WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol ads targeting

  1. Targeting adolescents? The content and frequency of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage ads in magazine and video formats November 1999-April 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hust, Stacey J T

    2005-12-01

    This study compared alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage advertising to which adolescents are exposed. A census of beverage advertising (N = 757) in popular magazines and television during November 1999-April 2000 was analyzed. Most alcohol ads appeared in Sports Illustrated (110), Rolling Stone (98), and Playboy (75) and outnumbered nonalcoholic beverage advertising by 3 to 1. Alcohol was almost never associated with dining. Alcohol ads emphasized sexual and social stereotypes and lacked diversity. One of every 6 magazine alcohol ads, and 1 of every 14 video-based ads, appeared to target teenagers. Many similarities existed between alcohol and nonalcohol ads. We conclude that alcohol is advertised heavily to youth through placement and appeals. The fact that themes in alcohol ads frequently parallel those in nonalcoholic beverage ads may further increase youths' receptivity.

  2. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking.

  3. Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.

    Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads…

  4. A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Targeted Ad-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven M.

    Thanks to its low product-promotion cost and its efficiency, targeted online advertising has become very popular. Unfortunately, being profile-based, online advertising methods violate consumers' privacy, which has engendered resistance to the ads. However, protecting privacy through anonymity seems to encourage click-fraud. In this paper, we define consumer's privacy and present a privacy-preserving, targeted ad system (PPOAd) which is resistant towards click fraud. Our scheme is structured to provide financial incentives to all entities involved.

  5. Investigation of the Compatibility Between ADS Target Material With Coolant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At present, the program of the compatibility study on ADS project of China Institute of Atomic Energy is focused on the compatibility tests for the tungsten with water and sodium. An ADS verification facility is proposed in next phase of ADS project, an existent swimming pool reactor will be repack as the subcritical reactor system, and tungsten will be used as the target. On the other hand, our CEFR is being constructed now, it may be one of the options as the subcritical reactor system of ADS, thus, it is necessary to understand the compatibility characteristics of tungsten with sodium and water.

  6. Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising on Billboards: Targeting with Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Caroline; Basil, Michael D.

    A study examined whether billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products is differentially targeted toward White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic neighborhoods. The study analyzed 901 billboards in neighborhood commercial districts in San Francisco, California, giving particular attention to tobacco and alcohol billboards. Neighborhood census…

  7. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  8. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  9. Association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and visual acuity-the AdRem Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C. C.; Stolk, R. P.; Adler, A. I.; Patel, A.; Chalmers, J.; Neal, B.; Poulter, N.; Harrap, S.; Woodward, M.; Marre, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Beulens, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and deterioration of visual acuity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cohort analysis of 1239 participants with Type 2 diabetes aged 55-81 years enrolled in the AdRem study, a sub-study

  10. Targeting collagen expression in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyle J Thompson; Iain H McKillop; Laura W Schrum

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver disease and liver-related deaths globally, particularly in developed nations. Liver fibrosis is a consequence of ALD and other chronic liver insults, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma if left untreated. Liver fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of excess extracellular matrix components, including type Ⅰ collagen, which disrupts liver microcirculation and leads to injury. To date, there is no therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis; thus treatments that either prevent the accumulation of type Ⅰ collagen or hasten its degradation are desirable. The focus of this review is to examine the regulation of type Ⅰ collagen in fibrogenic cells of the liver and to discuss current advances in therapeutics to eliminate excessive collagen deposition.

  11. Ego depletion increases ad-lib alcohol consumption: investigating cognitive mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2012-04-01

    When self-control resources are depleted ("ego depletion"), alcohol-seeking behavior becomes closely associated with automatic alcohol-related processing biases (e.g., Ostafin, Marlatt, & Greenwald, 2008). The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings, and also to investigate whether the effects of ego depletion on drinking behavior would be mediated by temporary impairments in executive function or increases in impulsivity. Eighty heavy social drinkers (46 female) initially completed measures of automatic approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility [SRC] task) and attentional bias (visual probe task) elicited by alcohol-related cues. Participants were then exposed to either an ego depletion manipulation or a control manipulation, before completing a bogus taste test in order to assess ad-lib alcohol consumption. In a subsequent testing session, we examined effects of the ego depletion manipulation (vs. control manipulation) on 3 aspects of executive function (inhibitory control, phonemic fluency, and delay discounting). Results indicated that the ego depletion manipulation increased ad-lib drinking, relative to the control manipulation. Automatic approach tendencies, but not attentional bias, predicted ad-lib drinking, although this effect was not moderated by ego depletion. Ego depletion had inconsistent effects on measures of executive function and impulsivity, and none of these measures mediated the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking. However, the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking was mediated by self-reported effort in suppressing emotion and thoughts during the manipulation. Implications for the effects of self-control strength on drinking behavior, and cognitive mediators of these effects, are discussed.

  12. Justidrusamides A-D, new 2-aminobenzyl alcohol derivatives from Justicia gendarussa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiren, Yuko; Deguchi, Jun; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Morita, Hiroshi; Prajogo, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    Justidrusamides A-D (1-4), four new alkaloids containing 2-aminobenzyl alcohol, succinic acid, and 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) butanoic acid skeletons have been isolated from leaves of Justicia gendarussa, and their structures were elucidated using 2D NMR data and chemical means. This is the first report of a 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) butanoic acid derivative in nature.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease: pathogenesis and new targets for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, José; Bataller, Ramón

    2011-08-09

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The spectrum of disease ranges from fatty liver to hepatic inflammation, necrosis, progressive fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In developed countries, ALD is a major cause of end-stage liver disease that requires transplantation. The most effective therapy for ALD is alcohol abstinence. However, for patients with severe forms of ALD (that is, alcoholic hepatitis) and for those who do not achieve abstinence from alcohol, targeted therapies are urgently needed. The development of new drugs for ALD is hampered by the scarcity of studies and the drawbacks of existing animal models, which do not reflect all the features of the human disease. However, translational research using liver samples from patients with ALD has identified new potential therapeutic targets, such as CXC chemokines, osteopontin and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 12A. The pathogenetic roles of these targets, however, remain to be confirmed in animal models. This Review summarizes the epidemiology, natural history, risk factors and current knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms of ALD. In addition, this article provides a detailed description of the findings of these translational studies and of the animal models used to study ALD.

  14. Molecular targets in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashwin D Dhanda; Richard WL Lee; Peter L Collins; C Anne McCune

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol related costs to health and society are high.One of the most serious complications of alcohol misuse to the individual is the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH),a clinical syndrome of jaundice and progressive inflammatory liver injury in patients with a history of recent heavy alcohol use.It has a poor outcome and few existing successful therapies.The use of glucocorticoids in patients with severe AH is still controversial and there remains a group of patients with glucocorticoid-resistant disease.However,as our understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition improves there are opportunities to develop new targeted therapies with specific actions to control liver inflammation without having a detrimental effect on the immune system as a whole.In this article we review the molecular mechanisms of AH concentrating on the activation of the innate and adaptive immune response.We consider existing treatments including glucocorticoids,anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy and pentoxifylline and their limitations.Using our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis we discuss possible novel therapeutic approaches.New targets includepro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17,chemokines and their receptors (for example IL-8,CXCL9 and CXCR3) and augmentation of anti-inflammatory molecules such as IL-10 and IL-22.And there is also future potential to consider combination therapy to selectively modulate the immune response and gain control of disease.

  15. Targeting modulates audiences' brain and behavioral responses to safe sex video ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Shi, Zhenhao; Bissey, Bryn; Metzger, David S; Langleben, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    Video ads promoting condom use are a key component of media campaigns to stem the HIV epidemic. Recent neuroimaging studies in the context of smoking cessation, point to personal relevance as one of the key variables that determine the effectiveness of public health messages. While minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are at the highest risk of HIV infection, most safe-sex ads feature predominantly Caucasian actors in heterosexual scenarios. We compared brain respons of 45 African American MSM to safe sex ads that were matched (i.e. 'Targeted') to participants' sexual orientation and race, and 'Untargeted' ads that were un matched for these characteristics. Ad recall, perceived 'convincingness' and attitudes towards condom use were also assessed. We found that Targeted ads were better remembered than the Untargeted ads but perceived as equally convincing. Targeted ads engaged brain regions involved in self-referential processing and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC) and the precuneus. Connectivity between MPFC and precuneus and middle temporal gyrus was stronger when viewing Targeted ads. Our results suggest that targeting may increase cognitive processing of safe sex ads and justify further prospective studies linking brain response to media public health interventions and clinical outcomes.

  16. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  17. Some considerations concerning the role of the ius ad bellum in targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution examines the influence of the ius ad bellum upon the targeting process. Specifically, it will examine how the rules of international law relating to the permissibility of the use of force can and do influence the targeting of both objects and persons which constitute military objec

  18. The FLUKA study of the secondary particles fluence in the AD-Antiproton Decelerator target area

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present Monte Carlo FLUKA simulations [1, 2] carried out to investigate the secondary particles fluence emerging from the antiproton production target and their spatial distribution in the AD target area. The detailed quantitative analysis has been performed for different positions along the magnet dog-leg as well as after the main collimator. These results allow tuning the position of the new beam current transformers (BCT) in the target area, in order to have a precise pulse-by-pulse evaluation of the intensity of negative particles injected in the AD-ring before the deceleration phase.

  19. Mechanism of ad5 vaccine immunity and toxicity: fiber shaft targeting of dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviral (rAd vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines.

  20. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  1. Overexposed: Youth a Target of Alcohol Advertising in Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This report analyzes $320 million in alcohol product advertising in magazines during calendar year 2001. The first section analyzes the amount of magazine advertising delivered to youth and adults by different alcoholic beverage brands. For many beer and distilled spirits brands, the youth population received more advertising than the adult…

  2. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sathamurthy; L M Gantayet; A K Ray

    2007-02-01

    Department of Atomic Energy, India has taken up the development of ADS in view of many attractive features like inherent safety, capability to transmute large quantities of nuclear waste, better utilization of thorium etc. A roadmap has been finalized for the development of ADS. One of the key components of the ADS is the spallation target. Considering the neutron yield, thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage issues, we are proposing to develop spallation target based on heavy density liquid metals like lead and lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE). Both window and windowless target configurations are presently being studied. In view of the various advantages we are also studying liquid metal flow circulation based on gas lift mechanism. An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the existing ones are utilized to design the entire target loop as well as sub-systems. In this presentation the details of these activities are presented.

  3. Epigenetic Modifications, Alcoholic Brain and Potential Drug Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Pandey, Suryanarayan; Choubey, Priyansha; Rajput, Prabha; Saroha, Babita; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. The research activities over the past years have demonstrated a crucial role of epigenetic mechanisms in causing long lasting and transient changes in the expression of several genes in diverse tissues, including brain. This has stimulated recent research work that is aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the long lasting and transient effects of alcohol abuse on the brain in humans and animal models of alcohol addiction. In this study, we update our current understanding of the impact of alcohol exposure on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain and refurbish the knowledge of epigenetics in the direction of new drugs development. PMID:27780992

  4. XT-ADS Windowless spallation target thermohydraulic design and experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, A.G., E-mail: andreas.class@kit.edu [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Angeli, D. [AAA, Advanced Accelerator Applications, 20 Rue Diesel, 06130 Saint-Genis-Poully (France); Batta, A. [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Dierckx, M. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Fellmoser, F. [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Moreau, V. [CRS4, Polaris Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Roelofs, F. [NRG Petten, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schuurmans, P.; Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Wetzel, T. [KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    The objective of the European 6th framework Integrated Project (IP) EUROTRANS (EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) is to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation of high level nuclear waste using subcritical Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The spallation target represents the most challenging new component in an ADS since it is the component coupling the accelerator and the nuclear core and is subjected to very high thermal load in a high radiation field. In this document the thermal hydraulic activities which led to reliable design rules for a windowless target are presented and the status of the heavy liquid metal target mock-up experiment at the KArlsruhe Liquid metal LAboratory (KALLA) are reported.

  5. Effects of Aspartame on alcohol fermentation in Aspartame-added bread processing

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Tokumitsu; Hamaoka, Rumi; Takeno, Tomomi; Okuda, Nobuko; Ohsugi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    The addition of aspartame to white bread dough affected the gas production due to baker's yeast. After 3 hours of incubation, the total gas production of 3% aspartame-added dough decreased about 0.4 times that of standard dough. Gas production decreased with increasing concentrations of aspartame. On the other hand, the expansion of aspartame-added dough increased with increasing concentration of aspartame. The dough containing 3% aspartame expanded the same as standard dough. The ratio of in...

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. New separation method of no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc from titanium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, B.; Majkowska, A.; Kasperek, A.; Krajewski, S.; Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa (Poland). Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Center

    2012-07-01

    Radionuclides with medium energy beta emission and a several day half-life are attractive candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Among the most promising in this category is {sup 47}Sc produced by fast neutron irradiation (E{sub n} > 1 MeV) of titanium target with high energy neutrons in {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc nuclear reaction. In the previously reported production scheme the dissolution of the TiO{sub 2} target in hot concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and evaporation of the resulting solution were the most time-consuming steps. The present paper describes new, simple and efficient production method of {sup 47}Sc, where the slow dissolution of the target is avoided. After irradiation in fast neutron flux {sup 47}TiO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}{sup 47}TiF{sub 6} targets were dissolved in HF solutions. Next {sup 47}Sc was separated from the target using anion exchange resin Dowex 1 with 0.4 M HF + 0.06 M HNO{sub 3} solution as eluent. The eluted {sup 47}Sc was adsorbed on cation exchange resin and eluted with 0.5 M of ammonium acetate. The 47Sc separation yield in the proposed procedure is about 90% with the separation time less than 2 h. The obtained no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc was used to label DOTATATE conjugate with 96% labeling yield. (orig.)

  9. Long-Term Effects of a Personality-Targeted Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of a personality-targeted intervention on drinking quantity and frequency (QF), problem drinking, and personality-specific motivations for alcohol use in early adolescence. Method: A randomized control trial was carried out with 364 adolescents (median age 14) recruited from 13 secondary schools with…

  10. Molecular targets of alcohol action: Translational research for pharmacotherapy development and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giorgio; Bell, Richard L; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are multifaceted disorders with neurobiological, psychological, and environmental components. Research on other complex neuropsychiatric diseases suggests that genetically influenced intermediate characteristics affect the risk for heavy alcohol consumption and its consequences. Diverse therapeutic interventions can be developed through identification of reliable biomarkers for this disorder and new pharmacological targets for its treatment. Advances in the fields of genomics and proteomics offer a number of possible targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches. This brain-focused review highlights studies identifying neurobiological systems associated with these targets and possible pharmacotherapies, summarizing evidence from clinically relevant animal and human studies, as well as sketching improvements and challenges facing the fields of proteomics and genomics. Concluding thoughts on using results from these profiling technologies for medication development are also presented.

  11. Effect of Target Configuration on the Neutronic Performance of the Gas-Cooled ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biss, K; Shetty, N; Nabbi, R

    2013-01-01

    With the utilization of nuclear energy transuranic elements like Pu, Am and Cm are produced causing high, long term radioactivity and radio toxicity, respectively. To reduce the radiological impact on the environment and to the repository Partitioning and Transmutation is considered as an efficient way. In this respect comprehensive research works are performed at different research institutes worldwide. The results show that the transmutation of TRU is achieved with fast neutrons due to the higher fission probability. Based on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) those neutrons are used in a particular system, in which mainly liquid metal eutectic (lead bismuth) is used as coolant. The neutronic performance of an ADS system based on gas cooling was studied in this work by using the simulation tool MCNPX. The usage of the Monte-Carlo method in MCNPX allows the simulation of the physical processes in a 3D-model of the core. In dependence of the spallation target material and design several parameters like the mult...

  12. The 5-HT-7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheketha R. Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed – including the mesocorticolimbic (MCL dopamine system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT-7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT-7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT-7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  13. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Ribosome Biogenesis as a Target of Alcohol Teratogenicity and Vulnerability during Early Embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berres, Mark E.; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R.; Smith, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Individuals with FASD may exhibit a characteristic facial appearance that has diagnostic utility. The mechanism by which alcohol disrupts craniofacial development is incompletely understood, as are the genetic factors that can modify individual alcohol vulnerability. Using an established avian model, we characterized the cranial transcriptome in response to alcohol to inform the mechanism underlying these cells’ vulnerability. Gallus gallus embryos having 3–6 somites were exposed to 52 mM alcohol and the cranial transcriptomes were sequenced thereafter. A total of 3422 genes had significantly differential expression. The KEGG pathways with the greatest enrichment of differentially expressed gene clusters were Ribosome (P = 1.2 x 10−17, 67 genes), Oxidative Phosphorylation (P = 4.8 x 10−12, 60 genes), RNA Polymerase (P = 2.2 x 10−3, 15 genes) and Spliceosome (P = 2.6 x 10−2, 39 genes). The preponderance of transcripts in these pathways were repressed in response to alcohol. These same gene clusters also had the greatest altered representation in our previous comparison of neural crest populations having differential vulnerability to alcohol-induced apoptosis. Comparison of differentially expressed genes in alcohol-exposed (3422) and untreated, alcohol-vulnerable (1201) transcriptomes identified 525 overlapping genes of which 257 have the same direction of transcriptional change. These included 36 ribosomal, 25 oxidative phosphorylation and 7 spliceosome genes. Using a functional approach in zebrafish, partial knockdown of ribosomal proteins zrpl11, zrpl5a, and zrps3a individually heightened vulnerability to alcohol-induced craniofacial deficits and increased apoptosis. In humans, haploinsufficiency of several of the identified ribosomal proteins are causative in craniofacial dysmorphologies such as Treacher Collins Syndrome and Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. This work

  15. Targeting Kupffer cells in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Why and how?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas; Lanthier

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)development are under investigation in an era of increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Previous findings have pointed to the role of adipose tissue, adipose tissue macrophages and their secretory products in the development of a chronic inflammatory status inducing insulin resistance and a higher risk of liver steatosis called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The activation of resident macrophages [Kupffer cells(KC)] and the recruitment of blood derived monocytes/macrophages into the diseased liver have now been identified as key elements for disease initiation and progression. Those cells could be activated through gut flora modifications and an altered gut barrier function but also through the internalization of toxic lipid compounds in adjacent hepatocytes or in KC themselves. Due to the role of activated KC in insulin resistance, fibrosis development and inflammation amplification, they became a target in clinical trials. A shift towards an anti-inflammatory KC phenotype through peroxisome proliferator activator-receptorδ agonists, an inhibition of macrophage recruitment through anti-C-C chemokine receptor 2 action and a specific blocking of internalization of toxic lipoxidation or glycation compounds into KC by galectin-3 receptor inhibitors are now under investigation in human NASH.

  16. Role for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in neuroadaptations underlying alcohol-related disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Neasta, Jérémie; Ben Hamida, Sami; Yowell, Quinn; Carnicella, Sebastien; RON, DORIT

    2010-01-01

    Present adress of Sébastien Carnicella: Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U836, 38100 Grenoble, France. Equipe 10, Dynamique des réseaux neuronaux du mouvement; International audience; Alcohol addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that includes certain maladaptive learning and memory. The serine and threonine kinase complex, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), has been implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD Associated Neural Defects: Complex Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Marrs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.

  18. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  19. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    OpenAIRE

    Byoungjip Kim; Seungwoo Kang; Jin-Young Ha; Junehwa Song

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit pattern...

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  1. Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence, confidence ratings, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kneller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance and examine whether accurate decisions from intoxicated witnesses could be postdicted by confidence and response times. One hundred and twenty participants engaged in a study examining the effects of intoxication (control, placebo, and mild intoxication and target presence on identification performance. Participants viewed a simultaneous lineup one week after watching a mock crime video of a man attempting to steal cars. Ethanol intoxication (0.6 ml/kg was found to make no significant difference to identification accuracy and such identifications from intoxicated individuals were made no less confidently or slowly than those from sober witnesses. These results are discussed with respect to the previous research examining intoxicated witness identification accuracy and the misconceptions the criminal justice system holds about the accuracy of such witnesses.

  2. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  3. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H

    2014-02-01

    Underage alcohol use is a global public health problem and alcohol advertising has been associated with underage drinking. The alcohol industry regulates itself and is the primary control on alcohol advertising in many countries around the world, advising trade association members to advertise only in adult-oriented media. Despite high levels of compliance with these self-regulatory guidelines, in several countries youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television has grown faster than adult exposure. In the United States, we found that exposure for underage viewers ages 18-20 grew from 2005 through 2011 faster than any adult age group. Applying a method adopted from a court in the US to identify underage targeting of advertising, we found evidence of targeting of alcohol advertising to underage viewers ages 18-20. The court's rule appeared in Lockyer v. Reynolds (The People ex rel. Bill Lockyer v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, GIC764118, 2002). We demonstrated that alcohol companies were able to modify their advertising practices to maintain current levels of adult advertising exposure while reducing youth exposure.

  4. Optimization studies of photo-neutron production in high- metallic targets using high energy electron beam for ADS and transmutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah; H C Soni; S Kotaiah

    2007-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed using MCNP code to study the optimization of photo-neutron yield for different electron beam energies impinging on Pb, W and Ta cylindrical targets of varying thickness. It is noticed that photo-neutron yield can be increased for electron beam energies ≥ 100 MeV for appropriate thickness of the target. It is also noticed that it can be maximized by further increasing the thickness of the target. Further, at higher electron beam energy heat gradient in the target decreases, which facilitates easier heat removal from the target. This can help in developing a photo-neutron source based on electron LINAC by choosing appropriate electron beam energy and target thickness to optimize the neutron flux for ADS, transmutation studies and as high energy neutron source etc. Photo-neutron yield for different targets, optimum target thickness and photo-neutron energy spectrum and heat deposition by electron beam for different incident energy is presented.

  5. Smoking and alcoholism target genes associated with plasticity and glutamate transmission in the human ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, T; Zuvela, N; Landis, N; Wilce, P A

    2008-01-01

    Drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol elicit their effect by stimulating the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. There is a high incidence of nicotine dependence in alcoholics. To date only limited data is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the action of alcohol and nicotine in the human brain. This study utilized gene expression screening to identify genes sensitive to chronic alcohol abuse within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the human brain. Alcohol-responsive genes encoded proteins primarily involved in structural plasticity and neurotransmitter transport and release. In particular, genes involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling and glutamatergic transmission were found to be affected. The possibility that glutamate transport was a target of chronic alcohol and/or tobacco abuse was further investigated in an extended case set by measurement of mRNA and protein expression. Expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters SLC17A6 and SLC17A7 were robustly induced by smoking, an effect that was reduced by alcohol co-exposure. Glutamatergic transmission is vital for the control of the VTA and may also be critical to the weighting of novelty and importance of a stimulus, an essential output of this brain region. We conclude that enduring plasticity within the VTA may be a major molecular mechanism for the maintenance of smoking addiction and that alcohol, nicotine and co-abuse have distinct impacts on glutamatergic transmission with important implications for the control of this core mesolimbic structure.

