response to alcohol in order to improve the treatment of alcoholism and examine conceptual and methodological issues associated with these topics, and outline future approaches to overcome these challenges.

  5. Design Optimization of ADS Target Based on Numerical Simulations of Flow Field%基于流场数值模拟的ADS靶件结构的设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长江; 陈海燕

    2003-01-01

    采用通用的计算流体力学(CFD)软件PHOENICS 3.3和BFC计算网格生成技术,对加速器驱动次临界系统(ADS)靶件的流场进行数值模拟计算.结果表明:束窗下方导流板起引导流体沿束窗表面流动的作用,消除了束窗两侧下方较大的旋涡,对于改善束窗附近流体的流动结构、提高束窗表面及散裂靶的换热,效果显著.

  6. Hepatic Steatosis in Response to Acute Alcohol Exposure in Zebrafish requires Srebp Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Michael J.; Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2008-01-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse and may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying steatosis following acute alcohol exposure are unknown. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying alcoholic liver disease (ALD), because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ∼80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidant stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop hepatomegaly and steatosis accompanied by changes in the expression of genes required for hepatic lipid metabolism. Based on the importance of SREPBs in chronic ALD, we explored the role of Srebps in this model of acute ALD. Srebp activation was prevented in gonzo larvae, which harbor a mutation in the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1) gene, and in embryos injected with a morpholino to knock-down Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap). Both gonzo mutants and scap morphants were resistant to steatosis in response to 2% EtOH, and the expression of many Srebp target genes are down regulated in gonzo mutant livers. Conclusion Zebrafish larvae develop signs of acute ALD, including steatosis. Srebp activation is required for steatosis in this model. The tractability of zebrafish genetics provides a valuable tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of acute ALD. PMID:19127516

  7. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...

  8. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  9. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  10. A meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies to identify novel loci for maximum number of alcoholic drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Manav; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Wetherill, Leah; Le, Nhung; Bertelsen, Sarah; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Budde, John; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Dick, Danielle; Harari, Oscar; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Rice, John,

    2013-01-01

    Maximum number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a 24-h period (maxdrinks) is a heritable (> 50%) trait and is strongly correlated with vulnerability to excessive alcohol consumption and subsequent alcohol dependence (AD). Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have studied alcohol dependence, but few have concentrated on excessive alcohol consumption. We performed two GWAS using maxdrinks as an excessive alcohol consumption phenotype: one in 118 extended families (N=2322) selected from...

  11. [Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, K V; Rybakova, T G; Neznanov, N G; Eryshev, O F

    2013-01-01

    It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED.

  12. The evolution of alcohol use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K; Tripathi, B M; Pelto, Pertti J

    2010-08-01

    This paper traces the role of alcohol production and use in the daily lives of people in India, from ancient times to the present day. Alcohol use has been an issue of great ambivalence throughout the rich and long history of the Indian subcontinent. The behaviors and attitudes about alcohol use in India are very complex, contradictory and convoluted because of the many different influences in that history. The evolution of alcohol use patterns in India can be divided into four broad historical periods (time of written records), beginning with the Vedic era (ca. 1500-700 BCE). From 700 BCE to 1100 CE, ("Reinterpretation and Synthesis") is the time of emergence of Buddhism and Jainism, with some new anti-alcohol doctrines, as well as post-Vedic developments in the Hindu traditions and scholarly writing. The writings of the renowned medical practitioners, Charaka and Susruta, added new lines of thought, including arguments for "moderate alcohol use." The Period of Islamic Influence (1100-1800 CE), including the Mughal era from the 1520s to 1800, exhibited a complex interplay of widespread alcohol use, competing with the clear Quranic opposition to alcohol consumption. The fourth period (1800 to the present) includes the deep influence of British colonial rule and the recent half century of Indian independence, beginning in 1947. The contradictions and ambiguities-with widespread alcohol use in some sectors of society, including the high status caste of warriors/rulers (Kshatriyas), versus prohibitions and condemnation of alcohol use, especially for the Brahmin (scholar-priest) caste, have produced alcohol use patterns that include frequent high-risk, heavy and hazardous drinking. The recent increases in alcohol consumption in many sectors of the general Indian population, coupled with the strong evidence of the role of alcohol in the spread of HIV/STI infections and other health risks, point to the need for detailed understanding of the complex cross

  13. ADS specific accelerator developments: Status in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since India envisages the application as thorium–uranium breeder, the ADS must be operated with high beam power to maximize breeding potential. Since the thermalhydraulics issue in spallation target may restrict ~1 GeV proton beam current to ~10 mA on a single target module, an ADS core design is visualized with 3 or more spallation targets that would also help suppress the neutron flux peaking. With this assumption, the R&D objective is to realize a proton accelerator of 30 mA beam current (cw/average) within as short time as feasible. Of the two alternative accelerator types, cyclotron and LINAC, basic indigenous technological know-how, up to limited extent, exists for both

  14. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  15. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  16. Hazardous or harmful alcohol use in emergency care : Early detection, motivation to change and brief intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol often leads to accidents, assaults, poor health in the family and is associated with psychiatric and somatic diseases. Binge drinking, in particular, has been shown to be a central factor in alcohol related problems. Adding alcohol detection and intervention to routine emergency care, where one out of five patients is reported to have hazardous or harmful alcohol habits, should make surgical care more effective and have a beneficial impact on the public health proble...

  17. Nonlinear sigma models with AdS supersymmetry in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    In three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, there exist several realizations of N-extended supersymmetry, which are traditionally labelled by two non-negative integers p>=q such that p+q=N. Different choices of p and q, with N fixed, prove to lead to different restrictions on the target space geometry of supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-models. We classify all possible types of hyperkahler target spaces for the cases N=3 and N=4 by making use of two different realizations for the most general (p,q) supersymmetric sigma-models: (i) off-shell formulations in terms of N=3 and N=4 projective supermultiplets; and (ii) on-shell formulations in terms of covariantly chiral scalar superfields in (2,0) AdS superspace. Depending on the type of N=3,4 AdS supersymmetry, nonlinear sigma-models can support one of the following target space geometries: (i) hyperkahler cones; (ii) non-compact hyperkahler manifolds with a U(1) isometry group which acts non-trivially on the two-sphere of complex structures; (iii) arbitrary h...

  18. Alcohol-induced headaches: Evidence for a central mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic drinks (ADs) have been reported as a migraine trigger in about one-third of the migraine patients in retrospective studies. Some studies found that ADs trigger also other primary headaches. The studies concerning the role of ADs in triggering various types of primary headaches published after the International Headache Society classification criteria of 1988 were reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. Many studies show that ADs are a trigger of migraine without aura (MO), migraine with aura (MA), cluster headache (CH), and tension-type headache (TH). While data on MO and CH are well delineated, those in MA and TH are discordant. There are sparse reports that ADs are also triggers of less frequent types of primary headache such as familial hemiplegic migraine, hemicrania continua, and paroxysmal hemicrania. However, in some countries, the occurrence of alcohol as headache trigger is negligible, perhaps determined by alcohol habits. The frequency estimates vary widely based on the study approach and population. In fact, prospective studies report a limited importance of ADs as migraine trigger. If ADs are capable of triggering practically all primary headaches, they should act at a common pathogenetic level. The mechanisms of alcohol-provoking headache were discussed in relationship to the principal pathogenetic theories of primary headaches. The conclusion was that vasodilatation is hardly compatible with ADs trigger activity of all primary headaches and a common pathogenetic mechanism at cortical, or more likely at subcortical/brainstem, level is more plausible.

