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Sample records for alcohol abusers compared

  1. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Gelbier; Peters, Timothy J.; Derek J. Cooper; Saman Warnakulasuriya; Harris, Colin K.; Dasanayake, Ananda P.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanatio...

  2. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  5. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R;

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...

  6. Estudo comparativo das habilidades sociais de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool Comparative study of social skills among alcohol abusers and non abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Patrício Aliane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar e comparar diferenças nas habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool. Foram pesquisados 80 sujeitos, entre dependentes e não-dependentes, usuários do SUS, e usados dois instrumentos para coleta dos dados: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS e AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Foi realizado um estudo comparativo das HS entre os grupos de dependentes e não-dependentes de álcool e álcool e outras drogas (AOD. Os resultados obtidos mostraram não existir diferença no escore do IHS entre dependentes e não-dependentes. Os homens obtiveram maior média nas habilidades de conversação e desenvoltura social e autocontrole da agressividade que as mulheres e, na amostra masculina, dependentes de álcool apresentaram maior média na habilidade de autocontrole da agressividade que dependentes de AOD. Apesar de a literatura sobre o tema discutir os déficits de HS entre dependentes, este estudo não confirmou esta hipótese.This research aims to evaluate and compare differences in Social Skills of alcohol abusers and non-abusers. Eighty people were interviewed, among alcohol abusers and non-abusers, patients of a Health Care Center (SUS. Two instruments were used to collect the data: Social Skills Inventory (ISS and AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A Comparative study between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers including other drugs was carried out. The results showed that there is no difference between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers ISS scores. Men showed a better score in conversation and social abilities also in self-control of the aggressiveness than women did. In addiction, men addicted to alcohol showed a better score in self-control of the aggressiveness than men addicted to alcohol and other drugs. Although literature about this topic shows that the alcohol abuse have an decrease of these social skills, this research does not

  7. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Thavarajah Rooban; K M Vidya; Elizabeth Joshua; Anita Rao; Shanthi Ranganathan; Umadevi K Rao; K Ranganathan

    2011-01-01

    Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significan...

  8. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  9. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  11. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use)...

  12. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  13. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  14. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  15. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  16. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form ... Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current ...

  17. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...

  18. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...

  19. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  20. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  1. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  3. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  4. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  6. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  8. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  10. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pompili

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.

  11. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect......Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...

  12. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  13. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council...

  14. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  15. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. Semantic and visual memory after alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, D C

    1986-05-01

    This study compared the relative performance of 40 patients (M age = 31.7) with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. This result is consistent with previous results obtained on tests of intelligence despite the added requirement of encoding, storing, and retrieving data inherent in the memory tasks. This result provides support for the contention that visuospatial and visuomotor skills evince primary residual impairment secondary to the abuse of alcohol. The significance of this result, in light of previous research, is discussed. PMID:3711356

  18. Youths and Alcohol Abuse: A Continuing Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Defines problem drinking and alcoholism, and differentiates normal drinking escapes from alcohol abuse by teenagers and other youths. Suggests teenagers consume alcohol for a myriad of reasons and this behavior often leads to alcohol dependence which can cause interference in normal relationships with others. (Author)

  19. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  20. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  1. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  2. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): www.niaaa.nih.gov Research funded by the NIH's National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) found that over a recent seven-year ...

  3. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  4. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  5. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  6. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting...

  7. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for fa...

  8. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The...: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  10. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  11. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The..., Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  12. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  13. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  14. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  15. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  17. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  19. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  20. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  1. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  2. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  3. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  4. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  5. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  6. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The.... Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes...

  7. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  8. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  9. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30 p.m... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  10. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  11. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m. to... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  12. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  13. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  14. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  15. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  16. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  17. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  19. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  20. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  1. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Scientific Review Officer, National Inst on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  2. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  4. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  5. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  6. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  7. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  8. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  9. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  10. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  11. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  12. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  14. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  15. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  17. Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlainDervaux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Material and Methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (n=34 and in a group without lifetime substance abuse or dependence (n=66. The patients were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI for DSM-III-R disorders, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS, the Zuckerman Seeking Sensation Scale (SSS, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS. Results: The mean scores for impulsivity and sensation seeking were higher in the group with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence than in the group without substance abuse or dependence (BIS: 63.4 SD: 18,7 vs 51.3 SD: 14.2 respectively, ANOVA: F=11.12, p=0.001; SSS: 17.6 SD: 5.9 vs 13.5 SD: 6.7 respectively, ANOVA: F=7.45, p=0.008. There was no significant differences between the two groups on PAS score. Conclusion: Increased impulsivity or sensation seeking may be a link between schizophrenia and alcohol abuse or dependence.

  18. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  19. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  20. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  1. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  2. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, MD...

  3. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  4. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2081, Rockville, Md...

  5. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Bethesda, MD...

  6. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  7. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  8. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  10. Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Dervaux; Xavier Laqueille; Marie-Chantal Bourdel; Jean-Pierre Olié; Marie-Odile Krebs

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alc...

  11. Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157800.html Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds Research ... with burnout, the cost of medical education and alcohol abuse," she said in a Mayo news release. ...

  12. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug...

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Weiner, Michael W.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  14. A general perspective of alcohol abuse among elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Karanja, Joseph; Lindroos, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This subject was chosen because alcohol abuse among elderly is a growing problem which is hidden and hasn’t been given enough attention. The purpose is to provide essential information about alcohol problems amongst the elderly, theories about causes and based best practices in alcohol problem treatment and rehabilitation. The study is intended to be of help in highlighting a practical help model of treatment for alcohol abusers. Research questions were: Why do elderly abuse alcohol? What are...

  15. Alcohol Advertising Bans and Alcohol Abuse: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect on alcohol abuse of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The effect of a ban cannot be studied using data from one country because the adoption of new advertising bans is an infrequent event and requires many years for adjustment. However, an international data set can be used since there is considerable variation in the use of advertising bans across countries. The data used in this study are a pooled time series...

  16. Elderly Abuse and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusac, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the exposure of the elderly to family violence are in close connection. They represent both a general and social problem from a legal, medical and social aspect. The objectives of this study were to 1) test the frequency of alcohol consumption in older persons with respect to certain social and demographic characteristics; and 2) test the correlation between alcohol consumption and family violence towards the elderly. The sample used in this study was constructed as probabilistic with a random selection of participants in order to ensure representativeness for the City of Zagreb population over 65 years. The study included 1000 persons older than 65, among which 38% were male (N = 380) and 62% female (N = 620). The results showed a significantly more frequent consumption of alcohol among older men aged between 65 and 74, elderly people with life partners (unmarried), and financially independent older persons. A correlation between alcohol consumption frequency and exposure to violence was also established, as well as that older persons who consume alcohol are more likely to commit acts of violence. Further research is needed on the risk and protective factors for specific forms of family violence so as to detect the causes of violence within families as well as mechanisms that al- leviate coping with violence. PMID:26987154

  17. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  18. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  19. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  20. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21,...

  1. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  2. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  3. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...). Contact Person: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol...

  4. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special... shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  5. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  6. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  7. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  8. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health,...

  9. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  10. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes of...

  11. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. Carolyn...

  12. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  13. Progress and Compliance in Alcohol Abuse Treatment*

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Hsien-Ming; Lu, Mingshan; Ma, Ching-to Albert; Thomas G. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Improving patient compliance with physicians’ treatment or prescription recommendations is an important goal in medical practice. We examine the relationship between treatment progress and patient compliance. We hypothesize that patients balance expected benefits and costs during a treatment episode when deciding on compliance; a patient is more likely to comply if doing so results in an expected gain in health benefit. We use a unique data set of outpatient alcohol abuse treatment to identif...

  14. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  15. [Acute and chronic alcohol abuse and work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, L; Bordini, L

    2008-01-01

    A not moderate alcohol consumption or its abuse have relevant consequences not only on the health of the general population but also on the possibility to carry out any work in safety conditions. These behaviours have focused the attention of the institutions, which have promoted in the last years a growing number of preventive and informative actions and have adopted specific laws that have significantly involved the figure of occupational physician. Over the clinical implications, in fact, those behaviours, in the employment context, are associated with an increased risk of injuries (from 10 to 30% of total), an increase in the number of absences from work, with greater precariousness, with the possible interaction and/or strengthening of other occupational toxics and with the progressive reduction of working capacity. Diagnostic tools available for the detection of alcohol abuse or dependency consist, in acute cases by direct measuring of alcohol on blood, saliva and exhaled air, while in the chronic situations in addiction to the more traditional indicators (AST, ALT, GGT, MCV) there are recently introduced marker (CDT)--or in validation (ethyl glucuronide)--that representing, also with specific questionnaires (AUDIT, MAST, MALT, CAGE), useful integrated tools in the clinical-diagnostic path. The role and contribution of occupational medicine in the management of alcohol related problems is vital and relevant. Must be clear however that these are problems associated with a particular behaviour of the person and not with risks present on work-site. PMID:19288791

  16. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...-2067, srinivar@mail.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271,...

  17. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, September 12, 2011, 3:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m., September 13, 2011, 9 a.m. to 1...

  18. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...

  19. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past ... developing new intervention tools and techniques to help colleges, students, and their parents cope more effectively with alcohol ...

  20. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...

  1. The Effects of Alcohol Regulation on Physical Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Michael Grossman

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the established relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of measures of the ease of obtaining alcohol, illegal drug prices, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the parent on the incidence of child abuse. ...

  2. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  3. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  4. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2012, 4 p.m. to March 29, 2012, 8 p.m., Legacy... Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2304. This meeting will now be held at 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville...

  5. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  6. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2009-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I ...

  7. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Mao-Sheng; Jiang, Ying; YAN, XIAO-YUAN HU; Zhao, Qing-hua; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wen-zhi ZHANG; He, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, lab...

  8. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  9. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  10. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among Latino Adolescents: A Strategy for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Aquirre-Molina, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a prevention program funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1978 for Latino youth in East Harlem. Literature on Latino youth and alcohol use is reviewed, followed by a description of the program, its setting, and its evaluative methodology. (Author/JAZ)

  11. Hospital resource utilization by American Indians/Alaska Natives for alcoholism and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisnanick, J J; Erickson, P M

    1993-01-01

    Previous work examining the issue of alcoholism and alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives can be broadly categorized as either descriptions of the consumption patterns and behaviors of specific tribes or mortality studies, focusing on deaths due to alcoholism, alcohol abuse, chronic liver disease, or cirrhosis. A major shortcoming of previous studies has been that they have not looked at the burden this problem has imposed upon the system of health care delivery for this minority population. By using an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification taxonomy of diagnostic codes developed by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) and the national Indian Health Service (IHS) inpatient database for direct and contract admissions, utilization patterns for 43 IHS facilities were investigated. The period of study was 1980-1988, and our case definition included any individual 14 years and older who had any mention upon discharge of an alcohol-related diagnosis (ARD). For the 9-year period under investigation, 43,302 adult inpatient admissions occurred at the 43 IHS facilities for ARD. These admissions accounted for an overall estimated per annum rate of 13.7% of the adult inpatient days. In addition, age and gender specific discharge rates for ARD were estimated and compared to reported ARD discharge rates of the United States civilian population prepared by the NIAAA using the National Hospital Discharge Survey over the period 1979-1988. In contrast, the IHS discharge rates for ARD were three times greater than reported ARD discharge rates for the United States civilian population. PMID:8213702

  12. Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Spanish Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Luis; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Pulido, Jose; Molist, Gemma; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Ruíz-García, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the immigrant population has substantially increased in Spain. However, there is a lack of information in the knowledge of alcohol abuse among Spanish immigrants. We describe the epidemiology of alcohol abuse among foreign-born immigrants versus Spanish natives. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the European Survey of Health on the General Population of Spain of 2009. A sample of 22,188 subjects was analyzed (of whom, 3,162 were foreign). Proxies of problematic alcohol consumption were the prevalence of excessive average consumption and the prevalence of excessive episodic consumption (binge drinking). Descriptive analysis of the population, determination of area of origin with major alcohol consumption and related factors for each kind of consumption, separating immigrant and native population, were performed. The immigrant profile was heterogeneous, though predominantly aged between 35 and 54, and were living with their family and working. 3.4% of immigrants and 3.2% of natives were considered excessive drinkers; 8.9% and 10%, respectively, reported binge drinking in the last year. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, and Latin America, Andean countries had significantly a higher report of frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking compared to native. On the contrary, born in Africa was a protective factor. Unemployment was the most relevant related factor, being more important in the immigrant population. The excessive alcohol consumption in immigrants is dissimilar; the interventions must be adapted to their social situation, environments and areas of origin. PMID:26132302

  13. Alcohol Abuse, Alcoholism, and Labor Market Outcomes: Looking for the Missing Link

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Renna

    2008-01-01

    There is puzzling evidence that alcohol abuse and alcoholism reduce labor earnings but have no effect on either hours worked or the hourly wage. This study revisits the link between problem drinking and earnings using data from the 1989 and 1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Questions about problem drinking were keyed to a table of symptoms for alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The author finds no effects associate...

  14. Intimate Partner Violence by Men Abusing and Non-abusing Alcohol in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Gustaw; Marta Makara-Studzinska

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is to one of the most of risk factors for intimate partner violence. The aim of this study was to check the difference of demographic characteristics and type of violence between of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N). Data were obtained from the survey conducted in the office of the Association for Violence Prevention in the city of Lublin, Poland. 400 perpetrators and their victims (400 subjects) wer...

  15. Alcohol Abuse Training Relevant to Minority Populations. Trainer Manual, Trainee Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Area Alcohol and Education Training Program, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    This training manual presents current information about alcohol abuse and alcoholism among minority populations. It is designed to aid counselors employed in alcohol abuse programs. Areas discussed in this report include: interpersonal communication, knowledge of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, evaluation and assessment, planning, referral,…

  16. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disorders are classified as either alcohol dependence (alcoholism) or alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, the more serious of the disorders, is a ... due to their drinking. Like many other diseases, alcoholism is usually considered chronic, meaning that it lasts ...

  17. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  18. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  19. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  20. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  1. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  2. Understanding the Pathophysiological Basis of Alterations of Hematological Picture in Alcohol Abuse Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Maitra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse disorder is a major health related problem. Almost all organs is affected by the alcohol ingestion. Peripheral blood smear usually provides significant information regarding diagnosis and prognosis of a disease. Objective of our study was to determine impairment of hematological system in non cirrhotic alcohol abuse disorder patients compared to the normal subjects. Hematological parameters were investigated in 120 subjects including 30 normal control and 90 alcoholics. Study shows significant changes in WBC status. Total leukocyte count is significantly elevated in heavy drinkers. Significant increase in neutrophil count is observed in moderate (11% and high (18% alcohol intake group (p < 0.05. Lymphocytes and Monocytes decrease significantly in moderate to heavy drinkers. Our study shows that Eosinophil does not show significant changes among the groups. ESR was found to be increased significantly in alcoholics and shows a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.89 with hemoglobin.

  3. Alcohol abuse: medical effects of heavy drinking in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambert, S R

    1997-06-01

    As many as 15% of community-dwelling older persons are heavy drinkers, but their alcoholism is often hidden from their physicians. Depression, loneliness, and lack of social support are the most frequently cited antecedents to drinking for older alcoholics. Clinically, the same amount of alcohol once consumed with impunity may cause clinical symptoms in late life. Physiologic changes in volume of distribution make older patients susceptible to acute alcohol toxicity, with its CNS effects and metabolic disturbances. Liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, and impotence are consequences of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:9194788

  4. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  5. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  6. The Price of Alcohol, Wife Abuse, and Husband Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been frequently linked to family violence. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct relationship between the price of alcohol, which determines consumption, and violence towards spouses. The data come from the 1985 cross section and the 1985-1987 panel of the National Family Violence Survey. The 1985 data are a nationally representative sample while the panel oversamples violent individuals. Dichotomous indicators of severe violence towards wives and husbands...

  7. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  8. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  9. Huntington′s disease and alcohol abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoo S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine, glutamate and GABA systems are known to mediate the effects of alcohol on the movement disorders, though their exact roles are not clear. Thus, use of alcohol has implications for pathogenesis as well as management of the movement disorders. These implications are discussed citing a patient who had a strong family history of Huntington′s disease and in whom movement disorder and behavioral problems were manifest under alcohol use and withdrawal, but not while being abstinent.

  10. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among High-Risk Youth: Computer-Based Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Ozanian, Alfred J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a CD-ROM intervention to prevent alcohol abuse among high-risk youths. Youths from 41 community-based agencies in greater New York City participated in a randomized trial of a skills-based interactive CD-ROM. Outcome data were collected on 489 early adolescents in these agencies before and after a randomized subset of youths interacted with a 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program on CD-ROM. Compared to control participants, youths in the interventi...