  6. Physical Design of Critical Experiment Facility for Verifying Characteristics and Effects of Coupling Between Reactor and Spallation Target of ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Sheng-gui; ZHOU; Qi; LI; Yan

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of studying and verifying characteristics and effects of coupling between reactor and spallation target of ADS,based on the critical experimental facility design criteria and the availableexperiment condition,physical design of a critical experiment facility with lead coolant is completed,using critical calculation code MONK-9A.The contents of physical designs mainly include nuclear fuel,array of fuel rods,neutron source

  7. The Effect of Beam Intensity on Temperature Distribution in ADS Windowless Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Spallation Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spallation target is the component coupling the accelerator and the reactor and is regarded as the “heart” of the accelerator driven system (ADS. Heavy liquid metal lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is served as core coolant and spallation material to carry away heat deposition of spallation reaction and produce high flux neutron. So it is very important to study the heat transfer process in the target. In this paper, the steady-state flow pattern has been numerically obtained and taken as the input for the nuclear physics calculation, and then the distribution of the extreme large power density of the heat load is imported back to the computational fluid dynamics as the source term in the energy equation. Through the coupling, the transient and steady-state temperature distribution in the windowless spallation target is obtained and analyzed based on the flow process and heat transfer. Comparison of the temperature distribution with the different beam intensity shows that its shape is the same as broken wing of the butterfly. Nevertheless, the maximum temperature as well as the temperature gradient is different. The results play an important role and can be applied to the further design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target.

  8. Comparisons of the simulation results using different codes for ADS spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hong Wei; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Zhao Zhi Xiang

    2002-01-01

    The calculations to the standard thick target were made by using different codes. The simulation of the thick Pb target with length of 60 cm, diameter of 20 cm bombarded with 800, 1000, 1500 and 2000 MeV energetic proton beam was carried out. The yields and the spectra of emitted neutron were studied. The spallation target was simulated by SNSP, SHIELD, DCM/CEM (Dubna Cascade Model /Cascade Evaporation Mode) and LAHET codes. The Simulation Results were compared with experiments. The comparisons show good agreement between the experiments and the SNSP simulated leakage neutron yield. The SHIELD simulated leakage neutron spectra are in good agreement with the LAHET and the DCM/CEM simulated leakage neutron spectra

  9. Eyelid conditioning to a target amplitude: adding how much to whether and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Joy C; Mauk, Michael D

    2010-10-20

    Conceptual and practical advantages of pavlovian eyelid conditioning facilitate analysis of cerebellar computation and learning. Even so, eyelid conditioning procedures are unrealistic in an important way. The error signal to the olivocerebellar system does not decrease as learning adapts response amplitude or gain. This inherently limits the utility of eyelid conditioning for studies investigating how cerebellar learning mechanisms acquire and store an adaptive response amplitude. We report the development and characterization of a training procedure in which conditioned response amplitude is brought under experimental control with contingencies that more closely parallel natural conditions. In this procedure, the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (US) is made contingent on conditioned response amplitude: the US is delivered for responses that fail to reach a specified target amplitude and is omitted for responses that meet or exceed the target. We find that rabbits trained with either a tone or with mossy fiber stimulation as the conditioned stimulus learn responses that approach target amplitudes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. Inactivating the interpositus nucleus with muscimol infusions abolished these conditioned responses, indicating that cerebellar involvement in eyelid conditioning is not tied explicitly to the use of pavlovian procedures. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that response amplitude is learned and encoded in the cerebellum during eyelid conditioning. As such, these results provide a foundation for systematic and controlled investigations of the cerebellar mechanisms that learn and encode the proper amplitude of adaptive movements.

  10. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    DST-ACTH whereas SCS and HD:CAS scores showed a negative correlation with baseline cortisol in hypersexual patients. The diagnosis of hypersexual...compared with subse- quent alcohol intake or alcohol preference by Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis. The pre-IAA startle response to 58...intake and increased alcohol preference was highly correlated with acoustic startle amplitude previously determined before the initial access to alcohol

  11. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay Uptake of Drinking and Decrease Risk of Alcohol-Related Problems when Delivered by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mackie, Clare J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Al-Khudhairy, Nadia; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This trial examined the efficacy of teacher-delivered personality-targeted interventions for alcohol-misuse over a 6-month period. Method: This randomized controlled trial randomly allocated participating schools to intervention (n = 11) or control (n = 7) conditions. A total of 2,506 (mean age, 13.7 years) were assessed for elevated…

  12. Transverse profile expansion and homogenization at target for the injector Scheme-I test stand of China-ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zheng; Yan, Fang; Pei, Shi-Lun; Chen, Yuan; Li, Zhi-hui; Geng, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    For the injector Scheme-I test stand of the China-ADS, a beam with the maximum power of 100 kW will be produced and transported to the beam dump. At the beam dump, the beam power will be converted to thermal load and brought away by the cooling water. Two measures are taken to deal with the huge power density at the target. One is to enlarge the contact area between the beam and the target, and this is to be accomplished by expanding the beam profile at the target and using two copper plates each having a 20o inclination angle relative to the beam direction. The other is to produce more homogenous beam profile at the target to minimize the maximum power density. Here the beam dump line is designed to meet the requirement of beam expansion and homogenization, and the step-like field magnets are employed for the beam spot homogenization. The simulations results including space charge effects and errors show that the beam line can meet the requirements very well at the three different energies (3.2 MeV, 5 MeV an...

  13. Discovery and in vivo evaluation of alcohol-containing benzothiazoles as potent dual-targeting bacterial DNA supercoiling inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James T; Axford, Lorraine C; Barker, Stephanie; Bennett, James M; Blair, Michael; Collins, Ian; Davies, David T; Ford, Leigh; Gannon, Carlie T; Lancett, Paul; Logan, Alastair; Lunniss, Christopher J; Morton, Craig J; Offermann, Daniel A; Pitt, Gary R W; Rao, B Narasinga; Singh, Amit K; Shukla, Tarun; Srivastava, Anil; Stokes, Neil R; Thomaides-Brears, Helena B; Yadav, Anju; Haydon, David J

    2014-09-01

    A series of dual-targeting, alcohol-containing benzothiazoles has been identified with superior antibacterial activity and drug-like properties. Early lead benzothiazoles containing carboxylic acid moieties showed efficacy in a well-established in vivo model, but inferior drug-like properties demanded modifications of functionality capable of demonstrating superior efficacy. Eliminating the acid group in favor of hydrophilic alcohol moieties at C(5), as well as incorporating solubilizing groups at the C(7) position of the core ring provided potent, broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial activity, lower protein binding, and markedly improved efficacy in vivo.

  14. Mechanisms of cisplatin resistance and targeting of cancer stem cells: Adding glycosylation to the equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Alexandre; Peixoto, Andreia; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Reis, Celso A; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are the most frequently used (neo)adjuvant treatments for the majority of solid tumors. While platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens have proven effective against highly proliferative malignant tumors, significant relapse and progression rates as well as decreased overall survival are still observed. Currently, it is known that sub-populations of chemoresistant cells share biological properties with cancer stem cells (CSC), which are believed to be responsible for tumor relapse, invasion and ultimately disease dissemination through acquisition of mesenchymal cell traits. In spite of concentrated efforts devoted to decipher the mechanisms underlying CSC chemoresistance and to design targeted therapeutics to these cells, proteomics has failed to unveil molecular signatures capable of distinguishing between malignant and non-malignant stem cells. This has hampered substantial developments in this complex field. Envisaging a novel rationale for an effective therapy, the current review summarizes the main cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance and the impact of chemotherapy challenge in CSC selection and clinical outcome. It further emphasizes the growing amount of data supporting a role for protein glycosylation in drug resistance. The dynamic and context-dependent nature of protein glycosylation is also comprehensively discussed, hence highlighting its potentially important role as a biomarker of CSC. As the paradigm of cancer therapeutics shifts towards precision medicine and patient-tailored therapeutics, we bring into focus the need to introduce glycomics and glycoproteomics in holistic pan-omics models, in order to integrate diverse, multimodal and clinically relevant information towards more effective cancer therapeutics.

  15. Histamine h3 receptor: a novel therapeutic target in alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Saara; Vanhanen, Jenni; Mäki, Tiia; Panula, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    The brain histaminergic system is one of the diffuse modulatory neurotransmitter systems which regulate neuronal activity in many brain areas. Studies on both rats and mice indicate that histamine H3 receptor antagonists decrease alcohol drinking in several models, like operant alcohol administration and drinking in the dark paradigm. Alcohol-induced place preference is also affected by these drugs. Moreover, mice lacking H3R do not drink alcohol like their wild type littermates, and they do not show alcohol-induced place preference. Although the mechanisms of these behaviors are still being investigated, we propose that H3R antagonists are promising candidates for use in human alcoholics, as these drugs are already tested for treatment of other disorders like narcolepsy and sleep disorders.

  16. Histamine H3 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in alcohol dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti ePanula

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain histaminergic system is one of the diffuse modulatory neurotransmitter systems which regulate neuronal activity in many brain areas. Studies on both rats and mice indicate that histamine H3 receptor antagonists decrease alcohol drinking in several models, like operant alcohol administration and drinking in the dark paradigm. Alcohol-induced place preference is also affected by these drugs. Moreover, mice lacking H3R do not drink alcohol like their wild type littermates, and they do not show alcohol-induced place preference. Although the mechanisms of these behaviors are still being investigated, we propose that H3R antagonists are promising candidates for use in human alcoholics, as these drugs are already tested for treatment of other disorders like narcolepsy and sleep disorders.

  17. Targeting central melanocortin receptors: a promising novel approach for treating alcohol abuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eOlney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC peptides are produced centrally by propiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and act through five seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled melanocortin receptor (MCR subtypes. The MC3R and MC4R subtypes, the most abundant central MCRs, are widely expressed in brain regions known to modulate neurobiological responses to ethanol, including regions of the hypothalamus and extended amygdala. Agouti-related protein (AgRP, also produced in the arcuate nucleus, is secreted in terminals expressing MCRs and functions as an endogenous MCR antagonist. This review highlights recent genetic and pharmacological findings that have implicated roles for the MC and AgRP systems in modulating ethanol consumption. Ethanol consumption is associated with significant alterations in the expression levels of various MC peptides/protein, which suggests that ethanol-induced perturbations of MC/AgRP signaling may modulate excessive ethanol intake. Consistently, MCR agonists decrease, and AgRP increases, ethanol consumption in mice. MCR agonists fail to blunt ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC4R, suggesting that the protective effects of MCR agonists are modulated by the MC4R. Interestingly, recent evidence reveals that MCR agonists are more effective at blunting binge-like ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC3R, suggesting that the MC3R has opposing effects on the MC4R. Finally, mutant mice lacking AgRP exhibit blunted voluntary and binge-like ethanol drinking, consistent with pharmacological studies. Collectively, these preclinical observations provide compelling evidence that compounds that target the MC system may provide therapeutic value for treating alcohol abuse disorders and that the utilization of currently available MC-targeting compounds- such as those being used to treat eating disorders- may be used as effective treatments to this end.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets totreat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in theunderstanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptionfactors that modulate the expression of genes involved inlipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation,being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimentalevidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulatorof hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedlydecreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta iscrucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing proteinO subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulationof enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. Inaddition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellatecells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult.On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF dietsmaximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenicfactors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis.Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma,triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipiddroplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARsto treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alphaagonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis byincreasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reducedlipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulinresistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis atpostprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation canexert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis.However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits,mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expressionand decreased insulin resistance. Further studies arenecessary aiming at translational approaches useful totreat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs.

  19. Production of no-carrier-added radiobromine. new nickel selenide target and optimized separation by dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Katharina; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2015-07-01

    Nickel(II) selenide (NiSe) was investigated as a new high-current target material for cyclotron production of radiobromine, as it contains a higher amount of selenium and has a lower melting point than the widely used Cu{sub 2}Se. Using a slanted target system, NiSe was successfully tested up to beam currents of 16 μA so far. With regard to the isolation of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) radiobromide from the target material, an improved dry distillation device with high yields of 76%-86% was developed. The implementation of a special custom-made quartz funnel decreased the dead volume of the apparatus and a quartz capillary for trapping the radiobromine allowed to concentrate the radioactivity in a small volume of less than 100 μL of 0.1 M NaOH, ready for immediate subsequent radiosyntheses. Thus, the new apparatus improves the handling of the isolation procedure and the radioactive product. The radiochemical purity of the resulting solution of n.c.a. [*Br]bromide was verified by radio-IC where no other species were detected.

  20. Improving rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries by adding lignosulfonate and long-chain fatty alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hongming; Wu, Shun; Li, Xiuli; Lan, Tianqing; Yang, Dongjie; Pang, Yuxia; Qiu, Xueqing; Li, Xuehui; Huang, Jinhao

    2014-08-20

    The effects of lignosulfonate (SXSL) and long-chain fatty alcohols (LFAs) on the rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries were investigated. The application of 2.5% (w/w) SXSL increased the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of high-solid corncob slurries at 72 h from 31.7 to 54.0%, but meanwhile it increased the slurry's yield stress and complex viscosity to make the slurry difficult to stir and pump. The smallest molecular weight (MW) SXSL fraction had the strongest enhancement on SED. The SXSL fraction with large MW had a negative effect on rheology. n-Octanol (C8) and n-decanol (C10) improved the rheological properties of high-solid slurry and are strong enough to counteract the negative effect of SXSL. Furthermore, C8 and C10 clearly enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries with and without SXSL. A mechanism was proposed to explain the observed negative effect of SXSL and the positive effect of LFAs on the rheological properties.

  1. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-07-16

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user's place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.

  2. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjip Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.

  3. Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors as potential targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwani, Sunil; Saternos, Hannah; Alasmari, Fawaz; Sari, Youssef

    2017-02-24

    Emerging evidence indicates that dysfunctional glutamate neurotransmission is critical in the initiation and development of alcohol and drug dependence. Alcohol consumption induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) as reported in previous studies from our laboratory. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, which acts via interactions with several glutamate receptors. Alcohol consumption interferes with the glutamatergic signal transmission by altering the functions of these receptors. Among the glutamate receptors involved in alcohol-drinking behavior are the metabotropic receptors such as mGluR1/5, mGluR2/3, and mGluR7, as well as the ionotropic receptors, NMDA and AMPA. Preclinical studies using agonists and antagonists implicate these glutamatergic receptors in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the neurocircuitry involving glutamate transmission in animals exposed to alcohol and further outline the role of metabotropic and ionotropic receptors in the regulation of alcohol-drinking behavior. This review provides ample information about the potential therapeutic role of glutamatergic receptors for the treatment of AUD.

  4. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the ext...

  5. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, P; Yan, J; Schwandt, M L; Stangl, B L; Caparelli, E C; Momenan, R; Jerlhag, E; Engel, J A; Hodgkinson, C A; Egli, M; Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Goldman, D; Heilig, M; Ramchandani, V A; Leggio, L

    2015-06-16

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates appetite and food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation also attenuates the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rodents. The present translational study is based on four human genetic association studies and one preclinical study providing data that support the hypothesis that GLP-1R may have a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Case-control analysis (N = 908) was performed on a sample of individuals enrolled in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) intramural research program. The Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (N = 3803) was used for confirmation purposes. Post hoc analyses were carried out on data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA; N = 81) in social drinkers and from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 22) subjected to a Monetary Incentive Delay task. In the preclinical study, a GLP-1R agonist was evaluated in a mouse model of alcohol dependence to demonstrate the role of GLP-1R for alcohol consumption. The previously reported functional allele 168Ser (rs6923761) was nominally associated with AUD (P = 0.004) in the NIAAA sample, which was partially replicated in males of the SAGE sample (P = 0.033). The 168 Ser/Ser genotype was further associated with increased alcohol administration and breath alcohol measures in the IV-ASA experiment and with higher BOLD response in the right globus pallidus when receiving notification of outcome for high monetary reward. Finally, GLP-1R agonism significantly reduced alcohol consumption in a mouse model of alcohol dependence. These convergent findings suggest that the GLP-1R may be an attractive target for personalized pharmacotherapy treatment of AUD.

  6. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Brief Alcohol Intervention and Added Value of Normative Feedback in Reducing Underage Drinking: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, R.; Roek, M.A.E.; Vermulst, A.A.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Huiberts, A.M.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Current insights indicate that Web-based delivery may enhance the implementation of brief alcohol interventions. Previous research showed that electronically delivered brief alcohol interventions decreased alcohol use in college students and adult problem drinkers. To date, no study has

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression: Adding biological significance to microRNA target predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Iterson (Mat); S. Bervoets (Sander); E.J. de Meijer (Emile); H.P. Buermans (Henk); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); R.X. Menezes (Renée); J.M. Boer (Judith)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCurrent microRNA target predictions are based on sequence information and empirically derived rules but do not make use of the expression of microRNAs and their targets. This study aimed to improve microRNA target predictions in a given biological context, using in silico predictions, mi

  9. Targeting Alcohol Misuse: A Promising Strategy for Reducing Military Sexual Assaults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Biopsychosocial Conceptualization,” Clinical Psychology Review , Vol. 17, No. 6, September 1997, 621–649. Combs-Lane, Amy M., and Daniel W. Smith, “Risk of Sexual...and the Misperception of Sexual Intent,” Clinical Psychology Review , Vol. 28, No. 1, January 2008, pp. 48–66. Fisher, Bonnie S., John J. Sloan, Francis...The Impact of Men’s Alcohol Consumption on Perpetration of Sexual Aggression,” Clinical Psychology Review , Vol. 22, No. 8, November 2002, pp. 1239

  10. Perfil sociodemográfico e adesão ao tratamento de dependentes de álcool em CAPS-ad do Piauí Perfil socio-demográfico y la adhesión al tratamiento de la dependencia del alcohol en CAPS-ad do Piauí Sociodemographic profile and adhesion to treatment for alcohol dependents at CAPS-ad in Piauí state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Ferreira de Souza Monteiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa tem como objetivo levantar o perfil sociodemográfico e a adesão ao tratamento de dependentes do álcool no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas. Trata-se de um estudo de natureza quantitativa, realizado no município de Teresina-PI. Os dados foram colhidos através do levantamento de informações presentes nos prontuários dos 227 sujeitos participantes desta pesquisa. Verificou-se que a maioria dos usuários era do sexo masculino (88,9%, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos (87,6%, solteiros (50,2%, com ensino fundamental (40%, empregados (48,6% e católicos (42,7%. A maior parte dos sujeitos faz uso diário de bebida alcoólica (55,% e 29% fazem uso de drogas ilícitas, sendo a maconha a mais consumida (95,3%. Em relação à adesão, 43,1% permaneceram em tratamento após três meses de admissão no CAPSad. Portanto, constatou-se a grande importância desse centro, com base em uma quantidade satisfatória de pacientes que aderem e que permanecem com o tratamento.El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el perfil socio-demográfico e y la adhesión al tratamiento de la dependencia del alcohol en CAPS-ad. Se trata de un estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa, realizada en el CAPS-ad localizado en el municipio de Teresina, Piauí. Los datos fueron colectados analizando informaciones presentes en los prontuarios de los 227 sujetos participantes de esta investigación. Se verificó que la mayoría de los usuarios era del sexo masculino (el 88,9%, con edad entre 19 a 59 años (el 87.6% y solteros (el 50,2%, con enseñanza fundamental (el 40%, empleados (el 48,6%, y católicos (el 42,7%. La mayor parte de los sujetos hace uso diario de bebida alcohólica (el 55,%, y el 29% hace uso de drogas ilícitas, siendo la marihuana la más consumida (el 95,3%. En relación a la adhesión (el 43,1% permanecieron en tratamiento después de tres meses a partir de la admisión a CAPS-ad. Por lo tanto, se constató la gran importancia de ese

  11. β-secretase 1´s Targeting Reduces Hyperphosphorilated Tau, Implying Autophagy Actors in 3xTg-AD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego ePiedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 initiates APP cleavage, which has been reported to be an inducer of tau pathology by altering proteasome functions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the exact relationship between BACE1 and PHF (Paired Helical Filaments formation is not clear. In this study, we confirm that BACE1 and Hsc70 are upregulated in the brains of AD patients, and we demonstrate that both proteins show enhanced expression in lipid rafts from AD-affected triple transgenic mouse brains. BACE1 targeting increased Hsc70 levels in the membrane and cytoplasm fractions and downregulated Hsp90 and CHIP in the nucleus in the hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice. However, these observations occurred in a proteasome-independent manner in vitro. The BACE1miR-induced reduction of soluble hyperphosphorylated tau was associated with a decrease in MAPK activity. However, the BACE1 RNAi-mediated reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau was only blocked by 3-MA (3-methyladenine in vitro, and it resulted in the increase of Hsc70 and LAMP2 in lipid rafts from hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice, and upregulation of survival and homeostasis signalling. In summary, our findings suggest that BACE1 silencing neuroprotects reducing soluble hyperphosphorylated tau, modulating certain autophagy-related proteins in aged 3xTg-AD mice.

  12. Strain dependent gene expression and neurochemical levels in the brain of zebrafish: focus on a few alcohol related targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Chatterjee, D; Gerlai, R

    2012-12-05

    The zebrafish is becoming increasingly popular in behavior genetics because it may allow one to conduct large scale mutation and drug screens facilitating the discovery of mechanisms of complex traits. Strain differences in adult zebrafish behavior have already been reported, which may have important implications in neurobehavioral genetics. For example, we have found the AB and SF strains to differ in their behavioral responses to both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. In the current study, we further characterize these strains using semi-quantitative RT-PCR to measure the expression of ten selected genes and HPLC to measure the levels of nine neurochemicals. We chose the target genes and neurochemicals based upon their potential involvement in alcohol and other drugs of abuse related mechanisms. We quantified the expression of the genes encoding D1-R, D2a-R, D4a-R dopamine receptors, GABA(A)-R, GABA(B)-R1, GAD1, MAO, NMDA-R (NR2D subunit), 5HT-R1bd and SLC6 a4a. We found the gene encoding D1 dopamine receptor over-expressed and the genes encoding GABA(B1) receptor and solute family carrier protein 6 (SLC6) 4a under-expressed in SF compared to AB. We also found the level of all (dopamine, DOPAC, Serotonin, GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, Aspartate, Taurine) but one (5HIAA) neurochemicals tested decreased in SF as compared to AB. These results, combined with previously identified behavioral differences between the AB and SF strains, demonstrate the importance of strain characterization in zebrafish. They now also allow formulation of working hypotheses about possible mechanisms underlying the differential effects of acute and chronic alcohol treatment on these two zebrafish strains.

  13. Functional significance of subjective response to alcohol across levels of alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Hutchison, Kent E; Prause, Nicole; Ray, Lara A

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical neurobiological models of addiction etiology including both the allostatic model and incentive sensitization theory suggest that alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals will be dissociated from hedonic reward as positive reinforcement mechanisms wane in later stage dependence. The aims of this study are to test this claim in humans by examining the relationship between dimensions of subjective responses to alcohol (SR) and alcohol craving across levels of alcohol exposure. Non-treatment-seeking drinkers (n = 205) completed an i.v. alcohol challenge (final target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and reported on SR and craving. Participants were classified as light-to-moderate drinkers (LMD), heavy drinkers (HD) or AD. Analyses examined group differences in SR and craving response magnitude, as well as concurrent and predictive associations between SR domains and craving. At baseline, LMD and AD reported greater stimulation than HD, which carried over post-alcohol administration. However, stimulation was dose-dependently associated with alcohol craving in HD only. Furthermore, lagged models found that stimulation preceded craving among HD only, whereas this hypothesized pattern of results was not observed for craving preceding stimulation. Sedation was also positively associated with craving, yet no group differences were observed. In agreement with the prediction of diminished positive reinforcement in alcohol dependence, this study showed that stimulation/hedonic reward from alcohol did not precede craving in AD, whereas stimulation was dose-dependently associated with and preceded craving among non-dependent HD.