  19. Alcohol-induced headaches: Evidence for a central mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Panconesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic drinks (ADs have been reported as a migraine trigger in about one-third of the migraine patients in retrospective studies. Some studies found that ADs trigger also other primary headaches. The studies concerning the role of ADs in triggering various types of primary headaches published after the International Headache Society classification criteria of 1988 were reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. Many studies show that ADs are a trigger of migraine without aura (MO, migraine with aura (MA, cluster headache (CH, and tension-type headache (TH. While data on MO and CH are well delineated, those in MA and TH are discordant. There are sparse reports that ADs are also triggers of less frequent types of primary headache such as familial hemiplegic migraine, hemicrania continua, and paroxysmal hemicrania. However, in some countries, the occurrence of alcohol as headache trigger is negligible, perhaps determined by alcohol habits. The frequency estimates vary widely based on the study approach and population. In fact, prospective studies report a limited importance of ADs as migraine trigger. If ADs are capable of triggering practically all primary headaches, they should act at a common pathogenetic level. The mechanisms of alcohol-provoking headache were discussed in relationship to the principal pathogenetic theories of primary headaches. The conclusion was that vasodilatation is hardly compatible with ADs trigger activity of all primary headaches and a common pathogenetic mechanism at cortical, or more likely at subcortical/brainstem, level is more plausible.

  20. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  1. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Valcin, Jennifer A.; Gamble, Karen L.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases. PMID:26473939

  2. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  3. Adscape: Harvesting and Analyzing Online Display Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Barford, Paul; Canadi, Igor; Krushevskaja, Darja; Ma, Qiang; Muthukrishnan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, advertising has emerged as the primary source of revenue for many web sites and apps. In this paper we report a first-of-its-kind study that seeks to broadly understand the features, mechanisms and dynamics of display advertising on the web - i.e., the Adscape. Our study takes the perspective of users who are the targets of display ads shown on web sites. We develop a scalable crawling capability that enables us to gather the details of display ads including creatives an...

  4. Randall-Sundrum with AdS(7)

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, R; Bao, Ruoyu; Lykken, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    In the same sense that AdS_5 warped geometries arise naturally from Type IIB string theory with stacks of D3 branes, AdS_7 warped geometries arise naturally from M theory with stacks of M5 branes. We compactify two spatial dimensions of AdS_7 to get AdS_5 x \\Sigma^2, where \\Sigma^2 is e.g. a torus T^2 or a sphere S^2. The metric for \\Sigma inherits the same warp factor as appears in the AdS_5. Bulk fields generically have both Kaluza-Klein and winding modes associated with \\Sigma. In the effective 5d action these will contribute exotic new excitations. We analyze the 5d spectrum in detail for the case of a bulk scalar or a graviton in AdS_5 x T^2, in a setup which mimics the first Randall-Sundrum model. The results display several novel features, some of which might be observed in experiments at the LHC. For example, we obtain TeV scale string winding states without lowering the string scale. This is due to the double warping which is a generic feature of winding states along compactified AdS directions. Expe...

  5. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  6. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  7. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  8. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  9. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  10. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  11. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  13. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  14. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  15. Recent Developments of Protein Kinase Inhibitors as Potential AD Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHilgeroth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Present AD therapies suffer from inefficient effects on AD symptoms like memory or cognition, especially in later states of the disease. Used acteylcholine esterase (ACE inhibitors or the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine address one target structure which is involved in a complex, multifactorial disease progression. So the benefit for patients is presently poor. A more close insight in the AD progression identified more suggested target structures for drug development. Strategies of AD drug development concentrate on novel target structures combined with the established ones dedicated for combined therapy regimes, preferably by the use of one drug which may address two target structures. Protein kinases have been identified as promising target structures because they are involved in AD progression pathways like pathophysiological tau protein phosphorylations and amyloid β toxicity. The review article will shortly view early inhibitors of single protein kinases like glycogen synthase kinase (gsk3 β and cyclin dependent kinase 5. Novel inhibitors will be discussed which address novel AD relevant protein kinases like dual-specifity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A. Moreover, multitargeting inhibitors will be presented which target several protein kinases and those which are suspected in influencing other AD relevant processes. Such a multitargeting is the most promising strategy to effectively hamper the multifactorial disease progression and thus gives perspective hopes for a future better patient benefit.

  16. ADS specific accelerator developments: Status in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, JAEA proposes an ADS which consists of a high power proton LINAC, a spallation target of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and a subcritical core. In this proposal, the energy and beam power of the high power proton LINAC are 1.5 GeV and 20–30 MW, respectively. Other specifications of the high power proton linac are described in [4.28]. An important technical aspect that is considered in the JAEA work is the negative impact of very frequent beam trips as experienced in existing intense accelerator facilities. Frequent beam trips cause thermal fatigue problems for ADS components materials, leading to degradation of their structural integrity and reduction of their lifetime. They can also badly erode the availability or the capacity of ADS, resulting in poor economics. In the development of accelerators for ADS, it is vitally important to establish the technologies to achieve a very high degree of reliability. On the other hand, JAEA considers that it is also important in the development of ADS to design structural components to withstand possible thermal fatigues and a power conversion system less sensitive to beam trips. The purpose of the JAEA study is the comparison of beam trip frequencies between requirement from ADS transient analyses and estimation from current experimental data of accelerators

  17. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on fuzzy AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space. (author)

  18. Dirac Operator on Noncommutative AdS_2

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhri, H

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  19. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  20. Dirac Operator on Fuzzy AdS_2

    OpenAIRE

    H. Fakhri; Imaanpur, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS_2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated with AdS_2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS_2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  1. Radius-dependent gauge unification in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyung Do; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We examine the relation of the 4-dimensional low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 to the 5-dimensional fundamental couplings as a function of the orbifold radius R. This allows us to address the gauge coupling unification in AdS5 by means of the radius running as well as the conventional momentum running. We then compute the radius dependence of 1-loop low energy couplings in generic AdS5 theory with 4-dimensional supersymmetry, and discuss the low energy predictions whe...

  2. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the $AdS_3/CFT_2$ correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe-Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times T^4$ superstrings supported by pure Ramond-Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times S^3\\times S^1$ pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our exposition is original.

  3. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  4. Adolescent Responses to TV Beer Ads and Sports Content/Context: Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Finds that female adolescents responded less positively than males to beer advertisements and to sports content of advertising, and more positively to nonbeer advertisement. Shows also that positive responses to beer ads predicted alcohol use among female and male adolescents. Finds no differences in response patterns to ads due to Latino…

  5. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdSd+1/CFTd correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS5 x S5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS5/CFT4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS4/CFT3, like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS4 and AdS3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  6. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  7. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  8. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  9. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  10. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  11. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  12. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  13. Effectiveness of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention: changes in alcohol use of adolescents after 1 and 5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Izeboud, C.; Rover, de, M.; Veer, van 't, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Underage alcohol drinking is a severe public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention on alcohol use of adolescents in the second and fourth grade of high school. Methods: The community intervention integrated health education, regulation, and enforcement in multiple settings, targeting adolescents as well as their environments. In order to evaluate effectiveness, a quasi-experimental pre...