  11. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  12. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention Model Learning Systems: Preliminary Designs. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Saul H.

    The final report on a project designed to develop a model learning system for alcohol abuse and alcoholism prevention contains format details of four specific programs. Each program is geared to obtain maximum success in reinforcing responsible behavior, to change learner behavior, and to insure effective implementation in a variety of…

  13. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ..., 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Richard A. Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD... the meeting due to the timing limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue...

  14. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  15. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P;

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  16. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  17. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option......, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol...... withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: A total of...

  18. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  19. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...

  20. Alcohol use and abuse among rural Zimbabwean adults: A test of a community-level intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  1. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, T A

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  2. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  3. Love on the rocks: alcohol abuse and domestic violence in rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    What causes alcohol abuse and domestic violence and how can we stop them? These behaviors have multiple determinants, making the effects of changes in wife's and husband's income ambiguous. This paper estimates the effects of exogenous changes in wife's and husband's income on husband alcohol abuse and alcohol-induced violence using new data from rural Mexico. A long-lasting 20 dollar monthly increase in wife income decreases husbands' alcohol abuse by 15% and aggressive behavior by 21%; the ...

  4. Mixed Abuse of Alcohol and Drugs in Teenagers in Sweden vs. a Group from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzell, Sture

    1995-01-01

    Examined the subsequent life and development of teenagers under probation who abused alcohol and drugs. Suggests that regardless of the social environment in which they grow up, children, both boys and girls, are in a risk zone if they use alcohol and drugs, and there is an enormous gap in their social adjustment compared with children that do…

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) ... dépendance - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Substance Abuse or Dependence हिन्दी ( ...

  6. Prevention of alcohol abuse-related birth effects--II. Targeting and pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, E L

    1998-01-01

    Current public health measures to reduce the occurrence of fetal alcohol abuse syndrome (FAAS) and alcohol abuse-related birth effects (AARBEs) have been ineffective, because they target alcohol consumption, rather than alcohol abuse. The present discussion contends that the most effective public health strategy for reducing FAAS and AARBEs is a combination of more specific public health messages that target alcohol abuse, coupled with higher taxes on alcohol beverages. Although alcohol consumption by alcohol abusers has been thought to be inelastic to price changes, recent studies have found that both heavy drinking and binge drinking are sensitive to alcohol price changes, and price elasticities are relatively high for heavy drinkers who are aware of the consequences of their drinking. Although price increases may have a disproportionate impact on lower socioeconomic groups, this article concludes that they are justifiable from both a utilitarian and a categorical imperative perspective. PMID:9719401

  7. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  8. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P; Orholm, M; Sørensen, T I; Horn, T

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....

  9. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ayhan Acar; Mustafa Kalkan; Rıdvan Çetin; Erdem Çevik; Orhan Çınar

    2014-01-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psycho...

  10. Death from seizures induced by chronic alcohol abuse--does it exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S

    2007-01-01

    In a forensic setting, deaths due to seizures, either epileptic or other, present a well-known problem. Cause of death is rarely established on the basis of physical evidence, but on circumstantial evidence such as tongue biting or discharge of urine or faeces. Seizures have several different...... may die from these seizures. A literature study was performed of deaths due to alcohol-induced seizures, either during withdrawal or as late-onset seizures where the aetiology was established as long time alcohol abuse and a necropsy had shown no other possible cause of death than a seizure. RESULTS......: It was not possible to find any well-documented cases. It is, however, difficult to compare cases in the literature, as there is no generally accepted classification or nomenclature of seizures related to alcohol abuse....

  11. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.

  12. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  13. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Claudia S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  14. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  15. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    OpenAIRE

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested th...

  16. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Pulmonary Alveolar-Capillary Barrier Function in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Ellen L.; Halkar, Raghuveer; Burks, Marsha; Moss, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a disorder characterized by abnormal alveolar-capillary permeability. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of alcohol abuse would have clinical evidence of abnormal alveolar-capillary permeability even in the absence of symptoms. This could contribute to their propensity for the development of this disorder. Methods: Thirty-three subjects with a history of alcohol abuse, but no other ...

  17. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...

  18. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  19. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  20. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection have additive effects on frontal cortex function as measured by auditory evoked potential P3A latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, G; Biggins, C A; MacKay, S

    1995-02-01

    Both alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to produce central nervous system (CNS) morbidity in frontal brain regions. The degree to which the CNS morbidity in HIV infection, as it affects frontal cortex function, may be preferentially increased by alcohol abuse was examined using the auditory P3A evoked potential. The P3A indexes an orienting response, maximal over frontal cortex that occurs when novel nontarget stimuli are presented in the midst of a target detection paradigm. Four groups of subjects were compared: HIV+ alcohol abusers, HIV+ light/nondrinkers, HIV- alcohol abusers, and HIV- light/nondrinkers. The alcohol abuser and light/nondrinker HIV+ groups were matched on percent CD4 lymphocytes, insuring that the results reflected specific CNS effects and were not a result of differences between the groups in the degree of systemic immune suppression. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection had at least additive effects on P3A latency, consistent with alcohol abuse worsening the effect of HIV disease on frontal cortex function. Post-hoc analyses suggested that concomitant alcohol abuse results in the effects of HIV infection on P3A latency becoming manifest earlier in the HIV disease process. PMID:7727627

  1. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Pancreatic adaptive responses in alcohol abuse: Role of the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugea, Aurelia; Waldron, Richard T; Pandol, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    The majority of those who drink excessive amounts of alcohol do not develop pancreatic disease. One overarching hypothesis is that alcohol abuse requires additional risk factors, either environmental or genetic, for disease to occur. However, another reason be a result of alcohol-induced activation of adaptive systems that protect the pancreas from the toxic effects of alcohol. We show that mechanisms within the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can lead to protection of the pancreas from pancreatic diseases with alcohol abuse. The remarkable ability of the pancreas to adapt its machinery to alcohol abuse using UPR systems and continue functioning is the likely reason that pancreatitis from alcohol abuse does not occur in the majority of heavy drinkers. These findings indicate that methods to enhance the protective responses of the UPR can provide opportunities for prevention and treatment of pancreatic diseases. PMID:25736240

  4. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette;

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  5. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  6. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  7. Compliance with Mandated Child Abuse Reporting: Comparing Physicians and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six recently trained physicians and teachers were compared on rates and knowledge of child abuse reporting and responses to vignettes of sexual abuse. Results demonstrated differences between the groups with physicians making significantly more reports and assisting in child abuse reporting more often than teachers. Physicians reported…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  9. 24 CFR 982.553 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supporting information from such sources as a probation officer, a landlord, neighbors, social service agency... that it has reasonable cause to believe that a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol... determines that a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol may threaten the health, safety,...

  10. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B.; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despit...

  11. Alcohol use and abuse in training conscripts of the Hellenic navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menoutis Vassilis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Alcohol abuse and addiction are big current problems of the developed world having multivariate causality and multiple effects. Alcohol abuse in young people is a matter of central importance due to its wide range long lasting effects, especially so in Greece where the problem has only recently started growing. The Hellenic Navy is interested in the complications of alcohol abuse in training conscripts. Because young conscripts will be placed in demanding positions, but also because in Greece the military service is obligatory and represents an important period for the socialization of young men. Methods In the present study, levels of alcohol use and abuse were measured in a sample of 650 male training conscripts of the Hellenic Navy. The tools used are: (a two questionnaires measuring frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and psychosocial variables, (b the CAGE test, which is a questionnaire measuring hidden alcoholism. Results 38,1% conscripts were characterized problematic drinkers according the adolescents criteria. Additional psychological complications were related to alcohol use. Using the stricter criterion for adults (plus psychological complications 8.9% were found to be problematic drinkers. The use of CAGE questionnaire which is measuring hidden alcoholism, identified 16% of the total sample as hidden alcoholics. Discussion The findings regarding unregular levels of alcohol use and abuse are presented as well as their relation to psychosocial complications and to demographic characteristics. The results are discussed in the light of Creek and international bibliography.

  12. Job loss and alcohol abuse: a test using data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, R; Dooley, D; Wilson, G; Hough, R

    1993-09-01

    The hypothesis that job loss affects the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is tested using panel data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Results suggest that the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is greater among those who have been laid off than among those who have not. However, employed persons in communities in which total employment is unexpectedly low are at reduced risk of becoming alcohol abusers. The implications of the results for economic policy and for mental health services are discussed briefly. PMID:7989666

  13. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  14. Meconium Indicators of Maternal Alcohol Abuse during Pregnancy and Association with Patient Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. Methods. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determine...

  15. Relationships between parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among South Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Haeryun; Kim, Haesung

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the roles played by parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in surrounding Kyung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more on the POSIT scale, which suggested they met the problematic criteria for substance abuse risk. Logistic regression results suggested that the influence of social support on substance abuse risk among adolescents depended on the source of support--parents or peers. These findings need to be considered in the development of intervention programs for adolescents at risk for substance abuse. PMID:19435169

  16. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter ( or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and needing RT because of a lack of studies. Other

  17. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25%–50% of all IPV victims in a given year. The present study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism -- a form of...

  18. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms Among Hospital Employees Exposed to a SARS Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fang, Yunyun; Fan, Bin; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Guan, Zhiqiang; Yao, Zhongling; Kong, Junhui; Lu, Jin; Litvak, Iva J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms among hospital employees exposed to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and the relationship between types of exposure to the SARS outbreak and subsequent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Methods: A survey was conducted among 549 randomly selected hospital employees in Beijing, China, concerning the psychological impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Subjects were assessed on sociodemographic factors a...

  19. Peer effects, unobserved factors and risk behaviours: an analysis of alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, José-Julián; Molina, José Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the factors which affect alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents. We propose a new theoretical specification in which alcohol abuse and truancy appear as derived demands, given that they condition peer group and family acceptance, and we introduce unobserved individual effects that can influence both behaviours. Empirically, our paper develops an analysis where, after controlling for the existence of unobserved individual factors affecting both de...

  20. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  1. 76 FR 47597 - Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Memorandum of Agreement Between U.S. Department of Health and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... the child abuse and neglect data provision in the MOA, tied to 25 U.S.C. 2434, did not appear to... comment on child abuse and neglect data, no change was made to the MOA itself in light of this comment... with alcohol or substance abuse problems. 10. Child abuse and neglect data: As provided in 25...

  2. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  3. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement. PMID:18173103

  4. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  5. Alcohol abuse and criminality : a cross-fostering study of gene-environment interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sigvardsson, Sören

    1982-01-01

    The subjects consists of all persons born out of wedlock in Stockholm during the years 1930 through 1949 and who were placed in non-related adoptive homes by the age of three years (N = 1 753, or 862 men and 913 women). Data are obtained from official records. Results. Alcohol abuse cannot be regarded as a homogeneous trait distributed in the population according to one single dimension — severity. Rather two types of alcohol abuse was demonstrated in this cohort. Type 1 abuse, accounting for...

  6. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  7. Professional Counseling versus Specialized Programs for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews major recent studies supporting the effectiveness of professional counseling, Alcoholics Anonymous, and specialty programs for treating alcohol and drug problems. Describes the American Society of Addiction Medicine's guidelines for referral to substance abuse services and examples of integrated treatment approaches. (Contains 35…

  8. Women's Social Behavior when Meeting New Men: The Influence of Alcohol and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption (Testa & Parks, 1996) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; Messman-Moore & Long, 2003) have been associated with adult sexual victimization. We examined the social behavior of 42 women under two alcohol conditions (high dose and low dose) in a bar laboratory. Women were videotaped interacting with a man they had just met.…

  9. Culture and Environment as Predictors of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms In American Indian Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-01-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spiri...

  10. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal life; signs and symptoms of an alcohol problem; available methods of evaluating and resolving... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  11. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students. PMID:26990389

  12. Greater than the Sum of its Parts: The Combined Effect of Early Alcohol Use and Violence on Alcohol Abuse and Violence in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Reingle, Jennifer; Livingston, Melvin D; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and violence are key contributors to leading causes of death among youth. Yet, the relationship between violence and alcohol use is complex and the developmental impact of this association merits further investigation. The current study used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate how violence and alcohol use coexist in adolescence and how this coexistence predicts alcohol abuse and violence in adulthood. ...

  13. Comparative Research on Substance Abuse and Self-Perception Among Adolescents with Physical Handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Janeković, Koraljka

    2003-01-01

    The research on substance (alcohol, tobacco and drug) abuse and on self-perception was done by comparing a test group of physically disabled adolescents and a test group of non-disabled adolescents. The respondents of the experimental group were students of the only special high school for physically handicapped persons in Croatia, Zagreb. The respondents of the control group were the students of two regular high schools in the capital of Croatia. The instrument used in this re...

  14. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse: a cohort study of children in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Soothill, Keith

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to consider whether parents' abuse of alcohol has an impact on children during their formative years. The research is based on data from 84,765 children born in Denmark in 1966. These children and their parents were followed between 1979 and 1993. Information was analyzed from government registers covering health, education, family separation, suicidal behavior, criminality, and unemployment, using a discrete time Cox-regression model. Results showed that the parents' alcohol abuse may frame the childhood with parental violence, very high occurrence of family separations, and often foster care. The parental abuse of alcohol may influence several long-term consequences for their 15- to 27-year-old children such as increased mortality, self-destructive behaviors (e.g. attempted suicide or drug addiction). Hospitalization due to violence, an increased risk of teenage pregnancy and unemployment were also seen more frequently among cases where the parents were alcohol abusers. Mothers' alcohol abuse seemed to be associated with higher occurrences of all the mentioned disadvantages. PMID:14629993

  15. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, C; Van den Brink, W; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large r

  16. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ísis Eloah Machado; Francisco Carlos Félix Lana; Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes; Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases). Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occa...

  17. Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Alcohol Abuse: Prospective Evaluation in the ERICO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner Morilha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have indicated alcohol abuse as one of the contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease. However, this relationship is controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship between post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS alcohol abuse in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO Study. Methods: 146 participants from the ERICO Study answered structured questionnaires and underwent laboratory evaluations at baseline, 30 days and 180 days after ACS. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was applied to assess harmful alcohol consumption in the 12 months preceding ACS (30 day-interview and six months after that. Results: The frequencies of alcohol abuse were 24.7% and 21.1% in the 12 months preceding ACS and six months after that, respectively. The most significant cardiovascular risk factors associated with high-risk for alcohol abuse 30 days after the acute event were: male sex (88.9%, current smoking (52.8% and hypertension (58.3%. Six months after the acute event, the most significant results were replicated in our logistic regression, for the association between alcohol abuse among younger individuals [35-44 year-old multivariate OR: 38.30 (95% CI: 1.44-1012.56 and 45-54 year-old multivariate OR: 10.10 (95% CI: 1.06-96.46] and for smokers [current smokers multivariate OR: 51.09 (95% CI: 3.49-748.01 and past smokers multivariate OR: 40.29 (95% CI: 2.37-685.93]. Conclusion: Individuals younger than 54 years and smokers showed a significant relation with harmful alcohol consumption, regardless of the ACS subtype.

  18. Pathophysiology Review Series: Alcohol Abuse, the Alveolar Macrophage, and Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Guidot, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use, and misuse, has been a part of human culture for thousands of years. In the modern medical era a great deal of attention has been justifiably focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the psychological and biological addiction to alcohol. However, a significant percentage, if not the majority, of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality occurs in individuals who do not meet the formal diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders. For example, many serious medical consequen...

  19. COMPARING WOMEN IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT WHO REPORT SEXUAL AND/OR PHYSICAL ABUSE WITH WOMEN WHO DO NOT REPORT ABUSE HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Boots, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    This descriptive study explored whether women in substance abuse treatment who report a history of sexual and/or physical abuse have different drug use profiles than women who do not report such abuse. The data originated from a NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) study designed to evaluate the effects of different treatment modalities in inpatient substance abuse treatment for women. The study compared the drug profiles of women in four areas: drug of choice, frequency of use, problem ...

  20. Self concept and drinking problems of college students raised in alcohol-abused homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearden, J J; Markwell, B S

    1989-01-01

    To examine drinking problems and self concept of college students raised in homes where alcohol is abused, 148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the "Personal Self" section of The Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Students classified as children of alcoholics had a significantly lower self concept (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%) and lapses of memory after drinking bouts (62%) show an amount of drinking on college campuses that is truly alarming. PMID:2728960

  1. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. PMID:27034406

  2. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  3. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, P P; Kawamura, T; Chen, J; Koob, G F; Roberts, A J; Vendruscolo, L F; Repunte-Canonigo, V

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new and more effective treatments for alcohol abuse remains a priority. Alcohol intake activates glucocorticoids, which have a key role in alcohol's reinforcing properties. Glucocorticoid effects are modulated in part by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) acting as pre-receptors. Here, we tested the effects on alcohol intake of the 11β-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate), which has been extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer and is active on both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoforms. We observed that CBX reduces both baseline and excessive drinking in rats and mice. The CBX diastereomer 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate (αCBX), which we found to be selective for 11β-HSD2, was also effective in reducing alcohol drinking in mice. Thus, 11β-HSD inhibitors may be a promising new class of candidate alcohol abuse medications, and existing 11β-HSD inhibitor drugs may be potentially re-purposed for alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:26978742

  4. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  5. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR... by the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials incorporated by reference are available...