  14. Adding Soft-Skills to the Hard Target of Adequacy: The Case for Rearticulation Based on a Multifocal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Brewer, Curtis A.; Lindle, Jane Clark; First, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the definition of adequacy by adding soft skills as a measure of school productivity. The singular focus on academic standards inherent in education policy has prevented scholars from seeing the concept of adequacy through myriad perspectives and has contributed to a resegregation of schools. Education policy…

  15. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  16. The MEGAPIE 1 MW target in support to ADS development: status of R and D and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeschel, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen, PSI (Germany)]. E-mail: friedrich.groeschel@psi.ch; Fazio, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: concetta.fazio@psf.fzk.de; Knebel, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Perret, Ch. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen, PSI (Germany); Janett, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen, PSI (Germany); Laffont, G. [CEA/Cadarache, DER/STR/LCET, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Cachon, L. [CEA/Cadarache, DER/STR/LCET, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kirchner, Th. [Ecole des Mines, Laboratoire SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Cadiou, A. [Ecole des Mines, Laboratoire SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Guertin, A. [Ecole des Mines, Laboratoire SUBATECH, Nantes (France); Agostini, P. [ENEA, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    The MEGAPIE project is aimed at designing, building and operating a liquid metal spallation neutron target as a key experiment on the road to an experimental accelerator driven system and to improve the neutron flux at the PSI spallation source. The design of the target system has been completed. The target configuration and the operating conditions have been defined and the expected performance assessed. A preliminary safety analysis has been performed considering normal, off-normal and accident conditions and a corresponding report has been submitted to the authorities for licensing. The experience gained up to now shows that MEGAPIE may well be the first liquid metal target to be irradiated under high power beam conditions.

  17. Berberine target key enzymes and amino acid inibitiors in AD treatment-----creation from berberine-based structure screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main components of berberine from coptis have a variety of pharmacological activity include the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The principle of berberine is inhibiting the lower activity of enzyme and amino acid to prevent (AD. Enzyme like acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE, butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BchE and monoamine oxidase (MAO; Amino acid like beta-amyloid (Aβ. Unfortunately, the single chemical structures of berberine is no significance to regulation effect. As a part of our consideration, the review paper studies on chemically modified and synthesis from berberine-derivatives. Results show that the structures of (23, (10, (86, (52, and (61 have a potential effect for AchE, BuChE and Aβ-amyloid inhibitors for the first time. Especially in (23 and (52 also has better than two western medicine were compared.

  18. Chronic alcohol exposure induces muscle atrophy (myopathy) in zebrafish and alters the expression of microRNAs targeting the Notch pathway in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayrullin, Andrew; Smith, Lauren; Mistry, Dhwani; Dukes, Amy; Pan, Y Albert; Hamrick, Mark W

    2016-10-21

    Muscle wasting is estimated to affect 40-60% of alcoholics, and is more common than cirrhosis among chronic alcohol abusers. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying alcohol-related musculoskeletal dysfunction are, however, poorly understood. Muscle-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) referred to as myoMirs are now known to play a key role in both myogenesis and muscle atrophy. Yet, no studies have investigated a role for myoMirs in alcohol-related skeletal muscle damage. We developed a zebrafish model of chronic ethanol exposure to better define the mechanisms mediating alcohol-induced muscle atrophy. Adult fish maintained at 0.5% ethanol for eight weeks demonstrated significantly reduced muscle fiber cross-sectional area (∼12%, P < 0.05) compared to fish housed in normal water. Zebrafish miRNA microarray revealed marked changes in several miRNAs with ethanol treatment. Importantly, miR-140, a miRNA that shows 100% sequence homology with miR-140 from both mouse and human, is decreased 10-fold in ethanol treated fish. miR-140 targets several members of the Notch signaling pathway such as DNER, JAG1, and Hey1, and PCR data show that both Hey1 and Notch 1 are significantly up-related (3-fold) in muscle of ethanol treated fish. In addition, miR-146a, which targets the Notch antagonist Numb, is elevated in muscle from ethanol-treated fish. Upregulation of Notch signaling suppresses myogenesis and maintains muscle satellite cell quiescence. These data suggest that miRNAs targeting Notch are likely to play important roles in alcohol-related myopathy. Furthermore, zebrafish may serve as a useful model for better understanding the role of microRNAs in alcohol-related tissue damage.

  19. Study of spallation target of ADS neutron source based on MCNPX%基于MCNPX对ADS中子源散裂靶的物理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时磊; 景桂芬

    2011-01-01

    The spallation target of Accelerator-Driven sub-critical System (ADS) is studied using the program MCNPX. The calculation of standard lead target bombarded with 0. 6 - 1. 5 GeV proton beams is carried out. The neutron spectra and distribution over the lead target,energy deposition and neutron production in the lead target are studied. The simulation results agree with the former theoretical and experimental results.%运用蒙卡程序MCNPX对加速器驱动次临界反应堆系统(简称ADS)的标准散裂中子靶进行了计算研究.计算了在0.6~1.5 GeV的质子轰击下,标准Pb靶发生散裂反应产生的中子产额及分布、中子能谱以及靶内能量沉积分布.计算结果与文献理论数据、实验数据进行了比较.

  20. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  1. Use of the PHM Framework to Create Safe-Sex Ads Targeted to Mature Women 50 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cynthia R; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-01-01

    This research applies the Witte's persuasive health message (PHM) framework to the development of creative concepts that promote sexual health strategies to senior-aged women. The PHM framework proposes an integrated approach to improving message effectiveness and maximizing persuasion in health communication campaigns. A focus group method was used to explore two research questions focused on message effectiveness and persuasion. The findings suggest the PHM framework can be a useful starting point for ensuring that health communicators identify the criteria most relevant to successful ad promotions.

  2. U.S. Biomass Opportunities for Value-added Biomass Exports based on the European Union Renewable Energy Share Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Lacoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World energy demand is expected to continue increasing in the coming years. This situation has created a worldwide pressure for the development of alternative fuel and energy sources, pursuing a more environmentally friendly usage of biofuels. The EU has the target of generating 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Member States have different individual targets to meet this overall target. Meanwhile in the United States, there are about 750 million acres [300 million hectares] of forestland, with slightly more than two-thirds classified as timberland or land capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre [1.4 m3 per hectare] annually of roundwood. Given these circumstances, this research aimed to understand the U.S. opportunities to export woody biomass based on the targets that the European Union has imposed to its Member States. The data collected allowed several scenario developments by identifying the possible EU’s biomass deficits and U.S.’s capacity to supply the gaps. Considering the physical availability, the U.S. would be able to satisfy between 42 and 48% depending on the energy efficiency scenario. Nevertheless, when considering reasonable biomass prices, only a small portion of the EU demand could be covered by the U.S.

  3. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena V [Troitsk, RU; Zhuikov, Boris L [Troitsk, RU; Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Ermolaev, Stanislav V [Obninsk, RU; Togaeva, Natalia R [Obninsk, RU

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  4. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T Welzel

    Full Text Available Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  5. Human Anti-Aβ IgGs Target Conformational Epitopes on Synthetic Dimer Assemblies and the AD Brain-Derived Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T.; Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A.; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Schwarz, Hans P.; Walsh, Dominic M.; Solomon, Alan; O’Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ’s conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody’s nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody’s lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted. PMID:23209707

  6. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  7. A rede social de indivíduos sob tratamento em um CAPS ad: o ecomapa como recurso La red social de individuos bajo tratamiento en un centro de atención psicosocial de alcohol y drogas (CAPS ad: el ecomapa como recurso The social network of individuals under treatment at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs (CAPS ad: the ecomap as a resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo desenvolvido com indivíduos sob tratamento num Centro de Atenção Psicossocial para álcool e drogas (CAPS ad da região sul do Brasil. O estudo teve 300 horas de observação participante e grupos focais, nos quais se utilizou o ecomapa como instrumento para a discriminação das fontes de suporte social. O estudo objetivou a identificação da rede social de indivíduos sob tratamento devido ao uso abusivo de drogas, promovendo uma reflexão sobre a qualidade e situação dos vínculos estabelecidos com as pessoas significativamente importantes para eles. Os resultados evidenciaram uma trajetória de separações e perdas. O uso do ecomapa permitiu a identificação de pontos vulneráveis nas vinculações destes sujeitos, configurando-se, portanto, numa estratégia ética que possibilita a identificação conjunta (entre profissional e usuário de necessidades do âmbito social, familiar e individual a serem contempladas no planejamento de cuidados de saúde, sobretudo em saúde mental.Se trata de un estudio desarrollado con individuos bajo tratamiento en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial de alcohol y drogas (CAPS ad de la región sur de Brasil, a partir de 300 horas de observación participante y de grupos focales en los cuales se utilizó el ecomapa como instrumento para discriminar las fuentes de soporte social. El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la red social de los individuos bajo tratamiento por uso abusivo de drogas, promoviendo una reflexión sobre la calidad y la situación de los vínculos establecidos con las personas significativamente importantes para ellos. Los resultados colocaron en evidencia una trayectoria de separaciones y pérdidas; el uso del ecomapa permitió identificar los puntos vulnerables en los vínculos de estos sujetos, configurándose, por lo tanto, en una estrategia ética que posibilita la identificación conjunta (profesional y usuario de las necesidades de ámbito social

  8. Separation of no-carrier-added Cu-64 from a proton irradiated Ni-64 enriched nickel target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsen, U.; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    are then absorbed on an anion exchange column. Co and Ni are removed from the column by eluting with 72% ethanol-0.3mol/l HCl. Finally, the Cu-64 is eluted with water. For separating Ni from Co isotopes and recovering the Ni-64 target, the eluate of 72% ethanol-0.3 mol/l HCl is evaporated to dryness, the residue...... a cyclotron. The decontamination of Co in Cu fraction is higher than 99% and recoveries of Cu-64 and Ni-64 are higher than 95%. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION OF 1-BENZOYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE - THE ROLE OF PAIRWISE AND TRIPLET GIBBS ENERGY INTERACTION PARAMETERS IN DESCRIBING THE EFFECTS OF ADDED SALTS AND ADDED ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDMAN, WH; BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBF; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient-pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic-data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  10. Kinetics of hydrolysis in aqueous solution of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole; the role of pairwise and triplet Gibbs energy interaction parameters in describing the effects of added salts and added alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  11. Direct flow separation strategy, to isolate no-carrier-added {sup 90}Nb from irradiated Mo or Zr targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, Valery; Roesch, Frank [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Filosofov, Dmitry V.; Dadakhanov, Jakhongir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Karaivanov, Dimitar V. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy; Marinova, Atanaska [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy; Baimukhanova, Ayagoz [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-11-01

    {sup 90}Nb has an intermediate half-life of 14.6 h, a high positron branching of 53% and optimal β{sup +} emission energy of only E{sub mean} 0.35 MeV per decay. These favorable characteristics suggest it may be a potential candidate for application in immuno-PET. Our recent aim was to conduct studies on distribution coefficients for Zr{sup IV} and Nb{sup V} in mixtures of HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HCl/oxalic acid for anion exchange resin (AG 1 x 8) and UTEVA resin to develop a ''direct flow'' separation strategy for {sup 90}Nb. The direct flow concept refers to a separation accomplished using a single eluent on multiple columns, effectively streamlining the separation process and increasing the time efficiency. Finally, we also demonstrated that this separation strategy is applicable to the production of the positron emitter {sup 90}Nb via the irradiation of molybdenum targets and isolation of {sup 90}Nb from the irradiated molybdenum target.

  12. Using PG-Liposome-Based System to Enhance Puerarin Liver-Targeted Therapy for Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Zhang, Lu; Gupta, Pardeep K; Tian, Fu-Rong; Mao, Kai-Li; Qiu, Kai-Yan; Yang, Wei; Lv, Chuan-Zhu; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2016-12-01

    A critical issue for alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) therapeutics is the lack of a highly efficient delivery system. In this study, a Puerarin-propylene glycol-liposome system was prepared for the purpose of targeting puerarin, an isoflavon, to the liver. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed the liposomes to be spherical in shape with an average diameter of 182 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.239. The zeta potential of the particles was about -30 mV. The entrapment efficiency of puerarin was above 90%. MTT-based assay in HpeG2 cells showed no significant cytotoxicity in the presence of up to 25% concentration of the system containing 3% puerarin. In vivo performance of this system was studied in mice. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of puerarin-PG-liposome system was studied relative to puerarin solution at the same dose levels. The results show that puerarin-PG-liposome prolonged drug retention time and decreased elimination of puerarin in mice (AUC of liposome system and solution was 9.5 and 4.0 mg h L(-1), respectively). Furthermore, propylene glycol (PG)-liposome system enhanced puerarin distribution into liver and spleen, while decreasing puerarin distribution in other tissues. Overall, the puerarin-PG-liposome system showed enhanced therapeutic effect in mice with ALD.

  13. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Bile Acid-Activated Farnesoid X Receptor as an Emerging Treatment Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fuchs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is currently evolving as the most common liver disease worldwide. It may progress to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer and is poised to represent the most common indication for liver transplantation in the near future. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multifactorial and not fully understood, but it represents an insulin resistance state characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. Importantly, NAFLD also has evolved as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately thus far no established treatment does exist for NAFLD. The bile acid-activated nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR has been shown to play a role not only in bile acid but also in lipid and glucose homeostasis. Specific targeting of FXR may be an elegant and very effective way to readjust dysregulated nuclear receptor-mediated metabolic pathways. This review discusses the body's complex response to the activation of FXR with its beneficial actions but also potential undesirable side effects.

  14. Impact of Interventions Targeting Unhealthy Alcohol Use in Kenya on HIV Transmission and AIDS-Related Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, R. Scott; Nucifora, Kimberly A; KESSLER, Jason; Toohey, Christopher; Mentor, Sherry M; Uhler, Lauren M.; Roberts, Mark S.; Bryant, Kendall

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV remains a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The effects of behaviors that accompany unhealthy alcohol consumption are a pervasive risk factor for HIV transmission and progression. Our objective was to estimate the portion of HIV infections attributable to unhealthy alcohol use and to evaluate the impact of hypothetical interventions directed at unhealthy alcohol use on HIV infections and deaths. Methods We estimated outcomes over a time horizon of 20 ...

  15. Altered hepatic lipid metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed alcohol: a targeted lipidomic and gene expression study[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clugston, Robin D.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Piantedosi, Roseann; Yuen, Jason J.; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Lewis, Michael J.; Gottesman, Max E.; Huang, Li-Shin; Goldberg, Ira J.; Berk, Paul D.; Blaner, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with fatty liver disease in mammals. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in alcohol-fed C57BL/6 mice using a targeted lipidomic approach. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze several lipid classes, including free fatty acids, fatty acyl-CoAs, fatty acid ethyl esters, sphingolipids, ceramides, and endocannabinoids, in plasma and liver samples from control and alcohol-fed mice. The interpretation of lipidomic data was augmented by gene expression analyses for important metabolic enzymes in the lipid pathways studied. Alcohol feeding was associated with i) increased hepatic free fatty acid levels and decreased fatty acyl-CoA levels associated with decreased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and decreased fatty acyl-CoA synthesis, respectively; ii) increased hepatic ceramide levels associated with higher levels of the precursor molecules sphingosine and sphinganine; and iii) increased hepatic levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide associated with decreased expression of its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. The unique combination of lipidomic and gene expression analyses allows for a better mechanistic understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:21856784

  16. miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting HMGCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuanzheng; Huang, Feizhou; Liu, Xunyang; Xiao, Xuefei; Yang, Mingshi; Hu, Gui; Liu, Huaizheng; Liao, Liangkan

    2015-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health issue with a prevalence of 15-30% in Western populations and 6-25% in Asian populations. Certain studies have revealed the alteration of microRNA (miRNA or miR) profiles in NAFLD and it has been suggested that miR-21 is associated with NAFLD. In the present study, we measured the serum levels of miR-21 in patients with NAFLD and also performed in vitro experiments using a cellular model of NAFLD to further investigate the effects of miR-21 on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, a novel target through which miR-21 exerts its effects on NAFLD was identified. The results revealed that the serum levels of miR-21 were lower in patients with NAFLD compared with the healthy controls. In addition, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase (HMGCR) expression was increased in the serum of patients with NAFLD both at the mRNA and protein level. To mimic the NAFLD condition in vitro, HepG2 cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). Consistent with the results obtained in the in vivo experiments, the expression levels of miR-21 were decreased and those of HMGCR were increased in the in vitro model of NAFLD. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that HMGCR was a direct target of miR-21 and that miR-21 exerted an effect on both HMGCR transcript degradation and protein translation. Furthermore, the results from the in vitro experiments revealed that miR-21 decreased the levels of triglycerides (TG), free cholesterol (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in the PA/OA-treated HepG2 cells and that this effect was attenuated by HMGCR overexpression. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in an in vitro model of NAFLD, and that this effect is achieved by the inhibition of HMGCR expression. We speculate that miR-21 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and

  17. Separation of no-carrier-added {sup 66,67}Ga produced in heavy ion-induced cobalt target using alginate biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Banerjee, Anupam [University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019 (India); Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in

    2007-08-15

    Heavy ion activation of natural cobalt foil with 84 MeV {sup 12}C results in the formation of no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 66,67}As radionuclides, along with their corresponding decay products, {sup 66,67}Ge and {sup 66,67}Ga, in the matrix. Because arsenic and germanium radionuclides are short-lived, after a cooling period of 10 h only nca gallium radionuclides remain in the matrix. We attempted to separate the nca gallium radionuclides from the target matrix cobalt by biopolymeric calcium alginate (CA) and Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads. A complete separation has been achieved by adsorbing {sup 66,67}Ga and a lesser amount of bulk cobalt at pH 3 on Fe-CA beads, followed by desorbing cobalt from the beads with 0.4 M NaNO{sub 2}.

  18. ADS无窗散裂靶件水模拟实验研究%Studies on Free Surface Flow in ADS Windowless Spallation Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强成文; 赵强; 李龙; 王飞; 杨伟峰; 张学智; 张雪荧

    2015-01-01

    As the coupling component between accelerator and subcritical core, the spallation target is of crucial importance to the operation safety of the whole system. Hence, the spallation target is one of the most important parts in ADS corresponding researches. Due to lifetime limitation of material, the windowless target which has a stable free surface attracts more and more attention. The present paper deals with the experimental investigation on the free surface behavior in an approximately 1:1 size windowless target model using water as test fluid. We can get the flow and pressure conditions of windowless spallation target water simulation experiment from the platform. The free surface and field visualization were obtained by particle imaging velocimetry. The results show that the position and flow pattern of the free surface depend on experimental pressure, flow velocity and geometry of the target.%散裂靶件作为加速器和次临界堆芯的耦合部件,是ADS系统相关研究最主要的组成部分之一。无窗靶巧妙地利用了液体的自由液面特性,避免了质子束对结构材料直接轰击,是一种很有前景的散裂靶靶件形式。采用水作为实验工质搭建了一套无窗散裂靶水模拟实验台架,该实验系统覆盖了无窗散裂靶水模拟实验所需的流量及压力条件,采用粒子图像测速仪(PIV)对自由界面的流场进行可视化观察与分析,得到了自由界面的基本表征参数之间关系和可视化界面的流场信息。结果表明,无窗靶自由液面的位置和形状受到回路整体流量、压力和靶件几何尺寸的影响。

  19. P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs represent a novel target for the development of drugs to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelle M. Franklin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs have a staggering socioeconomic impact. Few therapeutic options are available, and they are largely inadequate. These shortcomings highlight the urgent need to develop effective medications to prevent and/or treat AUDs. A critical barrier is the lack of information regarding the molecular target(s by which ethanol (EtOH exerts its pharmacological activity. This review highlights findings implicating P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs as a target for the development of therapeutics to treat AUDs and discusses the use of ivermectin (IVM as a potential clinical tool for treatment of AUDs. P2XRs are a family of ligand-gated ion channels activated by extracellular ATP. Of the P2XR subtypes, P2X4Rs are expressed the most abundantly in the CNS. Converging evidence suggests that P2X4Rs are involved in the development and progression of AUDs. First, in vitro studies report that pharmacologically relevant EtOH concentrations can negatively modulate ATP-activated currents. Second, P2X4Rs in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system are thought to play a role in synaptic plasticity and are located ideally to modulate brain reward systems. Third, alcohol-preferring (P rats have lower functional expression of the p2rx4 gene than alcohol-non-preferring (NP rats suggesting an inverse relationship between alcohol intake and P2X4R expression. Similarly, whole brain p2rx4 expression has been shown to relate inversely to innate 24 hr alcohol preference across 28 strains of rats. Fourth, mice lacking the p2rx4 gene drink more EtOH than wildtype controls. Fifth, IVM, a positive modulator of P2X4Rs, antagonizes EtOH-mediated inhibition of P2X4Rs in vitro and reduces EtOH intake and preference in vivo. These findings suggest that P2X4Rs contribute to EtOH intake. The present review summarizes recent findings focusing on the P2X4R as a molecular target of EtOH action, its role in EtOH drinking behavior and modulation of its activity by IVM as a potential

  20. Epigenetics-beyond the genome in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Bela G; Sakharkar, Amul J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of alcoholism. Whole-genome expression profiling has highlighted the importance of several genes that may contribute to alcohol abuse disorders. In addition, more recent findings have added yet another layer of complexity to the overall molecular mechanisms involved in a predisposition to alcoholism and addiction by demonstrating that processes related to genetic factors that do not manifest as DNA sequence changes (i.e., epigenetic processes) play a role. Both acute and chronic ethanol exposure can alter gene expression levels in specific neuronal circuits that govern the behavioral consequences related to tolerance and dependence. The unremitting cycle of alcohol consumption often includes satiation and self-medication with alcohol, followed by excruciating withdrawal symptoms and the resultant relapse, which reflects both the positive and negative affective states of alcohol addiction. Recent studies have indicated that behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic ethanol exposure may involve chromatin remodeling resulting from covalent histone modifications and DNA methylation in the neuronal circuits involving a brain region called the amygdala. These findings have helped identify enzymes involved in epigenetic mechanisms, such as the histone deacetylase, histone acetyltransferase, and DNA methyltransferase enzymes, as novel therapeutic targets for the development of future pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcoholism.

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  2. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed.

  3. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  4. Gender differences in relationships among PTSD severity, drinking motives, and alcohol use in a comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Simpson, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions associated with a significant level of impairment. Little systematic study has focused on gender differences specific to individuals with both AD and PTSD. The current study examined gender-specific associations between PTSD symptom severity, drinking to cope (i.e., reduce negative affect), drinking for enhancement (i.e., increase positive affect), and average alcohol use in a clinical sample of men (n = 46) and women (n = 46) with comorbid AD and PTSD. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were highly associated with drinking-to-cope motives for both men and women, but with greater drinking for enhancement motives for men only. Enhancement motives were positively associated with average alcohol quantity for both men and women, but coping motives were significantly associated with average alcohol quantity for women only. These findings suggest that for individuals with comorbid AD and PTSD, interventions that focus on reducing PTSD symptoms are likely to lower coping motives for both genders, and targeting coping motives is likely to result in decreased drinking for women but not for men, whereas targeting enhancement motives is likely to lead to reduced drinking for both genders.

  5. Adalimumab added to a treat-to-target strategy with methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone in early rheumatoid arthritis increased remission rates, function and quality of life. The OPERA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Hetland, Merete Lund; Junker, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An investigator-initiated, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, treat-to-target protocol (Clinical Trials:NCT00660647) studied whether adalimumab added to methotrexate and intra-articular triamcinolone as first-line treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) increased the frequency ...