  14. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  15. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  16. Epigenetic regulation in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranoti Mandrekar

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by steatosis or fat deposition in the liver and inflammation, which leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Induction of target genes without involving changes in DNA sequence seems to contribute greatly to liver injury. Chromatin modifications including alterations in histones and DNA, as well as post-transcriptional changes collectively referred to as epigenetic effects are altered by alcohol. Recent studies have pointed to a significant role for epigenetic mechanisms at the nucleosomal level influencing gene expression and disease outcome in ALD. Specifically, epigenetic alterations by alcohol include histone modifications such as changes in acetylation and phosphorylation, hypomethylation of DNA, and alterations in miRNAs. These modifications can be induced by alcohol-induced oxidative stress that results in altered recruitment of transcriptional machinery and abnormal gene expression. Delineating these mechanisms in initiation and progression of ALD is becoming a major area of interest. This review summarizes key epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated by alcohol in the liver. Alterations by alcohol in histone and DNA modifications, enzymes related to histone acetylation such as histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases and sirtuins, and methylation enzymes such as DNA methyltransferases are discussed. Chromatin modifications and miRNA alterations that result in immune cell dysfunction contributing to inflammatory cytokine production in ALD is reviewed. Finally, the role of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress in epigenetic regulation in ALD is described. A better understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for designing novel epigenetic based therapies to ameliorate ALD.

  17. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  18. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  19. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  20. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  1. CNRS-CEA study on ADS; Dossier CNRS-CEA ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document aims at presenting in a synthetic way the present day situation of the progress of technical feasibility studies of an accelerator driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes. It aims also at defining the goals to be confirmed or to reach in order to consider the transmutation option in the national debate on radioactive wastes management: - present day evaluation results about the technical feasibility of an ADS: nuclear data, ADS reactor physics, accelerator, spallation target, nuclear fuels; - goals to be confirmed or to be reached: nuclear data, accelerator, spallation target, fuels, coolant, demonstration experiment; - planning of actions: TWG road-map, updated road-map. (J.S.)

  2. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  3. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  4. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  5. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  6. [Enantioseparation behavior of chiral stationary phases AD, AS and OD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqun; Fan, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Tai; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, HPLC enantioseparation with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been widely applied in chiral analysis and preparation of new pharmaceuticals, pesticides, food, etc. Herein, enantioseparation of 20 chiral compounds have been carried out on three polysaccharide-based CSPs (EnantioPak AD, AS and OD) with normal phases by HPLC, separately. The influences of skeletal structure and the kinds of derivative groups on separation behaviors of these CSPs have been studied in detail. As results indicated, except for compound 13, the other compounds were baseline separated on EnantioPak AD, with most of resolution over 2. 0; in addition, better separation for acidic or basic compounds was achieved through adding acidic/basic additives into the mobile phase of hexane-alcohol. For four aromatic alcohols (compounds 13-16), their retention in the EnantioPak AD column showed a weakening tendency with increase of carbon number in side chain group, and the reverse trend of their resolution was observed. Furthermore, EnantioPak AD showed much better separation performance for eight compounds (13-20) than the others. In short, these results have provided some references for further investigation of separation behavior and applications of polysaccharide-based CSPs. PMID:27319174

  7. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Laramée

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation: AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption.

  8. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  10. Crystals’ added value

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    We are becoming used to the many applications that physics transfers to society. They span from vacuum techniques to electronics, and, of course, medicine and biophysics. The EU-supported PICOSEC project, of which CERN is the coordinator, goes beyond the simple spin-off technology and opens the doors of state-of-the-art crystal research to 22 researchers for applications that include calorimetry but also the next generation PET scanners.     Prototypes of crystal matrices developed for medical imaging projects.   The keyword is “multidisciplinary approach”. Developing new detectors for implementation in high-energy physics experiments but also in medical instrumentation requires a very diverse mixture of skills and competencies. Such a mixture does not necessarily come from a specific university faculty but rather from targeted training opportunities that are designed by several stakeholders, each one contributing with its own specificity. The PICOS...

  11. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  12. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  13. Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.

  14. AdS-Carroll Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, T E

    2016-01-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  15. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Macgregor, Stuart; Lind, Penelope A; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Richter, Melinda M; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.; John B Whitfield

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic origins. The role of two genetic variants in ALDH2 and ADH1B in AD risk has been extensively investigated. This study tested for associations between nine polymorphisms in ALDH2 and 41 in the seven ADH genes, and alcohol-related flushing, alcohol use and dependence symptom scores in 4597 Australian twins. The vast majority (4296) had consumed alcohol in the previous year, with 547 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for AD. Th...

  16. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  17. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  18. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: behavioral and physiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Schwandt, Melanie L; Sells, Joanna R; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Hommer, Daniel W; George, David T; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently co-morbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier social stress test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with co-morbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism inpatient research facility. They participated in a 4-week inpatient study of the efficacy of a neurokinin 1 antagonist to treat co-morbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress versus alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of co-morbid PTSD and AD on craving.

  19. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in aqueous mixtures of alcohols at a hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Deepti; Chapman, Walter G

    2013-09-21

    Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with propanol having a lower interfacial tension than methanol and ethanol. 2-propanol is not as effective in decreasing the interfacial tension as 1-propanol because it partitions poorly to the surface due to its larger excluded volume. But for a given surface alcohol mole fraction, all the alcohol mixtures give similar values for interfacial tension. For separation of alcohol from water, methods that take advantage of the high surface mole fraction of alcohol have advantages compared to separation using the vapor in equilibrium with a water-alcohol liquid.

  20. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  1. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  2. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  3. Microstates at the boundary of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.

  4. Null warped AdS in higher spin gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Breunhoelder, Veronika; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We equip three-dimensional spin-3 gravity in the principal embedding with a new set of boundary conditions that we call "asymptotically null warped AdS". We find a chiral copy of the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra as asymptotic symmetry algebra, reminiscent of the situation in topologically massive gravity with strict null warped AdS boundary conditions. We prove the invertibility of the map between zuvielbein and metric variables and construct a global gauge transformation to half of AdS spin-3 gravity in the diagonal embedding. This explains why the theory is chiral and why the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra arises. We then introduce chemical potentials, derive the entropy, free energy, and the holographic response functions, and conclude with a discussion.

  5. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  6. Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe–Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of AdS3×S3×T4 superstrings supported by pure Ramond–Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the AdS3×S3×S3×S1 pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our presentation sometimes deviates from the one found in the original literature in an effort to be pedagogical and self-contained. (topical review)

  7. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez; Gustavo Adolfo Calderon-Vallejo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study s...