  6. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  7. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL ABUSE IN A RURAL AREA OF PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: “Drug abuse” is defined as self - administration of a drug for non - medical reasons, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individual’s ability to function effectively and which may result in social, physical, or emotional harm. About 190 million people all over the world consume one drug or the other. Drug abuse causes immense human distress and the illegal production and distribution of drugs have spawned crime and violence worldwide. According to World Drug Report (2009 there were 25,71,52582 alcohol users , alcohol dependents were 8,22,88826 . Cannabis users were 82,28,883 and Opiate users were 2,057,221 in India. Alcohol is one of the leading causes of death and disability globally. Overall, 3.5% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for as much death and disability as tobacco and hypertension. As lot of changes have occurred in the last two decades and variations in consumption patterns is present in different regions, thus the findings of studies conducted earlier and at distant places may not be of much interest in the present scenario. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Ludhiana, Punjab. OBJECTIVES: a To find out the prevalence of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab; b To assess pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study done in t he field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana (i.e. Rural Health Training Center (RHTC located at village Pohir, Block Dehlon, District Ludhiana, Punjab. One thousand seven hundred thirty two study subjects of fifteen years and above were part of study. Primary tools in this study were predesigned and pretested interview schedule and Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test V3 (ASSIST V3 questioner, to collect

  8. Should we use carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker for alcohol abusers?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is one of the conventional markers for chronic alcohol consumption, is used by researchers and clinicians. A number of enzymes are affected by ethanol intake. The induction or inhibition of sialyl transferase and plasma sialidase may be involved in the CDT level elevation. An alteration of protein transport during post-translational modification could be a primary mechanism in the impairment of protein metabolism associated with chronic alcohol abuse. ...

  9. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    OpenAIRE

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ...

  10. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the ext...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Sarikhani, Yaser; Javanmardi, Kazem; Akbary, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Tabrizi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers. Methods This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran. Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the day. The data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some...

  12. Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Maeng Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Suh, Tongwoo; Suh, Guk-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Chung Kyoon

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of alcohol disorder comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, using Korean nationwide epidemiological data. By two-stage cluster sampling, 5,176 adult household residents of Korea were interviewed using the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pat...

  13. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  14. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  15. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse....

  16. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness...

  17. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  18. Gentle knights: masculinity, teetotalism and aid for alcohol abuse c. 1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Blok

    2012-01-01

    Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance Movement

  19. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  1. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.H.D.A.; Kendler, K.S.; Moor, de M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; Vink, J.M.; Berg, van den S.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AA

  2. Oregon Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Education (ADAPE) Infused Lesson Guide K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dan; Holstedt, Peggy

    This resource manual and guide provides schools and communities with the most current research-based information available concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention education. It also provides model lessons, written by Oregon teachers, to infuse into current programs. The document is organized into four sections. The first, an introduction,…

  3. Corporal Punishment of Adolescents by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    1994-01-01

    Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…

  4. SOME PERSONALITY FEATURES AS PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Butorac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other behavioural disorders, models of drug and alcohol abuse stem from interaction of several factors such as social settings, biological and psychological configuration, individual’s personality dimensions as well as psychoactive effect of drug. To-date research predominantly targeted consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, treatment, rehabilitation and the explanation of dependent person’s behaviour. Much less effort and research addressed the issue of personality as a potent predisposition risk factor and its effect on this phenomenon. Although personality does not develop as a separate entity, drug abuse, amongst other factors, is initiated by different personality traits, cognitive processes, person’s expectancies and psychopathology. In the light of that, this article contains results of psychological research which indicate risk factors and their interactive relationships within general personality construct. These findings therefore relevantly contribute to the development of effective prevention programmes, risk groups identification and early treatment interventions.

  5. Meconium Indicators of Maternal Alcohol Abuse during Pregnancy and Association with Patient Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Tamme W.; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A.; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Pragst, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. Methods. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. Results. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P < 0.01). This association was inverse in cases with EtG value above 120 ng/g. These values indicate women with most severe alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Conclusion. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established. PMID:24800249

  6. Meconium Indicators of Maternal Alcohol Abuse during Pregnancy and Association with Patient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamme W. Goecke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. Methods. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs and ethyl glucuronide (EtG, were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. Results. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P<0.01. This association was inverse in cases with EtG value above 120 ng/g. These values indicate women with most severe alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites could be found. Conclusion. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.

  7. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  8. Alcohol abuse among young people: the inconvenient truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Alan

    People have drunk alcohol for as long as they've known about its existence, and it doesn't appear this will change any time soon. But the amount of alcohol consumed by children and young people in Britain is now spiralling out of control and putting a significant strain on NHS resources. In light of a new report, Alan Glasper discusses how this escalating problem can be tackled. PMID:20220656

  9. Exploring the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...

  10. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  11. [Women in outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative and descriptive study aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. Data were collected from medical records of women with alcohol-related disorders who were treated at a psychiatric outpatient service We performed a reading and descriptive analysis of such data. The sample was composed of 27 medical records, the average age of women was 50 years, mostly married (59.6%), not working (70.4%) with incomplete primary education (70.4%), with an alcoholic family (81.5%) and other psychiatric diagnoses (70.3%). Losses physical, social and emotional was the most common symptoms resulting from alcohol withdrawal syndrome (66.7%), family conflicts (72%) and "sadness" (79.2%). Family violence was recorded in 11 records (40.7%). There was low education, unemployment, psychiatric comorbidities and the presence of other family members with alcohol abuse as common characteristics. We emphasize the importance of professional knowledge about the peculiarities of female alcoholism for health activities more effective. PMID:24015467

  12. Epigenetic Modulation of Brain Gene Networks for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Farris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS. Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 events (ChIP-Seq revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B / DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7 / VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction.

  13. Epigenetic modulation of brain gene networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Sean P; Harris, Robert A; Ponomarev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) events (ChIP-Seq) revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B/DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7/VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction. PMID:26041984

  14. [Basic symptoms in schizophrenia and alcoholism. A methodological comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, R; Krausz, M; Gross, J

    1995-05-01

    The results of a study on the subjective basic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and drug abuse (especially alcoholism) are presented. A total of 242 psychiatric inpatients (74 with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and drug consumption, 81 schizophrenics, and 87 alcoholics) were included. The three groups did not differ with regard to the general score of subjective basic symptoms measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen, FBF). Further analyses showed that the FBF statements are only partly typical for schizophrenia; another part is connected with alcoholism. Two new scales ("FBF-S" and "FBF-A") were created from the schizophrenia-typical items and the alcoholism-typical items, respectively. In "FBF-S" schizophrenics (with and without alcoholism) had higher scores than patients suffering from alcoholism alone; in "FBF-A" alcoholics (with and without schizophrenia) reached higher scores than schizophrenic patients. Consistent correlations with independent parameters of psychosis and alcoholism confirm the validity of "FBF-S" and "FBF-A". It is concluded that the FBF's capacity to discriminate different diagnoses can be improved and that the model of basic disturbances must be re-evaluated. PMID:7609813

  15. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  16. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  17. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  18. Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

  19. Characteristics of children of alcoholics: putative risk factors, substance use and abuse, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Walitzer, K S; Wood, P K; Brent, E E

    1991-11-01

    A sample of 253 children of alcoholics (COAs) and 237 children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs) were compared on alcohol and drug use, psychopathology, cognitive ability, and personality. COAs reported more alcohol and drug problems, stronger alcohol expectancies, higher levels of behavioral undercontrol and neuroticism, and more psychiatric distress in relation to non-COAs. They also evidenced lower academic achievement and less verbal ability than non-COAs. COAs were given Diagnostic Interview Schedule alcohol diagnoses more frequently than non-COAs. The relation between paternal alcoholism and offspring alcohol involvement was mediated by behavioral undercontrol and alcohol expectancies. Although gender differences were found, there were few Gender X Family History interactions; the effects of family history of alcoholism were similar for men and women. When gender effects were found, they showed greater family history effects for women. PMID:1757657

  20. Self-reported versus administrative identification of American Indian and Alaska Native arrestees: effects on relative estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Darryl S; Hays, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program data were used to consider the effects of two methods of racial classification upon estimates of illicit drug use and alcohol abuse among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) arrestees. Overall, compared to arrestees who self-identified as Black, White, Asian/Pacific Islander, or Hispanic, arrestees self-identifying as AI/AN were most likely to be identified administratively as something other than AI/AN. Results of 'difference of difference' analyses indicate that differences in estimates of AI/AN versus non-AI/AN arrestees' illicit drug use and alcohol abuse were much more extreme when identification was based on administrative records than when based upon arrestees' self-reports. PMID:25111841

  1. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance ab...

  2. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  3. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  4. Epidemiology and health service resource allocation policy for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Regier, D A; S. Shapiro; Kessler, L G; Taube, C A

    1984-01-01

    Data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study in Baltimore, Md., are used to illustrate the association between alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorder diagnoses with health service use. A probability sample of 3,481 adult (age 18 and over) residents of a geographically defined Baltimore City population of 175,000 was found to have a 23.4 per 100 population, 6-month prevalence of 13 specific alcohol, drug, and mental disorders. Of this population, 7.1 percent sought outpatient ...

  5. Identifying the Causal Effect of Alcohol Abuse on the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence by Men Using a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Averett, Susan L.; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread among women, with substantial and long-lasting negative consequences. Researchers have documented a strong positive correlation between alcohol abuse and IPV. Yet prior researchers have struggled with the problem of the potential endogeneity of alcohol abuse. In this paper, we deal with this problem by exploring a unique instrumental variable - the September 11 terrorist attack (9/11) - in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ...

  6. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  7. Spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse: seeking quantitative answers to qualitative questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, G D

    2000-08-01

    A quantitative review of the substance abuse literature revealed a mean general prevalence of spontaneous remission from alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs abuse of 26.2% when a broad definition of remission was employed and 18.2% when a narrow definition was implemented. From the results of this review, it was concluded that few meaningful differences exist between spontaneous remitters and persons who either continue misusing substances or remit through treatment on pre-remission measures of prior drug involvement. Of the factors cited by self-remitters as important in facilitating their desistance from substances, the present review found that health concerns, pressure from friends and family, and extraordinary events were instrumental in initiating spontaneous remission, while social support, non-drug-using friendships, willpower, and identity transformation were pivotal in maintaining change. Evidence is presented to indicate that spontaneous remission from alcohol and illicit drugs and spontaneous remission from tobacco smoking may differ in several key respects. PMID:10976668

  8. Clinical and psychopatological features of organic depressive disorder in the individual abusing alcohol (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirina I.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of organic depressive disorder in the personality who sustained a traumatic brain injury and who abused alcohol, with distinguishing number of clinical and psychopathological features. Depressed mood, slowed thinking process, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem, hypochondriacal tendencies allowed to diagnose depressive disorder. Clinical history on sustained brain concussion, as well as inertness of nervous and mental processes revealed in psychodiagnostic study testified to organic genesis of the disease. Alcohol abuse by the person having an adverse organic background contributed to appearance of psychotic symptoms in clinical picture. Hallucinatory and delusional inclusions relatively quickly stopped on a background of antipsychotic treatment; this testified that they are secondary to the affective (depressive symptoms.

  9. Incorporating Motives into the Theory of Planned Behavior: Implications for Reducing Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ryan Christopher

    2011-01-01

    College alcohol abuse continues as a major public-health concern. Theory-driven research is necessary to address the severe negative consequences of this college drinking. One theory that offers particular promise is the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This theory posits that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and intentions are the causal underpinnings of behavior. The current research investigates the utility of this theory in predicting college-student drinkin...

  10. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function o...

  11. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi AM; Sherra KS; Al-Habeeb AA; Qureshi NA

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  12. The Inventory of Gambling Situations in problem and pathological gamblers seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Blanco, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Identifying situations in which individuals gamble may be important for developing or improving treatments, but few instruments exist for examining high-risk gambling situations. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), an instrument that assesses situations that may lead to gambling episodes. Individuals seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment who were identified as problem or pathological gamblers (N = 283) completed the IGS, and principal co...

  13. The effects of impulsiveness and alcohol abuse on traffic code violations

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Romero; José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela; Beatriz González-Iglesias; Jorge Sobral

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of the facets assessed by the I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (viz., impulsiveness, venturesomeness and empathy), and of alcohol abuse, to the prediction of traffic rule violations controlling for the effect of variables such as age and annual mileage. To this end, a study was conducted on a sample of 535 drivers aged 20–73 years and the results were examined separately by gender. Based on them, impulsiveness and venturesomeness account for a substantial pr...

  14. Comparison of Alcohol Abusers Who Seek Traditional Treatment Versus Those Who Use An Online Program

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Suena W.; Lieberman, Daniel Z.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders do not receive treatment. Access to treatment for substance abuse disorders is limited, and practical strategies are needed to expand opportunities for individuals to receive effective interventions. A recently developed online program was designed to increase users’ motivation for change and offer treatment options. Utilization of the unique strengths of the Internet allowed a hidden, currently untreated population to be reached.

  15. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient ...

  16. The effects of impulsiveness and alcohol abuse on traffic code violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contribution of the facets assessed by the I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (viz., impulsiveness, venturesomeness and empathy, and of alcohol abuse, to the prediction of traffic rule violations controlling for the effect of variables such as age and annual mileage. To this end, a study was conducted on a sample of 535 drivers aged 20–73 years and the results were examined separately by gender. Based on them, impulsiveness and venturesomeness account for a substantial proportion of traffic violations reported by males and females, even if the effects of other variables such as age or annual mileage are considered. By contrast, empathy is relevant only for male drivers. The results also reveal a strong relationship between alcohol abuse and Highway Code violations, which significantly increases the predictive ability of personality variables in both males and females. These results support the need to consider the drivers’ personality in the design of interventions for driving offenders, whereas programs which are focused only on road safety education may be insufficient. Results also evidence the need to highlight the role in the intervention of alcohol abuse and its relationship with driving behaviours.

  17. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. PMID:25119420

  18. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  19. Exploring the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin N. Glozah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  20. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either perioper......BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either......, smoking status and alcohol abuse with the primary outcome, being a composite of SSI, anastomotic leak, wound dehiscence, burst abdomen and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 21% of patients receiving dexamethasone versus 28% of patients not receiving dexamethasone......, and this was not statistically significant when adjusting for stratification variables originally used in the PROXI trial [OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.24)]. In smokers, the primary outcome occurred in 32%, compared with 23% of non-smokers (P = 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher frequency of SSI (25% vs 17%, P 

  1. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icro Maremmani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  2. Gentle Knights: Masculinity, Teetotalism and Aid for Alcohol Abuse c. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Blok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance Movement: teetotallers came to dominate the movement and created a system for the care of drunkards. This change from a repressive approach to a focus on treatment was accompanied by two differing variants on ‘chivalrous’ masculinity. Nineteenth century campaigners put their idea of masculinity – controlled, militant, protective of women and children – in the service of state politics. The chivalry of the teetotallers was more personal. They showed their solidarity with problematic drinkers by completely abstaining from alcohol and attempted to save drunkards by setting a good example. The battle against King Alcohol became a fight, man to man, in civil society.

  3. Alcohol and drug abuse in the workplace - managing the human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbon, D.; Glass, H. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The impact of drugs and alcohol in the workplace was reviewed. The policies and procedures which are required to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements were discussed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The implementation of a comprehensive drug and alcohol policy was said to be important to demonstrate to employees that the organization is ready to take a proactive and supportive role in addressing this health concern. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policies, procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities.

  4. Patterns of Use and Their Relationship to DSM-IV Abuse and Dependence of Alcohol among Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Holly, Alexandra; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    First use and initiation of regular alcohol use has been frequently found to start in adolescence. However, only few studies have also investigated how many adolescents proceed during ages 14–24 to harmful drinking or even develop alcohol use disorders. This paper – using the EDSP baseline sample of 3,021 community respondents from the Munich area – examines the prevalence of use, abuse and dependence and investigates the dose/disorder relationship. Alcohol abuse was reported by 9.7% of respo...

  5. Alcoholism and drug abuse--some legal issues for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, G

    1990-05-01

    Three specific areas of the law concern employers faced with problems of addiction at the workplace. At common law an employer may be guilty of negligence where a person has suffered personal injuries or economic loss as a result of an act of negligence committed in the course of employment by an employee. An example would be an employee with a serious addiction to alcohol or drugs who caused an accident in the company car whilst on company business. Employers may also be guilty of a criminal offence for breach of a statutory duty. One such duty is to have a 'safe system of work'. Other statutory rights guarantee employees a right not to be unfairly dismissed and this includes employees with addiction problems. Lastly, employers must be careful not to break the contract of employment if, for example, an employee with an addiction problem were to be suspended from duty or have his company car withdrawn, even if this was a temporary measure only. PMID:2191731

  6. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Antipkin, Yuri; Chislovska, Natalia; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Tatiana ANDREEVA; Iakunchykova, Olena

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S): To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents. DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period between 25 December 1992 and 23 J...

  7. Childhood Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Use and Abuse Across the Lifespan in Alcohol-Dependent Men

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Laura B.; Haber, John Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between childhood religious affiliation and alcohol use across the lifespan. A sample of 931 men (average age of 51) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, which includes an over-representation of alcohol-dependent men, completed the Lifetime Drinking History interview, which assessed drinking across the lifespan. Childhood religious affiliation was obtained from the men’s spouse/partner. Affiliations were subdivided into four categories: non-religious...

  8. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...

  9. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Romero-Martínez; Marisol Lila; Luis Moya-Albiol

    2015-01-01

    The imbalance between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption...

  10. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J. K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models f...

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Interventions for Ethnic-Minority HIV-Positive Alcohol/Drug Abusers in Resource Limited and Culturally Diverse Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports our intervention work with Alcohol and Other Drug Abusing (AOD People Living With HIV (PLWH. Present research has involved adapting Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM and other strategies to improve quality of life and health outcomes for PLWH. Historically, CBSM has used relaxation and coping skills training to reduce negative mood and improve coping behaviors. The efficacy of CBSM interventions to improve functioning has been demonstrated in many disease groups and, more recently, in ethnic-minority HIV+ samples in the US CBSM HIV risk reduction interventions are similar to other cognitive-behavioral therapies in emphasizing skills training and stress reduction. Among the most precarious and challenging clinical populations are HIV infected individuals with a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Compared to their counterparts with no history of alcohol or drug abuse, not only are they more likely to transmit the virus to others, but they are also at risk for problems in adhering to antiretroviral regimens. A main focus of this article is to report on our intervention work with very resource-limited, ethnic-minority PLWH with substance abuse problems, particularly our NIH funded projects in Miami and Haiti and the opportunities presented by the emerging science of biological vulnerability and genomic factors.

  12. Antisocial Psychopathy and HIV Risk among Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While the consensus is that HIV prevalence has remained low among adolescent offenders, the prevalence of STDs and HIV transmission risk behaviors is alarming, particularly for those abusing alcohol and other drugs and those displaying antisocial or conduct disorder characteristics. In the current study, 269 male and 110 female inner city, culturally diverse alcohol and other drug (AOD abusing adolescent offenders completed measures of (a psychopathy, using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI (b HIV transmission risk behavior, (c prevention skills and attitudes and (d social desirability. Results showed that those with high levels of psychopathy reported more AOD use, overall unprotected sex and more sexual activity when influenced by alcohol and/or marijuana. High psychopathy adolescent offenders also reported lower self-efficacy and sexual response-efficacy, less favorable safer sex and condom attitudes and less favorable intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors, when controlling for social desirability. Data suggest that adolescent offenders, who are either in court-ordered treatment or detention, should be assessed for psychopathy and provided with tailored risk reduction interventions, geared toward attitudinal and behavioral change. A discussion of integrating neurobiological measures to improve the next generation of tailored interventions for this risk group is offered in conclusion.

  13. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  14. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  15. Gentle knights: masculinity, teetotalism and aid for alcohol abuse c. 1900

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Blok

    2012-01-01

    Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenne...

  16. Depression, Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse in a Gastroenterology Intensive Care Unit: Prevalence and Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, G.; Alexandre, J; Rosa, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Gastroenterology ICU, and the level of its detection by the staff. Method: All patients consecutively admitted to the ICU during a six-month period, 18 or above, and staying ≥ 24 hours, were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the CAGE. Doctors and nurses assessed the type and severity of patients’ morbidity. Data were analyzed with Student’s t-test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations for ordin...

  17. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; De Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by self-report questionnaires for 8,398 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register aged between 15 and 32 years. Longit...

  18. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed. PMID:23582065

  19. Sexual abuse and alcohol use among women in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil: a general population study

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Barbosa de Oliveira; Florence Kerr-Corrêa; Maria Cristina Pereira Lima; José Manoel Bertolote; Adriana Marcassa Tucci

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at estimating the prevalence of lifetime sexual abuse among women and at investigating its association with alcohol consumption. METHOD: Population-based survey conducted through a representative and stratified cluster sample of metropolitan São Paulo. GENACIS questionnaire was used. Sample unit was the home, and all residents aged 18 years and over were interviewed. The outcome was lifetime sexual abuse. The univariate statistical analysis used the Rao-Scot...

  20. Chronic alcohol abuse and endosseous implants: Linkage of in vitro osteoblast dysfunction to titanium osseointegration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone, and it is correlated with the increasing risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The negative effects of alcohol intake also influence bone repair processes and the osseointegration of implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapour (EE-OB), and sham-aged rats (SA-OB), when cultured on standard commercially pure Ti (cpTi). Osteoblast proliferation (WST-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen type I (CICP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured at 1, 7, and 14 days of culture. Our results showed a decrease in the cell viability and synthetic activity of osteoblasts exposed to ethanol when cultured on cpTi. Moreover, the release of local regulatory factors from osteoblasts was imbalanced: TGF-β1 production was reduced and TNF-α and IL-6 were up-regulated. These in vitro data suggest that alcohol abuse affects bone repair and decreases the ability to form bone around standard cpTi. Innovative surfaces and adjuvant therapies could be useful when implants are required in alcoholics

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p < 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p < 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  2. Mental health and welfare transitions: depression and alcohol abuse in AFDC women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2002-12-01

    From a selection perspective, does prior dysfunction select women into welfare or serve as a barrier to leaving welfare? From a social causation perspective, does entering or exiting welfare lead to changes in well being? These questions were analyzed in panel data for over 3,600 women drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the period 1992-94. Welfare is associated with both depression and alcohol consumption cross-sectionally. This link appears to derive in small part from selection into welfare by depression (in interaction with marital status), butdepression and alcohol abuse did not operate as barriers to leaving welfare. Entering welfare was clearly associated with increased depression and alcohol consumption, but confidence in an apparent beneficial effect on alcohol symptoms of leaving welfare for employment was limited by small sample sizes. These findings are located in the context of the 1996-welfare reform and the recent economic expansion. One implication is that community psychology should consider welfare entry as a risk factor similar to adverse employment changes such as job loss. PMID:12385483

  3. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  4. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  5. [A study of the abuse of alcoholic beverage among college students by using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, T

    1996-10-01

    I carried out the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS), which was developed for screening of alcohol abuse in youth. The subjects are 288 college students (74 boys, 213 girls and unknown 1). In AAIS, the score of 42 or above is defined as indicating alcohol misuse interfering with psychological functioning, social relation, or family living. In this study, students who marked 42 or above are 6 boys (8.1%) and 1 girls (0.5%). The scores of AAIS of boys have a tendency to distribute to a higher side than those of girls and the average scores of AAIS are 30.7 in boys and 26.8 in girls respectively (significant difference, p < 0.01). The average score of AAIS of good health condition students (27.1) was lower than those of bad health condition students (30.9) and normal condition students (28.7) respectively. The average score of AAIS of one's own house students (26.4) was lower than that of lodging house students (29.5). The average score of AAIS of the students belonging to club activity (28.3) was higher than that of the students not belonging to club activity (25.8). The average score of the students belonging to athletic club (29.0) was higher than those of the students belonging to cultural club (26.8) and the students not belonging to club activity (25.8) respectively. The orderliness of AAIS in selection limbs was generally reasonable but the nessity of replace of the selection limbs in the questionnaire seemed to be requested in some cases. The latter facts and the items in which the rates of no answer were high, requested the future investigations. PMID:8940806

  6. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol.

  7. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2.Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  8. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia

  9. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging structural alterations in brain of alcohol abusers and its association with impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Samuel; Morales, Julia L; Senabre, Isabel; Romero, Maria J; Beltran, Miguel A; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Barcia, Jorge M; Romero, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the suggestion that impulsivity plays a central role in the transfer from a recreational drug use to a substance use disorder, very few studies focused on neurobiological markers for addiction. This study aimed to identify volumetric alterations in a sample of patients with mild alcohol use disorder with a short history of alcohol use, compared with a control group, and also focused on its association with impulsivity levels. Most magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on severe alcohol use disorder, formerly called alcohol-dependent patients, showing alcohol-related structural alterations and their association with alcohol use history variables but not with personality parameters like impulsivity. Our hypothesis is that our group of alcohol users may already display structural alterations especially in brain regions related to inhibitory control like medial-prefrontal regions, and that those structural alterations could be more associated to personality traits like impulsivity than to drug use variables. Our results clearly demonstrate that our population showed lower regional grey and white matter volumes in the medial-prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as higher regional white matter volume in the ventral striatum and the internal capsule. Volumetric alterations were associated to the Barratt's impulsivity score: the more impulsive the subjects, the lower the medial-prefrontal cortex grey matter volume. PMID:25988724

  11. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  12. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  13. The Factor Structure and Severity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms in Psychiatric Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure and estimated severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in a sample of treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. Participants (n = 1027, 51.2% women) met the screening criteria for the lifetime assessment of alcohol use disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I/P; First et al., 1995) and as a result completed an assessment of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The average a...

  14. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani; Shamsodin Niknami; Farkhondeh Aminshokravi; Seyed Kaveh Hojat

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education model...

  15. Are the binary typology models of alcoholism valid in polydrug abusers ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pombo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the dichotomy of type I/II and type A/B alcoholism typologies in opiate-dependent patients with a comorbid alcohol dependence problem (ODP-AP. Methods: The validity assessment process comprised the information regarding the history of alcohol use (internal validity, cognitive-behavioral variables regarding substance use (external validity, and indicators of treatment during 6-month follow-up (predictive validity. Results: ODP-AP subjects classified as type II/B presented an early and much more severe drinking problem and a worse clinical prognosis when considering opiate treatment variables as compared with ODP-AP subjects defined as type I/A. Furthermore, type II/B patients endorse more general positive beliefs and expectancies related to the effect of alcohol and tend to drink heavily across several intra- and interpersonal situations as compared with type I/A patients. Conclusions: These findings confirm two different forms of alcohol dependence, recognized as a low-severity/vulnerability subgroup and a high-severity/vulnerability subgroup, in an opiate-dependent population with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence.

  16. Association of physical job demands, smoking and alcohol abuse with subsequent premature mortality: a 9-year follow-up population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgkard, Eve; Wild, Pascal; Massin, Nicole; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Fontana, Jean-Marc; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Mur, Jean-Marie; Ravaud, Jean-François; Guillemin, Francis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle. PMID:18285642

  17. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI by multiple logistic regression. Results: Seventy-six (60.8% patients with HIV, 40 (32% patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2% patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%, with up to 8 years of formal education (56%, and unemployed (81.6%. The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71 (56%, agoraphobia (n=65 (52%, major depressive episode (n=56 (44.8%, and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43 (34.4% predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75 and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61. Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75, unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34, and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44. Conclusion: Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  18. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. PMID:25975381

  19. Nutrición y alcoholismo crónico Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse

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    R. Moreno Otero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Muchos pacientes con etilismo crónico presentan un cuadro clínico de malnutrición, ya sea porque reducen la ingestión habitual de nutrientes esenciales o porque el alcohol impide la adecuada digestión y absorción de los distintos principios inmediatos, vitaminas y minerales. Un ejemplo común es el déficit de vitamina A en estos enfermos. Además, los propios procesos metabólicos del etanol (vía de la ADH y sistema MEOS generan productos intermediarios tóxicos (acetaldehído, radicales libres que interfieren con el metabolismo normal de los principios inmediatos, principalmente lípidos, originando daño celular a través de fenómenos de preoxidación lipídica y alteraciones de la fluidez de membranas, depósitos grasos (esteatosis hepatocelular, inflamación secundaria a estrés oxidativo y síntesis de citoquinas proinflamatorias, activación de células estrelladas y fibrogénesis, etc. Los soportes nutricionales pueden ser eficaces para mejorar la enfermedad hepática alcohólica. Se aconseja el aporte de una dieta equilibrada, suplementos vitamínicos y tratamiento farmacológico con antioxidantes para reponer los depósitos de glutatión reducido exhaustos. Es imprescindible que estos pacientes tengan una aproximación clínica multidisciplinaria para solucionar su problema de dependencia del alcohol.Many patients with chronic alcohol abuse present a clinical picture of malnourishment either because of reduced usual intake of essential nutrients or because alcohol precludes an appropriate digestion and absorption of the different essential elements, vitamins, and minerals. A usual example is vitamin A deficiency in these patients. Besides, ethanol metabolic pathways themselves (through the ADH and the MEOS system generate toxic intermediate products (acetaldehyde, free radicals interfering with normal metabolism of essential elements, mainly lipids, leading to cellular damage through lipid peroxidation mechanisms and impairment

  20. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paying for Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Safety » Abuse Text size: A A A Special Situations First Responders Traveling In a Disaster Abuse Find your local Chapter ...

  1. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  3. Women and addiction (alcohol and opiates: Comparative analysis of psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raketić Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays women constitute one third of all addicts. In the last decade, there has been a remarkable growth in scientific interest in biochemical and psychosocial aspects of women’s addiction. Many researches point out the specific character of women’s addiction. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess and compare psychosocial aspects, including the socio-demographic characteristics as well as the specific aspects of functioning of family and interpersonal relationships of the subjects addicted to opiates and alcohol. Methods. There were two substance addict groups (32 and 30 subjects addicted to drugs and alcohol, respectively and the control group, consisting of 30 subjects (no substance addiction. A socio-demo- graphic data questionnaire and semi-structured Addiction Severity Index (ASI interview were used. Results. The results of the research indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the compared groups in respect to the age of the subjects, family history of addiction disorders, education, parenthood, employment work status, and marital status. The subjects addicted to opiates differed significantly in respect to manifestation of aggressive, delinquent behaviour, infectious diseases, presence of addicts-partnerships, but there were no significant differences in relation to physical abuse, sexual abuse and self-assessment of depression. Conclusion. The results of this research suggest that subjects addicted to opiates differed largely from the subjects addicted to alcohol in terms of the age of the subjects, education level, family relationships, partnerships and social relationships, which all have to be taken into consideration when designing a therapy protocol and planning activities for prevention.

  4. Comparing serial and nonserial sexual offenders: alcohol and street drug consumption, impulsiveness and history of sexual abuse Comparando agressores sexuais seriais e não seriais: consumo de álcool e outras drogas, impulsividade e história de abuso sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Antonio Baltieri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between serial and nonserial sexual offenders in terms of alcohol and drug consumption, impulsivity, and personal history of being sexually abused. METHOD: A sectional and retrospective study carried out by the team of the outpatient clinic for the treatment of sexual disorders at Faculdade de Medicina do ABC - Santo André, Brazil. Three groups of subjects (n = 198 consisting of sexual offenders against one victim, two victims and three or more victims were examined. Convicts sentenced only for sexual crimes were evaluated with the Drug Addiction Screening Test, the CAGE, the Short Alcohol Dependence Data, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test, and the Static-99. RESULTS: Sexual offenders against three or more victims showed more frequent history of being sexually abused than the sexual offenders against one victim. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that sexual offenders against three or more victims evidenced significantly higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test than did the sexual aggressors against one victim. After a multinomial logistic regression analysis, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the history of being sexually abused were predicting factors for the group of aggressors against three or more victims in relation to the aggressors against one victim. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual offenders against three or more victims present different characteristics from other groups of sexual offenders and these findings can help to create proposals for the management of this type of inmates.OBJETIVO: Avaliar diferenças entre agressores sexuais seriais e não seriais em termos de consumo de álcool e de outras drogas, impulsividade e história pessoal de abuso sexual. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo transversal e retrospectivo realizado pelo Ambulatório de Transtornos da Sexualidade da Disciplina de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de

  5. Comparing the BDI-II and the PHQ-9 with outpatient substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Mariam; Pickren, Jason; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B

    2008-02-01

    Because of the high co-occurrence of Axis-I mood disorders with primary substance use disorders (SUD), it is important to routinely assess substance abusers for evidence of a mood disorder. The primary goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of two widely used self-report measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Patient Health Questionnaire PRIME MD) with substance abusers (N=108) in an outpatient treatment setting. Using Cronbach's alpha, the reliabilities of the BDI-II and the PHQ-9 were 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. Principal component factor analyses of both measures were conducted to evaluate the relationship between a 3-factor solution (cognitive, affective, and somatic) for the BDI-II and a 1-factor solution for the PHQ-9 (depression). Both measures were correlated with severity levels of alcohol and drug use. Advantages and disadvantages of using both measures with substance abusers are discussed. PMID:17964079

  6. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595356

  7. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between testosterone (T and cortisol (C levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV. Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV.

  8. Intra-household evaluations of alcohol abuse in men with depression and suicide in women: A cross-sectional community-based study in Chennai, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A.; Priya, B.; J. Williams; M. Sharma; R. Gupta; Jha, DK; Ebrahim, S.; Dhillon, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background Harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented for drinkers, and adverse effects are also reported for the physical and emotional well-being of family members, with evidence often originating from either drinkers or their families in clinic-based settings. This study evaluates intra-household associations between alcohol abuse in men, and depression and suicidal attempts in women, in community-based settings of Chennai, India. Methods This community-based cross-sectional stud...

  9. Drinking to ease the burden: a cross-sectional study on trauma, alcohol abuse and psychopathology in a post-conflict context

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, ch...

  10. Drinking to ease the burden: a cross-sectional study on trauma, alcohol abuse and psychopathology in a post-conflict context

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, childh...

  11. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  12. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  13. Bipolaris spicifera : An unusual cause of non-healing cutaneous ulcers in a patient with diabetes and alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of Bipolaris spicifera, a dematiaceous fungus commonly found in soil and as a plant pathogen, isolated from culture of the lesions and from an excisional biopsy pecimen in a patient with diabetes and alcohol abuse.This case highlights the importance of considering Bipolaris as a differential diagnosis in patients with cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 33-35

  14. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washing...

  15. Gender and age disparities in the associations of occupational factors with alcohol abuse and smoking in the French working population

    OpenAIRE

    Legleye, Stephane; Baumann, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Background. – This study assessed the associations of short-term employment, physical and psychological occupational demands, and job dissatisfaction with alcohol abuse (using the Audit-C test) and daily smoking among working French men and women in different age groups. Methods. – The sample included 13,241 working people, 18–29, 30–39, and 40–59-years-old, randomly selected in France and interviewed by phone. Occupation, type of employment, physical demands, psychological demands, job dissa...

  16. Recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Chinese rural sample: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yu; Hu, Mi; Liu, Zi-wei; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Liang ZHOU; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Under-utilization of mental health services is a global health issue. Recognition of mental disorders, as the first step to seeking help from professional sources, has been well studied in developed countries, yet little is known about the situation in rural areas of developing countries like China. The purpose of the study is to understand the recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse and its predictive factors in a Chinese rural sample Methods Face-to-face interviews ...

  17. The link between conduct disorder and adult antisocial behaviour is partially mediated by early onset alcohol abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Najat Rasool

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to clarify the nature of the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA), some other externalizing-related constructs and adult violent antisociality (VA). It addressed two key questions: (i) whether EOAA mediated the link between CD and VA; and (ii) whether the effects of EOAA on VA were, in turn, mediated by impulsiveness, ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vm-PFC) dysfunction and social deviance as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revis...

  18. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States. PMID:22367668

  19. Serotonin-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Alcohol Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Karina; Dévieux, Jessy G.; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P = 0.005). Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P = 0.02). This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND. PMID:27069689

  20. Erythromelalgia-like presentation of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy in a setting of past alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Dhand, Upinder K

    2016-02-01

    Erythromelalgia may be primary or secondary to an underlying medical condition. Association with small fiber neuropathy and axonal large fiber peripheral neuropathy has been described. Erythromelalgia in the setting of acquired demyelinating neuropathy has not been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman with severe erythromelalgia, pain and burning, progressive weakness, hyporeflexia and distal pan-sensory deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid protein was 219 mg/dL. Nerve conduction study revealed extreme (ten-fold) prolongation of distal motor latencies, markedly slow motor nerve conduction, reduced terminal latency index, reduced distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, possible conduction blocks, and distal denervation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, prednisone and azathioprine resulted in marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement. Our patient fulfills the diagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP); however, the unique electrodiagnostic features and presentation with erythromelalgia may represent a CIDP variant or a novel dysimmune neuropathy, or may partly be related to neurotoxic effects of prior alcohol abuse. PMID:26804376

  1. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  2. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suspected child abuse and neglect to State or local authorities The prohibitions of this section do not... suspected child abuse and neglect to the appropriate State or local authorities. (f) Penalty for first and... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  3. Comparative needs in child abuse education and resources: perceptions from three medical specialties

    OpenAIRE

    Anderst, Jim; Dowd, M. Denise

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Improvement in child abuse and neglect education has been previously identified as a significant need among physicians. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand specific comparative educational needs regarding child abuse diagnosis and management among physicians from differing specialties and practice types. Methods: A total of 22 physicians participated in focus groups (one family practice (FP), one emergency medicine (EM), and one pediatrician group) fac...

  4. Comparing Psychiatric Symptoms among Children of Substance-Abusing Parents With Different Treatment Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Alison R.; Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    It appears that no studies to date have compared the psychiatric functioning of children of substance-abusing parents (COSs) across substance abuse treatment histories (e.g., inpatient, outpatient, residential). Different treatment histories may reflect differences in the severity of drug use, degree of impairment, or drug of choice, which may result in different symptomatology among COSs. Moreover, this information may be important for family-based treatment and prevention planning. In the c...

  5. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  6. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed. PMID:26915054

  7. RELIGIOUS MORAL BELIEFS AS MENTAL HEALTH PROTECTIVE FACTOR OF WAR VETERANS SUFFERING FROM PTSD, DEPRESSIVENESS, ANXIETY, TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL ABUSE IN COMORBIDITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanović, Mevludin; Pajević, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate is there association between level of religious moral beliefs and severity of PTSD symptoms, depresiion symptoms, anxiety and severity of alcohol abuse we tested 152 war veterans on presence of PTSD, depression symptoms, anxiety, alcohol misuse and level of religious moral belifes. Subject and Methods: we used Harvard trauma questionnarie (HTQ), Hopkins Check Scale SBCL 25, check list for alcohol misuse MAST. Subjects were assessed with regard to t...

  8. Depressive Symptoms in People with and without Alcohol Abuse: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Across Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilie Skule; Pål Ulleberg; Hilde Dallavara Lending; Torkil Berge; Jens Egeland; Tim Brennen; Nils Inge Landrø

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- ...

  9. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    OpenAIRE

    BRAND Donald A.; Michaela Saisana; RYNN Lisa A.; Fulvia Pennoni; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking co...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Alcohol Control Policies in 30 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    BRAND Donald A.; SAISANA MICHAELA; RYNN Lisa A.; Pennoni, Fulvia; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, we developed a composite indicator¿the Alcohol Policy Index¿to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The Index generates a score based on policies from 5 regulatory domains¿physical availability of alcohol, drinkin...

  11. Targeting central melanocortin receptors: a promising novel approach for treating alcohol abuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eOlney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC peptides are produced centrally by propiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and act through five seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled melanocortin receptor (MCR subtypes. The MC3R and MC4R subtypes, the most abundant central MCRs, are widely expressed in brain regions known to modulate neurobiological responses to ethanol, including regions of the hypothalamus and extended amygdala. Agouti-related protein (AgRP, also produced in the arcuate nucleus, is secreted in terminals expressing MCRs and functions as an endogenous MCR antagonist. This review highlights recent genetic and pharmacological findings that have implicated roles for the MC and AgRP systems in modulating ethanol consumption. Ethanol consumption is associated with significant alterations in the expression levels of various MC peptides/protein, which suggests that ethanol-induced perturbations of MC/AgRP signaling may modulate excessive ethanol intake. Consistently, MCR agonists decrease, and AgRP increases, ethanol consumption in mice. MCR agonists fail to blunt ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC4R, suggesting that the protective effects of MCR agonists are modulated by the MC4R. Interestingly, recent evidence reveals that MCR agonists are more effective at blunting binge-like ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC3R, suggesting that the MC3R has opposing effects on the MC4R. Finally, mutant mice lacking AgRP exhibit blunted voluntary and binge-like ethanol drinking, consistent with pharmacological studies. Collectively, these preclinical observations provide compelling evidence that compounds that target the MC system may provide therapeutic value for treating alcohol abuse disorders and that the utilization of currently available MC-targeting compounds- such as those being used to treat eating disorders- may be used as effective treatments to this end.

  12. Detecting Substance Abuse in the Emergency Department: A 10-Year Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Espi Martinez, Fernando; Nieto Munuera, Joaquin; Noguera Velasco, Jose Antonio; Espi Forcen, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We have retrospectively analyzed the variations in the clinical profile of patients with a positive consumption of alcohol and/or drugs of abuse that have been confirmed and treated in the Emergency Department of a Virgen de La Arrixaca University Hospital in Murcia (Spain) after a period of 10 years. Secondly, we have assessed if the use of urine toxicology screen tests had any influence on the improvement of the management and/or referral of these patients to specialized services from...

  13. Occupational Alcoholism Programs Under Federal Contracts, 1978; Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources and the Subcommittee on Federal Spending Practices and Open Government of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2525.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    These hearings, representing the testimony before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in August, 1978, sought to require government contractors to establish and operate alcohol abuse and alcoholism programs and services, or to arrange for referral to such services. Statements are included from witnesses representing such agencies as the…

  14. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  15. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  16. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: An Examination of the "Downward Spiral" Game and Educational Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuchry, Michael; Sia, Tiffiny L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, college students (N=178) either played Downward Spiral, a board game that illustrates the dangers of continued substance abuse, or watched educational videos on substance abuse. Results show that students who played Downward Spiral had somewhat higher levels of consumer satisfaction. However, results also show that both videos and…

  17. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    OpenAIRE

    Rognmo Kamilla; Torvik Fartein; Ask Helga; Røysamb Espen; Tambs Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may i...

  18. Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Brand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes an estimated 4% of the global disease burden, prompting governments to impose regulations to mitigate the adverse effects of alcohol. To assist public health leaders and policymakers, the authors developed a composite indicator-the Alcohol Policy Index-to gauge the strength of a country's alcohol control policies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Index generates a score based on policies from five regulatory domains-physical availability of alcohol, drinking context, alcohol prices, alcohol advertising, and operation of motor vehicles. The Index was applied to the 30 countries that compose the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between policy score and per capita alcohol consumption. Countries attained a median score of 42.4 of a possible 100 points, ranging from 14.5 (Luxembourg to 67.3 (Norway. The analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between score and consumption (r = -0.57; p = 0.001: a 10-point increase in the score was associated with a one-liter decrease in absolute alcohol consumption per person per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.5 l. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the Index by showing that countries' scores and ranks remained relatively stable in response to variations in methodological assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of alcohol control policies, as estimated by the Alcohol Policy Index, varied widely among 30 countries located in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. The study revealed a clear inverse relationship between policy strength and alcohol consumption. The Index provides a straightforward tool for facilitating international comparisons. In addition, it can help policymakers review and strengthen existing regulations aimed at minimizing alcohol-related harm and estimate the likely impact of policy changes.

  19. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures. PMID:26132299

  20. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment is...... compared with 7% of controls used illicit drugs within last month (P = 0.260). Conclusion: No significant group differences were found in the prevalence of ever having smoked cigarettes, drinking alcohol or using illicit drugs between adolescents with ADHD and controls. Contrary to expectations, subjects...

  1. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  2. Influence of alcohol intake on postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, C; Jensen, L M; Tønnesen, H

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy was prospectively studied in 229 consecutive patients in our departments. The incidence of alcohol abuse (greater than 60 gm of alcohol daily) and social drinking (between 25 and 60 gm of alcohol daily) was 6.5% for each. When compared with the social...... drinkers and the control group, the alcohol abuse group had significantly more complications (80% vs 27% and 80% vs 13%, respectively)....

  3. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  4. The training of Family Health Doctors in the interior of Amazon on the problematic of alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Moretti-Pires

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the understanding of Family Health Doctors of the Region of Middle Solimões (Amazon on several aspects of the problematic of alcohol abuse. Methods: An observational, descriptive and qualitative study in an intentional sample of six Family Health Doctors. Data was collected by means of two focus groups, using a set of interviews. Data were assessed using thematic analysis from the references of the principles of Brazil´s Unified Health System (SUS and the training of health manpower. Results: Data indicate that the professionals have identified risk factors for the problem, showed knowledge about the consequences of this consumption for the individual and society and were able to describe the criteria used by the systems of classification of diseases; however, they did not know how to act on this issue within Primary Care. Conclusion: There is a need for mechanisms of continuing education for these professionals, addressing topics such as the problematic of alcohol abuse, its management and intervention in Primary Care.

  5. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  6. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early

  7. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...

  8. Synaptic adaptations by alcohol and drugs of abuse: changes in microRNA expression and mRNA regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eMost

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local translation of mRNAs is a mechanism by which cells can rapidly remodel synaptic structure and function. There is ample evidence for a role of synaptic translation in the neuroadaptations resulting from chronic drug use and abuse. Persistent and coordinated changes of many mRNAs, globally and locally, may have a causal role in complex disorders such as addiction. In this review we examine the evidence that translational regulation by microRNAs drives synaptic remodeling and mRNA expression, which may regulate the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use.MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that control the translation of mRNAs in the cell and within spatially restricted sites such as the synapse. MicroRNAs typically repress the translation of mRNAs into protein by binding to the 3’UTR of their targets. As ‘master regulators’ of many mRNAs, changes in microRNAs could account for the systemic alterations in mRNA and protein expression observed with drug abuse and dependence. Recent studies indicate that manipulation of microRNAs affects addiction-related behaviors such as the rewarding properties of cocaine, cocaine-seeking behavior and self-administration rates of alcohol. There is limited evidence, however, regarding how synaptic microRNAs control local mRNA translation during chronic drug exposure and how this contributes to the development of dependence.Here, we discuss research supporting microRNA regulation of local mRNA translation and how drugs of abuse may target this process. The ability of synaptic microRNAs to rapidly regulate mRNAs provides a discrete, localized system that could potentially be used as diagnostic and treatment tools for alcohol and other addiction disorders.

  9. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and...

  10. Development of an Abuse- and Alcohol-Resistant Formulation Based on Hot-Melt Extrusion and Film Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, Nicole; Schrank, Simone; Fischer, Johannes M; Breinhälter, Karlheinz; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the development of flexible (i.e., deformable) multiple-unit pellets that feature (i) a prolonged drug release, (ii) drug abuse deterrence, and (iii) a minimal risk of alcohol-induced dose dumping (ADD). Deformable pellets were prepared via an advanced continuous one-step hot-melt extrusion (HME) technique, with the drug (i.e., antipyrine and codeine phosphate) fed as an aqueous solution into the molten matrix material (i.e., cornstarch, gum arabic, and xanthan). Formulations that had suitable mechanical characteristics (i.e., high compression strength) were coated with a flexible Aquacoat(®) ARC film to ensure prolonged release and to avoid ADD. The pellets were characterized in terms of their mechanical properties and in vitro drug release behavior in alcoholic media. All formulations were abuse deterrent: they had a high compression strength and grinding the pellets into powder was impossible. Since the pellets comprising gum arabic and xanthan as a matrix did not remain intact during dissolution testing, they had a very fast drug release rate. Cornstarch-based pellets that swelled but remained intact in the dissolution media had a slower drug release. Coated cornstarch-based pellets had a prolonged release over 8 h and resistance to dose dumping in 20 and 40% ethanol. Our results indicate that cornstarch-based pellets manufactured via the advanced HME process followed by coating are a promising formulation that makes tampering difficult due to a high compression strength combined with robustness in alcoholic media. PMID:26206403

  11. Drug Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Opioid-Dependent Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Barbara C.; Easton, Caroline J.; McMahon, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Because very little is known about the coparenting relationships of drug-abusing men, this comparative study was designed to examine the lifetime prevalence and recent frequency of intimate partner violence in the coparenting relationships of 106 fathers enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. When compared with 118 community controls, the opioid-dependent fathers reported greater prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological aggression directed at the mother of their youngest biolog...

  12. Cytochrome P450 2E1 high activity polymorphism in alcohol abuse and end-organ disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark T Cartmell; Hans-Ulrich Schulz; Derek A O'Reilly; Bing-Mei Yang; Volker Kielstein; Simon P Dunlop; Walter Halangk; Andrew G Demaine; Andrew N Kingsnorth

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a possible role for a recently identified polymorphism in the gene of cytochrome P450 2E1, the presence of which is associated with high activity of the enzyme. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-nine alcohol consumers, ICD 10.1/.2 (ALC), and 208 normal controls were studied. PCR amplification of the CYP2E1 gene region was performed to assess polymorphic variation. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the data.RESULTS: Twelve normal controls (5.8%) possessed the insertion. Five ALC (2.1%) had the insertion; of these 2 of 144 with,alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis, none of 28 with alcoholic liver disease and 3 of 67 without endorgan disease had the polymorphism. A significantly Lower frequency of subjects possessed the insertion than normal controls [P = 0.049 (genotype analysis P = 0.03)]. To further assess, if there was a relationship to alcohol problems per se or end-organ disease, we compared patients with alcohol induced end-organ disease vs alcoholic controls without end-organ disease vs normal controls which again showed a significant difference [P = 0.045 (genotype analysis,P = 0.011)], further sub-group analysis did not identify which group(s) accounted for these differences.CONCLUSION: We have shown the frequencies of this high-activity polymorphism in alcohol related patient groups for the first time. The frequency is significantly less in alcoholics than normal controls, as with high activity polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase. The biological significance, and whether the relevance is solely for alcoholism or is there a relationship to end-organ disease,would benefit from the assessment in the populations with a greater frequency of this polymorphism.

  13. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  14. Ankle fractures and alcoholism. The influence of alcoholism on morbidity after malleolar fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Pedersen, A; Jensen, M R; Møller, A; Madsen, J C

    1991-01-01

    The postoperative morbidity after osteosynthesis of malleolar fractures was investigated retrospectively by comparing 90 alcohol abusers with 90 controls. The two groups were selected from 626 male patients and were matched regarding trauma, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary and endocrine...... diseases, age, weight, smoking habits, anaesthesia and duration of surgery. The alcohol abusers developed significantly more early complications, especially infections, after surgery. Follow-up at six, nine and 12 weeks after surgery also revealed a significantly higher morbidity among the alcoholics....

  15. Disability and Health Implications: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines the impact of alcohol and other drug use in creating an unhealthy lifestyle for individuals with disabilities and placing them at risk for health and medical problems. The negative effects of even moderate amounts of alcohol are noted, and the hindering of rehabilitation efforts when a person with a disability is using…

  16. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  17. Alcoholic Steatosis in Different Strains of Rat: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Fernando, Harshica; Boor, Paul J.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Shakeel Ansari, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Different strains of rats have been used to study alcoholic liver disease (ALD) while the reason for selecting a particular rat strain was not apparent. Purpose The aim of our study was to compare outbred (Wistar) and inbred (Fischer) strains to evaluate pathological, biochemical changes, and gene expression differences associated with ethanol-induced early hepatic steatosis. Study Design Male Wistar and Fischer-344 rats were pair-fed for 6 weeks with or without 5% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet. Livers were analyzed for histological and lipid-related differences. Results Hepatic midzonal steatosis was mainly found in Wistar rats while Fischer rats showed mostly pericentral steatosis. Increased hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed Wistar rats is supported by increases in lipids with related genes and transcription factors involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. Conclusion Our data showed that Fischer rats are relatively less prone to ethanol-mediated steatosis with pericentral lipid deposition pattern in the liver which is similar to humans and show no trace level of lipid accumulation in pair-fed controls as observed in Wistar (outbred) strain. Therefore, Fischer rats are better suited for lipid studies in an early development of ALD. PMID:27213081

  18. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  19. Comparing Alcohol Policies Between Countries: Science or Silliness?

    OpenAIRE

    Donald A Brand; Saisana, Michaela; RYNN Lisa A.; Pennoni, Fulvia; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Alcohol drinking is now recognized as one of the most important risks to human health. Previous research studies (see the research article by Rodgers et al., linked below) have predicted that around 4% of the burden of disease worldwide comes about as a result of drinking alcohol, which can be a factor in a wide range of health problems. These include chronic diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver and certain cancers, as well as poor health resulting from trauma,...

  20. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  1. Alcohol consumption patterns of shiftworkers compared with dayworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie

    2012-06-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption are well documented. There is some evidence that shiftworkers consume more alcohol than dayworkers as a sleep aid to compensate for sleep difficulties associated with work schedules. This study investigated drinking patterns between shiftworkers and dayworkers using the 2006 and 2007 waves from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Survey. A subset of workers who were not in full-time study and had a single job were selected; participants who did not drink alcohol (n = 2090) were excluded. Using the 2001 Australian Government alcohol guidelines, alcohol consumption for risk of short-term harm (7+ standard drinks for men, 5+ for women) was investigated. The number of workers who drank alcohol "nearly every day" or "every day" was also examined. Some 13% of shiftworkers and 10% of those on standard schedules reported consuming alcohol at levels risky for short-term harm. Having a child less than 17 yrs (odds ratio [OR] = .39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .22-.69), higher job demands (OR = .71, 95% CI = .58-.86), being female (OR = .45, 95% CI=. 26-.79), and being older (OR = .89, 95% CI = .87-.92) significantly reduced, whereas being a shiftworker (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.08-4.12) significantly increased, the odds of drinking alcohol in short-term risky levels. Nearly 10% of shiftworkers and 8% of those on standard schedules reported consuming alcohol in short-term risky levels at least weekly. Having a child less than 17 yrs (OR = .40, 95% CI = .22-.74), higher job demands (OR = .69, 95% CI = .56-.86), being female (OR = .28, 95% CI = .15-.53), and being older (OR = .92, 95% CI = .89-.94) were associated with a significant reduction in the odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels at least weekly. Being a shiftworker was not associated with a significant increase in the odds of consuming alcohol at such risky levels at least weekly, but a trend was evident (OR = 1.47, 95

  2. Negative and interactive effects of sex, aging, and alcohol abuse on gray matter morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Rachel E; Hagerty, Sarah L; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Claus, Eric D; Hutchison, Kent E; Weiland, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    Chronic alcohol use is associated with declines in gray matter (GM) volume, as is the normal aging process. Less apparent, however, is how the interaction between aging and heavy alcohol use affects changes in GM across the lifespan. There is some evidence that women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of alcohol use on GM than men. In the current study, we examined whether localized GM was related to measures of alcohol use disorder (e.g., AUDIT score) in a large sample (N = 436) of participants, ages 18-55 years, with a range of disease severity, using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). We also explored whether GM associations with alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity are moderated by sex and age. Results showed significant negative associations between AUD severity and GM volume throughout temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes. Women showed more negative effects of alcohol use than men for cortical thickness in left orbitofrontal cortex, but evidence for increased vulnerability based on sex was limited overall. Similarly, a specific age by alcohol use interaction was observed for volume of right insula, but other regional or global interactions were not statistically supported. However, significant negative associations between heavy alcohol use and GM volumes were observed as early as 18-25 years. These findings support that alcohol has deleterious effects on global and regional GM above and beyond age, and, of particular importance, that regional associations emerge in early adulthood. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2276-2292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26947584

  3. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  4. Transient and 2-Dimensional Shear-Wave Elastography Provide Comparable Assessment of Alcoholic Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Detlefsen, Sönke; Møller, Linda Maria Sevelsted;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol abuse causes half of all deaths from cirrhosis in the West, but few tools are available for noninvasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. We evaluated 2 elastography techniques for diagnosis of alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis; liver biopsy with Ishak score and...... biopsy after an overnight fast. RESULTS: Transient elastography and 2-dimensional shear wave elastography identified subjects in each group with significant fibrosis (Ishak score ≥3) and cirrhosis (Ishak score ≥5) with high accuracy (area under the curve ≥0.92). There was no difference in diagnostic...... predictive value for cirrhosis was >66% in the high-risk group vs approximately 50% in the low-risk group. Evidence of alcohol-induced damage to cholangiocytes, but not ongoing alcohol abuse, affected liver stiffness. The collagen-proportionate area correlated with Ishak grades and accurately identified...

  5. Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling: Principles, Models, Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David J.

    A case is made for professionalism in clinical training as substance abuse counseling becomes a unique field. Part 1, "Principles," includes: (1) "A Historical Review of Supervision"; (2) "A Working Definition of Supervision"; (3) "Leadership Principles for Supervisors" and; (4) "Traits of an Effective Clinical Supervisor." Part 2, "Models,"…

  6. Substance Abuse in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  7. Alcohol Myopia and Sexual Abdication among Women: Examining the Moderating Effect of Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Jennifer M.; George, William H.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship (Steele et al., 1985). This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there...

  8. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Janelle E.; Josephine M. Hawke; Arias, Albert J.; Yifrah Kaminer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED) symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs). Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate...

  9. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle E. Arias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs. Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate regression was used to test the associations between ED symptoms and alcohol consumption. Results: 26.4% of the participants had at least one ED symptom, with the highest number of symptoms occurring in females. The number of ED symptoms was associated with increases in the number of times that they became intoxicated in the year before entering treatment, the number of alcohol-related social problems, and the number of alcohol-related physical symptoms after taking into consideration the effects of age and gender. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of EDs is high in adolescents with AOSUDs, with the number of ED symptoms correlating with increased alcohol consumption. Further studies on the course and treatment of adolescents with AOSUDs and symptoms of EDs are warranted.

  10. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  11. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  12. Children of Alcoholics: A School-Based Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Connie K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines differences between 4th-6th grade children of alcoholics (COAs) and non-COAs on measures of internalized shame, self-esteem, perceived support, and teacher behavior ratings. No significant differences were found on measures of social support and shame; however self-esteem and teacher ratings for COAs were significantly lower. Gender…

  13. Impulsivity and HIV Risk Among Adjudicated Alcohol- and Other Drug-Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Dévieux, Jessy; Malow, Robert; Stein, Judith A.; Jennings, Terri E; Lucenko, Barbara A.; Averhart, Cara; Kalichman, Seth

    2002-01-01

    Although impulsivity is likely to be related to HIV risk—particularly in incarcerated substance-abusing youth—this area of research has been understudied. To investigate the relationship between impulsivity and various HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes, a sample of court-referred and incarcerated culturally diverse inner-city adolescents (males: N = 266; females: N = 111) were divided into high and low impulsive groups based on the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory Impulsivity Scale. F...

  14. The Impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the 12-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery 12-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addi...

  15. Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huselid, R F; Cooper, M L

    1992-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that internalized gender-role personality attributes and gender-role ideology mediate sex differences in alcohol use and drinking problems in a random sample of 1,077 adolescents aged 13 to 19. Results indicated that gender roles substantially, although not completely, mediated the effects of sex on drinking patterns. The relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were largely consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. However, effects of the gender-linked attributes of expressivity, emotional control, and instrumentality on drinking also may be interpreted within a framework that views them as functional coping styles. Finally, differences between Black and White teens in the relationships between alcohol use and the masculine attributes of instrumentality and emotional control suggest possible race differences in the functional value of these attributes. PMID:1464719

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of sequelae of central pontine myelinolysis in chronic alcohol abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, 849-8501, Saga (Japan); Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Koga, Hiroshi [Center for Emotional and Behavional Disorders, Hizen National Hospital, 160 Mitsu, Higashisefuri, Kanzaki, 842-0192, Saga (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is one of the serious neurological complications of alcoholism. This study evaluated magnetic resonance images of sequelae of CPM. Approximately 600 alcoholic patients were examined by a 1.0-T magnetic resonance imaging device, and 11 patients were retrospectively found to have a central pontine lesion, a presumed sequela of CPM. The lesions had various shapes and most were cavitary. In 3 of the 11 patients bilateral symmetrical oval lesions were faintly visible in the middle cerebellar peduncles. These middle cerebellar peduncular lesions were diagnosed as having Wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tract secondary to CPM. (orig.)

  17. Neurobiological and clinical variables associated with alcohol abuse in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Flores-Mateos, Isabel S; Franco-Zambrano, Andrés; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Beato-Fernández, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed at analysing the reciprocal relationships of several clinical and neurobiological items in order to predict alcohol misuse in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Seventy BN patients and 70 healthy controls were assessed for depression, impulsivity, borderline personality traits and self-defeating behaviours using specific scales; serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary excretion of serotonin and 5-hydroxiindolacetic acid were also assessed. The study confirmed the implications of these clinical factors for alcohol misuse in BN patients, but the results suggested that depressive symptoms and hypercortisolism could lie behind these relationships. PMID:25766414

  18. Two Generations of Maternal Alcohol Abuse: Impact on Cognitive Levels in Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Cousin, Melanie; Titran, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Transgenerational effects of alcohol on mothers' and children's intellectual functioning has been examined in 22 families from very deprived environments. Their psychosocial outcomes and IQ level were evaluated in a follow-up study on average seven years after they left the support group of a day-care centre for young children; school data were…

  19. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  20. Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannelli P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions

  1. Custo social e de saúde do consumo do álcool The social and health burden of alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nino Meloni

    2004-05-01

    priorities. The global findings of the WHO report are first discussed, followed by analysis of the specific findings regarding the burden of alcohol problems in Brazil. The social burden of alcohol problems is quantified by applying a unifying methodology which incorporates outcomes for alcohol-related violence, family problems, child abuse, public disorder, lost productivity, and other consequences. By analyzing the epidemiological date on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality data from each continental region and sub-region, and cross-tabulating data on average consumed volume and patterns of consumption, the burden of disease are estimated for the various regions of the world. The final results provide a comparative analysis of risk, basically using a representative indicator of number of productive years lost because of illness or premature mortality due to alcohol consumption ("DALYs" - Disability Adjusted Life Years. The DALYs global value in 2000 was 4% of world mortality, with this rate predicted to increase as global alcohol consumption increases. Variations among various regions in the planet are critically analyzed on predictive factors.

  2. Substance abuse co-morbidity in schizophrenia: An inpatient study of course and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Khess, Christoday R.J.; Singh, Shailja

    2005-01-01

    Background: Differences in opinion exist among researchers in relation to the course and outcome of substance abuse co-morbidity in schizophrenia. Aim: To compare the pattern of remission of symptoms in positive and negative schizophrenics with and without a history of substance abuse. Methods: Seventy schizophrenics were divided into two groups based on the history of presence or absence of substance abuse/dependence. Thirty-eight patients (54.3%) were diagnosed as having co-morbid alcohol/s...

  3. When a liver transplant recipient goes back to alcohol abuse: Should we be more selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Monica; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim

    2016-05-28

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the most common indications for liver transplantation (LT). However, it has always remained as a complicated topic from both medical and ethical grounds, as it is seen for many a "self-inflicted disease". Over the years, the survival rate of transplanted patients has significantly improved. The allocation system and the inclusion criteria for LT has also undergone some modifications. Early LT for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been subject to recent clinical studies with encouraging results in highly selected patients. We have learned from studies the importance of a multidisciplinary evaluation of candidates for LT. Complete abstinence should be attempted to overcome addiction issues and to allow spontaneous liver recovery. Risk factors for relapse include the presence of anxiety or depressive disorder, short duration of sobriety pre-LT and lack of social support. The identification of risk factors and the strengthen of social support system may decrease relapse among these patients. Family counseling of candidates is highly encouraged to prevent relapse to alcohol. Relapse has been associated with different histopathological changes, graft damage, graft loss and even decrease in survival among some studies. Therefore, each patient should be carefully selected and priority is to continue to lean on patients with high probability of success. The ethical issue remains as to the patient returning to drinking after the LT, hindering the way for other patients who could have received the same organ. PMID:27239105

  4. When a liver transplant recipient goes back to alcohol abuse: Should we be more selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Monica; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the most common indications for liver transplantation (LT). However, it has always remained as a complicated topic from both medical and ethical grounds, as it is seen for many a “self-inflicted disease”. Over the years, the survival rate of transplanted patients has significantly improved. The allocation system and the inclusion criteria for LT has also undergone some modifications. Early LT for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been subject to recent clinical studies with encouraging results in highly selected patients. We have learned from studies the importance of a multidisciplinary evaluation of candidates for LT. Complete abstinence should be attempted to overcome addiction issues and to allow spontaneous liver recovery. Risk factors for relapse include the presence of anxiety or depressive disorder, short duration of sobriety pre-LT and lack of social support. The identification of risk factors and the strengthen of social support system may decrease relapse among these patients. Family counseling of candidates is highly encouraged to prevent relapse to alcohol. Relapse has been associated with different histopathological changes, graft damage, graft loss and even decrease in survival among some studies. Therefore, each patient should be carefully selected and priority is to continue to lean on patients with high probability of success. The ethical issue remains as to the patient returning to drinking after the LT, hindering the way for other patients who could have received the same organ. PMID:27239105

  5. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II across groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Skule

    Full Text Available This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions.

  6. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Interventions for Ethnic-Minority HIV-Positive Alcohol/Drug Abusers in Resource Limited and Culturally Diverse Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Malow, Robert M.; Rhonda Rosenberg; Dévieux, Jessy G.

    2009-01-01

    The article reports our intervention work with Alcohol and Other Drug Abusing (AOD) People Living With HIV (PLWH). Present research has involved adapting Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management (CBSM) and other strategies to improve quality of life and health outcomes for PLWH. Historically, CBSM has used relaxation and coping skills training to reduce negative mood and improve coping behaviors. The efficacy of CBSM interventions to improve functioning has been demonstrated in many disease gro...

  8. Gender Moderation and Social Developmental Mediation of the Effect of A Family-Focused Substance Use Preventive Intervention on Young Adult Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the long-term impact of Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) on young adult alcohol abuse disorder, addressing theory-based questions about how, and for whom, the program had its effects on the outcomes. Participants were 429 families of 6th graders enrolled in 33 rural schools located in the Midwestern United States. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Target adolescents (52% female) were interviewed periodically from age 11 to age 22; throughout adolescence...

  9. The role played by a former federal government residential school in a first nation community´s alcohol abuse and impaired driving: Results of a talking circle

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, J. Peter; Makokis, Patricia; Steinhauer, Lorna; Aguiar, William; Makokis, Lena; Brertton, George

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The study’s objective was to better understand alcohol abuse and impaired driving behaviors in a First Nations community as it reflects systemic issues linked to historical, family and community experiences. Study Design and Methods. Fifteen 18- to 29-year-old drivers participated in an exploratory eight-hour Talking Circle held according to traditional cultural practice. Four First Nations researchers, trained in Talking Circle protocol, and a Band Elder facilitated the data coll...

  10. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Mazhar; Tariq Hassan; Tariq Munshi

    2013-01-01

    The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s...

  11. Posttraumatic stress avoidance symptoms as mediators in the development of alcohol use disorders after exposure to childhood sexual abuse in a Swiss community sample.

    OpenAIRE

    Müller M.; Vandeleur C.; Rodgers S.; Rössler W.; Castelao E.; Preisig M.; Ajdacic-Gross V.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal in the relationship between different types of trauma and alcohol use disorders (AUD). We used data from 731 trauma-exposed individuals who participated in the first wave of the PsyCoLaus-study. Trauma characteristics were assessed relatively to the occurrence of lifetime PTSD symptoms and AUD. The results suggest that lifetime and childhood sexual abuse as well as overa...

  12. GP’s engagement in detecting and managing abuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics and tranquilizers in the Belgian adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Ketterer, Frédéric; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Symons, Linda; Remmen, Roy; Godderis, Lode; Vanmeerbeek, Marc; Mairiaux, Philippe; Peremans, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) Occupational physicians (OPs) can play an important role in detecting and managing substance abuse in the working population. The UP TO DATE project aims at identifying the difficulties these professionals encounter in this area, and to explore ways of collaboration in providing appropriate care. Research question What are the experiences, attitudes and decision making of GPs and OPs regarding to alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics and tranquiliz...

  13. A Necklace of Telangiectases: An Early Clinical Sign of Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, K. Rauf

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of a necklace of telangiectases increases with the quantity and duration of regular alcohol intake. The necklace was present in 7%, 61.4%, 88.6%, and 98.5% of four groups of patients acknowledging less than 27 grams of ethanol intake per day for ten years, 77 grams per day for seven years, 112 grams per day for 11 years, and 113 grams per day for 15 years, respectively. The necklace first appeared after three to eight years of drinking 77 grams of ethanol (five to six drinks) p...

  14. From one addiction to another: life after alcohol and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, A S

    1989-11-01

    Once the alcoholic or drug addict has stopped drinking or using drugs, other addictive behaviors are frequently adopted. These factors must be considered in planning the overall recovery program. Substances likely to be used to excess include nicotine, caffeine, sugar, chocolate, nutritional supplements and medicinal herbs. Addictive behaviors adopted by recovering persons include eating disorders, exercise and body building, workaholism, and dependency on one's own adrenalin. Breaking the cycle of addiction requires commitment to a program of self-growth and becoming responsible for one's actions. PMID:2586856

  15. Personality Traits and Self Regulation: A Comparative Study among Current, Relapse and Remitted Drug Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Bukhtawer; Sumaira Muhammad; Ayesha Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship among personality traits and self regulation among different drug abuse cases. The three categories of drug abuse were based on phases of addiction namely current, relapse and remitted cases. Method: The sample consisted of 108 drug abusers taken from different rehabilitation centers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The selected drug abusers were at current (n = 40), relapsed (n = 42) and remission phase (n =2 7) of drug addiction...

  16. An Effective Family Skills-based Intervention for the Prevention of Health Problems in Children of Alcohol and Drug-Abusing Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol l. Kumpfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is a need forwide-scale dissemination of effective family-focused skills trainingprograms for the prevention of multiple developmental problems and later substance misuse amonghigh-risk children. Independent reviews have found the author’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP tobe the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Cultural adaptations have resulted in successful SFP outcomes in many countries, including in Spain as detailed in the Orte article. This article reviews 30 year history of implementation and outcomes of SFP in different cultures with cultural adaptations. Methods: The SEM-tested Social Ecology Model (Kumpfer, Alvarado, &Whiteside, 2003 is presented and reveals that family factors (bonding, supervision, and communication are the most protective of later substanceuse.Hence, this causal theory served as the etiological theory behind the design of the 14-session SFP.Social cognitive behavior theory (Bandura, 1989 is the intervention theory. The Strengthening Families Program(SFP was the first family skills training program developed and found effective in a randomized control trial (RCT to improve outcomes for children of dug abusers.Many countries requested to replicate SFP; hence, staff training systems were developed and a cultural adaptation process. Results: Eight RCTs, four conducted by independent research teams, and hundreds of quasi-experimental studies in different countrieshave demonstrated SFP’s effectiveness in reducing substance use in adolescents with up to 10-yearfollow-ups. Comparative effectiveness reviews including ones using statistical meta-analysis by theOxford University Cochrane Collaboration Reviews, found SFP to be the most effective alcohol and drug prevention program (Foxcroft, et al., 2003. A cost-benefit analysis by Miller and Hendrie (2008 found SFP prevented the highest percentage of youth from using alcohol and drugs. Cultural adaptation is a mandated

  17. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  18. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  19. Comparing Psychiatric Symptoms among Children of Substance-Abusing Parents With Different Treatment Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alison R; Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Hussong, Andrea M

    2013-01-01

    It appears that no studies to date have compared the psychiatric functioning of children of substance-abusing parents (COSs) across substance abuse treatment histories (e.g., inpatient, outpatient, residential). Different treatment histories may reflect differences in the severity of drug use, degree of impairment, or drug of choice, which may result in different symptomatology among COSs. Moreover, this information may be important for family-based treatment and prevention planning. In the current study, we examine psychiatric symptoms experienced by children whose parents have different addiction treatment histories. Eighty-one parents in treatment for a substance use disorder who had a 2-8 year old child completed an anonymous, computerized assessment. Respondents reported on their child's symptomatology as well as their own treatment history and current substance use. Overall, children were remarkably similar in psychiatric functioning and demographic characteristics across parent's treatment histories. However, children whose parents had only received medication management or detoxification had significantly higher somatization scores, more social withdrawal, and greater attention problems than children whose parents received outpatient treatment (but not inpatient/residential treatment). Children whose parents had been treated in an inpatient or residential setting had marginally higher attention problems than children whose parents received outpatient treatment (but not inpatient/residential treatment). Differences across treatment histories were reflected in the severity of psychiatric symptomatology in the young children of parents in treatment. However, given the modest size of these differences, prevention and intervention programs with children of substance-abusing parents may not need to be tailored as a function of parental treatment history as recruitment from various treatment centers may provide a sample with similar characteristics and risk

  20. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  1. Borderline Personality Symptoms and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk in Alcohol and Other Drug Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy G. Dévieux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Incarcerated youth with borderline symptomatology represent a particularly at risk-population due to their enggement in risky behaviors. Five hundred twenty two adolescents were assessed for borderline symptomatology (MACI, engagement in risky behaviors and attitudes/knowledge. Approach:Adolescents were divided into two groups: low borderline (below the 60 scale score cutoff and high borderline (subclinical and clinical range. Multivariate analyses were used to test for group differences. Results: The high borderline group had higher perceived susceptibility, greater knowledge, less favorable sexual and condom attitudes and less favorable behavioral intentions. There were no significant differences by group on sexual risk or substance use behaviors. A subset (n = 156 participating in a risk reduction experimental trial were followed three months post-intervention for differences in sexual risk and substance use. The high borderline experimental participants reported significantly more anal sex than the low borderline adolescents at 3 month follow-up. High borderline adolescents in the control group reported greater cocaine use than low borderline controls at 3 months, including trends suggesting more marijuana and alcohol use. At 3 month follow-up, no differences in cocaine, alcohol or marijuana use were detected between high and low borderline adolescents in the experimental group. Adolescents with higher borderline tendencies appear to realistically assess that they are at high risk of contracting HIV but may have less confidence in their ability to adopt HIV preventive behaviors. The results indicate that borderline personality symptoms may represent an important indicator of attitudes conducive to HIV transmission. Conclusion:Three-month follow-up data indicate the importance of examining borderline characteristics more microanalytically within research studies, including

  2. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  3. Assessment of the Abuse Potential of the Orexin Receptor Antagonist, Suvorexant, Compared With Zolpidem in a Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedel, Kerri A; Sun, Hong; Sellers, Edward M; Faulknor, Janice; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Li, Xiaodong; Kennedy, William P; Cha, Jang-Ho; Lewis, Nicole M; Liu, Wen; Bondiskey, Phung; McCrea, Jacqueline B; Panebianco, Deborah L; Troyer, Matthew D; Wagner, John A

    2016-08-01

    Suvorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved in the United States and Japan for the treatment of insomnia at a maximum dose of 20 mg. This randomized double-blind crossover study evaluated the abuse potential of suvorexant in 36 healthy recreational polydrug users with a history of sedative and psychedelic drug use. Single doses of suvorexant (40, 80, and 150 mg: 2-7.5 × maximum dose), zolpidem (15 and 30 mg: 1.5-3 × maximum dose), and placebo were administered, with a 10-day washout between treatments. Subjective and objective measures, including visual analog scales (VASs), Addiction Research Center Inventory, and cognitive/psychomotor tests, were evaluated for 24-hour postdose. Suvorexant had significantly greater peak effects on "drug liking" VAS (primary endpoint) than placebo. Although effects of suvorexant on abuse potential measures were generally similar to zolpidem, they remained constant across doses, whereas zolpidem often had greater effects at higher doses. Suvorexant (all doses) had significantly fewer effects than zolpidem 30 mg on secondary measures, such as "high" VAS, Bowdle VAS, and Addiction Research Center Inventory morphine-benzedrine group. The overall incidence of abuse-related adverse events, such as euphoric mood and hallucination, was numerically lower with suvorexant than zolpidem. In agreement with its classification as a schedule IV drug, suvorexant demonstrated abuse potential, compared with placebo. The abuse potential was similar to zolpidem using certain measures, but with a reduced incidence of abuse-related adverse events. Although this suggests that the overall abuse liability of suvorexant may be lower than zolpidem, the actual abuse rates will be assessed with the postmarketing experience. PMID:27253658

  4. Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, J.; Addington, D

    1997-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age,...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  6. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A s...

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  8. A multi-site randomized study to compare the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) added to TAU versus TAU to reduce craving and drinking behavior in alcohol dependent outpatients: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Markus, W; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background Addiction constitutes a major public health problem, and despite treatment, relapse rates remain very high. Preliminary findings suggest that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), an evidence-based treatment for PTSD, may also reduce craving and relapse rates when applied in substance abuse. This study aims to determine the feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness of EMDR when added to treatment as usual (TAU) for addiction in alcohol dependent outpatients, compared ...

  9. CRISTINA DÂMBOEANU, comparative assessments related to the proportions of different forms of abuse against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DÂMBOEANU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the proportions of the main forms of child abuse in various countries (including Romania. To this end, two distinct approaches were used: 1 the comparison of results of sociological studies on this issue, and 2 the comparison of data included in the reports drafted by the authorities in charge of ensuring the protection of child rights in five countries - the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and Romania. It was shown that, irrespective of the approach, comparative analysis is very limited due to the lack of a standardized definition of the notion of abuse against minors which is used in different countries. On the other hand, no standardized methodologies to approach the phenomenon are used. In the absence of a coordinated and centralized institutional assessment, the comparison of data related to the incidence of cases of abuse against children was carried out at trend level. From this point of view, it was emphasized that in Romania, the proportion of the phenomenon of abuse, especially of specific forms of manifestation of the abuse, is relatively more reduced than in countries that are more developed from an economic point of view, such as the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom.

  10. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  11. Treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid alcohol abuse with buspirone in a patient with antidepressant-induced platelet dysfunction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Mir; Hassan, Tariq; Munshi, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient's underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient's anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor's care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis. PMID:24416612

  12. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; P. Philippot; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, U.; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol ...

  13. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  14. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  15. Preliminary evidence for an association of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the MAOA gene with early onset alcoholism/substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanyukov, M.M.; Moss, H.B.; Tarter, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    An association between the liability to early onset alcoholism/substance abuse and a recently discovered dinucleotide repeat length polymorphism at the MAOA gene (MAOCA-1) was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A significant correlation between the presence/absence of the disorder and the length of the MAOCA-1 repeat was found in males, but not females, with {open_quotes}long{close_quotes} alleles (repeat length above 115 bp) associated with both increased risk for the disorder and lower age of onset of substance abuse. These preliminary data suggest that further exploration of the relationship between the MAOA gene and behavioral traits in an expanded sample is warranted. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  17. Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act of 1970--Extension. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session. January 19 and 26, 1976. Serial No. 94-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

    This document reports the hearings on bills H.R. 11317 and H.R. 11472, bills to extend for three fiscal years the programs of assistance under the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970. The programs include grants to the states, special grants for the implementation of the Uniform…

  18. Barriers to accessing substance abuse treatment in Mexico: national comparative analysis by migration status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined Mexican migrants’ perceived barriers to entering substance abuse treatment and potential differences by gender. Methods This study analyzed a subset of household data collected in Mexico in 2011 via the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). A sample of 1,143 individuals who reported using illicit drugs was analyzed using multivariate negative binomial models to determine direct and moderated relationships of gender, migrant status, and drug dependence with perceived barriers to accessing treatment. Results Significant findings included disparities in drug dependence by migrant status. Compared with non-migrant men, women who have traveled to the United States was associated with fewer (1.3) barriers to access treatment. Fewer barriers to access care were associated with individuals residing in other regions of the country, compared to those living in Mexico City. Conclusions Drug dependence, gender, migration status and regional location are factors associated with access to needed treatment. Implications for health care policy to develop treatment services infrastructure and for future research are discussed in the context of ongoing drug policy reform in Mexico. PMID:25074067

  19. Substance-abusing urban homeless in the late 1990s: How do they differ from non-substance-abusing homeless persons?

    OpenAIRE

    O’Toole, Thomas P.; Conde-Martel, Alicia; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Freyder, Paul J.; Fine, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Much of our understanding of substance abuse and homelessness comes from data from the 1980s and may not necessarily reflect issues or trends prevalent during the 1990s. We report data from a two-city, community-based, populations-proportionate sample of 531 randomly selected homeless adults; the study was conducted in 1997 and compared substance-abusing to non-substance-abusing respondents. Most (78.3%) met criteria for substance abuse/dependence and were abusing either cocaine or alcohol an...

  20. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322801

  1. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  2. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  3. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  4. Alcohol Abuse as a Rite of Passage: The Effect of Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience on Undergraduates' Drinking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative studies of alcohol's ritual influences indicate that college undergraduates who drink heavily tend to view alcohol use as integral to the student role and feel entitled to drink irresponsibly. Our analyses, based on a standardized measure of these beliefs administered to approximately 300 students, confirmed these findings. Among our…

  5. A long-term fatty fish intervention improved executive function in inpatients with antisocial traits and a history of alcohol and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita L; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Grung, Bjørn; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fatty fish consumption on cognitive functioning in a group of inpatients characterized by antisocial behavior. Eighty-three male forensic inpatients participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group (e.g., meat, chicken, pork). One decision-making task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and one planning task, the Tower of Hanoi (ToH), were administered before (pre-test) and at the end of the intervention period (post-test). For the IGT the Fish group showed improved performance from pre- to post- test. Moreover, the Fish group showed significantly better performance than the Control group on the IGT at post-test. The Fish group also demonstrated improved performance from pre- to post-test on the ToH; however, this was limited to participants with a history of substance abuse. Further, the improvement was only significant for tasks with high working memory load (5-7 move problems), and not for tasks with low working memory load (1-4 move problems). The Control group showed no improvement on any of the tasks regardless of alcohol or drug abuse history. The present study suggests that regular fatty fish consumption may improve executive functions in forensic inpatients with antisocial traits and a history of substance abuse. Thus, the current results may have important implications with regard to health care interventions. PMID:26032440

  6. Alcohol Use and Stress in University Freshmen - A Comparative Intervention Study of Two Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Claes

    2009-01-01

    Starting university is associated with major academic, personal and social opportunities. For many people, university entrance is also associated with increased stress and alcohol consumption. At the start of the autumn term 2002, all students entering educational programmes at two comparable middle-sized Swedish universities were invited to participate in a comparative intervention study. This included both primary and secondary interventions targeting hazardous drinking and stress. The over...

  7. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  8. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers. PMID:20587451

  9. The puzzle of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: a meta-analysis comparing intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders with child victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Babchishin, Kelly M; Pullman, Lesleigh E; McPhail, Ian V

    2015-07-01

    Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is a serious social and health problem, yet explanations of sexual offending against children that emphasize antisocial tendencies and atypical sexual interests do not adequately explain intrafamilial offending. In this meta-analysis, we tested other explanations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse by examining 78 independent samples that compared a total of 6605 intrafamilial offenders to a total of 10,573 extrafamilial offenders, in studies disseminated between 1978 and 2013 (Mdn=2000). Intrafamilial offenders were significantly lower on variables reflecting antisocial tendencies (e.g., criminal history, juvenile delinquency, impulsivity, substance use, and psychopathy) and atypical sexual interests (e.g., pedophilia, other paraphilias, and excessive sexual preoccupation). Contrary to other explanations that have been proposed, intrafamilial offenders scored lower on offense-supportive attitudes and beliefs, emotional congruence with children, and interpersonal deficits; intrafamilial offenders also did not differ from extrafamilial offenders on most indicators of psychopathology. Intrafamilial offenders were, however, more likely to have experienced sexual abuse, family abuse or neglect, and poor parent-child attachments. There were too few studies to examine family dynamics - spousal relationship quality, parent-child victim relationship, and family functioning more generally - even though these factors have been frequently mentioned in the clinical and theoretical literatures. Implications for theories of intrafamilial sexual offending, treatment, and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:25935749

  10. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507

  11. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  12. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI dis...

  13. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in a population-based study Prevalência da dependência de álcool e fatores associados em estudo de base populacional

    OpenAIRE

    Marilisa Berti Azevedo Barros; Neury José Botega; Paulo Dalgalarrondo; Letícia Marín-León; Helenice Bosco de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence and identify associated factors among demographic, family, socioeconomic and mental health variables. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in the urban area of Campinas, southeastern Brazil, in 2003. A total of 515 subjects, aged 14 years or more were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample. The Self-Report Questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were used in the interview. Prevalences ...

  14. Diagnostic Orphans for Alcohol Use Disorders in a Treatment-Seeking Psychiatric Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Miranda, Robert; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    Individuals who endorse one or two of the DSM-IV criterion items for alcohol dependence but do not meet criteria for either alcohol abuse or dependence have been referred to in the literature as “diagnostic orphans.” The goal of the present study is to compare diagnostic orphans for alcohol use disorders (AUD) to patients with lifetime DSM-IV alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and those with no-AUD symptoms on a series of demographic, diagnostic, and clinical measures. Participants were treat...

  15. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  16. Neural correlates of the severity of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use in polysubstance abusers: a resting-PET brain metabolism study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB whole-brain analyses. In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. RESULTS: The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients.

  17. Sexual orientation differences in the relationship between victimization and hazardous drinking among women in the National Alcohol Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Korcha, Rachael A.; Lown, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relationships between past experiences of victimization (sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood, sexual abuse and physical abuse in adulthood, and lifetime victimization) and hazardous drinking among sexual minority women compared to exclusively heterosexual women. Data were from 11,169 women responding to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three National Alcohol Survey waves: 2000 (n=3,880), 2005 (n=3,464) and 2010 (n=3,825). A hazardous drinking ind...

  18. CRISTINA DÂMBOEANU, comparative assessments related to the proportions of different forms of abuse against children

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA DÂMBOEANU

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the proportions of the main forms of child abuse in various countries (including Romania). To this end, two distinct approaches were used: 1) the comparison of results of sociological studies on this issue, and 2) the comparison of data included in the reports drafted by the authorities in charge of ensuring the protection of child rights in five countries - the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and Romania. It was shown that, ...

  19. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  20. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  1. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  2. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  3. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern Estudo caso-controle sobre distúrbios psiquiátricos e com álcool como fatores de risco para padrão de abuso de drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia S Lopes; Rosely Sichieri

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults). Cases (drug abusers) and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI). Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other dr...

  4. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  5. Early Intervention in Poor Families Confronted With Alcohol Abuse and Violence: Impact on Families' Social Integration and Parenting : impact of early intervention within alcoholic and poor families

    OpenAIRE

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Constantin-Kuntz, Marie; Titran, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    International audience To help families challenged by transgenerational problems, substance abuse, and violence, support strategies require professionals who understand their specific needs and inspire trust. Such support, provided by a group consisting of professionals, volunteers, and families, was assessed by a follow-up study. The outcome of 22 families was observed an average of 7 years after their participation in the group ended. Results show that most parents recovered a significan...

  6. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  7. Estimation of serum malondialdehyde in oral cancer and precancer and its association with healthy individuals, gender, alcohol, and tobacco abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chole Revant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco and alcohol induces generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for high rate of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde is the most widely used marker of lipid peroxidation. The aim of the study was to estimate serum malondialdehyde level in oral precancer, oral cancer, and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: In this study serum malondialdehyde was measured according to the method of Ohkawa et al in 30 normal individuals and 30 patients each with histopathologically diagnosed oral precancer, and oral cancer. Results: The mean serum malondialdehyde level in the control group was found to be 5.107 ± 2.32 ηmol/ml, whereas it was 9.33 ± 4.89 ηmol/ml and 14.34 ± 1.43 ηmol/ml in oral precancer and oral cancer, respectively. There was statistically significant increase in serum malondialdehyde levels in the oral precancer and oral cancer patients compared with the control group. Conclusion: Increased serum malondialdehyde in oral cancer and oral precancer would serve as a valuable marker for both preventive and clinical intervention, and may deserve further investigation for the early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  8. Comparative studies on the alcohol types presence in Gracilaria sp. and rice fermentation using Sasad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansa, R.; Mansuit, H.; Sipaut, C. S.; Yee, C. F.; Yasir, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Alternative fuel sources such as biofuels are needed in order to overcome environmental problem caused by fossil fuel consumption. Currently, most biofuel are produced from land based crops and there is a possibility that marine biomass such as macroalgae can be an alternative source for biofuel production. The carbohydrate in macroalgae can be broken down into simple sugar through thermo-chemical hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute-acid hydrolysis was believed to be the most available and affordable method. However, the process may release inhibitors which would affect alcohol yield from fermentation. Thus, this work was aimed at investigating if it is possible to avoid this critical pre-treatment step in macroalgae fermentation process by using Sasad, a local Sabahan fermentation agent and to compare the yield with rice wine fermentation. This work hoped to determine and compare the alcohol content from Gracilaria sp. and rice fermentation with Sasad. Rice fermentation was found containing ethanol and 2 - methyl - 1 - propanol. Fermentation of Gracilaria sp. had shown the positive presence of 3 - methyl - 1 - butanol. It was found that Sasad can be used as a fermentation agent for bioalcohol production from Gracilaria sp. without the need for a pretreatment step. However further investigations are needed to determine if pre-treatment would increase the yield of alcohol.

  9. Potential and limitations of biomass production for energy purposes: Vegetable oils compared with alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Brazil has favourable conditions for biomass production, as regards land mass, soil and climate, several agricultural products have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. An analysis is made of the potential and limitations of energy systems using biomass production aimed at the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines compared with the experience acquired in Brazil with alcohol fuel in Otto engines. The current status of the national programme for alcohol production (PNA) within the framework of Brazilian agriculture in the last few years is presented, taking into account its objectives, achievements and impacts. Regarding vegetable oils, it must be emphasized that freight and mass passenger transport is being researched in every aspect - from the agricultural production of oleaginous plants to the use of oils in diesel engines. To assess the potential of oleaginous plant production, land needs for the years 1990 and 2000 have been estimated. From the study of some selected oleaginous plants and their potential expansion in a realistic way it was concluded that the viability of this alternative to diesel oil is limited in the short and medium term compared with alcohol, which provides better conditions for great expansion in the short term. It is believed that the option is viable, provided that it is launched gradually to avoid repeating the negative impacts that (according to some experts) were generated by PNA. (author)

  10. Implicações do uso do álcool na comunidade indígena Potiguara Implications of alcohol abuse and consumption in the Potiguara indigenous community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rízia Félix de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Em função do crescimento do uso e do abuso do álcool nas populações indígenas do Brasil, esta pesquisa se propôs a investigar o consumo do álcool na comunidade Potiguara do Estado da Paraíba, devido à especificidade cultural e regional desta etnia. Trata-se de um estudo de campo exploratório. A amostra foi composta por 55 índios, maiores de 18 anos e de ambos os sexos. O instrumento utilizado foi uma entrevista semiestruturada aplicada individualmente. Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizado o software SPSS e Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Os resultados revelaram que 41,8% da amostra estudada têm, pelo menos, um membro da família que faz uso de bebida alcoólica, em sua maioria destiladas, e que o uso ocorre em idade precoce, estando desvinculado da cultura e de rituais. Dos entrevistados 27,3% afirmaram que a bebida traz diversos problemas para toda a família, inclusive com a morte. Pode-se concluir que, na população indígena estudada, o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas já ocorre de forma abusiva e precoce, necessitando-se de um trabalho mais efetivo de prevenção e de resgate da cultura desta comunidade.Due to the growth of usage and alcohol abuse in indigenous populations of Brazil, this research aims to investigate alcohol consumption in the Potiguara community, in the State of Paraíba, considering its specific cultural and regional differences of ethnicity. This is an exploratory field study. The sample consisted of 55 Indians, aged over 18 years and of both sexes. The instrument was a semistructured interview administered individually. For data analysis, we used the SPSS software and qualitative analysis. The results revealed that 41.8% of the sample have at least one family member who uses alcohol, mostly distilled, and that use starts at an early age, being detached from the culture and rituals. Of the respondents 27.3% said that drinking brings many problems for the entire family, including death. We can concluded

  11. Self-medication, substance abuse and alcohol consumption in students attending to La Plata National university, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Gustavo Horacio; Cañás, Martín; Carlson, Soledad; Silvestrini, M. P.; Corva, S. G.; Mestorino, Olga Nora; Errecalde & Gis, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization raises self-care as a strategy for health promotion. Although self-medication is included in self-care strategy, often it is associate to an irrational medicine's usage. This factor associated with illicit drugs and alcohol consumption becomes in a public health problem. In order to establish frequency of self-medication and the prevalence of illicit drugs and alcohol consumption among university students of La Plata, Argentina, was started the presen...

  12. Drugs of abuse and alcohol consumption among different groups of population on the Greek Island of Lesvos through sewage-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidou, Georgia; Kinyua, Juliet; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse, their metabolites, and the alcohol metabolite ethyl sulphate was investigated in raw sewage samples collected during the non-touristic season from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), which serve different sizes and types of population in the Greek island of Lesvos. Using the sewage-based epidemiology approach, the consumption of these substances was estimated. Five target analytes, cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) were detected at concentrations above their limit of quantification, whereas the rest eighteen target compounds were not detected. THC-COOH was detected in most of the samples with concentrations ranging between difference was not statistically significant. Consumption of THC differed significantly among the three STPs. PMID:27236142

  13. Educar en habilidades sociales para prevenir el abuso del alcohol en la adolescencia = Social skills to prevent alcohol abuse in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Senra Varela, María

    2010-01-01

    Existen estudios previos que señalan la incompetencia social como un factor de riesgo para el abusodel alcohol (Senra y Manzano, 2003) y Goleman puso de manifiesto la importancia de la competenciasocial en el adolescente para controlar sus impulsos, rela

  14. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues The Role of Culture in Elder ... factor in all types of elder abuse, including physical mistreatment, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. It is also a ...

  15. Abuso de alcohol en el medio laboral, factores de riesgo para el consumo, e instrumentos de valoración aplicables en la vigilancia de la salud Alcohol abuse at workplace, risk factors and instruments for health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna C. Ramírez Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El consumo excesivo de alcohol es un problema de salud pública, según la OMS anualmente mueren 2,5 millones de personas por esta causa, el sector laboral no escapa a esta situación, creando la necesidad detectar precozmente el consumo de alcohol en los trabajadores. Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo para el consumo de alcohol en el medio laboral, y describir instrumentos útiles para el médico del trabajo, en el reconocimiento de trabajadores con problemas de abuso de alcohol. Método: Se consultaron distintas bases de datos PUBMED, CISDOC, SCIELO, LILACS, MEDLINE The cocrhane library. Se evaluaron resúmenes y se recuperaron a texto completo aquellos relacionados con abuso de alcohol en población trabajadora. Resultados: Se encontraron estudios epidemiológicos, de casos y controles, publicaciones de organismos oficiales y revistas de salud laboral. Estos evaluaron factores psicosociales y alcohol, algunos estudios usaron medidas de cribaje como cuestionarios AUDIT, CAGE y MALT para diagnosticar consumo perjudicial de alcohol. Conclusiones: Se identificaron factores de riesgo en la población trabajadora, relacionados con el ambiente laboral, organización del trabajo, cualificación profesional y factores individuales: edad, sexo, y nivel socio-cultural. El uso de cuestionarios para detectar consumo de alcohol fue considerado la mejor opción, por fácil aplicación y bajo coste. Es necesario promover el uso de herramientas aplicables en el reconocimiento y prevención del abuso de alcohol en la población trabajadora.Background: The alcohol abuse (AA is a public health problem that causes 2.5 million deaths annually (WHO, the labor sector is not immune to this situation, creating the need for early detection of AA on workers. Objective: To identify risk factors and instruments for health surveillance of workers with AA problems. Methods: We reviewed the literature, PUBMED, CIS-DOC, SCIELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and

  16. Mediating role of childhood emotional abuse on the relationship between severity of ADHD and PTSD symptoms in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Bilge; Agachanli, Ruken

    2016-05-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of PTSD symptom severity with severity of ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood trauma in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 190 male inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C). PTSD and ADHD scores were mildly correlated with severity of childhood trauma and types of traumas, the only exception was emotional neglect, which was not correlated with PTSD and ADHD. Severity of ADHD symptoms was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, together with the severity of childhood trauma in a linear regression model. In another linear regression model where dimensions of ADHD and childhood trauma were considered as independent variables, emotional abuse and both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive dimensions of ADHD were associated with the severity of PTSD. These findings suggest that the severity of adult ADHD symptoms is related with the severity of PTSD symptoms, while severity of childhood trauma, particularly emotional abuse may have an mediating role on this relationship among male inpatients with AUD. PMID:27058158

  17. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  18. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). PMID:26694872

  19. Anxiety and alcohol involvement across the substance use continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Kristin Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The link between anxiety disorders and alcohol abuse and dependence has been established in adults, but the relationship between anxiety and adolescent alcohol involvement is less clear. In this dissertation, we compared explanatory models of substance use including the self-medication hypothesis, the social learning model, and the rebound hypothesis to characterize the association between anxiety and alcohol use in groups with various levels of experience with drinking. Additionally, we incl...

  20. Preparation and Comparative Bioavailability Studies of Indomethacin-Loaded Cetyl Alcohol Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vishal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the in vitro release and to find out whether the bioavailability of a 75 mg indomethacin capsule (Microcid SR was equivalent to optimized formulation (indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres. Indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres were prepared by meltable emulsified cooling-induced technique. Surface morphology of microspheres has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. A single dose, randomized, complete cross over study of IM microspheres was carried out on 10 healthy male and female Albino sheep’s under fasting conditions. The plasma was separated and the concentrations of the drug were determined by HPLC-UV method. Plasma indomethacin concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were statistically analyzed. The SEM images revealed the spherical shape of fat microspheres, and more than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were in the size range 12–32 μm. DSC, FTIR spectroscopy and stability studies indicated that the drug after encapsulation with fat microspheres was stable and compatible. Both formulations were found to be bioequivalent as evidenced by in vivo studies. Based on this study, it can be concluded that cetyl alcohol microspheres and Microcid SR capsule are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.