  6. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmers Lex ACJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 908 heavy drinking college students in a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated at random to either the experimental (N = 454: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (N = 454: no intervention. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention. Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief

  7. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  8. Interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors%介入导入Ad-p53基因联合超声辐照治疗兔VX2肝癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐劲松; 杨瑞民; 赵鹏; 张铭秋; 崔红凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors, as well as its impact on VEGF and MMP2. Methods Forty-two Chinchilla rabbits were collected and VX2 cancer cells were injected into the left lobe of liver on the observation in rabbits. The growth of cancer was monitored by ultrasound. Thirty rabbit models were successfully made and divided into 3 groups (each n=10) randomly. Fourteen days after transplantation of cancer cells, Ad-p53 was administrated through hepatic artery (in Ad-p53 group) or combined with ultrasound wave irradiation (in Ad-p53 + US group), while the same amount of saline was given for rabbits in control group. Three days later, the tumor size was observed with ultrasound, and then all rabbits were sacrificed, the serum VEGF level was measured by ELISA, the hepatic tissue expression of p53, MMP2 and VEGF were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry, and expression level of wild type p53 was measured using Western blot. Results No difference of tumor size was found between 3 groups before therapy. All tumor sizes increased, but the tumors in Ad-p53 + US group were relatively smaller. The efficiency of Ad-p53 transfection was improved in Ad-p53 group compared with control group, which was the highest in Ad-p53 + US group. Furthermore, the serum VEGF level decreased in Ad-p53 + US group, so did the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in Ad-p53 group and Ad-p53 + US group, more obviously in Ad-p53 + US group. Conclusion Ad-p53 can suppress the growth of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbit models. The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-p53 can be improved by interventional targeting administration combining with ultrasound irradiation.%目的 探讨介入导向下联合超声辐照对兔VX2肝癌模型Ad-p53转染效率及该基因对VEGF、MMP2的影响.方法 青紫蓝兔42只,直视下手术,将VX2肿瘤细胞种植于肝左叶,以超声检测

  9. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  10. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete;

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  11. Pediatric non alcoholic fatty liver disease: old and new concepts on development, progression, metabolic insight and potential treatment targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Valentina; Prono, Federica; Graziano, Francesca; Nobili, Valerio

    2013-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children. NAFLD has emerged to be extremely prevalent, and predicted by obesity and male gender. It is defined by hepatic fat infiltration >5% hepatocytes, in the absence of other causes of liver pathology. It includes a spectrum of disease ranging from intrahepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) to various degrees of necrotic inflammation and fibrosis (non-alcoholic steatohepatatis [NASH]). NAFLD is associated, in children as in adults, with severe metabolic impairments, determining an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. It can evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, with the consequent need for liver transplantation. Both genetic and environmental factors seem to be involved in the development and progression of the disease, but its physiopathology is not yet entirely clear. In view of this mounting epidemic phenomenon involving the youth, the study of NAFLD should be a priority for all health care systems. This review provides an overview of current and new clinical-histological concepts of pediatric NAFLD, going through possible implications into patho-physiolocical and therapeutic perspectives.

  12. Antiproton-Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    When the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) was stopped in 1996, because of its costly operation, a cheaper way of continuing low-energy antiproton physics was sought. The Antiproton-Collector (AC), added in 1987 to the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) to provide a tenfold intensity increase, was converted into the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD). Antiprotons from the target at 3.5 GeV/c are decelerated to 100 MeV/c, and fast-ejected to the experiments. Major changes were necessary. Above all, the conversion from a constant-field machine to one with a magnetic cycle, modulating the field by an impressive factor 35. New systems for stochastic and electron cooling had to be added. Beam diagnostics at an intensity of only 2E7 antiprotons was a challenge. In 2000, the AD began delivery of antiprotons to the experiments.

  13. Optimal design and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyvinyl alcohol for targeted delivery and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Simchi, Abdolreza; Imani, Mohammad; Milani, Abbas S; Stroeve, Pieter

    2008-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with narrow size distribution and stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were synthesized. The particles were prepared by a coprecipitation technique using ferric and ferrous salts with a molar Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of 2. Using a design of experiments (DOE) approach, the effect of different synthesis parameters (stirring rate and base molarity) on the structure, morphology, saturation magnetization, purity, size, and size distribution of the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles was studied by various analysis techniques including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. PVA not only stabilized the colloid but also played a role in preventing further growth of SPION followed by the formation of large agglomerates by chemisorption on the surface of particles. A rich behavior in particle size, particle formation, and super paramagnetic properties is observed as a function of molarity and stirring conditions. The particle size and the magnetic properties as well as particle shape and aggregation (individual nanoparticles, magnetic beads, and magnetite colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs) are found to be influenced by changes in the stirring rate and the base molarity. The formation of magnetic beads results in a decrease in the saturation magnetization, while CNCs lead to an increase in saturation magnetization. On the basis of the DOE methodology and the resulting 3-D response surfaces for particle size and magnetic properties, it is shown that optimum regions for stirring rate and molarity can be obtained to achieve coated SPION with desirable size, purity, magnetization, and shape.

  14. Differential Impact of a Dutch Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Adolescents and Parents Separately and Simultaneously: Low Self-Control and Lenient Parenting at Baseline Predict Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.M.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether baseline levels of the factors accountable for the impact of the Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) intervention (self-control, perceived rules about alcohol and parental attitudes about alcohol), moderate the effect of the intervention. A cluster randomized trial including

  15. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6 Is a Novel Nutritional Therapeutic Target for Hyperlipidemia, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-woong Go

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6 is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and has a unique structure, which facilitates its multiple functions as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling and as a ligand receptor for endocytosis. The role LRP6 plays in metabolic regulation, specifically in the nutrient-sensing pathway, has recently garnered considerable interest. Patients carrying an LRP6 mutation exhibit elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose, which cooperatively constitute the risk factors of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Since the discovery of this mutation, the general role of LRP6 in lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and atherosclerosis has been thoroughly researched. These studies have demonstrated that LRP6 plays a role in LDL receptor-mediated LDL uptake. In addition, when the LRP6 mutant impaired Wnt-LRP6 signaling, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis developed. LRP6 regulates lipid homeostasis and body fat mass via the nutrient-sensing mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Furthermore, the mutant LRP6 triggers atherosclerosis by activating platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-dependent vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. This review highlights the exceptional opportunities to study the pathophysiologic contributions of LRP6 to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, which implicate LRP6 as a latent regulator of lipid metabolism and a novel therapeutic target for nutritional intervention.

  16. Representação social de enfermeiros de centros de atenção psicossocial em álcool e drogas (CAPS AD sobre o dependente químico Representación social de las enfermeras de los centros de atención psicosocial para alcohol y drogas (CAPS AD, sobre el dependiente químico Social representation from nurses from psychosocial care centers for alcohol and drugs (CAPS AD, about the chemical dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório de abordagem qualitativa que objetivou identificar as representações sociais de enfermeiros de serviços especializados em álcool e outras drogas sobre o dependente químico. Os sujeitos foram 16 enfermeiros de 13 serviços localizados na cidade de São Paulo-SP. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas as quais foram gravadas e analisadas de acordo com o referencial da Teoria de Representações Sociais. Os resultados evidenciaram que, na representação dos enfermeiros, os dependentes químicos são indivíduos acometidos por uma doença, que têm dificuldade de limites, são manipuladores e responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento da dependência. Conclui-se que as representações desses profissionais são calcadas no senso comum, e apontam-se estratégias para o enfrentamento dessa problemática e a mudança dessas representações.Estudio exploratorio cualitativo que tuvo como objetivo identificar las representaciones sociales de los enfermeros del servicio de especialistas en alcohol y otras drogas en comparación con la dependencia química. Los sujetos fueron 16 enfermeras procedentes de 13 oficinas ubicadas en la ciudad de São Paulo (SP. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas que fueron grabadas y analizadas de acuerdo a la teoría de las representaciones sociales de referencia. Los resultados mostraron que, en la representación de las enfermeras, los adictos son personas que sufren de una enfermedad que tiene límites de dificultad, y los controladores son responsables del desarrollo de la dependencia. Llegamos a la conclusión de que las representaciones de estos profesionales son las aceras en el sentido común y apuntan estrategias para el enfrentamiento de esa problemática y cambios de estas representacionesQualitative exploratory study aimed to identify the social representations of nurses from specialist services in alcohol and other drugs compared to the addicts. The subjects were 16

  17. miR-212 downregulation contributes to the protective effect of exercise against non-alcoholic fatty liver via targeting FGF-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junjie; Bei, Yihua; Liu, Jingqi; Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Kuang, Dapeng; Zhou, Qiulian; Li, Jin; Yang, Yanning; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Fei; Yang, Changqing; Yang, Wenzhuo

    2016-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity and lifestyle, while exercise is beneficial for NAFLD. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRs) control the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether exercise could prevent NAFLD via targeting microRNA is unknown. In this study, normal or high-fat diet (HF) mice were either subjected to a 16-week running program or kept sedentary. Exercise attenuated liver steatosis in HF mice. MicroRNA array and qRT-PCR demonstrated that miR-212 was overexpressed in HF liver, while reduced by exercise. Next, we investigated the role of miR-212 in lipogenesis using HepG2 cells with/without long-chain fatty acid treatment (± FFA). FFA increased miR-212 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, miR-212 promoted lipogenesis in HepG2 cells (± FFA). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, a key regulator for lipid metabolism, was negatively regulated by miR-212 at protein level in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, FFA downregulated FGF-21 both at mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells. Also, FGF-21 protein level was reduced in HF liver, while reversed by exercise in vivo. Furthermore, siRNA-FGF-21 abolished the lipogenesis-reducing effect of miR-212 inhibitor in HepG2 cells (± FFA), validating FGF-21 as a target gene of miR-212. These data link the benefit of exercise and miR-212 downregulation in preventing NAFLD via targeting FGF-21.

  18. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the ..alpha..-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the ..beta..-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  19. Animals models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of alcohol-induced liver disease: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie; Xu, Mingjiang; Wang, Hua; Bertola, Adeline; Gao, Bin

    2014-05-15

    Over the last four decades, chronic ethanol feeding studies in rodents using either ad libitum feeding or intragastric infusion models have significantly enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, we developed a chronic plus binge alcohol feeding model in mice that is similar to the drinking patterns of many alcoholic hepatitis patients: a history of chronic drinking and recent excessive alcohol consumption. Chronic+binge ethanol feeding synergistically induced steatosis, liver injury, and neutrophil infiltration in mice, which may be useful for the study of early alcoholic liver injury and inflammation. Using this chronic+binge model, researchers have begun to identify novel mechanisms that participate in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury, thereby revealing novel therapeutic targets. In this review article, we briefly discuss several mouse models of ALD with a focus on the chronic+binge ethanol feeding model.

  20. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  1. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  2. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiovascular disease, liver and pancreas disease, and unintentional and intentional injury. Knowledge of these disease risks has helped in the development of low-risk drinking guidelines. In addition to these disease risks that affect the drinker, alcohol consumption also can affect the health of others and cause social harm both to the drinker and to others, adding to the overall cost associated with alcohol consumption. These findings underscore the need to develop effective prevention efforts to reduce the pain and suffering, and the associated costs, resulting from excessive alcohol use.

  3. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  5. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  6. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  7. Is anti-doping analysis so far from clinical, legal or forensic targets?: The added value of close relationships between related disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Jordi

    2009-11-01

    There are many areas of common interest between anti-doping laboratories and those working in the clinical, legal and forensic fields. In addition to methodological similarities, there are aspects of the findings in sport drug testing that overlap with other fields in such a way that sport drug testing and clinical, legal or forensic work may benefit from mutual interaction. Three recent examples are presented from the author's experience. Case report 1 concerns the clinical relevance of hCG findings in sport drug testing as potential indicators of the presence of a (testicular) tumour in athletes. Case report 2 refers to difficulties that accredited laboratories can encounter due to differences between national legal systems and the administrative regulation systems of sport authorities. The example involves a network of blood collection for further autologous transfusion. Case report 3 relates to additional forensic-type investigations needed to interpret a situation where intoxication of a whole delegation was responsible for apparent doping cases. Clinical, legal and forensic fields must recognize the added value that some results and developments coming from anti-doping laboratories may have. At the same time anti-doping analysts should be aware of new issues, methodologies and problems appearing in related fields.

  8. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  9. LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC): target selection and the first release of value-added catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Haibo; Huo, Zhiying; Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu; Zhang, Huihua; Sun, Ningchen; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Yongheng; Luo, Ali; Shi, Jianrong; Li, Guoping; Yuan, Hailong; Dong, Yiqiao; Li, Guangwei; Hou, Yonghui; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    As a major component of the LAMOST Galactic surveys, the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-centre (LSS-GAC) aims to survey a significant volume of the Galactic thin/thick discs and halo for a contiguous sky area of over 3,400 deg$^2$ centred on the Galactic anti-centre ($|b| \\leq 30^{\\circ}$, $150 \\leq l \\leq 210^{\\circ}$), and obtain $\\lambda\\lambda$3700 -- 9000 low resolution ($R \\sim 1,800$) spectra for a statistically complete sample of $\\sim 3$\\,M stars of all colours down to a limiting magnitued of $r$ $\\sim$ 17.8\\,mag (to 18.5\\,mag for limited fields). Together with Gaia, the LSS-GAC will yield a unique dataset to advance our understanding of the structure and assemblage history of the Galaxy, in particular its disk(s). In addition to the main survey, the LSS-GAC will also target hundreds of thousands objects in the vicinity fields of M\\,31 and M\\,33 and survey a significant fraction (over a million) of randomly selected very bright stars (VB; $r \\le 14$ mag) in the northern hemisphere. ...

  10. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  11. Note on classical string dynamics on AdS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Máximo; Ritz, Adam

    1999-12-01

    We consider bosonic strings propagating on Euclidean anti-de Sitter space (AdS3), and study in particular the realization of various worldsheet symmetries. We give a proper definition for the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic target space symmetry, when acting on the string action, and derive the Giveon-Kutasov-Seiberg worldsheet contour integral representation simply by using Noether's theorem. We show that making identifications in the target space is equivalent to the insertion of an (exponentiated) graviton vertex operator carrying the corresponding charge. Finally, we point out an interesting relation between 3D gravity and the dynamics of the worldsheet on AdS3. Both theories are described by an SL(2,C)/SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model, and we prove that the reduction conditions determined on one hand by worldsheet diffeomorphism invariance, and on the other by the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions, are the same.

  12. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  13. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  14. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises wheth

  15. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  16. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  17. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  18. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  19. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  20. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  1. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  2. Segmented Strings in $AdS_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Callebaut, Nele; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in $AdS_3$. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In $AdS_3$, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an $AdS_2$ subspace of $AdS_3$. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in $AdS_3$ and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in $AdS_3$ and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  3. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  4. Material Developing for ADS Beam Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYong-li; XUYuan-chao; LIHua-qing; NINGGuang-sheng; WANFa-rong; ZHAOFei

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation damage and the chemical interaction with the coolant for the ADS target and the structure materials are the key issues in ADS engineering. The developing of the materials that are irradiation and corrosion resistance is the important topic in ADS program in many countries. In this case,a topic of the material developing for the beam window has been proposed in our ADS program.

  5. 用MCNPX计算ADS金属靶散裂中子产额及散裂源中子效率%A MCNPX Caculation of the spallation neutron yields from various metal targets and the neutron source efficiency in ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景桂芬; 时磊

    2011-01-01

    为了分析加速器驱动系统(ADS)中质子束能量对金属靶散裂产生的中子产额及靶内中子能谱、靶表面的泄漏谱的影响,利用MCNPX对ADS的重金属铅靶、钨靶在不同能量的质子束轰击下的中子产额、中子能谱及靶表面的中子泄漏谱进行了模拟计算,与国际上其他研究机构的模拟结果进行了比较,结果相近.并对铅靶、钨靶的中子产额及泄漏谱进行比较,模拟结果是钨靶的中子产额较铅靶的中子产额大但中子泄漏谱计数较铅的小.结合MCNP5还对一个次临界基准体系中散裂源中子相对于裂变中子的效率进行了计算.%In order to analyze the effect of the proton energy on the number of neutrons produced per source proton and the neutron yield spectra and values of neutron leakage distributions per proton over the cylindrical metal target surface in Accelerator Driven System (ADS),MCNPX are used to calculate them under different proton beam energy,and the results are compared with the results of the international organization institutions.The number of neutrons produced per source proton of tungsten target is larger but the tally of neutron leakage is smaller than lead target.Combining the MCNPX with MCNP5,the efficiency of the spallation neutions relative to fission neutrons for a subcritical benchmark system was calculated.

  6. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  7. Pathway Compartmentalization in Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Versatile Medium Chain Fatty Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Stevens, Joseph; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-05-27

    Fatty alcohols are value-added chemicals and important components of a variety of industries, which have a >3 billion-dollar global market annually. Long chain fatty alcohols (>C12) are mainly used in surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics while medium chain fatty alcohols (C6-C12) could be used as diesel-like biofuels. Microbial production of fatty alcohols from renewable feedstock stands as a promising strategy to enable sustainable supply of fatty alcohols. In this study, we report, for the first time, that medium chain fatty alcohols could be produced in yeast via targeted expression of a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (TaFAR) in the peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By tagging TaFAR enzyme with peroxisomal targeting signal peptides, the TaFAR could be compartmentalized into the matrix of the peroxisome to hijack the medium chain fatty acyl-CoA generated from the beta-oxidation pathway and convert them to versatile medium chain fatty alcohols (C10 &C12). The overexpression of genes encoding PEX7 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase further improved fatty alcohol production by 1.4-fold. After medium optimization in fed-batch fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, fatty alcohols were produced at 1.3 g/L, including 6.9% 1-decanol, 27.5% 1-dodecanol, 2.9% 1-tetradecanol and 62.7% 1-hexadecanol. This work revealed that peroxisome could be engineered as a compartmentalized organelle for producing fatty acid-derived chemicals in S. cerevisiae.

  8. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  9. Constructing Lifshitz solutions from AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Under general assumptions, we show that a gravitational theory in d+1 dimensions admitting an AdS solution can be reduced to a d-dimensional theory containing a Lifshitz solution with dynamical exponent z=2. Working in a d=4, N=2 supergravity setup, we prove that if the AdS background is N=2 supersymmetric, then the Lifshitz geometry preserves 1/4 of the supercharges, and we construct the corresponding Killing spinors. We illustrate these results in examples from supersymmetric consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity, enhancing the class of known 4-dimensional Lifshitz solutions of string theory. As a byproduct, we find a new AdS4 x S1 x T(1,1) solution of type IIB.

  10. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  11. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyong Yu; Weiping Jia; ZengKui Guo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans w...

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  13. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24018 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  14. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  15. Genetics of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  16. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  17. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol.

  18. Boson Stars in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We construct boson stars in global Anti de Sitter (AdS) space and study their stability. Linear perturbation results suggest that the ground state along with the first three excited state boson stars are stable. We evolve some of these solutions and study their nonlinear stability in light of recent work \\cite{Bizon:2011gg} arguing that a weakly turbulent instability drives scalar perturbations of AdS to black hole formation. However evolutions suggest that boson stars are nonlinearly stable and immune to the instability for sufficiently small perturbation. Furthermore, these studies find other families of initial data which similarly avoid the instability for sufficiently weak parameters. Heuristically, we argue that initial data families with widely distributed mass-energy distort the spacetime sufficiently to oppose the coherent amplification favored by the instability. From the dual CFT perspective our findings suggest that there exist families of rather generic initial conditions in strongly coupled CFT ...

  19. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  20. Google Advertising Tools Cashing in with AdSense and AdWords

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how to take full advantage of Google AdWords and AdSense, the sophisticated online advertising tools used by thousands of large and small businesses. This new edition provides a substantially updated guide to advertising on the Web, including how it works in general, and how Google's advertising programs in particular help you make money. You'll find everything you need to work with AdWords, which lets you generate text ads to accompany specific search term results, and AdSense, which automatically delivers precisely targeted text and image ads to your website.

  1. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  2. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have an... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any...

  3. Prazosin for Treatment With PTSD And Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of PTSD among individuals with...AD are at least twice as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most common comorbid condition in men with...sleep disturbance in combat veterans with PTSD and alcohol dependence . The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prazosis (16mg

  4. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyong; Jia, Weiping; Guo, ZengKui

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal) and low carbohydrate ( 0.05). Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment. PMID:25411646

  5. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  6. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  7. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  8. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  9. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  10. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  11. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  12. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  13. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  14. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  15. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  16. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  17. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Dopico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most tissues, the function of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (cytosolic calcium, BK subunit composition and posttranslational modifications, and the channel’s lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1 subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus, acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophysial axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction.

  18. Amelioration of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with NPC1L1-targeted IgY or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Sik; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Junghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yun Bin; Han, Young-Min; Ock, Chan-Young; Cha, Ji-Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2017-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to comorbidities such as cardiovascular and serious metabolic diseases; however, the current therapeutic options are limited. Based on our previous report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can significantly ameliorate high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, which is a chicken egg yolk-derived IgY specific for the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, on NAFLD in mice. We generated N-IgY and confirmed its efficient cholesterol transport-blocking activity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, which was comparable to the effect of ezetimibe (EZM). C57BL/6 wild type and fat-1 transgenic mice, capable of producing n-3 PUFAs, were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with N-IgY. Endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs combined with N-IgY led to significant decreases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation (pN-IgY and n-3 PUFAs resulted in significant upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR), reverse cholesterol transport (ABCG5/ABCG8), and bile acid metabolism (CYP7A1). Moreover, fat-1 transgenic mice treated with N-IgY showed significant downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol-induced hepatic stellate cell activation (Tgfb1, Tlr4, Col1a1, Col1a2, and Timp2). Collectively, these data suggest that n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, alone or in combination, represent a promising treatment strategy to prevent HFD-induced fatty liver through the activation cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and by decreasing cholesterol-induced fibrosis.

  19. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  20. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  1. Holography of AdS vacuum bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    We consider the fate of AdS vacua connected by tunneling events. A precise holographic dual of thin-walled Coleman-de Luccia bounces is proposed in terms of Fubini instantons in an unstable CFT. This proposal is backed by several qualitative and quantitative checks, including the precise calculation of the instanton action appearing in evaluating the decay rate. Big crunches manifest themselves as time dependent processes which reach the boundary of field space in a finite time. The infinite energy difference involved is identified on the boundary and highlights the ill-defined nature of the bulk setup. We propose a qualitative scenario in which the crunch is resolved by stabilizing the CFT, so that all attempts at crunching always end up shielded from the boundary by the formation of black hole horizons. In all these well defined bulk processes the configurations have the same asymptotics and are finite energy excitations.

  2. Adding Asymmetrically Dominated Alternatives: Violations of Regularity & the Similarity Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    target but not by the competitor. ADDING ASYMMET-.ICALLY DOMINATED ALTERNATIVES EXHIBIT 1 PLACEMIENT OF ASYMETRICALLY DOMINATED DECOY (P re i. C t2r cc...adding the decoy. Thus, .... " ADDING ASYMETRICALLY DOMINATED ALTERNATIVES 16 EXHIBIT 3 VIOLATIONS OF REGULARITY DUE TO ADDING DECOY Probability of...expanding A.DDING ASYMETRICALLY DOMINATED ALTERNATIVES 22 the degree of the range extention, suggests that a simple range extention ex- planation is not

  3. Skil problemerne ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger.......På grundlag af evalueringer og forskning i gymnasiereformen 2005 foreslås det at skille problemerne ad i forskellige niveauer. Herved kan der arbejdes med niveaudelte løsninger....