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  9. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; McGeary, John E.; Edwards, Steven; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Addolorato, Giovanni; Swift, Robert M; Kenna, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). However, the mechanisms by which baclofen affects drinking are not well characterized; thus this pilot study investigated possible baclofen’s biobehavioral mechanisms. The design was a double-blind controlled randomized human laboratory pilot study. Fourteen non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking subjects received either baclofen 10 mg t.i...

  10. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob L. Orquin; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and ...

  11. Logarithmic conformal field theories and AdS correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Khorrami, A. M. Ghezelbash. M.; Aghamohammadi, A

    1998-01-01

    We generalize the Maldacena correspondence to the logarithmic conformal field theories. We study the correspondence between field theories in (d+1)-dimensional AdS space and the d-dimensional logarithmic conformal field theories in the boundary of $AdS_{d+1}$. Using this correspondence, we get the n-point functions of the corresponding logarithmic conformal field theory in d-dimensions.

  12. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  13. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  15. Phases of Global AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ($AdS_4$) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  16. Phases of global AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  18. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  19. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  20. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  1. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS fi...

  2. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  3. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  4. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  5. Compact AdS space, Brane geometry and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Boschi-Filho, H; Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R. F.

    2002-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence can be realized in spaces that are globally different but share the same asymptotic behavior. Two known cases are: a compact AdS space and the space generated by a large number of coincident branes. We discuss the physical consistency, in the sense of the Cauchy problem, of these two formulations. We show that the role of the boundary in the compact AdS space is equivalent to that of the flat asymptotic region in the brane space. We also show, by introducing a second coordinate chart for the pure AdS space, that a point at its spatial infinity corresponds to a horizon in the brane system.

  6. Investigation of target in C-ADS and IAEA ADS benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Guojun; Wu, Hongli; Jing, Tian; Wang, Xiangqi; Tang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    The spatial and energy distribution of spallation neutrons have an effect on the performance of Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems. In this work, the spatial, energy distribution of spallation neutrons and the effect of these factors on proton efficiency was studied. When the radius of spallation region increases, backward neutrons were found to have a rather big ratio and have a positive effect on proton efficiency. By making better use of these neutrons, we may increase the radius of ta...

  7. Adding Targeted Therapy to Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III clinical trial, people with confirmed HER2-positive locally advanced esophageal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive preoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy, with or without trastuzumab.

  8. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  9. Strings from 3D gravity: asymptotic dynamics of AdS 3 gravity with free boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Apolo, Luis; Sundborg, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Pure three-dimensional gravity in anti-de Sitter space can be formulated as an SL(2,R) $\\times $ SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory, and the latter can be reduced to a WZW theory at the boundary. In this paper we show that AdS$_3$ gravity with free boundary conditions is described by a string at the boundary whose target spacetime is also AdS$_3$. While boundary conditions in the standard construction of Coussaert, Henneaux, and van Driel are enforced through constraints on the WZW currents, we find...

  10. Iron and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Laurence J; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Crawford, Darrell HG

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that promote liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are yet to be thoroughly elucidated. As such, effective treatment strategies are lacking and novel therapeutic targets are required. Iron has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and represents a potential target for treatment. Relationships between serum ferritin concentration and NAFLD are noted in a majority of studies, although serum ferritin is an imprecise measure of iron loading. Numerous mechanisms for a pathogenic role of hepatic iron in NAFLD have been demonstrated in animal and cell culture models. However, the human data linking hepatic iron to liver injury in NAFLD is less clear, with seemingly conflicting evidence, supporting either an effect of iron in hepatocytes or within reticulo-endothelial cells. Adipose tissue has emerged as a key site at which iron may have a pathogenic role in NAFLD. Evidence for this comes indirectly from studies that have evaluated the role of adipose tissue iron with respect to insulin resistance. Adding further complexity, multiple strands of evidence support an effect of NAFLD itself on iron metabolism. In this review, we summarise the human and basic science data that has evaluated the role of iron in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:27688653

  11. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Orquin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 % to 36 % while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17 %.

  12. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  13. Lymphocyte measures in treatment-naïve 13-15-year old adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Bouic, Patrick; Senekal, Marjanne; Kidd, Martin; Ferrett, Helen L; Fein, George; Carey, Paul D

    2011-08-01

    Many adolescents have chronic exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol. This is likely to be a significant predictor of health outcomes, including those related to immunity. We assessed substance use and biochemical immunological parameters in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence) and light/nondrinking control adolescents in Cape Town. Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard units of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in alcohol-dependent (AD) participants than controls. All adolescent AD had a "weekends-only" style of alcohol consumption. The AD group was chosen to represent relatively "pure" AD, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. With these narrow parameters in place, we found that AD adolescents were lymphopenic compared with controls, with significantly lower mean numbers of absolute circulating CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. On conclusion, we found that adolescent AD individuals with excessive alcohol intake, in a weekend binge-drinking style but without comorbid drug or psychiatric disorders, may be at increased risk of lymphopenia. This alcohol misuse may increase infectious disease susceptibility (including TB and HIV) by reducing immune system capabilities. Complex interactions of alcohol with other documented high-risk activities may further compound health risks. PMID:21624786

  14. The generalised self-sustaining chain reaction theory about ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic connotation of ADS (accelerator driven system) is investigated from the point of view of generalized self-sustaining chain reaction. The ADS is composed of proton accelerator, neutron producing target and the subcritical reactor. This system can be viewed entirely as a generalized self sustaining chain reaction system. In this view of point, the accelerator with target, as a part of ADS, can be viewed as an energy-neutron transformer (energy be fed to accelerator to produce medium energy protons, neutrons be produced in the heavy target as a result of proton-heavy nucleus spallation reaction). In this generalized self-sustaining chain reaction system, the number of neutrons produced after a fission event is not only the fission neutrons but also the neutrons produced by the energy-neutron transformer. That is, the ADS has more effective secondary neutrons after a fission event. It is just these additional neutrons, the ADS can be in state of self-sustaining chain reaction (criticality), although the reactor part of ADS is in state of sub-criticality. The critical equation of the generalized self-sustaining chain reaction system is presented. The relationship between the effective multiplication factors of ADS and subcritical reactor part of ADS is also presented. The power output of ADS is represented by a function of the proton current, the subcritical reactivity of the reactor in ADS, the number of neutrons produced in spallation process per proton and etc. At last, the probable application of ADS in the future is investigated

  15. BRST Quantization of String Theory in AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Pakman, A

    2003-01-01

    We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) x N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.

  16. Logarithmic AdS waves and Zwei-Dreibein gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Goya, Andres F.; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS(3) exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new 'logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the li

  17. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  18. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  19. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  20. A comparison of risk factors for alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved sexual aggression perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie

    2015-05-01

    Much research has found that alcohol use is associated with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration among male college students. To increase understanding of this association, the present study examined whether other established risk factors for SA perpetration in this population were associated differentially with incidents that were preceded by alcohol use and incidents that were not preceded by alcohol use. The sample included 638 male college students who completed self-report measures of seven risk factors and SA perpetration during their first and second years of enrollment at a large, public university in the southeastern United States. A multivariate, multinomial logistic regression model revealed none of the seven factors increased risk for both alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved SA perpetration. The model did identify binge drinking as a risk factor for alcohol-involved SA perpetration and impulsivity, rape myth attitudes, and hostility toward women as risk factors for alcohol-uninvolved perpetration. If these results can be replicated, then they would suggest that different risk factors should be targeted to optimize the effect of preventive interventions on the occurrence of the two types of SA perpetration. PMID:24997103

  1. Predicting AD conversion: comparison between prodromal AD guidelines and computer assisted PredictAD tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawu Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.

  2. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka

    2016-01-01

    We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.

  3. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  4. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  5. AdS5 Backgrounds with 24 Supersymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, S W; Papadopoulos, G

    2016-01-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D=11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS_5 * S^5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if strictly N=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, their gravitational dual backgrounds are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  6. Fuel performance evaluation for ADS MYRRHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYRRHA is an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) under development at Mol in Belgium and aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV*5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. A preliminary design of the experimental fuel rods and analysis of their performance under typical ADS conditions is a first step of the fuel development program. Different designs are to be studied and different kinds of fuels are expected to be tested. In the current design, (U,Pu)O2 MOX fuel with the enrichment of 20-30 wt.% of Pu is considered to be a basis of the subcritical core, whereas different sorts of experimental fuel rods should be tested in the experimental channels to study minor actinides and low-lived fission products transmutation. In a later phase, a part of the MOX fuel in the subcritical core will be replaced with non-uranium fuels with transuranium elements. In the present report some result of modelling of the behaviour of two experimental rods (one with MOX and another with IMF) in the hottest fuel assembly of the ADS MYRRHA - are presented. (author)

  7. Nutrition and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Effects of Alcoholism on Nutrition, Effects of Nutrition on Alcoholic Liver Disease, and Nutritional Therapies for Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition is the most frequent and nearly universal consequence in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that adversely affects clinical outcomes. Sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss is the major component of malnutrition in liver disease. There are no effective therapies to prevent or reverse sarcopenia in ALD because the mechanisms are not well understood. Consequences of liver disease including hyperammonemia, hormonal perturbations, endotoxemia and cytokine abnormalities as well as the direct effects of alcohol and its metabolites contribute to sarcopenia in ALD. This article focuses on the prevalence, methods to quantify malnutrition, specifically sarcopenia and potential therapies including novel molecular targeted treatments. PMID:27373615

  8. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  9. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  10. Molecular dynamics study of n-alcohols adsorbed on an aqueous electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of normal alcohol (n-alcohol) on water and the effect of salt on the structural and dynamical properties of n-alcohol on aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The stability of the alcohol distribution was studied for three types of n-alcohol (n-propanol, C3H7OH; n-heptanol, C7H15OH; and n-undecanol, C11H23OH), four or five concentrations of alcohol, and three concentrations of salt. The simulation results reveal the following. The distribution of n-propanol on water is homogeneous at all n-alcohol concentrations studied here and the distribution of n-heptanol and n-undecanol on water is heterogeneous. The n-alcohol concentration at which fluctuations in the alcohol distribution begin to increase depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. Salt concentration affects the surface excess concentration of n-alcohol and the stability of the adsorbed layer of n-alcohol. The degree of each effect depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. For n-undecanol, the surface structure of n-alcohol is independent of salt concentration because interaction between the hydrocarbon chains is sufficiently strong. In absorption refrigeration technology, to enhance the absorption rate of water vapor into a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte solution, a small amount of alcohols is added to the aqueous electrolyte solution, which induces cellular convection referred to as Marangoni instability. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, only n-heptanol induces strong cellular convection. The simulations reveal two required conditions for Marangoni instability: generation of fluctuations in the alcohol distribution on water, and strong correlation between the structural and dynamical properties and salt concentration. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, based on the simulations, only n-heptanol satisfies both conditions.

  11. Fermentação do caldo da cana de açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. var. Co. 290. Influência da adição de sais de amônio e farelo de arroz sôbre o rendimento alcoólico(* The influence of adding ammonium salts and rice polishings on the rate of alcoholic fermentaion in juice of Co. 290 sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Teixeira

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo comparativo para verificar a influência da adição de sais de amônio e de farelo de arroz sôbre o rendimento alcoólico obtido pela fermentação do caldo de cana de açúcar da variedade Co. 290. Os dados obtidos nos levaram às seguintes conclusões: 1. O caldo de cana da variedade Co. 290 é pobre em elementos nutritivos para o fermento alcoólico. 2. A adição de 0,1% de sulfato ou fosfato de amônio melhora o processo de fermentação. 3. Os rendimentos alcoólicos mais elevados são obtidos quando o caldo de cana é enriquecido com 0,1% de sulfato ou fosfato de amônio e 0,1% de farelo de arroz. O farelo de arroz parece ter sua atividade ligada ao seu alto teor em vitaminas, principalmente a B1.The sugar cane variety Co. 290 is widely distributed in the State of São Paulo. Its juice does not ferment very well because it seems to be deficient in nutrients for the yeast. Comparative tests were carried out to determine the influence of ammonium salts and rice polishings on the alcohol yield when these substances were added to the juice of this variety prior to fermentation. The following conclusions are based on the results of these tests : 1. The juice from plants of the variety Co. 290 is poor in nutrient elements for the yeast. 2. The addition of 0.1 per cent ammonium sulphate or phosphate improves the process of fermentation. 3. The best alcohol yields are obtained when the juice is enriched with 0.1 per cent ammonium sulphate or phosphate, plus rice polishings at the same rate. The rice polishings seem to be active because of their high content in vitamins, mainly vitamin B1.

  12. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  15. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  18. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  19. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  20. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  1. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  2. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  3. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  4. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  5. Technology of Ad hoc Networks%Ad hoc技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹常义

    2002-01-01

    Ad hoc技术是从无线移动Ad hoc网络(WMANET)抽象出来的一个一般性概念,该项技术所标称的是自组识、多跳的一个临时分布式系统,是一种网络构架技术.它要面临多项难题.本文就是从OSI模型的角度把Ad hoc技术分层介绍,最后给出了一种WMANET应用方案.

  6. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, o...

  7. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  8. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  9. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  10. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  11. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  12. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  13. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  15. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  16. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  17. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  19. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  20. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  1. The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Carne, Amanda; Roche, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors, based on their research for the report "The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development", and is an added resource for further information. "The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development" uncovers concerns managers have around the training content, delivery and…

  2. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Danielsson, U H; Vargas, S C

    2016-01-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum non-perturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the pre-existing ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on $S^3$ and $S^3\\,\\times\\,S^3$, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedaman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a non-perturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  3. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N

    2014-01-01

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  4. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Oscar J C

    2016-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation [1,2]. We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied in [2]. In contrast with [2], we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied in [2]. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of [2]. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  5. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  6. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  7. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on $AdS_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Uvarov, D V

    2016-01-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of $SU(2,2)$ can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell $SL(2,\\mathbb C)$ generalized Weyl curvature spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of $AdS_5$. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on $AdS_5$ and some applications are also discussed.

  8. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  9. Semiclassical Virasoro Blocks from AdS$_3$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hijano, Eliot; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in arXiv:1508.00501, evaluated in locally AdS$_3$ geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block -- in which two external operators become parametrically heavy -- as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS$_3$; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  10. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  11. Alday-Maldacena duality and AdS Plateau problem

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, A.