  4. Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPS ad: nursing insertion and practices in São Paulo City, Brazil Inclusión y prácticas del enfermero en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial para alcohol y drogas (CAPS AD de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil A inserção e as práticas do enfermeiro no contexto dos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial em Álcool e Drogas (CAPS AD da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study with a qualitative approach aimed to identify nurses' insertion and practices at Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and drugs in São Paulo City, Brazil. Sixteen nurses participated in the study. Data were recorded and were analyzed by dialectic hermeneutics and guided by Brazilian psychiatric reform premises. The results evidenced nurses' difficulties to take part in the care recommended at these services, as their practices are more linked up with the traditional mental health care model. Causes of this phenomenon include nurses' lack of preparation to act in psychoactive substance-related issues and lack of knowledge on specific contents that would favor their insertion into care practice in these scenarios. It is concluded that more attention should be paid to these contents in nursing education, as the legal requirement of nursing presence at these services is insufficient as a strategy to guarantee their actual insertion.Estudio exploratorio de abordaje cualitativo que objetivó identificar la inclusión y las prácticas del enfermero en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial para alcohol y drogas de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Participaron del estudio 16 enfermeros, los datos fueron recolectados por medio de registro autograbado y fueron analizados por la hermenéutica dialéctica orientada por los presupuestos teóricos de la Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileña. Se evidenciaron dificultades del enfermero para ingresar en el campo de la atención preconizada en esos servicios, siendo sus prácticas más orientadas por el modelo tradicional de atención a la salud mental. Se apuntan como causas de ese fenómeno la carencia de preparación del enfermero para actuación en esa área y el poco conocimiento de contenidos específicos que favorecen su inclusión en el campo de las prácticas. Se concluyó que debe ser dada mayor atención a esos contenidos en la formación del enfermero, ya que la exigencia legal del

  5. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  6. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  7. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  8. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  9. Affect regulation training (ART) for alcohol use disorders: development of a novel intervention for negative affect drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R; Bradizza, Clara M; Schlauch, Robert C; Coffey, Scott F; Gulliver, Suzy B; Gudleski, Gregory D; Bole, Christopher W

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called affect regulation training (ART), which could be added to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N=77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT+ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT+HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT+ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT+ART when compared to CBT+HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers.

  10. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  11. AdS_3: the NHEK generation

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    It was argued in arXiv:1203.4227 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS_3 x S^3/Z_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  12. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  13. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  14. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  15. Retraining automatic action tendencies changes alcoholic patients’ approach bias for alcohol and improves treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wiers; C. Eberl; M. Rinck; E.S. Becker; J. Lindenmeyer

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a new cognitive-bias modification (CBM) intervention that targeted an approach bias for alcohol in 214 alcoholic inpatients. Patients were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, in which they were explicitly or implicitly trained to make avoidance movements

  16. Retraining Automatic Action Tendencies Changes Alcoholic Patients’ Approach Bias for Alcohol and Improves Treatment Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Eberl, C.M.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a new cognitive-bias modification (CBM) intervention that targeted an approach bias for alcohol in 214 alcoholic inpatients. Patients were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, in which they were explicitly or implicitly trained to make avoidance movements

  17. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  18. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  19. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  1. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...... using an ad libitum meal consisting of spaghetti bolognaise. I analyse the entanglement and concurrence of different knowledge practices and show how several scalings of appetite play out, one ex explaining the aim of the test, being to ”measure what your body would want the most” and hence producing...

  2. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  3. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body at even greater risk for harm. Ongoing stress, or chronic, heavy alcohol use, may impair the body’s ability ... J.A., and Chard, K.M. Alcohol and stress in the military. Alcohol Research: ... suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. ...

  4. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  5. Subjective Response to Alcohol and Associated Craving in Heavy Drinkers vs. Alcohol Dependents: An Examination of Koob's Allostatic Model in Humans*

    OpenAIRE

    Bujarski, S; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Koob's allostatic model of addiction emphasizes the transition from positive reinforcement to negative reinforcement as dependence develops. This study seeks to extend this well-established neurobiological model to humans by examining subjective response to alcohol (SR) as a biobehavioral marker of alcohol reinforcement. Specifically, this study examines (a) differential SR in heavy drinkers (HDs) vs. alcohol dependent individuals (ADs) and (b) whether HDs and ADs differ in terms ...

  6. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  7. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  9. Implicit and explicit alcohol cognitions and observed alcohol consumption: three studies in (semi)naturalistic drinking settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Granic, I.; Spijkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Dual-process models imply that alcohol use is related to implicit as well as explicit cognitive processes. Few studies have tested whether both types of processes are related to ad libitum drinking. In a series of three studies, we tested whether both implicit and explicit alcohol-related cogni

  10. Implicit and explicit alcohol cognitions and observed alcohol consumption: three studies in (semi)naturalistic drinking settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.; Granic, I.; Spijkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Dual-process models imply that alcohol use is related to implicit as well as explicit cognitive processes. Few studies have tested whether both types of processes are related to ad libitum drinking. In a series of three studies, we tested whether both implicit and explicit alcohol-related cogn

  11. Targeting therapy for colorectal cancer with double suicide genes driven by VEGF promoter%AdVEGF-CDglyTK融合基因系统靶向治疗大肠癌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新军; 黄宗海; 俞金龙; 厉周; 孔恒; 李强

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察腺病毒介导的血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)启动子驱动的CDglyTK融合双自杀基因系统(以下简称为AdVEGF-CDglyTK)对大肠癌的治疗作用,并结合研究结果进行作用机制的分析.方法 采用培养细胞移植法,将人大肠癌细胞系Lovo细胞接种于裸鼠背部皮下,建立裸鼠人大肠癌移植瘤模型.将20只裸鼠随机分为4组,每组5只.分组方法:Ⅰ组,注射重组腺病毒AdVEGF-CDglyTK与前药5氟胞嘧啶(5-FC)/丙氧鸟苷(GCV);Ⅱ组,仅注射前药5-FC/GCV;Ⅲ组:仅注射重组腺病毒AdVEGF-CDglyTK;Ⅳ组,空白对照,不施加任何处理.结果 RT-PCR结果显示:仅在Ⅰ组、Ⅲ组扩增出融合双自杀基因CDglyTK的片段.表型及各项病理指标的检测均显示第Ⅰ组裸鼠移植瘤的生长较其他3组显著受到抑制,而第Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组移植瘤的生长情况无明显差异;第Ⅰ组肿瘤细胞凋亡指数为38.65%±4.20%,较其他3组显著增加(F=397.530,P=0.000);第Ⅰ组肿瘤组织微血管密度计数为3.08±0.79,较其他3组显著减少(F=34.081,P=0.000).结论 AdVEGF-CDglyTK联合前药5-FC及GCV在体内可明显抑制大肠癌肿瘤的生长.其机制有二:首先该治疗系统可诱导裸鼠体内人大肠癌Lovo细胞的凋亡;其次该治疗系统在体内可明显抑制裸鼠体内大肠癌血管形成.%Objective To investigate the curative effect of an adenovirus-mediated fusion gene system driven by VEGF promoter (AdVEGF-CDglyTK) on a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer and analyze the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect.Methods The animal model of the colorectal cancer was established by using transplantation of the cultivated cells,human colorectal cell line LoVo,via subcutaneous injection on the back of nude mice.Twenty nude mice were equally divided into four groups:group Ⅰ received injection of AdVEGF-CDgiyTK plus 5-flurocytosine/ganciclovir(5-FC/GCV);group Ⅱwere given 5-FC/GCV;group Ⅲ were with Ad

  12. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Charles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support.

  13. Localization on $AdS_2\\times S^1$

    CERN Document Server

    David, Justin R; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Narain, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conformal symmetry relates the metric on $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ to that of $S^3$. This implies that under a suitable choice of boundary conditions for fields on $AdS_2$ the partition function of conformal field theories on these spaces must agree which makes $AdS_2 \\times S^{1}$ a good testing ground to study localization on non-compact spaces. We study supersymmetry on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ and determine the localizing Lagrangian for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2\\times S^1$. We evaluate the partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on $AdS_2 \\times S^1$ using localization, where the radius of $S^1$ is $q$ times that of $AdS_2$. With boundary conditions on $AdS_2\\times S^1$ which ensure that all the physical fields are normalizable and lie in the space of square integrable wave functions in $AdS_2$, the result for the partition function precisely agrees with that of the theory on the $q$-fold covering of $S^3$.

  14. D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3)

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, D

    2005-01-01

    We study the exact construction of D-branes in Lorentzian AdS(3). We start by defining a family of conformal field theories that gives a natural Euclidean version of the SL(2,R) CFT and does not correspond to H(3)+, the analytic continuation of AdS(3). We argue that one can recuperate the exact CFT results of Lorentzian AdS(3), upon an analytic continuation in the moduli space of these conformal field theories. Then we construct exact boundary states for various symmetric and symmetry-breaking D-branes in AdS(3).

  15. Extended supersymmetric sigma models in AdS_4 from projective superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel; Lindstrom, Ulf; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    There exist two superspace approaches to describe N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS_4) space: (i) in terms of N=1 AdS chiral superfields, as developed in arXiv:1105.3111 and arXiv:1108.5290; and (ii) in terms of N=2 polar supermultiplets using the AdS projective-superspace techniques developed in arXiv:0807.3368. The virtue of the approach (i) is that it makes manifest the geometric properties of the N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS_4. The target space must be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold endowed with a Killing vector field which generates an SO(2) group of rotations on the two-sphere of complex structures. The power of the approach (ii) is that it allows us, in principle, to generate hyperkahler metrics as well as to address the problem of deformations of such metrics. Here we show how to relate the formulation (ii) to (i) by integrating out an infinite number of N=1 AdS auxiliary superfields and performing a superfield duality transformation. We al...

  16. The sky is the limit: free boundary conditions in AdS$_3$ Chern-Simons theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apolo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We test the effects of new diffeomorphism invariant boundary terms in SL(2,R)$\\times$SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory. The gravitational interpretation corresponds to free AdS$_3$ boundary conditions, without restrictions on the boundary geometry. The boundary theory is the theory of a string in a target AdS$_3$. Its Virasoro conditions can eliminate ghosts. Generalisations to SL(N,R)$\\times$SL(N,R) higher spin theories and many other questions are still unexplored.

  17. Drops in the Bucket: Alcohol Industry "Responsibility" Advertising on Television in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Following on its recent reports on alcohol advertising in national magazines and on television, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) commissioned Virtual Media Resources (VMR), a media planning and research firm in Natick, Massachusetts, to analyze the alcohol industry's televised "responsibility" ads in 2001, using the same…

  18. The Relationship of Appetitive, Reproductive and Posterior Pituitary Hormones to Alcoholism and Craving in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormone...

  19. Design Optimization of ADS Target Based on Numerical Simulations of Flow Field%基于流场数值模拟的ADS靶件结构的设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长江; 陈海燕

    2003-01-01

    采用通用的计算流体力学(CFD)软件PHOENICS 3.3和BFC计算网格生成技术,对加速器驱动次临界系统(ADS)靶件的流场进行数值模拟计算.结果表明:束窗下方导流板起引导流体沿束窗表面流动的作用,消除了束窗两侧下方较大的旋涡,对于改善束窗附近流体的流动结构、提高束窗表面及散裂靶的换热,效果显著.

  20. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  1. Factors associated with younger adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Adding linear orders

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We address the following question: Can we expand an NIP theory by adding a linear order such that the expansion is still NIP? Easily, if acl(A)=A for all A, then this is true. Otherwise, we give counterexamples. More precisely, there is a totally categorical theory for which every expansion by a linear order has IP. There is also an \\omega-stable NDOP theory for which every expansion by a linear order interprets bounded arithmetic.

  3. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  4. Subjective response as a consideration in the pharmacogenetics of alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel Jo; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Currently available pharmacological treatments for alcoholism have modest efficacy and high individual variability in treatment outcomes, both of which have been partially attributed to genetic factors. One path to reducing the variability and improving the efficacy associated with these pharmacotherapies may be to identify overlapping genetic contributions to individual differences in both subjective responses to alcohol and alcoholism pharmacotherapy outcomes. As acute subjective response to alcohol is highly predictive of future alcohol related problems, identifying such shared genetic mechanisms may inform the development of personalized treatments that can effectively target converging pathophysiological mechanisms that convey risk for alcoholism. The focus of this review is to revisit the association between subjective response to alcohol and the etiology of alcoholism while also describing genetic contributions to this relationship, discuss potential pharmacogenetic approaches to target subjective response to alcohol in order to improve the treatment of alcoholism and examine conceptual and methodological issues associated with these topics, and outline future approaches to overcome these challenges.

  5. AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, Daniele; Li, Qiongling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationships between closed AdS 3-manifolds and Higgs bundles. We have a new way to construct AdS structures that allows us to see many of their properties explicitly, for example we can recover the very recent formula by Tholozan for the volumes. We also find...

  6. Pathologies in Lovelock AdS Black Branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    We study the pathologies in AdS black branes in Lovelock theory. More precisely, we examine the conditions that AdS black branes have the naked singularity, the ghost instability and the dynamical instability. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT correspondence, the pathologies in AdS black branes indicate the pathologies in the corresponding CFT. Hence, we need to be careful when we apply AdS/CFT in Lovelock theory to various phenomena such as the shear viscosity to entropy ratio in strongly coupled quantum filed theory.

  7. Nonlinear sigma models with AdS supersymmetry in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    In three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, there exist several realizations of N-extended supersymmetry, which are traditionally labelled by two non-negative integers p>=q such that p+q=N. Different choices of p and q, with N fixed, prove to lead to different restrictions on the target space geometry of supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-models. We classify all possible types of hyperkahler target spaces for the cases N=3 and N=4 by making use of two different realizations for the most general (p,q) supersymmetric sigma-models: (i) off-shell formulations in terms of N=3 and N=4 projective supermultiplets; and (ii) on-shell formulations in terms of covariantly chiral scalar superfields in (2,0) AdS superspace. Depending on the type of N=3,4 AdS supersymmetry, nonlinear sigma-models can support one of the following target space geometries: (i) hyperkahler cones; (ii) non-compact hyperkahler manifolds with a U(1) isometry group which acts non-trivially on the two-sphere of complex structures; (iii) arbitrary h...

  8. Prazosin for Treatment of Patients With PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of PTSD among individuals with...AD are at least twice as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most common comorbid condition in men with...sleep disturbance in combat veterans with PTSD, and alcohol dependence . Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of

  9. [Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, K V; Rybakova, T G; Neznanov, N G; Eryshev, O F

    2013-01-01

    It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED.

  10. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  11. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The article asks whether it is not the responsibility of corporations to address the issue of women being underrepresented in Danish management jobs. In other words, it is argued that corporations should be encouraged to engage more actively in the recruitment of both men and women for management...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  12. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  13. Personality and alcohol-related outcomes among mandated college students: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined three alcohol-perception variables (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs) as mediators of the predictive effects of four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of mandated college students (n=875). Our findings replicated several findings of a previous study of incoming freshman college students (Hustad et al., in press) in that impulsivity and hopelessness had direct effects on alcohol-related problems, sensation seeking and impulsivity had indirect effects on alcohol-related outcomes via college-related alcohol beliefs, and college-related alcohol beliefs predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We discuss the implications of our findings for global college student interventions as well as personality-targeted interventions.

  14. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  15. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  16. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  17. Alcohol-induced headaches: Evidence for a central mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Panconesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic drinks (ADs have been reported as a migraine trigger in about one-third of the migraine patients in retrospective studies. Some studies found that ADs trigger also other primary headaches. The studies concerning the role of ADs in triggering various types of primary headaches published after the International Headache Society classification criteria of 1988 were reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. Many studies show that ADs are a trigger of migraine without aura (MO, migraine with aura (MA, cluster headache (CH, and tension-type headache (TH. While data on MO and CH are well delineated, those in MA and TH are discordant. There are sparse reports that ADs are also triggers of less frequent types of primary headache such as familial hemiplegic migraine, hemicrania continua, and paroxysmal hemicrania. However, in some countries, the occurrence of alcohol as headache trigger is negligible, perhaps determined by alcohol habits. The frequency estimates vary widely based on the study approach and population. In fact, prospective studies report a limited importance of ADs as migraine trigger. If ADs are capable of triggering practically all primary headaches, they should act at a common pathogenetic level. The mechanisms of alcohol-provoking headache were discussed in relationship to the principal pathogenetic theories of primary headaches. The conclusion was that vasodilatation is hardly compatible with ADs trigger activity of all primary headaches and a common pathogenetic mechanism at cortical, or more likely at subcortical/brainstem, level is more plausible.

  18. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  19. Alcohol-induced headaches: Evidence for a central mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic drinks (ADs) have been reported as a migraine trigger in about one-third of the migraine patients in retrospective studies. Some studies found that ADs trigger also other primary headaches. The studies concerning the role of ADs in triggering various types of primary headaches published after the International Headache Society classification criteria of 1988 were reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. Many studies show that ADs are a trigger of migraine without aura (MO), migraine with aura (MA), cluster headache (CH), and tension-type headache (TH). While data on MO and CH are well delineated, those in MA and TH are discordant. There are sparse reports that ADs are also triggers of less frequent types of primary headache such as familial hemiplegic migraine, hemicrania continua, and paroxysmal hemicrania. However, in some countries, the occurrence of alcohol as headache trigger is negligible, perhaps determined by alcohol habits. The frequency estimates vary widely based on the study approach and population. In fact, prospective studies report a limited importance of ADs as migraine trigger. If ADs are capable of triggering practically all primary headaches, they should act at a common pathogenetic level. The mechanisms of alcohol-provoking headache were discussed in relationship to the principal pathogenetic theories of primary headaches. The conclusion was that vasodilatation is hardly compatible with ADs trigger activity of all primary headaches and a common pathogenetic mechanism at cortical, or more likely at subcortical/brainstem, level is more plausible.

  20. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, equal in magnitude, given by a harmonic oscillator with a zero point energy parameterized by the AdS radius, measured in units of a fundamental length of the model. We also construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS$_2$ spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  1. 长期饮酒对异丙酚使患者意识消失的半数有效效应室靶浓度的影响%Effect of chronic alcohol intake on half- effective target effect- site concentration of propofol required for loss of consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉生; 梁超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intake on the sedative potency of propofol through investigating the effect of chronic alcohol intake on the half-effective target effect-site concentration ( EC50 )of propofol required for loss of consciousness in patients. Methods Fifty male ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients, aged 25-60 yr, weighing 50-80 kg, scheduled for elective surgery, were divided into 2 groups according to the history of chronic alcoholic intake ( n = 25 each): control group (alcoholic intake per day < 25 g) and chronic alcoholic group (alcoholic intake per day>45 g, lasting for 2 yr or more). The EC50 and 95% confidence interval (CI)were determined by up-and-down sequential method. The initial target effect-site concentration was 2 μg/nl in chronic alcoholic group and 1.5μg/ml in control group, and the ratio between the two successive concentrations was 1.05. Loss of consciousness was defined as loss of response to verbal command and eyelash stimulation. Results The EC50 of propofol that produced loss of consciousness was 3.92 (95 % CI 3.56-4.63 ) μg/ml in chronic alcoholic group and 2.73 (95%CI 2.26-3.31)μg/ml in control group. The EC50 of propofol was significantly higher in chronic alcoholic group than in control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Chronic alcohol intake can increase the EC50 of propofol required to induce loss of consciousness and reduce sedative potency in patients.%目的 拟通过探讨长期饮酒对异丙酚使患者意识消失的半数有效效应室靶浓度(EC50)的影响,评价长期饮酒对异丙酚镇静效力的影响.方法 择期拟行外科手术的男性患者50例,年龄25~60岁,体重50~80kg,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,根据是否有长期饮酒史分为2组(n=25),对照组:日饮酒量<25 g;长期饮酒组:日饮酒量超过45 g持续2年或2年以上.采用序贯法确定异丙酚使患者意识消失的EC50其95%可信区间,长期饮酒组和对照组异丙酚初始效应室靶浓度分别为2.0

  2. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Uduak S; Valcin, Jennifer A; Gamble, Karen L; Bailey, Shannon M

    2015-10-14

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  3. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  4. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  5. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefanski, Bogdan; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly-coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their sub-leading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results, and co

  6. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  7. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  8. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  9. Chaos and hydrodynamics near AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS$_2$ holography with the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models in mind. Our main result is to rewrite a generic theory of gravity near an AdS$_2$ throat as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics. This gives a prescription for the computation of $n$-point functions in the dual quantum mechanics. We thereby find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

  10. Quantum Field Theory and Unification in AdS5

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show how to regulate consistently in a bounded AdS5 background. Our regularization is guided by the holographic dual of the calculation.

  11. Alcohol consumption in tertiary education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reavley Nicola J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 attending tertiary education, there is an opportunity within these settings to implement programs that target risky drinking. The aim of the current study was to survey students and staff within a tertiary education institution to investigate patterns of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, knowledge of current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for alcohol consumption and intentions to seek help for alcohol problems. Methods Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group participated in a telephone interview. Questions related to knowledge of NHMRC guidelines, drinking behaviour, alcohol-related problems and help-seeking intentions for alcohol problems. Level of psychological distress was also assessed. Results Of the completed interviews, 774 (65% were students and 422 (35% were staff. While staff were more likely to drink regularly, students were more likely to drink heavily. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in students, in males and in those with a history of earlier onset drinking. In most cases, alcohol-related problems were more likely to occur in students. The majority of students and staff had accurate knowledge of the current NHMRC guidelines, but this was not associated with lower levels of risky drinking. Psychological distress was associated with patterns of risky drinking in students. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with previous studies of tertiary student populations, and highlight the disconnect between knowledge of relevant guidelines and actual behaviour. There is a clear need for interventions within tertiary education institutions that promote more effective means of coping with psychological distress and improve help-seeking for alcohol problems, particularly among

  12. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  13. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  14. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  15. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  16. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  17. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  18. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  19. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  20. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  1. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  2. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  3. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  4. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  5. Hispanic Alcoholic Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    A path analytic model for Hispanic alcoholics relating socioclinical prognostic variables to outcome following treatment in a therapeutic community differs markedly from that fitted to Anglo alcoholics. The differential relationship of education to alcoholism severity and outcome was noted specifically as reflecting different racial-ethnic paths…

  6. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her child’s genetic make-up, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www. niaaa. nih. gov • 301.443.3860 Interventions ...

  7. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  8. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-03-07

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  9. Epigenetic regulation in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranoti Mandrekar

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by steatosis or fat deposition in the liver and inflammation, which leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Induction of target genes without involving changes in DNA sequence seems to contribute greatly to liver injury. Chromatin modifications including alterations in histones and DNA, as well as post-transcriptional changes collectively referred to as epigenetic effects are altered by alcohol. Recent studies have pointed to a significant role for epigenetic mechanisms at the nucleosomal level influencing gene expression and disease outcome in ALD. Specifically, epigenetic alterations by alcohol include histone modifications such as changes in acetylation and phosphorylation, hypomethylation of DNA, and alterations in miRNAs. These modifications can be induced by alcohol-induced oxidative stress that results in altered recruitment of transcriptional machinery and abnormal gene expression. Delineating these mechanisms in initiation and progression of ALD is becoming a major area of interest. This review summarizes key epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated by alcohol in the liver. Alterations by alcohol in histone and DNA modifications, enzymes related to histone acetylation such as histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases and sirtuins, and methylation enzymes such as DNA methyltransferases are discussed. Chromatin modifications and miRNA alterations that result in immune cell dysfunction contributing to inflammatory cytokine production in ALD is reviewed. Finally, the role of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress in epigenetic regulation in ALD is described. A better understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for designing novel epigenetic based therapies to ameliorate ALD.