    2008-01-01

    A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.

  12. One loop gauge couplings in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the full 1-loop corrections to the low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 which are induced by generic 5-dimensional scalar, Dirac fermion, and vector fields with arbitrary Z_2 times Z_2' orbifold boundary conditions. In supersymmetric limit, our results correctly reproduce the results obtained by an independent method based on 4-dimensional effective supergravity. This provides a nontrivial check of our results and assures the regularization scheme-independen...

  13. Universal Kounterterms in Lovelock AdS gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Kofinas, Georgios; Olea, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    We show the universal form of the boundary term (Kounterterm series) which regularizes the Euclidean action and background-independent definition of conserved quantities for any Lovelock gravity theory with AdS asymptotics (including Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet). We discuss on the connection of this procedure to the existence of topological invariants and Chern-Simons forms in the corresponding dimensions.

  14. Mellin amplitudes for $AdS_5\\times S^5$

    CERN Document Server

    Rastelli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of holographic correlation functions in IIB supergravity on $AdS_5\\times S^5$. Results for four-point functions simplify drastically when expressed in Mellin space. We conjecture a compact formula for the four-point functions of one-half BPS singe-trace operators of arbitrary weight. Our methods rely on general consistency conditions and eschew detailed knowledge of the supergravity effective action.

  15. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  16. AdS sub 3 gravity and conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Behrndt, K; Gaida, I

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of AdS sub 3 gravity, the BTZ black hole and the associated conformal field theories (CFTs). In particular we focus on the non-extreme six-dimensional string solution with background metric AdS sub 3 x S sup 3 near the horizon. In addition we introduce momentum modes along the string, corresponding to a BTZ black hole, and a Taub-NUT soliton in the transverse Euclidean space. We show that the AdS sub 3 space-time of this configuration has the spatial geometry of an annulus with a Liouville model at the outer boundary and a two-dimensional black hole at the inner boundary. These CFTs provide the dynamical degrees of freedom of the three-dimensional effective model and, together with the CFT corresponding to S sup 3 , provide a statistical interpretation of the corresponding Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We test the proposed exact black hole entropy, which should hold to all orders in alpha', by an independent field theoretical analysis including higher-order curvature corrections. ...

  17. SUSY properties of warped AdS$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-01-01

    We examine supersymmetric properties of null-warped AdS$_3$, or alternatively Schrodinger geometries, dual to putative warped CFTs in two dimensions. We classify super Schrodinger subalgebras of the superalgebra psu(1, 1$|$2) $\\oplus$ psu(1, 1$|$2) , corresponding to the superconformal algebra of the AdS$_3 \\times$ S$^3$ geometry. We comment on geometric realisations and provide a string theory description with enhanced supersymmetry in terms of intersecting D3-branes. For type IIB supergravity solutions based on T$^{1,1}$, we consider the relationship between five-dimensional Schrodinger solutions and their three-dimensional null-warped counterparts, corresponding to R symmetry twists. Finally, we study a family of null-warped AdS$_3$ solutions in a setting where there is an ambiguity over the R symmetry and confirm that, for examples admitting a KK reduction to three dimensions, the minimisation of a real superpotential of the three-dimensional gauged supergravity captures the central charge and R symmetry.

  18. AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam

    2012-01-01

    We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin ...

  19. N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...

  20. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  1. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  2. A heuristic model of alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance dependence poses a critical health problem. Sadly, its neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear, and this lack of real understanding is reflected in insufficient treatment options. It has been hypothesized that alcohol effects are due to an imbalance between neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory amino acids. However, glutamate and GABA interact with other neurotransmitters, which form a complicated network whose functioning evades intuition and should be investigated systemically with methods of biomedical systems analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a heuristic model of neurotransmitters that combines a neurochemical interaction matrix at the biochemical level with a mobile describing the balances between pairs of neurotransmitters at the physiological and behavioral level. We investigate the effects of alcohol on the integrated neurotransmitter systems at both levels. The model simulation results are consistent with clinical and experimental observations. The model demonstrates that the drug diazepam for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal effectively reduces the imbalances between neurotransmitters. Moreover, the acetylcholine signal is suggested as a novel target for treatment of symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient means of integrating clinical symptoms across multiple levels are still scarce and difficult to establish. We present a heuristic model of systemic neurotransmitter functionality that permits the assessment of genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological perturbations. The model can serve as a tool to represent clinical and biological observations and explore various scenarios associated with alcohol dependence and its treatments. It also is very well suited for educational purposes.

  3. Alcohol: A Nutrient with Multiple Salutary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Pownall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is lower among alcohol consumers than among nonconsumers. Many of the metabolic effects of alcohol are mediated by its terminal metabolite, acetate, which has reported insulinemic properties. There have been few rational metabolic targets that underly its cardioprotective effects until it was reported that acetate, the terminal product of alcohol metabolism, is the ligand for G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPCR43, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Here, we recast much of some of the major lipid and lipoprotein effects of alcohol in the context of this newly discovered G-protein and develop a mechanistic model connecting the interaction of acetate with adipose tissue-GPCR43 with these effects. According to our model, ingestions of acetate could replace alcohol as a means of improving plasma lipid risk factors, improving glucose disposal, and reducing cardiovascular disease. Future studies should include biochemical, cell, animal, and human tests of acetate on energy metabolism.

  4. Gender Discrimination in Job Ads: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Peter; Shen, Kailing

    2011-01-01

    We study firms' advertised gender preferences in a population of ads on a Chinese internet job board, and interpret these patterns using a simple employer search model. The model allows us to distinguish firms' underlying gender preferences from firms' propensities to restrict their search to their preferred gender. The model also predicts that higher job skill requirements should reduce the tendency to gender-target a job ad; this is strongly confirmed in our data, and suggests that rising s...

  5. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  6. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  7. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our society, through carefully targeted therapies, such as traditional counseling as well as medicines that can help fight alcohol addiction. Ideally in the future, health professionals would be ...

  8. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title"). ... which executes in sequential order that they were added return false; // break loop } ); } ); } }); }); Trending donate sign-up ...

  9. Understanding alcoholism through microRNA signatures in brains of human alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dayne eMayfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting towards the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic

  10. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  11. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  12. Ad Serving Using a Compact Allocation Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Peiji; Mandalapu, Srinath; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yu, Manfai; Zien, Jason

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of online display advertising is sold via guaranteed contracts: a publisher guarantees to the advertiser a certain number of user visits satisfying the targeting predicates of the contract. The publisher is then tasked with solving the ad serving problem - given a user visit, which of the thousands of matching contracts should be displayed, so that by the expiration time every contract has obtained the requisite number of user visits. The challenges of the problem come from (1) the sheer size of the problem being solved, with tens of thousands of contracts and billions of user visits, (2) the unpredictability of user behavior, since these contracts are sold months ahead of time, when only a forecast of user visits is available and (3) the minute amount of resources available online, as an ad server must respond with a matching contract in a fraction of a second. We present a solution to the guaranteed delivery ad serving problem using {\\em compact allocation plans}. These plans, computed offl...