  10. Action growth for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  11. Complexity Growth for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We further investigate the Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture for stationary anti de-Sitter (AdS) black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Ba\\~{n}ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a new complexity bound but leave unchanged the conjecture that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  12. AdS_5 Black Holes with Fermionic Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Burrington, B A; Sabra, W A; Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.

    2004-01-01

    The study of new BPS objects in AdS_5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS_5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS_5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1.

  13. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS Black holes with Dirac hair

    CERN Document Server

    \\vCubrović, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi Liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the spatially averaged AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at $\\ome_F$, we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis confirm that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profil...

  14. Do flexible alcohol trading hours reduce violence? A theory-based natural experiment in alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, David K; Eisner, Manuel P

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-related violence is a pressing public health concern. In 2005, the government of England and Wales took a controversial approach to preventing violence by removing restrictions on opening hours for alcohol outlets, thus increasing the availability of alcohol. The policy aimed to remove fixed closing times, which it claimed was contributing to urban violence occurring at peak closing times. It proposed to reduce violence and disorder by installing systems of 'staggered closing times'. This policy was criticised for overlooking established public health principles prioritising the control of alcohol availability in the prevention of alcohol-related harm. In this study, we treated the removal of trading hour restrictions as a natural experiment to test competing theoretical principles about the relationship between alcohol availability and violence. Our study took place in the City of Manchester over a four-year period 2004-2008. Detailed trading records for over 600 alcohol outlets were obtained, as were police records for all violent incidents. We found considerable variation in the implementation of extended trading hours across the city, which affected area-level exposure of changes in alcohol availability and staggered closing times. To isolate the effect of these changes on violence, we performed a dose-response analysis to examine whether improved staggering of closing hours (or increased alcohol availability) was associated with decreases in violence. We found no evidence to support the government-proposed hypothesis that staggered closing reduces violence. We also found no support for the alternative hypothesis; that increase alcohol availability would result in increased violence. This study provides an example of how better evidence can be generated from natural experiments by placing added emphasis on theory, causal mechanisms and implementation science.

  15. Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Research using unipolar Implicit Association Tests (IATs) demonstrated that positive but not negative implicit alcohol associations are related to drinking behavior. However, the relative nature of the IAT with respect to target concepts (i.e., alcohol vs. soft drinks) obscures the interpretation of

  16. [Enantioseparation behavior of chiral stationary phases AD, AS and OD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqun; Fan, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Tai; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, HPLC enantioseparation with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been widely applied in chiral analysis and preparation of new pharmaceuticals, pesticides, food, etc. Herein, enantioseparation of 20 chiral compounds have been carried out on three polysaccharide-based CSPs (EnantioPak AD, AS and OD) with normal phases by HPLC, separately. The influences of skeletal structure and the kinds of derivative groups on separation behaviors of these CSPs have been studied in detail. As results indicated, except for compound 13, the other compounds were baseline separated on EnantioPak AD, with most of resolution over 2. 0; in addition, better separation for acidic or basic compounds was achieved through adding acidic/basic additives into the mobile phase of hexane-alcohol. For four aromatic alcohols (compounds 13-16), their retention in the EnantioPak AD column showed a weakening tendency with increase of carbon number in side chain group, and the reverse trend of their resolution was observed. Furthermore, EnantioPak AD showed much better separation performance for eight compounds (13-20) than the others. In short, these results have provided some references for further investigation of separation behavior and applications of polysaccharide-based CSPs.

  17. Crystals’ added value

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    We are becoming used to the many applications that physics transfers to society. They span from vacuum techniques to electronics, and, of course, medicine and biophysics. The EU-supported PICOSEC project, of which CERN is the coordinator, goes beyond the simple spin-off technology and opens the doors of state-of-the-art crystal research to 22 researchers for applications that include calorimetry but also the next generation PET scanners.     Prototypes of crystal matrices developed for medical imaging projects.   The keyword is “multidisciplinary approach”. Developing new detectors for implementation in high-energy physics experiments but also in medical instrumentation requires a very diverse mixture of skills and competencies. Such a mixture does not necessarily come from a specific university faculty but rather from targeted training opportunities that are designed by several stakeholders, each one contributing with its own specificity. The PICOS...

  18. Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Crabbe, John C

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded 40 years ago to help elucidate the biological underpinnings of alcohol dependence, including the potential contribution of genetic factors. Twin, adoption, and family studies conclusively demonstrated that genetic factors account for 50 to 60 percent of the variance in risk for developing alcoholism. Case-control studies and linkage analyses have helped identify DNA variants that contribute to increased risk, and the NIAAA-sponsored Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has the expressed goal of identifying contributing genes using state-of-the-art genetic technologies. These efforts have ascertained several genes that may contribute to an increased risk of alcoholism, including certain variants encoding alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors. Genome-wide association studies allowing the analysis of millions of genetic markers located throughout the genome will enable discovery of further candidate genes. In addition to these human studies, genetic animal models of alcohol's effects and alcohol use have greatly advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of alcoholism, resulting in the identification of quantitative trait loci and allowing for targeted manipulation of candidate genes. Novel research approaches-for example, into epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation-also are under way and undoubtedly will further clarify the genetic basis of alcoholism.

  19. Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) AD-6

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Different views of AEGIS / AD-6 Experiment (AD facility) in July of 2012. The visible parts are the positron accumulator (blue structures on top of of the antiproton extraction line) and the 5T magnet which traps the antiprotons.

  20. Global geometric properties of AdS space and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Poisson kernels and relations between them for a massive scalar field in a unit ball Bn with Hua's metric and conformal flat metric are obtained by describing the Bn as a submanifold of an (n+1)-dimensional embedding space. Global geometric properties of the AdS space are discussed. We show that the(n+1)-dimensional AdS space AdSn+1 is isomorphic to RP1×Bn and boundary of the AdS is isomorphic to RP1×Sn-1. Bulk-boundary propagator and the AdS/CFT like correspondence are demonstrated based on these global geometric properties of the RP1×Bn.

  1. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  2. Vaccination with Ad5 vectors expands Ad5-specific CD8 T cells without altering memory phenotype or functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A Hutnick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviral (Ad vaccine vectors represent both a vehicle to present a novel antigen to the immune system as well as restimulation of immune responses against the Ad vector itself. To what degree Ad-specific CD8(+ T cells are restimulated by Ad vector vaccination is unclear, although such knowledge would be important as vector-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion could potentially further limit Ad vaccine efficacy beyond Ad-specific neutralizing antibody alone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we addressed this issue by measuring human Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5-specific CD8(+ T cells in recipients of the Merck Ad5 HIV-1 vaccine vector before, during, and after vaccination by multicolor flow cytometry. Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells were detectable in 95% of subjects prior to vaccination, and displayed primarily an effector-type functional profile and phenotype. Peripheral blood Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cell numbers expanded after Ad5-HIV vaccination in all subjects, but differential expansion kinetics were noted in some baseline Ad5-neutralizing antibody (Ad5 nAb seronegative subjects compared to baseline Ad5 nAb seropositive subjects. However, in neither group did vaccination alter polyfunctionality, mucosal targeting marker expression, or memory phenotype of Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that repeat Ad5-vector administration in humans expands Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells without overtly affecting their functional capacity or phenotypic properties. This is a secondary analysis of samples collected during the 016 trial. Results of the Merck 016 trial safety and immunogenicity have been previously published in the journal of clinical infectious diseases [1]. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00849680[http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00849680].

  3. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  4. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Laramée

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation: AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption.

  5. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  6. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  7. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Renyi entropy S_n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  8. Microstates at the boundary of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2011-01-01

    The bound states of the D1D5 brane system have a known gravitational description: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter region, and a 'cap' ending the AdS region. We construct perturbations that correspond to the action of chiral algebra generators on Ramond ground states of D1D5 branes. Abstract arguments in the literature suggest that the perturbation should be pure gauge in the AdS region; our perturbation indeed has this structure, with the nontrivial deformation of the geometry occurring at the 'neck' between the AdS region and asymptotic infinity. This 'non-gauge' deformation is needed to provide the nonzero energy and momentum carried by the perturbation. We also suggest implications this structure may have for the majority of microstates which live at the cap.

  9. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  10. Diffusion and Chaos from near AdS$_2$ horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity $D = \\kappa/c_{\\rho}$ and butterfly velocity $v_B$ in holographic models that flow to AdS$_2 \\times R^{d}$ fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS$_2$ and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension $\\Delta = 2$ then this relationship is always given by $D = v_B^2/(2 \\pi T)$.

  11. An $xp$ model on $AdS_2$ spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the $xp$ model on the AdS$_2$ spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS$_2$. We extend this result to generic $xp$ models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the $xp$ Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of t...

  12. Mapping AdS to dS and back

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dato, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et.al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane.

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: behavioral and physiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Schwandt, Melanie L; Sells, Joanna R; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Hommer, Daniel W; George, David T; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently co-morbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier social stress test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with co-morbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism inpatient research facility. They participated in a 4-week inpatient study of the efficacy of a neurokinin 1 antagonist to treat co-morbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress versus alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of co-morbid PTSD and AD on craving.

  17. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in aqueous mixtures of alcohols at a hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Deepti; Chapman, Walter G

    2013-09-21

    Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with propanol having a lower interfacial tension than methanol and ethanol. 2-propanol is not as effective in decreasing the interfacial tension as 1-propanol because it partitions poorly to the surface due to its larger excluded volume. But for a given surface alcohol mole fraction, all the alcohol mixtures give similar values for interfacial tension. For separation of alcohol from water, methods that take advantage of the high surface mole fraction of alcohol have advantages compared to separation using the vapor in equilibrium with a water-alcohol liquid.

  18. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  19. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study s...

  20. Strings from 3D gravity: asymptotic dynamics of AdS$_3$ gravity with free boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Apolo, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Pure three-dimensional gravity in anti-de Sitter space can be formulated as an SL(2,R) $\\times$ SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory, and the latter can be reduced to a WZW theory at the boundary. In this paper we show that AdS$_3$ gravity with free boundary conditions is described by a string theory at the boundary whose target spacetime is also AdS$_3$. While boundary conditions in the standard construction of Coussaert, Henneaux, and van Driel are enforced through constraints on the WZW currents, we find that free boundary conditions are partially enforced through the string Virasoro constraints.

  1. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  2. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  3. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  4. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Larry; Foont, Julie; Wands, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on the prevalence of hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection in alcoholics with and without liver disease. Evidence will be presented to demonstrate that ethanol and chronic HCV infection synergistically accelerate liver injury. Some of the major postulated mechanisms responsible for disease progression include high rates of apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with reduced antioxidant capacity of the liver. Acquisition and persistence of HCV infection may be due to the adverse effects of ethanol on humoral and cellular immune responses to HCV. Dendritic cells (DC) appear to be one of the major targets for ethanol’s action and DC dysfunction impairs the ability of the host to generate viral specific cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+) and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+) immune responses. There is a relationship between increased alcohol intake and decreased response to interferon (IFN) therapy, which may be reversed by abstinence. Clinical studies are needed to optimize treatment responses in alcoholic patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:19387918

  6. Predicting AD conversion: comparison between prodromal AD guidelines and computer assisted PredictAD tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawu Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA on MRI and CSF biomarkers.Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1 clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2 visual MTA, 3 positive CSF markers, 4 their combinations, and 5 when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later.The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71% in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician's prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%. Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p≤0.037.With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria.

  7. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  8. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka

    2016-01-01

    We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.

  9. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  10. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  11. Alcohol use and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  12. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  13. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  14. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  15. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence...... of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...

  16. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In: Nixon, S.J., ed. Neuropsychology for Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Press, ... alcoholic men: Relationships to changes in brain structure. Neuropsychology 14:178–188, 2000. (38) Rosenbloom, M. ; Sullivan, ...

  17. Iron and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Laurence J; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Crawford, Darrell HG

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that promote liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are yet to be thoroughly elucidated. As such, effective treatment strategies are lacking and novel therapeutic targets are required. Iron has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and represents a potential target for treatment. Relationships between serum ferritin concentration and NAFLD are noted in a majority of studies, although serum ferritin is an imprecise measure of iron loading. Numerous mechanisms for a pathogenic role of hepatic iron in NAFLD have been demonstrated in animal and cell culture models. However, the human data linking hepatic iron to liver injury in NAFLD is less clear, with seemingly conflicting evidence, supporting either an effect of iron in hepatocytes or within reticulo-endothelial cells. Adipose tissue has emerged as a key site at which iron may have a pathogenic role in NAFLD. Evidence for this comes indirectly from studies that have evaluated the role of adipose tissue iron with respect to insulin resistance. Adding further complexity, multiple strands of evidence support an effect of NAFLD itself on iron metabolism. In this review, we summarise the human and basic science data that has evaluated the role of iron in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:27688653

  18. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%.

  19. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Orquin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 % to 36 % while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17 %.

  20. Sub-AdS Scale Locality in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Belin, Alexandre; Jefferson, Robert A; Kabir, Laurens

    2016-01-01

    We investigate sub-AdS scale locality in a weakly coupled toy model of the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. We find that this simple model has the correct density of states at low and high energies to be dual to Einstein gravity coupled to matter in AdS$_3$. Bulk correlation functions also have the correct behavior at leading order in the large $N$ expansion, but non-local effects emerge at order $1/N$. Our analysis leads to the conjecture that any large $N$ CFT$_2$ that is modular invariant and has the right low-energy density of states is dual to a gravitational theory with sub-AdS scale locality.

  1. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    that the adverse effects known to be associated with Alcohol ingestion included in this safety assessment do not suggest a concern for Alcohol Denat. or SD Alcohols because of the presence of the denaturants, which are added for the express purpose of making the Alcohol unpotable. The CIR Expert Panel has previously conducted safety assessments of t-Butyl Alcohol, Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Alcohol, Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Methyl Salicylate, in which each was affirmed safe or safe with qualifications. Given their use as denaturants are at low concentrations of use in Alcohol, the CIR Expert Panel determined that Alcohol Denat. denatured with t-Butyl Alcohol, Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Alcohol, Salicylic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Methyl Salicylate is safe as used in cosmetic formulations with no qualifications. Likewise, because they are denatured with either t-Butyl Alcohol, Diethyl Phthalate, or Methyl Alcohol, SD Alcohols 3-A, 30, 39-B, 39-C, and 40-C all are considered safe as used. The Panel considered the available data for Denatonium Benzoate and SD Alcohol 40-B to be sufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetics. Denatonium Benzoate is sufficiently bitter that it is an effective denaturant at only 0.0006%. The Panel recognized that data on dermal penetration of Denatonium Benzoate were not available, but considered that the available data on lidocaine, a smaller structurally related chemical, indicates that dermal exposure does not result in measurable systemic exposure. The available data, however, were not sufficient to support the safety of Quassin, Brucine, and Brucine Sulfate, Alcohol Denat. denatured with those denaturants, or SD Alcohol 39 and SD Alcohol 40 (SD Alcohols denatured with Quassin, Brucine, and/or Brucine Sulfate), and in order for the Expert Panel to reach a conclusion for these denaturants, additional data are needed.

  2. Cytotoxicity associated with electrospun polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Saif G; Fitzgerald, Lisa M; Ali, Syed M; Damrauer, Scott M; Bide, Martin J; Nelson, David W; Ferran, Christiane; Phaneuf, Tina M; Phaneuf, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic, water-soluble polymer, with applications in industries ranging from textiles to biomedical devices. Research on electrospinning of PVA has been targeted toward optimizing or finding novel applications in the biomedical field. However, the effects of electrospinning on PVA biocompatibility have not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, the cytotoxicity of electrospun PVA (nPVA) which was not crosslinked after electrospinning was assessed. PVA polymers of several molecular weights were dissolved in distilled water and electrospun using the same parameters. Electrospun PVA materials with varying molecular weights were then dissolved in tissue culture medium and directly compared against solutions of nonelectrospun PVA polymer in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and human coronary artery endothelial cells cultures. All nPVA solutions were cytotoxic at a threshold molar concentration that correlated with the molecular weight of the starting PVA polymer. In contrast, none of the nonelectrospun PVA solutions caused any cytotoxicity, regardless of their concentration in the cell culture. Evaluation of the nPVA material by differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that polymer degradation had occurred after electrospinning. To elucidate the identity of the nPVA component that caused cytotoxicity, nPVA materials were dissolved, fractionated using size exclusion columns, and the different fractions were added to HCASMC and human coronary artery endothelial cells cultures. These studies indicated that the cytotoxic component of the different nPVA solutions were present in the low-molecular-weight fraction. Additionally, the amount of PVA present in the 3-10 kg/mol fraction was approximately sixfold greater than that in the nonelectrospun samples. In conclusion, electrospinning of PVA resulted in small-molecular-weight fractions that were cytotoxic to cells. This result demonstrates that biocompatibility of electrospun

  3. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  4. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  5. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 19,388 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 30,722 ...

  6. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  7. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N

    2014-01-01

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  8. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Danielsson, U H; Vargas, S C

    2016-01-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum non-perturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the pre-existing ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on $S^3$ and $S^3\\,\\times\\,S^3$, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedaman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a non-perturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  9. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  10. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  11. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  12. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  13. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  14. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  15. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  16. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11) • Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or • Aggression towards other children • Risk taking behaviors • Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of alcoholics may cope by taking the role of responsible "parents" within the family and among friends. They may ...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  18. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  19. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart diseas...

  20. Leisure and Alcohol Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that investigated the ways individuals expected drinking to affect their leisure experiences, and the relationship of those expectancies to alcohol consumption patterns. Data from a sample of 144 adults indicated they expected alcohol to positively affect their leisure experiences. (SM)

  1. N=2 AdS supergravity and supercurrents

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimal off-shell formulation for four-dimensional N=2 supergravity with a cosmological term, in which the second compensator is an improved tensor multiplet. We use it to derive a linearized supergravity action (and its dual versions) around the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background in terms of three N=2 off-shell multiplets: an unconstrained scalar superfield, vector and tensor multiplets. This allows us to deduce the structure of the supercurrent multiplet associated with those supersymmetric theories which naturally couple to the supergravity formulation chosen, with or without a cosmological term. Finally, our linearized N=2 AdS supergravity action is reduced to N=1 superspace. The result is a sum of two N=1 linearized actions describing (i) old minimal supergravity; and (ii) an off-shell massless gravitino multiplet. We also derive dual formulations for the massless N=1 gravitino multiplet in AdS. As a by-product of our consideration, we derive the consistent supergravity extension of the N=1 ...

  2. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  3. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  4. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  5. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  6. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    predicting changes in alcohol use, impulsivity, and risk-taking, and calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients between slopes of change in...showing a greater reduction in PCL scores compared to placebo controls. 2.2.b Topiramate treatment -- combined with Medical Management alcohol...counseling and added to ongoing PTSD treatment as usual --will be associated with a significant reduction in scores of other alcohol use measures from

  7. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  9. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  10. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  12. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  14. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  15. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  16. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  17. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...

  18. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  19. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  20. Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...

  1. Ad Serving Using a Compact Allocation Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Peiji; Mandalapu, Srinath; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yu, Manfai; Zien, Jason

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of online display advertising is sold via guaranteed contracts: a publisher guarantees to the advertiser a certain number of user visits satisfying the targeting predicates of the contract. The publisher is then tasked with solving the ad serving problem - given a user visit, which of the thousands of matching contracts should be displayed, so that by the expiration time every contract has obtained the requisite number of user visits. The challenges of the problem come from (1) the sheer size of the problem being solved, with tens of thousands of contracts and billions of user visits, (2) the unpredictability of user behavior, since these contracts are sold months ahead of time, when only a forecast of user visits is available and (3) the minute amount of resources available online, as an ad server must respond with a matching contract in a fraction of a second. We present a solution to the guaranteed delivery ad serving problem using {\\em compact allocation plans}. These plans, computed offl...

  2. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  3. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fahlke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123 were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent between-subject design. Participants consumed two glasses of beverage at an even pace for 15 minutes. Five minutes after consumption the participants witnessed a film depicting a staged kidnapping. Seven days later, the participants returned to the laboratory and were asked to identify the culprit in a simultaneous lineup. The result showed that overall, the participants performed better than chance; however, their lineup performance was poor. There were no significant effects of alcohol intoxication with respect to performance, neither in target-present nor target-absent lineups. The study’s results suggest that eyewitnesses who have consumed a lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol or a higher (0.7 g/kg ethanol dose of alcohol perform at the same level as sober eyewitnesses in a lineup. The results are discussed in relation to the alcohol myopia theory and suggestions for future research are made.

  4. The role of alcohol perceptions as mediators between personality and alcohol-related outcomes among incoming college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, John T P; Pearson, Matthew R; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian

    2014-06-01

    After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predictive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and three measures of alcohol perception: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and perceptions regarding the perceived role of drinking in college on alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 490 incoming freshmen college students. Results indicated that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking largely mediated the effects of personality on alcohol outcomes. In contrast, both impulsivity and hopelessness exhibited direct effects on alcohol-related problems. The perceived role of drinking was a particularly robust predictor of outcomes and mediator of the effects of personality traits, including sensation seeking and impulsivity on alcohol outcomes. The intertwined relationships observed in this study between personality factors, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking highlight the importance of investigating these predictors simultaneously. Findings support the implementation of interventions that target these specific perceptions about the role of drinking in college.

  5. Alcohol: A Nutrient with Multiple Salutary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Pownall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is lower among alcohol consumers than among nonconsumers. Many of the metabolic effects of alcohol are mediated by its terminal metabolite, acetate, which has reported insulinemic properties. There have been few rational metabolic targets that underly its cardioprotective effects until it was reported that acetate, the terminal product of alcohol metabolism, is the ligand for G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPCR43, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Here, we recast much of some of the major lipid and lipoprotein effects of alcohol in the context of this newly discovered G-protein and develop a mechanistic model connecting the interaction of acetate with adipose tissue-GPCR43 with these effects. According to our model, ingestions of acetate could replace alcohol as a means of improving plasma lipid risk factors, improving glucose disposal, and reducing cardiovascular disease. Future studies should include biochemical, cell, animal, and human tests of acetate on energy metabolism.

  6. A heuristic model of alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance dependence poses a critical health problem. Sadly, its neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear, and this lack of real understanding is reflected in insufficient treatment options. It has been hypothesized that alcohol effects are due to an imbalance between neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory amino acids. However, glutamate and GABA interact with other neurotransmitters, which form a complicated network whose functioning evades intuition and should be investigated systemically with methods of biomedical systems analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a heuristic model of neurotransmitters that combines a neurochemical interaction matrix at the biochemical level with a mobile describing the balances between pairs of neurotransmitters at the physiological and behavioral level. We investigate the effects of alcohol on the integrated neurotransmitter systems at both levels. The model simulation results are consistent with clinical and experimental observations. The model demonstrates that the drug diazepam for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal effectively reduces the imbalances between neurotransmitters. Moreover, the acetylcholine signal is suggested as a novel target for treatment of symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient means of integrating clinical symptoms across multiple levels are still scarce and difficult to establish. We present a heuristic model of systemic neurotransmitter functionality that permits the assessment of genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological perturbations. The model can serve as a tool to represent clinical and biological observations and explore various scenarios associated with alcohol dependence and its treatments. It also is very well suited for educational purposes.

  7. Preliminary AD-Horn Thermomechanical and Electrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2095747; Horvath, David; Calviani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) target area consolidation activities planned for LS2, it has been necessary to perform a comprehensive study of the thermo-structural behaviour of the AD magnetic horn during operation, in order to detail specific requirements for the upgrade projects and testing procedures. The present work illustrates the preliminary results of the finite element analysis carried out to evaluate the thermal and structural behaviour of the device, as well as the methodology used to model and solve the thermomechanical and electrodynamic simulations performed in the AD magnetic horn.

  8. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aros, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  9. Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.

  10. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  11. Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.

  12. M-Theory solutions with AdS factors

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of a n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2,3,4,5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  13. M-theory solutions with AdS factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Kim, Nakwoo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Pakis, Stathis [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-07

    Solutions of D=7 maximal gauged supergravity are constructed with metrics that are a product of an n-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, with n=2, 3, 4, 5, and certain Einstein manifolds. The gauge fields have the same form as in the recently constructed solutions describing the near-horizon limits of M5-branes wrapping supersymmetric cycles. The new solutions do not preserve any supersymmetry and can be uplifted to obtain new solutions of D=11 supergravity, which are warped and twisted products of the D=7 metric with a squashed four-sphere. Some aspects of the stability of the solutions are discussed.

  14. Most general AdS_3 boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl(2)_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k=l/(4G_N), where l is the AdS radius and G_N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  15. Coherent Cascade: Collapsing Solutions in Global AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Freivogel, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field that sometimes leads to blackhole formation in asymptotically AdS spacetime at the shortest nonlinear time scale. We present strong evidence that the dynamics is governed by a "coherent cascade", with all modes remaining in phase as the energy flows to higher frequencies into a power-law spectrum. Using a coherent phase ansatz, we analytically find these power-law solutions. We show how the particular power is determined by the scaling properties of the interaction coefficients. Our result agrees with existing numerical results in 4+1 dimensions, and makes predictions in higher dimensions.

  16. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  17. Understanding alcoholism through microRNA signatures in brains of human alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dayne eMayfield

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting towards the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic

  18. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  19. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  20. Rindler-AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, Maulik

    2012-01-01

    In anti-de Sitter space a highly accelerating observer perceives a Rindler horizon. The two Rindler wedges in AdS_{d+1} are holographically dual to an entangled conformal field theory that lives on two boundaries with geometry R x H_{d-1}. For AdS_3, the holographic duality is especially tractable, allowing quantum-gravitational aspects of Rindler horizons to be probed. We recover the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space directly from the boundary conformal field theory. We derive the temperature from the two-point function and obtain the Rindler entropy density precisely, including numerical factors, using the Cardy formula. We also probe the causal structure of the spacetime, and find from the behavior of the one-point function that the CFT "knows" when a source has fallen across the Rindler horizon. This is so even though, from the bulk point of view, there are no local signifiers of the presence of the horizon. Finally, we discuss an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Si...

  1. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinical trial population. SETTING: The data reported were collected as part of the Danish Alzheimer...

  2. COMPARISON OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN MIDDLE AGED ALCOHOLICS & NON ALCOHOLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanuprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Alcoholism has become a major burden in developing countries like India, especially in rural areas. Multiple reasons like financial burden of being low socio economic status, heavy field work leading to physical stress & mental stress. Added to this illiteracy, lack of knowledge about ill effects of alcohol, people consume it regularly & become addictive. AIMS & OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to study the lipid profile of alcoholics & compare them with normal subjects. MATERIALS & METHODS 30 males between the age group of 35-60 years who consumed alcohol (>250 ml/day regularly for more than 15 years in Chittoor and surrounding villages were recruited for the study group. 30 subjects of same age group attending SVIMS OPD, Tirupathi were taken as control group. Fasting serum lipid profile was done on both the groups by collecting their venous blood samples. RESULTS We found that serum cholesterol (234.66+10.34, Triglycerides (178.38+8.8, (LDL Low density lipoprotein (160.6+10.3 & (VLDL Very Low density lipoprotein (35.09+7.56 were significantly (p<0.05 higher in study group than compared to control group. Whereas High density lipoprotein HDL was significantly lower in study group (38.2 than control group (41.2. CONCLUSION Alcohol consumption leads to liver diseases which may present with clinical and biochemical features, mainly impaired serum lipid profile.

  3. Magazine alcohol advertising compliance with the Australian Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kati; Donovan, Rob; Howat, Peter; Weller, Narelle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and content of alcoholic beverage advertisements and sales promotions in magazines popular with adolescents and young people in Australia, and assess the extent to which the ads complied with Australia's self-regulatory Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC). Alcohol advertisements and promotions were identified in a sample of 93 magazines popular with young people. The identified items were coded against 28 measures constructed to assess the content of the items against the five sections of the ABAC. Two thirds of the magazines contained at least one alcohol advertisement or promotion with a total of 142 unique items identified: 80 were brand advertisements and 62 were other types of promotional items (i.e. sales promotions, event sponsorships, cross promotions with other marketers and advertorials). It was found that 52% of items appeared to contravene at least one section of the ABAC. The two major apparent breaches related to section B--the items having a strong appeal to adolescents (34%) and to section C--promoting positive social, sexual and psychological expectancies of consumption (28%). It was also found that promotional items appeared to breach the ABAC as often as did advertisements. It is concluded that the self-regulating system appears not to be working for the alcoholic beverages industry in Australia and that increased government surveillance and regulation should be considered, giving particular emphasis to the inclusion of promotional items other than brand advertising.

  4. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...

  5. Alcohol en snelverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, P.H.

    1968-01-01

    Dr Esser voert diverse redenen aan om zo snel mogelijk te starten met ademanalyse op tijden en plaatsen dat bestuurders, die alcohol gebruikt hebben, verwacht kunnen worden. Hij wijst op de preventieve waarde hiervan. Zie ook A 1469.

  6. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... Examine you Ask about your medical and family history Ask about your alcohol use, and if you ...

  8. AdS twistors for higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, M

    2004-01-01

    We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D=4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a ``higher spin particle'', generalising previous work of Bandos et al. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D=4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIXth Max Born Symposium ``Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods''...

  9. Quantum cat map dynamics on AdS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2016-01-01

    We present a toy model for the chaotic unitary scattering of single particle wave packets on the radial AdS$_2$ geometry of extremal BH horizons. Based on our recent work for the discretization of the AdS$_2$ space-time, which describes a finite and random geometry, by modular arithmetic, we investigate the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), as well as that of the fast scrambling time bound conjecture (STB), for an observer with time evolution operator the quantum Arnol'd cat map (QACM). We find that the QACM, while possessing a linear spectrum, has eigenstates, which can be expressed in closed form, are found to be random and to satisfy the assumptions of the ETH.The implications are that the dynamics is described by a chaotic, unitary, single particle S-matrix, which completely delocalizes and randomizes initial gaussian wave packets . Applying results obtained by Dyson and Falk for the periods of the Arnol'd Cat Map(ACM),which are related to its mixing time, we also find that the t...

  10. A special road to AdS vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide; Marrani, Alessio; Morales, Jose F; Samtleben, Henning

    2010-01-01

    We apply the techniques of special Kaehler geometry to investigate AdS_4 vacua of general N=2 gauged supergravities underlying flux compactifications of type II theories. We formulate the scalar potential and its extremization conditions in terms of a triplet of prepotentials P_x and their special Kaehler covariant derivatives only, in a form that recalls the potential and the attractor equations of N=2 black holes. We propose a system of first order equations for the P_x which generalize the supersymmetry conditions and yield non-supersymmetric vacua. Special geometry allows us to recast these equations in algebraic form, and we find an infinite class of new N=0 and N=1 AdS_4 solutions, displaying a rich pattern of non-trivial charges associated with NSNS and RR fluxes. Finally, by explicit evaluation of the entropy function on the solutions, we derive a U-duality invariant expression for the cosmological constant and the central charges of the dual CFT's.

  11. The CFT dual of AdS gravity with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Mielke-Baekler model of three-dimensional AdS gravity with torsion, which has gravitational and translational Chern-Simons terms in addition to the usual Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant. It is shown that the topological nature of the model leads to a finite Fefferman-Graham expansion. We derive the holographic stress tensor and the associated Ward identities and show that, due to the asymmetry of the left- and right-moving central charges, a Lorentz anomaly appears in the dual conformal field theory. Both the consistent and the covariant Weyl and Lorentz anomaly are determined, and the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions for the former are verified. Moreover we consider the most general solution with flat boundary geometry, which describes left-and right-moving gravitational waves on AdS_3 with torsion, and shew that in this case the holographic energy-momentum tensor is given by the wave profiles. The anomalous transformation laws of the wave profiles under diffeomorphisms p...

  12. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  13. Smooth Causal Patches for AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations about an AdS black hole. An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than $k T$ cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly, and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analy...

  14. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  15. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  16. Consumo de alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Gustavo del Sol Padrón; Orestes Álvarez Fernández; Juan De Dios Rivero Berovides

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se emite una definición clasificatoria de los individuos que consumen alcohol, según supuestos establecidos por Manconi. Se estratifican las personas atendiendo a los diferentes riesgos para este consumo. Se describen las afectaciones a la salud que produce el consumo de alcohol, y además se plantean las medidas estratégicas para propiciar una conducta efectiva antialcohólica. Por último, se presenta un flujograma para la inter...

  17. Differences in Interpersonal and Individual Psychopathology in Young Families at High Risk for the Development of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert A.; And Others

    Early findings are reported from the Michigan State University Vulnerability Study, a study of differences in parents and children of families with an alcoholic father and matched, community control families with a non-alcoholic father. Male preschool children in the alcoholic homes were the target group, because they are 6 to 10 times more at…

  18. Online Ad Slotting With Cancellations

    CERN Document Server

    Constantin, Florin; Muthukrishnan, S; Pal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many advertisers buy advertisements (ads) on the Internet or on traditional media and seek simple, online mechanisms to reserve ad slots in advance. Media publishers represent a vast and varying inventory, and they too seek automatic, online mechanisms for pricing and allocating such reservations. In this paper, we present and study a simple model for auctioning such ad slots in advance. Bidders arrive sequentially and report which slots they are interested in. The seller must decide immediately whether or not to grant a reservation. Our model allows a seller to accept reservations, but possibly cancel the allocations later and pay the bidder a cancellation compensation (bump payment). Our main result is an online mechanism to derive prices and bump payments that is efficient to implement. This mechanism has many desirable properties. It is individually rational; winners have an incentive to be honest and bidding one's true value dominates any lower bid. Our mechanism's efficiency is within a constant fractio...

  19. Pathological gambling and alcohol dependence: neural disturbances in reward and loss avoidance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Koehler, Saskia; Dreesen, Caspar; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) shares clinical characteristics such as craving and loss of control with substance use disorders and is thus considered a behavioral addiction. While functional alterations in the mesolimbic reward system have been correlated with craving and relapse in substance use disorders, only a few studies have examined this brain circuit in PG, and no direct comparison has been conducted so far. Thus, we investigated the neuronal correlates of reward processing in PG in contrast to alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and healthy subjects. Eighteen PG patients, 15 AD patients and 17 controls were investigated with a monetary incentive delay task, in which visual cues predict the consequence (monetary gain, avoidance of loss, none) of a fast response to a subsequent target stimulus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed to account for possible confounding factors such as local gray matter volume. Activity in the right ventral striatum during loss anticipation was increased in PG patients compared with controls and AD patients. Moreover, PG patients showed decreased activation in the right ventral striatum and right medial prefrontal cortex during successful loss avoidance compared with controls, which was inversely associated with severity of gambling behavior. Thus, despite neurobiological similarities to substance use disorders in reward processing, as reported by previous studies, we found relevant differences with respect to the anticipation of loss as well as its avoidance (negative reinforcement), which further contributes to the understanding of PG.

  20. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  1. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunin, Oleg, E-mail: olunin@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany (SUNY), Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-11

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a traveling wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T{sup 4}. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  2. Adding momentum to supersymmetric geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Oleg; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider general supersymmetric solutions to minimal supergravity in six dimensions, trivially lifted to IIB supergravity. To any such solution we add a travelling-wave deformation involving the additional directions. The deformed solution is given in terms of a function which is harmonic in the background geometry. We also present a family of explicit examples describing microstates of the D1-D5 system on T^4. In the case where the background contains a large AdS region, the deformation is identified as corresponding to an action of a U(1) current of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT on a given state.

  3. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-11-05

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  4. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  5. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  6. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  7. Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\\mu_{c} = 1 + \\sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\\mu_c \\thickapprox a + \\sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\\beta=\\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative ...

  8. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  9. Western Australian students' alcohol consumption and expenditure intentions for Schoolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Hagger, Martin S

    2016-12-19

    In Australia, the immediate post-school period (known as 'Schoolies') is associated with heavy drinking and high levels of alcohol-related harm. This study investigated students' intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies to inform interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm among this group. An online survey was administered to students in their senior year of schooling. Included items related to intended daily alcohol consumption during Schoolies, amount of money intended to be spent on alcohol over the Schoolies period, and past drinking behaviour. On average, participants (n=187) anticipated that they would consume eight standard drinks per day, which is substantially higher than the recommended maximum of no more than four drinks on a single occasion. Participants intended to spend an average of A$131 on alcohol over the Schoolies period. Although higher than national guidelines, intended alcohol consumption was considerably lower than has been previously documented during Schoolies events. The substantial amounts of money expected to be spent during Schoolies suggest this group has adequate spending power to constitute an attractive target market for those offering alternative activities that are associated with lower levels of alcohol-related harm.

  10. Alcohol consumption, cardiovascular health, and endothelial function markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Paulo F D; Bau, Claiton H D; Rosito, Guido A; Manfroi, Waldomiro C; Fuchs, Flávio D

    2007-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the worldwide leading causes of shorter life expectancy and loss of quality of life. Thus, any influence of diet or life habits on the cardiovascular system may have important implications for public health. Most world populations consume alcoholic beverages. Since alcohol may have both protective and harmful effects on cardiovascular health, the identification of biochemical mechanisms that could explain such paradoxical effects is warranted. The vascular endothelium is the target of important mediating pathways of differential ethanol concentrations, such as oxidative stress, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance. Alcohol-induced endothelial damage or protection may be related to the synthesis or action of several markers, such as nitric oxide, cortisol, endothelin-1, adhesion molecules, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and haemostatic factors. The expression of these markers is consistent with the J-shaped curve between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health. However, there is genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in alcohol response, and despite the apparent beneficial biochemical effects of low doses of ethanol, there is not enough clinical and epidemiological evidence to allow the recommendation to consume alcoholic beverages for abstemious individuals. Considering the potential for addiction of alcoholic beverage consumption and other negative consequences of alcohol, it would be worthwhile to identify substances able to mimic the beneficial effects of low doses of ethanol without its adverse effects.

  11. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers.

  12. A cluster randomised controlled trial protocol of an adapted intervention for alcohol use disorders in people living with HIV and AIDS: impact on alcohol use, general functional ability, quality of life and adherence to HAART

    OpenAIRE

    Madhombiro, Munyaradzi; Dube-Marimbe, Bazondlile; Dube, Michelle; Chibanda, Dixon; Zunza, Moleen; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Stewart, David; Seedat, Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Background Interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in HIV infected individuals have been primarily targeted at HIV risk reduction and improved antiretroviral treatment adherence. However, reduction in alcohol use is an important goal. Alcohol use affects other key factors that may influence treatment course and outcome. In this study the authors aim to administer an adapted intervention for AUDs to reduce alcohol use in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods This study is a clust...

  13. Brownian motion in AdS/CFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Hubeny, V.E.; Rangamani, M.; Shigemori, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study Brownian motion and the associated Langevin equation in AdS/CFT. The Brownian particle is realized in the bulk spacetime as a probe fundamental string in an asymptotically AdS black hole background, stretching between the AdS boundary and the horizon. The modes on the string are excited by

  14. An Investigation of AdS2 Backreaction and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Engelsöy, Julius; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski and develop an 1D effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1D version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  15. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  16. Jet physics from static charges in AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W.

    2012-02-01

    Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a “conformal gauge” which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain nonplanar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges’ imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.

  17. Jet Physics from Static Charges in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stewart, Iain W

    2011-01-01

    Soft interactions with high-energy jets are explored in radial coordinates which exploit the approximately conformal behavior of perturbative gauge theories. In these coordinates, the jets, approximated by Wilson lines, become static charges in Euclidean AdS. The anomalous dimension of the corresponding Wilson line operator is then determined by the potential energy of the charges. To study these Wilson lines we introduce a "conformal gauge" which does not have kinetic mixing between radial and angular directions, and show that a number of properties of Wilson lines are reproduced through relatively simple calculations. For example, certain non-planar graphs involving multiple Wilson lines automatically vanish. We also discuss the linear growth of the charges' imaginary potential energy with separation, and a relationship between Wilson line diagrams and Witten diagrams.

  18. Bootstrapping Pure Quantum Gravity in AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lee, Sungjay

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional pure quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is supposed to be dual to the extremal conformal field theory of central charge $c=24k$ in two dimensions. We employ the conformal bootstrap method to analyze the extremal CFTs, and find numerical evidence for the non-existence of the extremal CFTs for sufficiently large central charge ($k \\ge 20$). We also explore near-extremal CFTs, a small modification of extremal ones, and find similar evidence for their non-existence for large central charge. This indicates, under the assumption of holomorphic factorization, the pure gravity in the weakly curved AdS$_3$ do not exist as a consistent quantum theory.

  19. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Cochin (India)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  20. On Information Loss in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS$_3$, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT$_2$ correlators at large central charge $c$: 'forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite $c$, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times $t \\sim S_{BH}$, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the $1/c$ expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify 'information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspo...

  1. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  2. ERPs to Alcohol Images among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Female College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Ceballos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that young women, particularly Latinas, may be at risk for problem drinking during the home-to-college transition. In this study, we used ERP cue-reactivity to explore physiological correlates of alcohol use and expectancies across the freshman year in Hispanic (H and Non-Hispanic White (N-H women. In the fall (t1 and spring (t2 semesters of their freshman year of college, 40 women (16 H reported alcohol use and expectancies. At each session, N200 and P300 ERPs were elicited by two oddball tasks (counterbalanced within session: 1 to detect alcohol targets while ignoring control items (household object distracters and frequently presented nonsense shapes and 2 to detect object targets while ignoring alcohol distracters and nonsense shapes. P300 amplitude was larger for targets (versus non-targets and for alcohol images (versus control images, but did not change over time or differ by ethnicity. P300 latency results included time x target and ethnicity x target interactions. Latency differences for target images were attenuated at t2, and N-Hs were more reactive to stimuli classed as targets regardless of whether these depicted alcohol or control images. N200s had higher amplitude and longer latency at t2, suggesting a change with acclimation to the college setting, but did not differ by target status, image type or ethnic group. P300 latency was positively correlated with the personalismo subscale of acculturation indicating that individuals with more social, people-oriented personalities were more distracted by alcohol images when they appeared as non-targets. N200 amplitude was correlated with positive alcohol expectancies, and this pattern changed over time (t1 versus t2, suggesting subtle, expectancy-related changes in alcohol processing as students acclimated to the college setting. Taken together, these results suggest that the cue-reactivity paradigm described here may be a useful tool for examining subtle physiological

  3. Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  5. Oropharynx microbiota among alcoholics and non-alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Golin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The oropharynx microbiota plays an important role in the origin of infections, especially among alcoholics whose airway defenses are impaired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the normal oropharingeal flora in heavy alcohol drinker and non-alcoholics. PATIENTS: 117 persons, 58 heavy alcohol drinkers and 59 non-alcoholics. SETTING: Santa Casa de São Paulo Emergency Service. DESIGN: A blind prospective study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: The study of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy alcohol drinkers demonstrated the presence of anaerobic microorganisms in 84.5% of them, including: Bacteroides sp, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium sp, Veilonella sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Propionibacterium sp, Bifidobacterium sp and Clostridium sp, versus 30.5% (p<0.005 of non-alcoholics. Candida sp was present in 34.5% of heavy alcohol drinkers and 5.1% of non-alcoholics (p<0.005. Enterobacteria predominated among heavy alcohol drinkers (25% compared with non-alcoholics (5.5% only in the age group 14 to 34 years (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Based upon these results, it was possible to conclude that the knowledge of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy drinkers and non-alcoholics has an important predictive value concerning probable etiologic agents of lower airway infections. Infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms and fungi should be taken into consideration during the choice of empirical therapy for heavy alcohol drinkers.

  6. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  7. Predictors of the 2-year recurrence and persistence of alcohol dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van den Brink, Wim; Smit, Johannes H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Aims To identify independent risk factors of the recurrence of alcohol dependence (AD) in people with a remitted disorder at baseline and persistence of AD in people with a current disorder at baseline. Design Prospective cohort study with assessments at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Setting Recrui

  8. Association of ADH4 genetic variants with alcohol dependence risk and related phenotypes: results from a larger multicenter association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Ulrich W; Ridinger, Monika; Rujescu, Dan; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Fehr, Christoph; Wurst, Friedrich M; Koller, Gabriele; Bondy, Brigitta; Wodarz, Norbert; Debniak, Tadeusz; Grzywacz, Anna; Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Genetic variants of the alcohol-metabolizing enzyme ADH4, located on chromosome 4q22-4q23, have been related to alcohol dependence (AD) risk in previous research. The aim of this association study in a large multicenter sample of alcohol-dependent individuals and controls is to confirm ADH4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype association with AD and relevant related phenotypes. One thousand, six hundred and twenty-two (1622) inpatient subjects and 1469 control subjects with DSM-IV. AD from four addiction treatment centres were included. Characteristics of AD and related phenotypes including alcohol withdrawal, Cloninger's type I and II and first ages of drinking, regular drinking and AD onset were obtained using standardized structured interviews. After subjects were genotyped for 2 ADH4 polymorphisms, single SNP case-control and haplotype analyses were conducted. Both variants--rs1800759 and rs1042364--and the A-A and C-G haplotypes were significantly related to AD across samples. Furthermore, associations with AD-related phenotypes and subtypes revealed a potential protective influence of this haplotype. This study confirms the significant relationship of ADH4 variants with AD and related phenotypes. While the rs1800759 and rs1042364 A-A haplotype had a potential protective influence on the risk for several AD-related phenotypes, this effect is rather small compared to functional variants of other alcohol or acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes like ALDH2*2 or ADH1B*2.

  9. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  11. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  12. AdS/CFT Duality User Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natsuume, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    This is the draft version of a textbook on "real-world" applications of the AdS/CFT duality for beginning graduate students in particle physics and for researchers in the other fields. The aim of this book is to provide background materials such as string theory, general relativity, nuclear physics, nonequilibrium physics, and condensed-matter physics as well as some key applications of the AdS/CFT duality in a single textbook. Contents: (1) Introduction, (2) General relativity and black holes, (3) Black holes and thermodynamics, (4) Strong interaction and gauge theories, (5) The road to AdS/CFT, (6) The AdS spacetime, (7) AdS/CFT - equilibrium, (8) AdS/CFT - adding probes, (9) Basics of nonequilibrium physics, (10) AdS/CFT - nonequilibrium, (11) Other AdS spacetimes, (12) Applications to quark-gluon plasma, (13) Basics of phase transition, (14) AdS/CFT - phase transition.

  13. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  14. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  15. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  16. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  17. Mass Transfer Enhancement of Gas Absorption by Adding the Dispersed Organic Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 许天行; 李文秀; 纪智玲; 许光荣

    2011-01-01

    Mass transfer enhancement of gas absorption by adding a dispersed organic phase has been studied in this work. Various dispersed organic phases (heptanol, octanol, isoamyl alcohol, heptane, octane, and isooctane) were tested respectively in the experiment. According to the theoretical model and experimental data, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient and enhancement factor were obtained under different dispersed organic phase volume fraction and stirring speed. The experimental results indicate that gas-liquid mass transfer is enhanced at different level by adding a dispersed organic phase. The best performance of enhancement were achieved with the dispersed organic phase volumetric fraction of 5% and under an intermediate stirring speed of 670 r·min^-1. Among the organic phases tested in the experiment, alcohols show better performance, which gave 20% higher enhance-ment of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient than adding alkanes.

  18. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... on the aimed output) and the internal resource based view (with a focus on the input from FM and RE). Good relationship management and building on trust shows to be equally important as delivering the agreed services. In order to measure the multi-dimensional components of adding value both qualitative...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions...

  19. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart;

    2013-01-01

    can be managed. Today the significance of early and precise diagnosis of AD is emphasized in order to minimize its irreversible effects on the nervous system. When new drugs and therapies enter the market it is also vital to effectively identify the right candidates to benefit from these. The main...... candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials....

  20. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  1. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.

  2. The Risks Associated With Alcohol Use and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiov...

  3. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  4. Alcohol y campaniforme

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Cuesta, A. (Antonio)

    2005-01-01

    Los recientes hallazgos de cerveza en recipientes neolíticos y campaniformes ofrecen una nueva base empírica sobre la que replantear ciertas hipótesis. El panorama que dibuja la documentación actual impide que aceptemos sin crítica planteamientos que, como los de Andrew Sherratt, suponen el marco de referencia para la interpretación del alcohol en la Prehistoria Reciente europea. Se plantea una vía indígena occidental para la elaboración de alcoholes y se pone en duda el gran valo...

  5. Towards Timelike Singularity via AdS Dual

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmick, Samrat

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Kasner geometry with spacelike singularity can be extended to bulk AdS-like geometry, furthermore one can study field theory on this Kasner space via its gravity dual. In this paper, we show that there exists a Kasner-like geometry with timelike singularity for which one can construct a dual gravity description. We then study various minimal surfaces including spacelike geodesics. Finally, we compute correlators of highly massive operators in the boundary field theory with a geodesic approximation.

  6. Holography in 3D AdS gravity with torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojević, Milutin; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Basic aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence are studied in the framework of 3-dimensional gravity with torsion. After choosing a consistent holographic ansatz, we formulate an improved approach to the Noether--Ward identities for the boundary theory. The method is applied first to the topological Mielke--Baekler model, and then to the more interesting (parity-preserving) 3-dimensional gravity with propagating torsion. In both cases, we find the finite holographic energy-momentum and spin currents and obtain the associated (anomalous) Noether--Ward identities.

  7. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  8. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  9. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  10. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Symptom-Triggered versus Fixed-Schedule Treatment in an Outpatient Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, B.; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, N.;

    2011-01-01

    , time to relapse and patient satisfaction were measured. Patients assessed their symptoms using the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS). Patient satisfaction was monitored by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Well-Being Index and the European addiction severity index......Aims: To investigate whether, in the treatment with chlordiazepoxide for outpatient alcohol withdrawal, there are advantages of symptom-triggered self-medication over a fixed-schedule regimen. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in outpatient clinics for people suffering from alcohol dependence...... (AD) and alcohol-related problems; 165 adult patients in an outpatient setting in a specialized alcohol treatment unit were randomized 1:1 to either a symptom-triggered self-medication or tapered dose, using chlordiazepoxide. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, amount of medication, duration of symptoms...

  11. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  12. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  13. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  14. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  15. [Trans-Cultural Prevention of Alcohol-Related Disorders in Elderly Immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, I; Frank, F

    2015-09-01

    In migrants alcohol-related problems increase with increasing age. This group, in particular, is hardly reached by alcohol-specific care offers. Thus our project aimed at the identification of target group-specific barriers to health-care use by means of a cross-sectional study (n=435). Based on these results a trans-cultural concept for alcohol prevention among elderly migrants was developed and evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n=176).

  16. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  17. On modular properties of the AdS3 CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Walter

    2010-01-01

    We study modular properties of the AdS3 WZNW model. Although the Euclidean partition function is modular invariant, the characters on the Euclidean torus are ill-defined and their modular transformations are unknown. We reconsider the characters defined on the Lorentzian torus, focusing on their structure as distributions. We find a generalized S matrix, depending on the sign of the real modular parameters, which has two diagonal blocks and one off-diagonal block, mixing discrete and continuous representations, that we fully determine. We then explore the relations among the modular transformations, the fusion algebra and the boundary states. We explicitly construct Ishibashi states for the maximally symmetric D-branes and show that the generalized S matrix defines the one-point functions associated to point-like and H2 branes as well as the fusion rules of the degenerate representations of SL(2,R) appearing in the open string spectrum of the point-like D-branes, through a generalized Verlinde theorem.

  18. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  19. The ADS All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  20. Alcohol dehydration: Mechanism of ether formation using an alumina catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, B.; Davis, B.H. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Ether formation during the dehydration of secondary alcohols, namely, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-cyclopentylethanol, was investigated. Using the proper reaction conditions, the yield of di-2-butyl ether during the dehydration of 2-butanol on alumina can be as high as 40%. That ether is formed by adding an alcohol to the alkene is ruled out by the results from deuterium tracer studies. Results from experiments using S(+)- 2-butanol suggest that the formation of di-2-butyl ether occurs by a S{sub N}2-type mechanism. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  2. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  3. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  4. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  6. Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to approach that person. Genetic, psychological, social and environmental factors can impact how drinking alcohol affects your body and behavior. ... that may be crowding your mind and causing stress. Acupuncture. With ... under the skin. Acupuncture may help reduce anxiety and depression. Many ...

  7. The structure of N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in AdS_4

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the most general N=2 supersymmetric sigma models in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS_4 formulated in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is demonstrated to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field which generates an SO(2) group of rotations on the two-sphere of complex structures and necessarily leaves one of them invariant. All hyperkahler cones, that is the target spaces of N=2 superconformal sigma models, prove to possess such a vector field that belongs to the Lie algebra of an isometry group SU(2) acting by rotations on the complex structures. A unique property of the N=2 sigma models constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations closes off the mass shell. We uncover the underlying N=2 superfield formulation for the N=2 sigma models constructed and compute the associated N=2 supercurrent. We give a special analysis of the most general systems of self-interacting N=2 tensor multiplets in A...

  8. Hybrid Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Relaxation Training for Co-Occurring Anxiety and Alcohol Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Matt G.; Maurer, Eric W.; Thuras, Paul; Donahue, Chris; Frye, Brenda; Menary, Kyle R.; Hobbs, Jennifer; Haeny, Angela M.; Van Demark, Joani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is far less effective for those with a co-occurring anxiety disorder. Surprisingly, adding an independent anxiety treatment to AUD treatment does not substantially improve the poor alcohol outcomes of these patients. This may reflect the lack of attention from independent treatments to the…

  9. Base-free Pd/TOMPP-Catalyzed Telomerization of 1,3-Butadiene with Carbohydrates and sugar alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausoul, P.J.C.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar and alcohol - a superior combo: The telomerization activity of the Pd/TOMPP catalyst is screened using thirteen different biomass-derived carbohydrates and sugar alcohols. High substrate conversions are achieved by using low Pd loading and without the use of an added base. In terms of butadien

  10. N-acetylcysteine Prevents Alcohol Related Neuroinflammation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ricardo; Bandiera, Solange; Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Caletti, Greice; Quincozes-Santos, André; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Gomez, Rosane

    2017-03-16

    Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days. Rats were treated, from day 31 to 34, with NAC (60 or 90 mg/kg) or saline, intraperitoneally, once daily. Rats were sacrificed at day 35, trunk blood was collected and the frontal cortex and hippocampus dissected for assessment of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10. NAC prevented the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. No changes were observed on serum cytokines. We conclude that NAC protects against inflammation induced by chronic (30 days) alcohol ingestion followed by 5 days cessation in two rat brain areas. Because inflammation has been documented and associated with craving and relapse in alcoholics, the data revealed by this study points to the validity of NAC clinical evaluation in the context of alcohol detoxification and withdrawal.

  11. Automatic activation of alcohol cues by child maltreatment related words: a replication attempt in a different treatment setting

    OpenAIRE

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcoho...

  12. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus.

  13. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  14. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  15. Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, T H; Miller, W R; Tonigan, J S

    1993-03-01

    Relatively brief interventions have consistently been found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption or achieving treatment referral of problem drinkers. To date, the literature includes at least a dozen randomized trials of brief referral or retention procedures, and 32 controlled studies of brief interventions targeting drinking behavior, enrolling over 6000 problem drinkers in both health care and treatment settings across 14 nations. These studies indicate that brief interventions are more effective than no counseling, and often as effective as more extensive treatment. The outcome literature is reviewed, and common motivational elements of effective brief interventions are described. There is encouraging evidence that the course of harmful alcohol use can be effectively altered by well-designed intervention strategies which are feasible within relatively brief-contact contexts such as primary health care settings and employee assistance programs. Implications for future research and practice are considered.

  16. Aerobic Exercise for Alcohol Recovery: Rationale, Program Description, and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are a major public health concern. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of a number of different treatments for alcohol dependence, relapse remains a major problem. Healthy lifestyle changes may contribute to long-term maintenance of recovery, and interventions targeting physical activity, in particular, may be especially…

  17. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents i

  18. A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Nasereldin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.

  19. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  20. Social Support and Relationship Satisfaction as Moderators of the Stress-Mood-Alcohol Link Association in US Navy Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Veprinsky, Anna; Robbins, Allison T; Snell, Alicia K

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined associations between stress and problematic alcohol use among US Navy members anticipating deployment, whether depressive symptoms mediated the stress-alcohol link, and whether social support and relationship satisfaction moderated associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. Participants were 108 US Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Stress was indirectly related to problematic alcohol use such that higher levels of stress were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which were further associated with higher levels of alcohol use. The indirect effect of stress to problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms was tested at different levels of social support and relationship satisfaction. At higher levels of social support and relationship satisfaction, the association between stress and problematic alcohol use via depressive symptoms decreased. Results help identify targets for alcohol prevention efforts among current military members.

  1. The price of a drink: the potential of alcohol minimum unit pricing as a public health measure in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Peter; Drummond, Colin

    2012-09-01

    The UK has seen a dramatic increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm over the past 30 years. Alcohol taxation has long been considered a key method of controlling alcohol-related harm but a combination of factors has recently led to consideration of methods which affect the price of the cheapest alcohol as a means of improved targeting of alcohol control measures to curb the consumption of the heaviest drinkers. Although much of the evidence in favour of setting a minimum price of a unit of alcohol is based on complex econometric models rather than empirical data, all jurisdictions within the UK now intend to make selling alcohol below a set price illegal, which will provide a naturalistic experiment allowing assessment of the impact of minimum pricing.

  2. Alcohol and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The frequent co-abuse of alcohol and tobacco may suggest that they share some common neurological mechanisms. For example, nicotine acts on Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in the brain to release dopamine to sustain addiction. Might nAChRs be entwined with alcohol? Objectives This review summarizes recent studies on the relationship between alcohol and nAChRs, including the role of nAChRs in molecular biological studies, genetic studies and pharmacological studies on alcohol, which indicate that nAChRs have been potently modulated by alcohol. Methods We performed a cross-referenced literature search on biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol and nAChRs. Results Molecular biological and genetic studies indicated that nAChR (genes may be important in mediating alcohol intake, but we still lack substantial evidence about how it works. Pharmacological studies proved the correlation between nAChRs and alcohol intake, and the association between nicotine and alcohol at the nAChRs. The positive findings of varenicline (a partial agonist at the _4_2 nAChR, smoking-cessation pharmaceutical treatment for alcoholism, provides a new insight for treating co-abuse of these two substances. >Conclusions Molecular biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol at the nAChR level, provide a new sight for preventing and treating the co-abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Given the important role of nAChRs in nicotine dependence, the interaction between alcohol and nAChRs would provide a new insight in finding effective pharmacological treatments, in decreasing or stopping alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking concurrently.

  3. Conformational transition and mass transfer in extraction of proteins by AOT--alcohol--isooctane reverse micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D P; Lee, S S; Kuboi, R

    2000-06-23

    We examined quantitatively the effect of alcohols on protein and reverse micellar structure. We used circular dichroism (CD) to compare the effects of various alcohols on the protein structure, and percolation phenomena to evaluate the effects of various alcohols on reverse micellar structure. Upon the addition of alcohols to the bulk aqueous phase, proteins were denatured significantly, depending on the alcohol species and concentration, suggesting that use of alcohol directly to the stripping solution is not effective in back-extraction processes of proteins. In the present study, a new method, a small amount of alcohol is added to the surfactant-organic solution to improve the back-extraction behaviors of proteins. Practically, in the back-extraction process, the alcohols suppressing the cluster formation of reverse micelles (high value of beta1), remarkably improved the back-extraction behavior of proteins. In addition, the same alcohol molecules showed a positive effect on the rate and fraction of protein back-extraction. From a result of the CD measurement of the back-extracted proteins, it was known that the alcohols added to reverse micellar solution allowed the proteins to back-extract safely without causing structural changes. These results show that the values of beta(t), defined by the variation of percolation processes, and the back-extraction behaviors of proteins have a good relationship, suggesting that the back-extraction processes were controlled by the micellar-micellar and protein-micellar interactions.

  4. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  5. Role of alcohol metabolism in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4 and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6. Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1 alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2 there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD.

  6. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  7. Differences in extinction of cue-maintained conditioned responses associated with self-administration: alcohol versus a non-alcoholic reinforcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F.; Kaminski, Barbara J.; Wand, Gary S.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimuli paired with alcohol may evoke conditioned responses that influence consumption and relapse. Understanding extinction of conditioned responses for both alcohol and non-alcoholic reinforcers, and their relation to subsequent consumption, may be useful in identifying methods to maintain abstinence. Methods Nine baboons self-administered alcohol (n=4) or a non-alcoholic reinforcer (orange-flavored Tang®, n=5) under a three-component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Each component was associated with distinct stimuli and response requirements, which modeled periods of anticipation (Component 1), seeking (Component 2), and consumption (Component 3). No behavioral contingencies were in effect during Component 1. Responses in Component 2, required to gain access to Component 3, provided indices of seeking behavior. Alcohol or Tang was available only in Component 3. Initial conditions parametrically manipulated the concentration of alcohol (2–6% w/v) or Tang (25–100%) that was available for self-administration. The breaking point (BP) of alcohol- and Tang-seeking responses at each of the concentrations was determined by adding a progressive ratio schedule to Component 2. Extinction of responding under stimulus conditions identical to those during baseline, but with no access to alcohol or Tang, was examined using across- and within-session extinction procedures. Results The BP for 2% w/v alcohol was lower than that for 4% and 6%, which were closely similar. For Tang, BPs increased as the concentration increased. When concentrations of alcohol and Tang were adjusted to produce comparable BPs, self-administration of Tang was higher when compared to alcohol; however, alcohol-related cues maintained higher BPs than Tang-related cues when only water was available for self-administration. Alcohol seeking and self-administration responses were more resistant to extinction than those for Tang. Conclusions Stimuli paired with alcohol or non-alcoholic

  8. Stringy Membranes in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Linardopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    We study membrane configurations in AdS_{7/4}xS^{4/7}. The membranes are wrapped around the compact manifold S^{4/7} and are dynamically equivalent to bosonic strings in AdS_5. We thus conveniently identify them as "stringy membranes". For the case of AdS_7xS^4, their construction is carried out by embedding the Polyakov action for classical bosonic strings in AdS_5, into the corresponding membrane action. Therefore, every string configuration in AdS_5 can be realized by an appropriately chosen stringy membrane in AdS_7xS^4. We discuss the possibility of this being also the case for stringy membranes in AdS_4xS^7/Z^k (k > 1 or k = 1). By performing a stability analysis to the constructed solutions, we find that the (membrane) fluctuations along their transverse directions are organized in multiple Lam\\'{e} stability bands and gaps in the space of parameters of the configurations. In this membrane picture, strings exhibit a single band/gap structure. Since the spectrum of quadratic fluctuations is important fo...

  9. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paille F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available François Paille, Hervé Martini Department of Addiction Treatment, University Hospital, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France Abstract: Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence, reduction, consumption, damage reduction, drug therapy, nalmefene

  10. Chemical analysis and risk assessment of diethyl phthalate in alcoholic beverages with special regard to unrecorded alcohol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1 ratio 1 to 50 ratio 1 and the number of extraction repetitions (1-10. The best extraction yield (99.9% was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10 ratio 1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257. Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered.

  11. Association of ADH and ALDH Genes With Alcohol Dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kalsi, Gursharan; Prescott, Carol A.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; van den Oord, Edwin J.; Alexander, Jeffry; Jiang, Cizhong; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Riley, Brien P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The genes coding for ethanol metabolism enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)] have been widely studied for their influence on the risk to develop alcohol dependence (AD). However, the relation between polymorphisms of these metabolism genes and AD in Caucasian subjects has not been clearly established. The present study examined evidence for the association of alcohol metabolism genes with AD in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence. Methods: We conducted a case–control association study with 575 independent subjects who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, AD diagnosis and 530 controls. A total of 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the seven ADH (ADH1-7) and two ALDH genes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate protocols. Several statistical procedures were implemented to control for false discoveries. Results: All markers with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln). Haplotypic association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci. We detected two significant interactions between pairs of markers in intron 6 of ADH6 and intron 12 of ALDH2 (p = 5 × 10−5), and 5′ of both ADH4 and ADH1A (p = 2 × 10−4). Conclusion: We found evidence for the association of several ADH genes with AD in a sample of Western European origin. The significant interaction effects between markers in ADH and ALDH genes suggest possible epistatic roles between alcohol metabolic enzymes in the risk for AD. PMID:18331377

  12. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  13. Effect of Long Chain Alcohol on the Self Assembling Nature of CTAB/KBr/Alcohol System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasila, K.; Sreejith, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    Surfactants self-assemble in bulk aqueous solution to form different microstructure. The self assembled structures may easily rearrange if parameters like concentration, ionic strength, or temperature are changed, which renders self-assembled systems particularly interesting. Here we examine the influence of n-nonanol and n-decanol on the viscosity behaviour of CTAB/KBr system. The alcohols of varying concentrations were added to CTAB/KBr solutions and were kept in a hot bath at a temperature of 45 °C with proper shaking for homogeneity. The viscosity of the micellar solution was measured using Brookfield DV-II + viscometer at temperatures ranging from 25-60 °C. It is observed that the η0 is a strong function of concentration of alcohols. In the case of nonanol four regions were identified in the plot of zero shear viscosity Vs. concentration of alcohol. At low C0, viscosity is low (Region I). With increase in concentration of alcohols the spherical micelles will grow into cylinders and at higher C0, they entangle with each other to form worm like micelles, indicated by a rapid increase in viscosity resulting in a peak (Region II). Subsequent to this observation a decrease of η0 (Region III) followed by a plateau is observed. The drastic decrease in viscosity could be due to decrease in the mean size of the micelles or due to the formation of other self assembled structures. With further increase in C0 the viscosity again decreases. In this region the micellar solution is turbid and show optically birefringence In region (IV), it show very interesting viscosity behavior. Here viscosity increases with increase in temperature. Only three regions were identified in the case of CTAB/KBr/decanol system and there was no lyotropic liquid crystal formation at high concentration. Thus by just increasing the length of alcohol by one carbon, there was drastic change in their property.

  14. Using expression genetics to study the neurobiology of ethanol and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Sean P; Wolen, Aaron R; Miles, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Recent simultaneous progress in human and animal model genetics and the advent of microarray whole genome expression profiling have produced prodigious data sets on genetic loci, potential candidate genes, and differential gene expression related to alcoholism and ethanol behaviors. Validated target genes or gene networks functioning in alcoholism are still of meager proportions. Genetical genomics, which combines genetic analysis of both traditional phenotypes and whole genome expression data, offers a potential methodology for characterizing brain gene networks functioning in alcoholism. This chapter will describe concepts, approaches, and recent findings in the field of genetical genomics as it applies to alcohol research.

  15. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  16. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  17. Binge-like ingestion of a combination of an energy drink and alcohol leads to cognitive deficits and motivational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2015-09-01

    The combination of alcohol with an energy drink (ED) is believed to contribute to risky alcohol-drinking behaviors, such as binge drinking. However, the long-term effects on cognition and reward function that are caused by the repeated binge-like ingestion of alcohol and EDs are still poorly known. The present study examined the effects of a history of repeated exposure to alcohol and/or an ED on short-term memory and alcohol-seeking behavior. Male Wistar rats were given daily intragastric administration of alcohol (3.4g/kg) combined or not with an ED (10.71ml/kg) for 6 consecutive days. The rats were tested for locomotion 15min after the first intragastric treatment. Short-term memory was assessed in the novel object recognition and social discrimination tests 2-3days after the last intragastric administration. The rewarding effect of alcohol was tested 1-3weeks following the last intragastric administration in a conditioned place preference paradigm. The acute binge-like ingestion of alcohol decreased locomotor activity, whereas the combination of alcohol and an ED increased locomotion in the first minutes of assessment. Alcohol exposure produced cognitive deficits in both the object recognition and social discrimination tests, and adding the ED to the alcohol solution did not modify these effects. The combination of alcohol and the ED increased alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. Thus, a history of binge-like alcohol exposure combined with the ED caused subsequent cognitive deficits and increased alcohol seeking behavior, and such behavioral effects might contribute to the progression to alcohol abuse disorders.

  18. Corrective Ad Valorem and Unit Taxes: A Welfare Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Dröge, Susanne

    The ad valorem versus unit taxes debate has traditionally emphasized tax yield. For this criterion, ad valorem taxes outperform unit taxes in terms of welfare for a wide range of imperfect competition settings, including Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition. Yet, in a number of policy fields......, such as environmental, health or trade economics, policy makers apply taxes to target the production/consumption volume in an industry, i.e. aim at a certain corrective effect rather than tax yield. This paper compares the two tax instruments with respect to equal corrective-effect in a Dixit-Stiglitz setting with love...... of variety, entry, exit, and redistribution of tax revenues. We find that unit taxes lead to more firms in the industry, less output per firm, less tax revenue, but higher welfare compared to ad valorem taxes....

  19. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  20. Pregabalin in the treatment of alcohol and benzodiazepines dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulis, Panagiotis; Konstantakopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    We review all available studies on the use of the newer anticonvulsant drug pregabalin (PGB) in the treatment of both alcohol dependence (AD) and benzodiazepine dependence (BD). In AD, the available evidence includes one open-label and one double-blind randomized studies, whereas in BD, only a few case reports and one open-label study are as yet available. In both conditions, PGB was found efficacious with significant improvement in withdrawal symptoms at the dosage ranges of 150-450 mg/day (AD) and 225-900 mg/day (BD). Moreover, its side effects were mild and transient. Despite the limited quality of the studies design, their findings suggest that PGB might constitute a novel efficacious and safe option in the treatment of both AD and BD.