  13. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  14. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  15. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  17. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  18. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  20. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  1. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  2. Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...

  3. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude epsilon on time-scales of order 1/epsilon^2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive rel...

  4. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising. PMID:17364839

  5. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising.

  6. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  7. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Genter; Peter Stone

    2016-01-01

    Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock...

  8. Preliminary AD-Horn Thermomechanical and Electrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez Sola, Edmundo; Calviani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) target area consolidation activities planned for LS2, it has been necessary to perform a comprehensive study of the thermo-structural behaviour of the AD magnetic horn during operation, in order to detail specific requirements for the upgrade projects and testing procedures. The present work illustrates the preliminary results of the finite element analysis carried out to evaluate the thermal and structural behaviour of the device, as well as the methodology used to model and solve the thermomechanical and electrodynamic simulations performed in the AD magnetic horn.

  9. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  10. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  11. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  12. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  13. Writing CFT correlation functions as AdS scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, Joao

    2010-01-01

    We explore the Mellin representation of conformal correlation functions recently proposed by Mack. Examples in the AdS/CFT context reinforce the analogy between Mellin amplitudes and scattering amplitudes. We conjecture a simple formula relating the bulk scattering amplitudes to the asymptotic behavior of Mellin amplitudes and show that previous results on the flat space limit of AdS follow from our new formula. We find that the Mellin amplitudes are particularly useful in the case of conformal gauge theories in the planar limit. In this case, the four point Mellin amplitudes are meromorphic functions whose poles and their residues are entirely determined by two and three point functions of single-trace operators. This makes the Mellin amplitudes the ideal objects to attempt the conformal bootstrap program in higher dimensions.

  14. Differences in Interpersonal and Individual Psychopathology in Young Families at High Risk for the Development of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert A.; And Others

    Early findings are reported from the Michigan State University Vulnerability Study, a study of differences in parents and children of families with an alcoholic father and matched, community control families with a non-alcoholic father. Male preschool children in the alcoholic homes were the target group, because they are 6 to 10 times more at…

  15. Pathological gambling and alcohol dependence: neural disturbances in reward and loss avoidance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Koehler, Saskia; Dreesen, Caspar; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics such as craving and loss of control with substance use disorders and is thus considered a behavioral addiction. While functional alterations in the mesolimbic reward system have been correlated with craving and relapse in substance use disorders, only a few studies have examined this brain circuit in PG, and no direct comparison has been conducted so far. Thus, we investigated the neuronal correlates of reward processing in PG in contrast to alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and healthy subjects. Eighteen PG patients, 15 AD patients and 17 controls were investigated with a monetary incentive delay task, in which visual cues predict the consequence (monetary gain, avoidance of loss, none) of a fast response to a subsequent target stimulus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed to account for possible confounding factors such as local gray matter volume. Activity in the right ventral striatum during loss anticipation was increased in PG patients compared with controls and AD patients. Moreover, PG patients showed decreased activation in the right ventral striatum and right medial prefrontal cortex during successful loss avoidance compared with controls, which was inversely associated with severity of gambling behavior. Thus, despite neurobiological similarities to substance use disorders in reward processing, as reported by previous studies, we found relevant differences with respect to the anticipation of loss as well as its avoidance (negative reinforcement), which further contributes to the understanding of PG.

  16. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  17. Self-Dual Warped AdS$_3$ Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions are non-extremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS$_3$ along the $U(1)_L$ isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge $c_L = \\frac{4\

  18. Coherent Cascade: Collapsing Solutions in Global AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Freivogel, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field that sometimes leads to blackhole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetime at the shortest nonlinear time scale. We present strong evidence that the dynamics is governed by a "coherent cascade", with all modes remaining in phase as the energy flows to higher frequencies into a power-law spectrum. Using a coherent phase ansatz, we analytically find these power-law solutions. We show how the particular power is determined by the scaling properties of the interaction coefficients. Our result agrees with existing numerical results in 4+1 dimensions, and makes predictions in higher dimensions.

  19. Entanglement Entropy and Duality in AdS(4)

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy \\delta S and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian \\delta E are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS(4), using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, \\delta S = \\delta E, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  20. M-Theory solutions with AdS factors

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of a n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2,3,4,5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  1. M-theory solutions with AdS factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kim, Nakwoo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Pakis, Stathis [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-07

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of an n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2, 3, 4, 5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  2. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  3. Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.

  4. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  5. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  6. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aros, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  7. Most general AdS_3 boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl(2)_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k=l/(4G_N), where l is the AdS radius and G_N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  8. Fake gaps in AdS_3/CFT_2

    CERN Document Server

    Belin, Alexandre; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$.

  9. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-11-05

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  10. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  11. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  12. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  13. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these chal...

  14. ADS National Programmes: Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on accelerator driven systems (ADS), which be used as burners of long lived radioactive waste accrued due to operation of thermal reactors, first of all, minor actinides (MA), are carried out in some Russian research institutes (ITEP, SSC RF - IPPE, VNIIEF, JINR, RSC KI, IYaI RAN, OKB ‘GIDROPRESS’, VNIITF etc.). These researches are mainly connected with studying physical processes existing in ADS and their parameters and with design studies and substantiation of experimental ADS facilities. One of the most important directions of researches is the acquirement of quite precise and reliable nuclear data on MA with reference to conditions existing in ADS. Now a coordinated programme of researches on measurement and estimation of nuclear data for 22 isotopes of U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm, Bk and Cf in neutron energy range from 0.05 eV up to 30 MeV has been prepared. Development of different variants of ADS has put a task of comparison of their efficiency as burners of MA

  15. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  16. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  17. No Holography for Eternal AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, Steven G

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that the eternal AdS black hole is dual to two conformal field theories with compact spatial sections that are together in a thermofield double state. We argue that this proposal is incorrect, and by extension so are the "entanglement=geometry" proposal of Van Raamsdonk and "ER=EPR" proposal of Maldacena and Susskind. We show that in the bulk there is an interaction needed between the two halves of the Hilbert space for connectivity across the horizon; however, there is no such interaction between the CFTs. This rules out the possibility of the dual to the CFTs being the eternal AdS black hole. We argue the correct dual "geometries" resemble the exterior of the black hole outside the stretched horizon but cap off before the global horizon. This disallows the possibility of a shared future (and past) wedge where Alice falling from one side can meet Bob falling from the other. We expect that in the UV complete theory the aforementioned caps will be fuzzballs.

  18. Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2016-01-01

    We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...

  19. AdS Twistors for Higher Spin Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D = 4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a 'higher spin particle', generalizing previous work of Bandos et al.. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D = 4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIX-th Max Born Symposium 'Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods', September 2004, in Wroclaw, Poland

  20. Smooth Causal Patches for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly, and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analy...

  1. Contextual influences on subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Scott, Caitlin; Boyd, Stephen J; Menary, Kyle R; Enders, Craig K

    2015-02-01

    Differential sensitivity to alcohol effects (e.g., increased stimulation and decreased sedation) is associated with heavier use and problems. Although genetic factors contribute to alcohol response (AR), environmental factors may also play a role. This study examined effects of physical context on AR using a between subjects placebo-controlled design. There were 157 (57% male) participants (ages 21-30) who were randomized to 1 of 4 conditions based on beverage (placebo or alcohol [target BrAC = .08 g%]) and physical context (simulated bar or traditional lab). AR was assessed using the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale and the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale, as well as behavioral tasks including the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and its negative reinforcement counterpart (MRBURNS). A beverage condition by context interaction emerged for low arousal positive subjective response (SR), and among women, for performance on the BART task. In the lab context only, alcohol (relative to placebo) was associated with stronger low arousal positive SR and, for women, with impaired performance on the BART task. This suggests that a less stimulating lab context may be better suited to differentiating positive alcohol effects from expectancies, whereas a bar context may be better suited to detecting expectancy effects. The findings also suggest that the ability to better appreciate positive alcohol effects (relative to expectations) in less stimulating contexts may lead to a strengthening of these effects among individuals who drink in these environments. PMID:25643028

  2. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions......: The research shows a number of different definitions and focus points of Added Value of FM, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration of an external market based view (with a focus...

  3. Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Florin; Muthukrishnan, S; Pal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many advertisers buy advertisements (ads) on the Internet or on traditional media and seek simple, online mechanisms to reserve ad slots in advance. Media publishers represent a vast and varying inventory, and they too seek automatic, online mechanisms for pricing and allocating such reservations. In this paper, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. Bidders arrive sequentially and report which slots they are interested in. The seller must decide immediately whether or not to grant a reservation. Our model allows a seller to accept reservations, but possibly cancel the allocations later and pay the bidder a cancellation compensation (bump payment). Our main result is an online mechanism to derive prices and bump payments that is efficient to implement. This mechanism has many desirable properties. It is individually rational; winners have an incentive to be honest and bidding one's true value dominates any lower bid. Our mechanism's efficiency is within a constant fractio...

  4. Belarus activity in ADS field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • The YALINA facility is a unique installation which was designed as a zero power model of real ADS. • It is intended to study neutronics and kinetics of the sub-critical reactors driven by external neutron sources. • The successful operation of this facility is a scientific contribution from the Republic of Belarus, as well as the international team from EC and USA. • The experimental data are used to benchmark and validate methods and computer codes for designing and licensing ADS

  5. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunin, Oleg, E-mail: olunin@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-11

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T{sup 4}. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  6. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Oleg; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a travelling-wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T^4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  7. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D’Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two a...

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  9. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD, 44 patients with substance dependence (SD, and 43 volunteers without AD or SD (control group were enrolled. Socio-demographic information form, Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS, and metacognitive questionaire-30 (MCQ-30 were used to evaluate the participants. Results Patients with AD had significantly lower “tolerance” subscale and total DTS scores than those with SD and control group(P = 0.008 for SD sample and P = 0.004 for control group. Patients with SD had significantly higher scores in “appraisal” subscale DTS than control group (P = 0.005. Patients of both AD and SD groups had significantly higher scores in “positive beliefs” subscale of MCQ-30 than control group (P = 0.012 for AD group and P = 0. 001 for SD group. There was no significant difference between AD and SD groups in any MCQ-30 subscale and total scores (P = 0.440. Conclusions Metacognitive regulation strategies are more considerable prediction than emotional regulation strategies in SD group than in AD group. Individuals with AD use alcohol as a means of both cognitive and emotional regulation strategy.

  10. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart;

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnes...

  11. Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\\mu_{c} = 1 + \\sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\\mu_c \\thickapprox a + \\sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\\beta=\\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative ...

  12. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

  15. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  16. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  17. Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.

  18. On Information Loss in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS$_3$, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT$_2$ correlators at large central charge $c$: 'forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite $c$, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times $t \\sim S_{BH}$, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the $1/c$ expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify 'information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspo...

  19. An Investigation of AdS2 Backreaction and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Engelsöy, Julius; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski and develop an 1D effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1D version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  20. Correlation Functions of Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    We review certain results for amplitudes of spectral flowed operators in string theory on AdS_3. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by correlators including w=1 operators. We then discuss the three point function of two w=1 and one w=0 operators in the x-basis, and perform a consistency check on the definition of the w=1 operator. We finally exhibit the steps in the calculation of the winding conserving four point functions for operators in arbitrary spectral flowed sectors, both in the m- and x-basis, under the only assumption that at least one of the operators is in the spectral flowed image of the highest weight discrete representation.

  1. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  2. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  3. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  4. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  5. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  6. International Programmes on ADS: The Asian ADS Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the management of radioactive wastes is a common issue for all the countries utilizing nuclear energy and also for those intending to start it, international multilateral collaboration must be of great importance for effective research and development of transmutation technology for long lived nuclides. Collaboration in Asian region, however, had been less active in comparison to European countries, though nuclear power generation would increase significantly in Asia. Considering this context, the former Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) convened the ‘International Symposium on Accelerator driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative’ on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Tokyo, Japan in cooperation with Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. Through the discussion in the symposium, common understanding was developed in Japanese, Korean and Chinese scientists concerning the importance of establishing an international network among Asian countries to facilitate information exchange for R&D of ADS. Based on this understanding, five workshops were held so far. The workshop covers the national R&D programmes on ADS including subcritical reactor physics, cross-section measurements, high energy particle physics, accelerator technology, material technology and MA fuel technology. From the fifth workshop, information exchange for R&D on innovative fast reactors for nuclear transmutation was also included

  7. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  8. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  9. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  10. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  11. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  12. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  13. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  14. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Symptom-Triggered versus Fixed-Schedule Treatment in an Outpatient Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, B.; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, N.;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether, in the treatment with chlordiazepoxide for outpatient alcohol withdrawal, there are advantages of symptom-triggered self-medication over a fixed-schedule regimen. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in outpatient clinics for people suffering from alcohol dependence...... (AD) and alcohol-related problems; 165 adult patients in an outpatient setting in a specialized alcohol treatment unit were randomized 1:1 to either a symptom-triggered self-medication or tapered dose, using chlordiazepoxide. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, amount of medication, duration of symptoms......, time to relapse and patient satisfaction were measured. Patients assessed their symptoms using the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS). Patient satisfaction was monitored by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Well-Being Index and the European addiction severity index...

  15. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  16. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  17. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  18. Mass Transfer Enhancement of Gas Absorption by Adding the Dispersed Organic Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 许天行; 李文秀; 纪智玲; 许光荣

    2011-01-01

    Mass transfer enhancement of gas absorption by adding a dispersed organic phase has been studied in this work. Various dispersed organic phases (heptanol, octanol, isoamyl alcohol, heptane, octane, and isooctane) were tested respectively in the experiment. According to the theoretical model and experimental data, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient and enhancement factor were obtained under different dispersed organic phase volume fraction and stirring speed. The experimental results indicate that gas-liquid mass transfer is enhanced at different level by adding a dispersed organic phase. The best performance of enhancement were achieved with the dispersed organic phase volumetric fraction of 5% and under an intermediate stirring speed of 670 r·min^-1. Among the organic phases tested in the experiment, alcohols show better performance, which gave 20% higher enhance-ment of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient than adding alkanes.

  19. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  20. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet