WorldWideScience

Sample records for alchemy

  1. Alchemy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.; Segal, R.A.; von Stuckrad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy, with its dreams of transmutation, transformation, and perfection, its quest for the Philosophers’ Stone capable of transmuting base metals into gold, and search for the Elixir capable of miraculous cures and prolonging life, has been one of the fascinations of humanity for almost two

  2. Alchemy restored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2011-06-01

    Alchemy now holds an important place in the history of science. Its current status contrasts with its former exile as a "pseudoscience" or worse and results from several rehabilitative steps carried out by scholars who made closer, less programmatic, and more innovative studies of the documentary sources. Interestingly, alchemy's outcast status was created in the eighteenth century and perpetuated thereafter in part for strategic and polemical reasons-and not only on account of a lack of historical understanding. Alchemy's return to the fold of the history of science highlights important features about the development of science and our changing understanding of it.

  3. Art & Alchemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -century portrayals of alchemists, and alchemy's tortured status as a forerunner of photography. Art and Alchemy indicates that alchemy indeed has several connections with art by examining some of the pictorial and literary books that disseminated alchemical symbols and ideas, delving into images, which in one way......Partly because of alchemy's dismissal from the Parnassus of rational sciences, the interplay between this esoteric knowledge and the visual arts is still a surprisingly neglected research area. This collection of articles covering the time span from the Late Middle Ages to the twentieth century...... intends, however, to challenge the current neglect. Areas on which its twelve authors cast new light include alchemical gender symbolism in Renaissance, Mannerist and modernist art, alchemical ideas of transformation in Italian fifteenth-century landscape imagery, Netherlandish seventeenth...

  4. Psychology and alchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C G

    2010-01-01

    Alchemy is central to Jung's hypothesis of the collective unconscious. In this volume he begins with an outline of the process and aims of psychotherapy, and then moves on to work out the analogies between alchemy, Christian dogma and symbolism and his own understanding of the analytic process. Introducing the basic concepts of alchemy, Jung reminds us of the dual nature of alchemy, comprising both the chemical process and a parallel mystical component. He also discusses the seemingly deliberate mystification of the alchemists. Finally, in using the alchemical process as providing insights into individuation, Jung emphasises the importance of alchemy in relating to us the transcendent nature of the psyche.

  5. European alchemy: some traditional beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, V

    1999-01-01

    Three important doctrines of European alchemy are discussed: the Emerald Table of Hermes, the idea of transmutation, and the Elixir of Life. The analysis of these problems is focused on the 16th century, the epoch of the high flourish of alchemy in Renaissance Europe. As typical examples two works are chosen: the treatises of Jean-Pierre Fabre (1588-1658) and Alexander von Suchten (? 1520 - ? 1590). The arguments of these authors illustrate the ways how alchemists tried to defend their position in face of repeated failures. Just the 16th century stood in the sign of dramatic development of crafts, but, simultaneously, of growing interest in alchemy.

  6. MARCELIN BERTHELOT AND INDIAN ALCHEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Arion

    1986-01-01

    Based on unpublished manuscripts, the article reveals the keen interest shown by Marcelin Berthelot in Indian alchemy. The French Savant has actually inspired and encouraged the first historical research in this field, undertaken at the end of the last century, in Calcutta, by the Bengali scientist Prafulla Chandra Ray. PMID:22557533

  7. Radiotoxicity, dose and nuclear alchemy; Radiotoxiciteit, dosis en nucleaire alchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schram, R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    An outline is given of the nuclear fuel cycle and related products, focusing on the radiotoxicity and radioactive waste dose. Also, it is explained how those subjects form the basis of research on transmutation and recycling of radioactive waste. Finally, attention will be paid to nuclear alchemy, i.e. the steps to be taken for transmutation and recycling, based on current developments in research at NRG. [Dutch] In dit artikel zal een toelichting worden gegeven op de splijtstofcyclus en de producten die daarbij vrijkomen. Hierbij zal worden ingegaan op de radiotoxiciteit en dosis van het radioactief anal. Tevens zal worden uitgelegd hoe deze begrippen de basis vormen voor keuzes binnen het onderzoek naar transmutatie en recycling van radioactief afval. Ook zal de nucleaire alchemie, de benodigde stappen voor transmutatie en recycling, worden behandeld aan de hand van de actuele ontwikkelingen in het onderzoek zoals onder meer uitgevoerd bij NRG.

  8. Educational Alchemy: The Transformation of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugits, Michael James

    Alchemy is the magical or mysterious power or process involving chemistry, magic, and philosophy in transforming one thing into another. The term is often used to describe the medieval study that sought to transform cheaper metals into gold or silver. "Educational alchemy" is the process by which schools are converted into more effective learning…

  9. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  10. Antonin Artaud - Alchemy of Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Antonin Artaud, who stages his mental coma in defense of poetry, is usually misunderstood and misinterpreted as insane. Particularly his late writings are rarely read but fervently pathologized. The present book ventures readings in the poet1s alchemy of letters, which releases the matter of an ostracized language and frees a poem which has continually been aborted by history. To Artaud, words are sore and festering wounds within grammatical structure. In the movement of poetical elements at...

  11. Alchemy and the history of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Bruce T

    2011-06-01

    Alchemy is part of the cultural experience of early modern Europe and yet has had to overcome problems of demarcation to be considered relevant to the history of science. This essay considers historiographical and methodological issues that have affected the gradual demarginalization of alchemy among attempts to explain, and find things out about, nature. As an area of historical study, alchemy relates to the history of science as part of an ensemble of practices that explored the natural world through natural philosophy and speculative traditions and by functioning as a nexus of social and intellectual life.

  12. Cumbrian Alchemy (2012-2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Robert; McGovern Wilson, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The Cumbrian Alchemy project explores issues emerging from an enquiry into convergent relationships among the nuclear and other energy industries, archaeological monuments and oral traditions of the North Lancashire and Cumbrian region in the north-west of England. Topically, it focuses on ideas of 'places of power', issues and discourse associated with hazardous industrial sites, long-term nuclear repositories, matters of 'deep-time' with respect to the recording and remembering of these repositories, language preservation and stewardship of the land. The project was supported by Arts Council England and the University of Cumbria

  13. Alchemy--A History of Early Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of alchemy including personalities and methods. Discusses the philosophy associated with various early chemists and alchemists. Attempts to show that it was not unreasonable for ancient alchemists to believe in the possibility of transmutation. (CW)

  14. The Ars alchemie: the first Latin text on practical alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Antony

    2009-03-01

    The Ars alchemie is a collection of alchemical recipes associated with the names of the Arabic-Latin translator Michael Scot and the major general of the Friars Minor, Elias Cortona, of the first half of the thirteenth century. This articles investigates the various forms in which this text appears in the four manuscripts that contain it. It shows the dependence of one of its prologues on the work of an earlier translator, Hugo of Santalla, and the overlap of its contents with other alchemical treatises: Liber luminis luminum, Liber Dedali, Liber de aluminibus et salibus and Liber Hermetis de blchkmkb. Its mention of the alum of Aleppo corresponds with references to trade in this material in the thirteenth century. Its main characteristics are its compilatory nature and its emphasis on practical applications.

  15. Translating Ancient Alchemy: Fragments of Graeco-Egyptian Alchemy in Arabic Compendia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    Translation played a vital role in the development and transfer of alchemy in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Since its origins in Graeco-Roman Egypt, alchemy was encapsulated in Greek texts which allegedly relied on Persian or Egyptian sources. Later, a variety of Greek and Byzantine writings were translated into Syriac and Arabic, and these translations were in turn fragmented and disseminated in later Arabic compendia. This paper will first review the main phases of this historical process of transmission of alchemy from one language and culture to another. Second, this process will be examined using two significant case studies: a close analysis of various quotations from Graeco-Egyptian authors (Pseudo-Democritus, Zosimus of Panopolis, and Synesius) as presented in two Arabic dialogues on alchemy, The Tome of Images and The Dialogue between Āras and the King Caesar. These sources demonstrate some of the concrete textual realities that underlie general patterns of translation and reception.

  16. Some recent developments in the historiography of alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2011-11-01

    The number of researchers and publications devoted to the history of alchemy has seen exponential growth and diversification in recent decades, to such an extent that some scholars speak of a "New Historiography of Alchemy". On the occasion of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry, this paper outlines some highlights of the literature since 1990, with a view to identify current trends but also challenges for the future. Some of the most important changes identified are a marked awareness of the risks of presentism, a shift from ambitious histories to contextualised microhistories, a heightened recognition of the internal diversity of historical alchemy, and a greater emphasis on its practical dimensions and its role in the Scientific Revolution. Among the challenges, the paper underscores the potential risks of an excessive historiographical fragmentation, the need for further interdisciplinary training and cooperation, and the responsibilities of alchemy historians towards students and the general public alike.

  17. Words and works in the history of alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummedal, Tara E

    2011-06-01

    This essay considers the implications of a shift in focus from ideas to practices in the history of alchemy. On the one hand, it is argued, this new attention to practice highlights the diversity of ways that early modern Europeans engaged alchemy, ranging from the literary to the entrepreneurial and artisanal, as well as the broad range of social and cultural spaces that alchemists inhabited. At the same time, however, recent work has demonstrated what most alchemists shared-namely, a penchant for reading, writing, making, and doing, all at the same time. Any history of early modern alchemy, therefore, must attend to all of these practices, as well as the interplay among them. In this sense, alchemy offers a model for thinking and writing about early modern science more generally, particularly in light of recent work that has explored the intersection of scholarly, artisanal, and entrepreneurial forms of knowledge in the early modem period.

  18. Novel Catalysis by Gold: A Modern Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Masatake

    Gold has long been neglected as a catalyst because of its chemical inertness. However, when gold is deposited as nanoparticles on carbon and polymer materials as well as on base metal oxides and hydroxides, it exhibits unique catalytic properties for many reactions such as CO oxidation at a temperature as low as 200 K, gas phase direct epoxidation of propylene, and aerobic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. The structure-catalytic activity correlations are discussed with emphasis on the contact structure, support selection, and the size control of gold particles. Gold clusters with diameters smaller than 2 nm are expected to exhibit novel properties in catalysis, optics, and electronics depending on the size (number of atoms), shape, and the electronic and chemical interaction with the support materials. The above achievements and attempts can be regarded as a modern alchemy that creates valuables by means of the noblest element with little practical use.

  19. Alchemy and mining: metallogenesis and prospecting in early mining books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym, Warren Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Historians have assumed that alchemy had a close association with mining, but exactly how and why miners were interested in alchemy remains unclear. This paper argues that alchemical theory began to be synthesised with classical and Christian theories of the earth in mining books after 1500, and served an important practical function. The theory of metals that mining officials addressed spoke of mineral vapours (Witterungen) that left visible markings on the earth's surface. The prospector searched for mineral ore in part by studying these indications. Mineral vapours also explained the functioning of the dowsing rod, which prospectors applied to the discovery of ore. Historians of early chemistry and mining have claimed that mining had a modernising influence by stripping alchemy of its theoretical component, but this paper shows something quite to the contrary: mining officials may have been sceptical of the possibility of artificial transmutation, but they were interested in a theory of the earth that could translate into prospecting knowledge.

  20. Transmuting Sericon: Alchemy as "Practical Exegesis" in Early Modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    An influential strand of English alchemy was the pursuit of the "vegetable stone," a medicinal elixir popularized by George Ripley (d. ca. 1490), made from a metallic substance, "sericon." Yet the identity of sericon was not fixed, undergoing radical reinterpretation between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries as Ripley's lead-based practice was eclipsed by new methods, notably the antimonial approach of George Starkey (1628-65). Tracing "sericonian" alchemy over 250 years, I show how alchemists fed their practical findings back into textual accounts, creating a "feedback loop" in which the authority of past adepts was maintained by exegetical manipulations--a process that I term "practical exegesis."

  1. Moral alchemy: How love changes norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Rachel W; Schulz, Laura E

    2017-10-01

    We discuss a process by which non-moral concerns (that is concerns agreed to be non-moral within a particular cultural context) can take on moral content. We refer to this phenomenon as moral alchemy and suggest that it arises because moral obligations of care entail recursively valuing loved ones' values, thus allowing propositions with no moral weight in themselves to become morally charged. Within this framework, we predict that when people believe a loved one cares about a behavior more than they do themselves, the moral imperative to care about the loved one's interests will raise the value of that behavior, such that people will be more likely to infer that third parties will see the behavior as wrong (Experiment 1) and the behavior itself as more morally important (Experiment 2) than when the same behaviors are considered outside the context of a caring relationship. The current study confirmed these predictions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How the Alchemy Makes Inquiry, Evidence, and Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Modern teaching and teacher education "magically" transform sciences, social sciences, and humanities. The alchemy of school subjects provides a way to think about frames of reference organizing inquiry and constitutes evidence in teacher education, also obscuring the normalizing and dividing practices of teaching (including…

  3. Alchemy vs. chemistry: the etymological origins of a historiographic mistake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W R; Principe, L M

    1998-02-01

    The parallel usage of the two terms "alchemy" and "chemistry" by seventeenth-century writers has engendered considerable confusion among historians of science. Many historians have succumbed to the temptation of assuming that the early modern term "chemistry" referred to something like the modern discipline, while supposing that "alchemy" pertained to a different set of practices and beliefs, predominantly the art of transmuting base metals into gold. This paper provides the first exhaustive analysis of the two terms and their interlinguistic cognates in the seventeenth century. It demonstrates that the intentional partition of the two terms with the restriction of alchemy to the sense of metallic transmutation was not widely accepted until the end of the seventeenth century, if even then. The major figure in the restriction of meaning, Nicholas Lemery, built on a spurious interpretation of the Arabic definite article al, which he inherited from earlier sources in the chemical textbook tradition. In order to curtail the tradition of anachronism and distortion engendered by the selective use of the terms "alchemy" and "chemistry" by historians, the authors conclude by suggesting a return to seventeenth-century terminology for discussing the different aspects of the early modern discipline "chymistry."

  4. Rhetoric, Alchemy and Heuristic Procedures: Some Epistemological Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bruce L., Jr.

    Although composition theorists have rejected the "alchemy" of the traditional, impressionistic, unscientific view of composition as product in favor of a process oriented approach, they have as yet failed to reach a consensus about the epistemological bases that undergird this shift. An examination of parallel developments in literary…

  5. A comparative study of greek and chinese alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1979-01-01

    According to an herbal cult of immortality in China, about 200 B.C., certain plants could make man immortal. Greek alchemy, the earliest record of which dated about 200 A.D., presents a similar version, was originally Chinese and was introduced by the Arabs who brought herbal drugs of longevity to Alexandria. The name of these drugs, Chin-I, dialectal Kim-Iya, was Arabicized as Kimiya and transliterated Chemeia by the Copts. Other terms were later influenced by Indians (Chumeia, 100 A.D.) and more directly by the Chinese (Chrusozomion, 200 A.D.). The 3 terms signify herbal elixirs of gold and the art related to them. Both early Chinese and Greek alchemies were not concerned with the making of bullion gold. In China the development of alchemy has been ruled by two theories: first, as like makes like, a perennial plant can make human life perennial: likewise, certain substances can prolong human life as they are rich in Life-force or Soul-content. From here, Blood was equated to Soul and later Redness to Soul. Jade, Cinnabar and eventually gold, more precisely Red-gold or Cinnabar-gold, a colloidal gold, became the ideal drug of immortality. Finally, alchemy can be defined as the art of making metal colloids as panaceae.

  6. 78 FR 25529 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALCHEMY; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ALCHEMY... of the vessel ALCHEMY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Uninspected six-pack sailing charters...

  7. Oratorium - auditorium - laboratorium: early modern improvisations on cabala, music, and alchemy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the improvisations in the practices of cabala, music and alchemy. It examines the connection between magic, alchemy and cabala and their implications for theosophy according to Paracelsian doctor Heinrich Khunrath. It also analyzes the musical composition and harmony of

  8. What have we learned from the recent historiography of alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William R

    2011-06-01

    Over the last two decades a new scholarship on alchemy has emerged, leading to a fundamental reformulation of knowledge about alchemists and their activities. We now know that medieval and early modern alchemists employed experiment in concert with theory to demonstrate the existence of stable "chymical atoms," which were thought to combine with one another according to a hierarchical theory of matter. Employing laboratory-based analysis and synthesis, alchemists were among the first explicitly to enunciate the principle of mass balance and to show that materials are compounded of the ingredients into which they can be physically decomposed. Perhaps even more surprisingly, these convictions and practices arose out of the interaction of alchemical practice with scholastic Aristotelianism, long viewed by historians of the Scientific Revolution as antithetical to experiment. Thus the new historiography challenges both a long-standing marginalization of alchemy itself and a commonplace view of Aristotelianism as inimical to the early modern growth of experimental science.

  9. Textual alchemy: the transformation of pseudo-Albertus Magnus's Semita recta into the Mirror of Lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This article explores the strategies of and the reasons behind the reworking of pseudo-Albertus Magnus's Semita recta into the Mirror of Lights. I argue that the redactor sought to provide a more comprehensive defence of the legitimacy of alchemy than found in the Semita recta. In the process of doing so, he reshaped the original text so as to present three units that addressed different parts of the alchemical opus: first, theory and justification of alchemy; second, basic information on substances and procedures; and, third, practice. The redactor employed sophisticated textual tools identical to those seen in scholastic texts. These strategies, I argue, constitute part of the redactor's attempt to bring authority and credibility to his project and to alchemy in general. Certainly, much more attention needs to be paid to these experiments of textual alchemy in order to understand the practice of alchemy in the late medieval period.

  10. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries.

  11. MANTRA AND YANTRA IN INDIAN MEDICINE AND ALCHEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Arion

    1988-01-01

    This paper was presented at the International Workshop on mantras and ritual diagrams in Hinduism, held in Paris, 21-22 June1984. The complete text in French, which appeared in the Journal asiatique 1986, p.203, is based upon an analysis of Ayurvedc literature from ancient times down to the present and of numerous Sanskrit sources concerning he specialized sciences: alchemy and latrochemisry, veterinary medicine as well as agricultural and horticulture techniques. PMID:22557624

  12. Mantra and yantra in Indian medicine and alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, A

    1988-07-01

    This paper was presented at the International Workshop on mantras and ritual diagrams in Hinduism, held in Paris, 21-22 June1984. The complete text in French, which appeared in the Journal asiatique 1986, p.203, is based upon an analysis of Ayurvedc literature from ancient times down to the present and of numerous Sanskrit sources concerning he specialized sciences: alchemy and latrochemisry, veterinary medicine as well as agricultural and horticulture techniques.

  13. The Transmission of Secret Knowledge: Three Arabic Dialogues on Alchemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Forster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabo-Islamic alchemy enjoyed considerable popularity until well into the 19th and 20th centuries. It can be considered both as a predecessor of modern chemistry and as a natural philosophy whose purpose is to explain the world. Yet one of the unresolved questions concerning alchemy is how one was supposed to learn it, since it was an art that was meant to be kept secret and only revealed to a few select individuals. While the practicalities of the learning experience remain obscure, it is noteworthy that Arabic alchemical literature often makes use of the literary form of the dialogue, a genre strongly associated with teaching and learning. This paper focuses on three Arabic dialogues on alchemy; namely, Masāʼil Khālid li-Maryānus al-rāhib (“Khālid’s questions to the monk Maryānus”, Kitāb Mihrārīs al-ḥakīm (“The book of the wise Mihrārīs” and Risālat al-ḥakīm Qaydarūs (“The epistle of the wise Qaydarūs”, and discusses how the transfer of secret knowledge is represented. I will focus on the literary frames of these texts, their mise-enscéne, the master-disciple relation as represented within them, and the question of interaction between unequal partners.

  14. THE SINO-INDIAN ORIGIN OF CHEMEIA AND CHUMEIA AS SYNONYMS IN GREK, SIGNIFYING ALCHEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1984-01-01

    In China the antecedent of alchemy is represented by the god of longevity emerging from the peach. The first synthetic drug, Kim-Yeh, red colloidal gold, signified gold-cum -herbal juice. Kim-Yeh=Kimiya (Arabic) =chemeia (Greek). Translated this gave Chrusozomion=Gold Ferment, specifying the drug. Rasayana was translated as Chumeia, herbal juice-incorporate and signified the art alchemy. Chemeia was Chinese and Chumeia, Indian. Originally each signified both, a drug of longevity and the art, alchemy. Finally the art of making red gold was misunderstood as the art of making gold itself PMID:22557463

  15. The sino-Indian origin of chemeia and chumeia as synonyms in grek, signifying alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1984-10-01

    In China the antecedent of alchemy is represented by the god of longevity emerging from the peach. The first synthetic drug, Kim-Yeh, red colloidal gold, signified gold-cum -herbal juice. Kim-Yeh=Kimiya (Arabic) =chemeia (Greek). Translated this gave Chrusozomion=Gold Ferment, specifying the drug. Rasayana was translated as Chumeia, herbal juice-incorporate and signified the art alchemy. Chemeia was Chinese and Chumeia, Indian. Originally each signified both, a drug of longevity and the art, alchemy. Finally the art of making red gold was misunderstood as the art of making gold itself.

  16. Efficient Parameter Searches for Colloidal Materials Design with Digital Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul, M.; Geng, Yina; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    Optimal colloidal materials design is challenging, even for high-throughput or genomic approaches, because the design space provided by modern colloid synthesis techniques can easily have dozens of dimensions. In this talk we present the methodology of an inverse approach we term ''digital alchemy'' to perform rapid searches of design-paramenter spaces with up to 188 dimensions that yield thermodynamically optimal colloid parameters for target crystal structures with up to 20 particles in a unit cell. The method relies only on fundamental principles of statistical mechanics and Metropolis Monte Carlo techniques, and yields particle attribute tolerances via analogues of familiar stress-strain relationships.

  17. Stoicism and Alchemy in Late Antiquity: Zosimus and the Concept of Pneuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinotas, Athanasios

    2017-08-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, historians associated the alchemy of the third-century alchemist Zosimus of Panopolis with Platonism and Aristotelianism, explicating his theory of alchemical transmutation under the intellectual umbrella of these philosophical traditions. More recently, scholars of alchemy such as Christina Viano and William Newman have suggested a connection between Zosimean alchemy and Stoicism. Through a close reading of texts in Zosimus's corpus, this paper posits a Stoic interpretation of several aspects of Zosimean alchemy, focusing on the concepts of pneuma and tension. For Zosimus, I argue, pneuma played a vital role in colouring metals, while tension conferred stability and cohesion upon metallic compounds. This interpretation suggests that Zosimus applied Stoic concepts to describe the alchemical process of tincturing metals.

  18. THE SINO-INDIAN ORIGIN OF CHEMEIA AND CHUMEIA AS SYNONYMS IN GREK, SIGNIFYING ALCHEMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1984-01-01

    In China the antecedent of alchemy is represented by the god of longevity emerging from the peach. The first synthetic drug, Kim-Yeh, red colloidal gold, signified gold-cum -herbal juice. Kim-Yeh=Kimiya (Arabic) =chemeia (Greek). Translated this gave Chrusozomion=Gold Ferment, specifying the drug. Rasayana was translated as Chumeia, herbal juice-incorporate and signified the art alchemy. Chemeia was Chinese and Chumeia, Indian. Originally each signified both, a drug of longevity and the art, ...

  19. Ordering energies and occupancies in doped TiAl, and dedicated ALCHEMI instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J C H; Jiang, N; Weierstall, U

    2002-08-01

    Alloy design has been a lifelong interest of Gareth Thomas, and modern design algorithms include atomistic parameters which are obtainable from new electron microscope techniques such as ALCHEMI. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of ALCHEMI site occupancy measurements to intermetallic alloys, and summarize prior work. The results are found to lie in regions of a site-occupancy diagram (SOC) relating ordering energies to occupancy, as predicted by the Bragg-Williams theory of short-range order. These predictions also explain previous inconsistencies in the ALCHEMI measurements. A diffraction camera and X-ray detector system of novel design is proposed for dedicated ALCHEMI analysis for substitutional and interstitial dopant site-occupancy measurement, and details of the design given. Using this novel hardware design, the data-collection times for two-dimensional ALCHEMI patterns should be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, and the full data collection process automated. The resulting occupancy information can provide essential input parameters for atomistic alloy design algorithms, and can provide entirely new information on interstitial occupancies in minerals, ceramics, semiconductors, and alloys.

  20. Whole-organ bioengineering: current tales of modern alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emma C; Dhal, Abritee; Vyas, Dipen; Lanas, Angel; Soker, Shay; Baptista, Pedro M

    2014-04-01

    End-stage organ disease affects millions of people around the world, to whom organ transplantation is the only definitive cure available. However, persistent organ shortage and the resulting widespread transplant backlog are part of a disturbing reality and a common burden felt by thousands of patients on waiting lists in almost every country where organ transplants are performed. Several alternatives and potential solutions to this problem have been sought in past decades, but one seems particularly promising now: whole-organ bioengineering. This review describes briefly the evolution of organ transplantation and the development of decellularized organ scaffolds and their application to organ bioengineering. This modern alchemy of generating whole-organ scaffolds and recellularizing them with multiple cell types in perfusion bioreactors is paving the way for a new revolution in transplantation medicine. Furthermore, although the first generation of bioengineered organs still lacks true clinical value, it has created a number of novel tissue and organ model platforms with direct application in other areas of science (eg, developmental biology and stem cell biology, drug discovery, physiology and metabolism). In this review, we describe the current status and numerous applications of whole-organ bioengineering, focusing also on the multiple challenges that researchers have to overcome to translate these novel technologies fully into transplantation medicine. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Digital Alchemy for Materials Design: Colloids and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Karas, Andrew; Dodd, Paul; Glotzer, Sharon

    Starting with the early alchemists, a holy grail of science has been to make desired materials by manipulating basic building blocks. Building blocks that show promise for assembling new complex materials can be synthesized at the nanoscale with attributes that would astonish the ancient alchemists in their versatility. However, this versatility means that connecting building-block attributes to bulk structure is both necessary for rationally engineering materials and difficult because building block attributes can be altered in many ways. We show how to exploit the malleability of colloidal nanoparticle ``elements'' to quantitatively link building-block attributes to bulk structure through a statistical thermodynamic framework we term ``digital alchemy''. We use this framework to optimize building blocks for a given target structure and to determine which building-block attributes are most important to control for self-assembly, through a set of novel thermodynamic response functions. We thereby establish direct links between the attributes of colloidal building blocks and the bulk structures they form. Moreover, our results give concrete solutions to the more general conceptual challenge of optimizing emergent behaviors in nature and can be applied to other types of matter.

  2. Practising alchemy: the transmutation of evidence into best health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2011-04-01

    Alchemy was the synthesis or transmutation of all elements in perfect balance to obtain the philosopher's stone, the key to health. Just as alchemists sought this, so health practitioners always seek the best possible practice for optimal health outcomes for our patients. Best practice requires full knowledge--a little information can be dangerous. We need to serve our apprenticeship before we master our profession. Our profession is about improving health care. While the journey may start at medical school, the learning never ceases. It is not only about practising medicine, it is about the development of the practitioner. Professional practice requires systematic thinking combined with capacity to deal morally and creatively in areas of complexity and uncertainty appropriate to a specific context. It requires exemplary communication skills to interact with patients to facilitate collaborative decision making resulting in best practice. The synthesis of scientific and contextual evidence is a concept which applies to all disciplines where theoretical knowledge needs to be transferred to action to inform best practice. Decisions need to be made which take into account a complex array of factors, such as social and legal issues and resource constraints. Therefore, journey towards best practice involves transmutation of these three elements: scientific knowledge, the context in which it is applied and phronesis, the practical wisdom of the practitioner. All science has its limitations and we can never know all possible contextual information. Hence, like the philosopher's stone, best practice is a goal to which we aspire but never quite attain.

  3. Elixir, Alchemy and the Metamorphoses of Two Synonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotthard Strohmaier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of the terms ‘elixir’ and ‘alchemy’ seems paradoxical; derived from Greek, the Arabic al-iksīr signified a dry powder capable of transforming base metals into gold or silver. Evolving through the European languages, elixir has come to mean a magic liquid that can be ingested to cure illness. The second term, al-kīmiyāʼ, which was in its Arabic beginnings almost synonymous with elixir, took a different turn and changed its meaning from a miraculous substance into an abstract noun connoting the art of alchemy. This article intends to show that these changes of meaning are linked to inevitable interrelations between the two synonyms and, consequently, the generally assumed etymology of the Arabic alkīmiyāʼ from the seemingly corresponding Greek expression χυμεία must be questioned. Of particular interest is the hitherto overlooked fact that al-kīmiyāʼ ends in a glottal stop, indicated by the hamza and being a consonant in its own right, which ultimately points to a non-Greek origin.

  4. Alchemy and Aberrant Behaviour: A Jungian Approach to Working with Boys with Behaviour Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Alchemy is an ancient philosophy on which the two modern day sciences of chemistry and analytical psychology are grounded. In education in New South Wales (NSW) at the present time, the behaviour of boys is of increasing concern to schools, to teachers, to parents and to society at large as evidenced by the over-representation of boys in school…

  5. Spiritual alchemy from the age of Jacob Boehme to Mary Anne Atwood, 1600–1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuber, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    ‘Spiritual alchemy’ is a contested term that is often accompanied by far-reaching claims about the presumed essence of alchemy. Despite the troubled past of this term, this study reclaims ‘spiritual alchemy’ as a precisely definable category for historical research. The term stands for the practical

  6. Science or Pseudoscience: Does Science Education Demarcate? The Case of Chemistry and Alchemy in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erduran, Sibel

    Themes from history and philosophy of chemistry have traditionally been absent in chemistry education. This paper targets the problem of demarcationism within the context of chemistry and alchemy. In so doing, it argues that demarcationism can be an appropriate base for bringing the historical and philosophical aspects of the discipline of…

  7. The Alchemy of the Mathematics Curriculum: Inscriptions and the Fabrication of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    School subjects are analogous to medieval alchemy. There is a magical change as mathematics, science, and social sciences move from their disciplinary spaces into the classroom. The educational and social psychologies have little or nothing to do with understanding disciplinary practices. They are intellectual inventions for normalizing and…

  8. Are the Performance Based Logistics Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life-Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of Performance Based Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Based Logistics Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life-Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of Performance Based...Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life-Cycle Affordability? Using Theory to Predict the Efficacy of Performance Based Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Are the PBL Prophets Using Science or Alchemy to Create Life Cycle Affordability? 328Defense ARJ, October 2013, Vol. 20 No. 3 : 325–348 Defense

  9. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism.

  10. Alchemy, Prophecy, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Iberia: Anselmo Castelo Branco's Critique of Benito Feijoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, José Vieira

    2016-11-01

    The Benedictine monk Benito Jerónimo Feijoo (1676-1764) is now considered one of the major figures of the Spanish and Iberian Enlightenment. However his work, both in Spain and in Portugal, was far from being universally acclaimed. His critical approach to the subject of alchemy in his essay "Piedra Filosofal," published in the third volume of his magisterial Teatro Crítico Universal (1726-1739), sparked an unexpected response from the Portuguese alchemist Anselmo Castelo Branco, who sought to refute Feijoo's claims in his own work, the Ennoea. This paper presents an outline of this exchange and its position within Iberian Enlightenment circles. It further argues that Castelo Branco's defence of alchemy was informed by his political and prophetic views, in particular his adherence to the Portuguese messianic doctrine of Sebastianism.

  11. [Magician nature and human magician: on a fundamental analogy of alchemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses Paracelsism-influenced early-modern alchemy. There are notably two forms of analogy, each hierarchically arranged: a vertically ordered analogy ("as above, thus below") in which Nature is situated as mediator between God and man, and a horizontally ordered analogy ("as without, thus within") in which Nature's magic is regarded as a model for man, particularly expressed in the metaphor of "Vulcan" (smith) and doctor (e.g., Nature as inner healer). In alchemy the conventional "healing power of Nature" is pin-pointed: The doctor (as alchemist, magician) must unravel Nature's secrets and emulate her magic to perfect her work -particularly medicine production. Diagrams and historical depictions illustrate this.

  12. Critical Review ofRasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumersingh Rajput, Dhirajsingh; Gokarn, Rohit; Jagtap, Chandrashekhar Y; Galib, R; Patgiri, B J; Prajapati, P K

    2016-01-01

    Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS) a 13 th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra . Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.

  13. Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirajsingh Rajput Sumersingh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra. Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.

  14. Electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F. D.; Feng, J. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Using first principles calculation, we systematically investigate the electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy. It is shown that the optical band gap Eg is remarkably sensitive to the anion displacement μ, resulting from the opposite shifts of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. Meanwhile, the dependence of structural parameters of alloyed compounds on alloy composition x is demonstrated for both cation and anion alloying. The d orbitals of group-III cations are found to be of great importance in the calculation. Abnormal changes in the optical band gap Eg induced by anion alloying are addressed.

  15. Materials ``alchemy'': Shape-preserving chemical transformation of micro-to-macroscopic 3-D structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2010-06-01

    The scalable fabrication of nano-structured materials with complex morphologies and tailorable chemistries remains a significant challenge. One strategy for such synthesis consists of the generation of a solid structure with a desired morphology (a “preform”), followed by reactive conversion of the preform into a new chemistry. Several gas/solid and liquid/solid reaction processes that are capable of such chemical conversion into new micro-to-nano-structured materials, while preserving the macroscopic-to-microscopic preform morphologies, are described in this overview. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another could be considered a modern type of materials “alchemy.”

  16. What kind of alchemy is attested by tenth-century Coptic manuscripts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tonio Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    This article places the four extant Coptic alchemical manuscripts within the context of the tradition of Coptic scientific texts. One of the manuscripts is a palimpsest written over an erased literary text, apparently in the tenth century. The other three all come from the same library, and are unlikely to be later than the mid-tenth century. Their vocabulary, form and contents are analysed, and the wonderful "machine of the sages" is introduced. It is shown that the texts most likely depend on Arabic alchemical texts, because of the number of Arabic words left in transliteration, and their style. In this case, they are the earliest witnesses to Arabic alchemy.

  17. BASIC CONCEPTS TO BE RECKONED IN A PROPER HISTORY OF ALCHEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Use of simple synthetic drug called Chin – Yeh, Gold – plus – plant juice or red colloidal gold. Gold made body everlasting and the herbal principle, as soul, increased life-span. Dialectally it was called Kim – Iya. Arabicized as Al – Kimiya it finally appeared as Alchemy. Chin – Yeh as drug was only brick – red when mercury, and sulphur – with traces of gold were sublimated there resulted Chin – Tan, Gold – plus – cinnabar. It was blood – red and with redness as soul it became the ideal drug of longevity. PMID:22557523

  18. Electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, F D; Feng, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Using first principles calculation, we systematically investigate the electronic modification of Cu-based chalcopyrite semiconductors induced by lattice deformation and composition alchemy. It is shown that the optical band gap E g is remarkably sensitive to the anion displacement μ, resulting from the opposite shifts of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. Meanwhile, the dependence of structural parameters of alloyed compounds on alloy composition x is demonstrated for both cation and anion alloying. The d orbitals of group-III cations are found to be of great importance in the calculation. Abnormal changes in the optical band gap E g induced by anion alloying are addressed

  19. ALCHEMY: a reliable method for automated SNP genotype calling for small batch sizes and highly homozygous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mark H; Tung, Chih-Wei; Zhao, Keyan; Reynolds, Andy; McCouch, Susan R; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-12-01

    The development of new high-throughput genotyping products requires a significant investment in testing and training samples to evaluate and optimize the product before it can be used reliably on new samples. One reason for this is current methods for automated calling of genotypes are based on clustering approaches which require a large number of samples to be analyzed simultaneously, or an extensive training dataset to seed clusters. In systems where inbred samples are of primary interest, current clustering approaches perform poorly due to the inability to clearly identify a heterozygote cluster. As part of the development of two custom single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping products for Oryza sativa (domestic rice), we have developed a new genotype calling algorithm called 'ALCHEMY' based on statistical modeling of the raw intensity data rather than modelless clustering. A novel feature of the model is the ability to estimate and incorporate inbreeding information on a per sample basis allowing accurate genotyping of both inbred and heterozygous samples even when analyzed simultaneously. Since clustering is not used explicitly, ALCHEMY performs well on small sample sizes with accuracy exceeding 99% with as few as 18 samples. ALCHEMY is available for both commercial and academic use free of charge and distributed under the GNU General Public License at http://alchemy.sourceforge.net/ mhw6@cornell.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Light-seeds within: The alchemy of re-finding light in the world soul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Stacy Lynn

    The light of the Anima Mundi has been repressed for over two thousand years. From a feminine in-sighting, this dissertation considers the reasons for the World Soul's repression and how her light can be renewed. The division of body and mind, image and word, physicality and spirituality, as well as nature and science has been costly, though this time of crisis also holds great opportunity to change perspective and live differently. The art of alchemy contains the secrets to transform elements in opposition into those in relationship in order to give birth to something new. Where feminine and masculine have been divorced and divided, the 'Royal Art' of alchemy seeks to renew soul in the world as an experience of life's interconnectivity and as a sacred marriage of matter and spirit. Through the four elements and three alchemical stages, this journey articulates the amorphous unconscious to evolve the light within the body of the microcosm and the macrocosm. The study's phenomenological perspective merges creative imagination with experiential gnosis in an exploration of the rich tapestry and mystery of an esoteric tradition. Through dream tending and active imagination, one connects to the subtle body, the imaginal world, and mythological regions with archetypal energies where elemental symbols are seeds. When cultivated and tended, these seeds grow into embodied feelings, visceral happenings. These experiential moments contain the revelations necessary for personal and global transmutation. Alchemy's tenet of 'as above, so below' holds a simple truth. When an individual works on her light, the Anima Mundi's light grows brighter. The alchemical process awakens love as the animating essence, the divine spark within the heart of all life---the gold in every atom of creation. Where matter and spirit conjoin, the hierosgamos reveals life's divine nature as an intimate dance and a web of interconnectivity. When lived for the sake of the whole and seen with the eyes of an

  1. [Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausiet, María

    2011-01-01

    One of the main obsessions of the early modern era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of religion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Enracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making "silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins".

  2. Alchemy in popular culture: Leonardo Fioravanti and the search for the philosopher's stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, W

    2000-05-01

    This article examines the alchemical ideas and practices of the sixteenth-century Italian surgeon Leonardo Fioravanti. I argue that Fioravanti's "search for the philosopher's stone" was as much an effort at self-fashioning as a search for alchemical gold. Exploiting the fashion for alchemical drugs, he framed a "new theory" of healing that relied on the use of distilled drugs as a means of purging bodily corruptions. His theory resonated with popular culture, and made him the focus of an alternative medical movement. I conclude that Fioravanti's alchemy was not Paracelsianism, but relied much more on more immediate sources such as Arnald of Villanova, the pseudo-Lull, and the contemporary Milanese alchemist Ettore Ausonio.

  3. THE SYMBOLS OF CREATIVE ENERGY IN THE LITERATURE ON MYSTICSM AND ON ALCHEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Alchemy as art tries to imitate creation such as spontaneous generation. The magic wands of creation, of Chinese origin, would be a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. Creation is represented by the dual-natured soul, comprising of the spirit (Ruh) and “the” soul (Nafs). The ultimate source is creative energy which emanates form the Divine word of command. Creative energy, in its non-manifest form, would be ultrasonic energy, which can be represented by a humming sourd. This would be sympolized by the humming sound. This would be symbolized by the humming sound of bees represent creative energy and in fig 3 the fiddle, as direct producers of a humming sound. PMID:22557649

  4. Alchemy in eden: entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880–1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonier, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. In a manner akin to alchemy, the entrepreneurs behind these three firms recognized the inherent value of an agricultural Eden, then found ways to convert common, low-cost agricultural goods—oats, sugar, and cottonseed oil—into appealing, high-revenue branded food products. In the process, these ventures devised new demand-driven business models that exploited technology and communications advances, enabling them to tap a nascent consumer culture. Their pioneering efforts generated unprecedented profits, laid the foundation for iconic billion-dollar brands, and fundamentally changed how Americans make daily food choices.

  5. Recording and Reading Alchemy and Art-Technology in Medieval and Premodern German Recipe Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle Ages and the premodern period knowledge of alchemical practices and materials was transmitted via collections of recipes often grouped concomitantly with art-technological instructions. In both alchemy and chemical technology particular importance is placed on artisanal and craft practices. Both are concerned with the description of colours. Both require procedures involving precise and specifically defined actions, prescriptions and ingredients. Assuming that alchemical and artistic texts have the same textual format, this raises the question: were they produced, diffused and read by the same people? This paper investigates the authorship and the context of production behind a sample of German alchemical manuscripts dating from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. It scrutinizes their process of production, compilation and dissemination. This paper also sheds light on the various types of marginalia, and correlates them with their diverse functions. It thus delivers significant information about the readers and users of these manuscripts.

  6. Some considerations concerning the alchemy of the De anima in arte alchemiae of pseudo-Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Sébastien

    2009-03-01

    This article explains some essential features of the alchemical doctrine of the De anima in arte alchemiae, a treatise written in Spain during the twelfth century (in Arabic, but only the Latin translation remains), and wrongly attributed to Avicenna. It shows that pseudo-Avicenna uses alchemical principles and elixir theory directly inspired by Jabirian texts, and classification of materials influenced by al-Razi. The alchemy of pseudo-Avicenna is entirely based on operations on the four elements: the alchemist has to reduce hair, blood or eggs to their elements, and isolate one of their essential properties (warmth, coldness, moisture and dryness), so that he can change the proportion of essential properties of the body he wants to transmute into gold or silver. The preparation made from hair, blood or eggs (the isolated property) is what he calls the elixir.

  7. Toward a Transformative Alchemy: The Phenomenology of the Event of Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Draper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes up Jung’s concept of Alchemy and applies the theory of this transformational process to prison psychotherapy. In particular, it discusses the manifest meanings in the prison system, how those can be made present and manifest, and how psychotherapy can prove an event, a moment when transformation can take place. It then discusses the openness and closedness of the client and the therapist to the transformational possibilities of the event, and the consequences of those fluid positions. Contextualizing the degree of openness is the adjacent possible in this potentially very human form of relating, and how the apparatus of prisons situated within a broader culture informs the transformational alchemy of forensic psychotherapy. Este artículo recoge el concepto de alquimia de Jung, y aplica la teoría de este proceso transformativo a la psicoterapia de prisiones. En particular, se tratan los significados evidentes del sistema de prisiones, cómo éstos se pueden hacer presentes y evidentes, y cómo la psicoterapia puede probar un evento, un momento en el que la transformación puede tener lugar. Seguidamente analiza la apertura y cerrazón del cliente y el terapeuta a las posibilidades transformadoras del evento, y las consecuencias de esas posiciones flexibles. Contextualizar el grado de apertura es el adyacente posible en esta forma potencialmente muy humana de relacionarse, y cómo el sistema de prisiones situado en una cultura más amplia, informa de la alquimia transformacional de la psicoterapia forense. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2624907

  8. [Mercury--a major agent in the history of medicine and alchemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2008-01-01

    From ancient time the history of mercury has been connected with that of the medicine and chemistry. Mercury therefore contributes to the history of science throughout times. Knowledge of cinnabar (HgS) is traced back to ancient Assyria and Egypt, but also to China. The Greek philosophers were the initiators of theoretical science. The idea of the four elements, earth, air, water and fire, was introduced mainly by Empedocles and Aristotle in the 5th and 4th century BC. The theory encouraged the hope of transmuting metal to gold. The early development of practical alchemy is obscure, but some hints are given in the encyclopedia compiled by Zosimos about 300 A.D. in Alexandria. It also includes the invention of equipment such as stills, furnaces and heating baths. Medical treatment is described by Pliny and Celsus, e.g. the use of cinnabar in trachoma and venereal diseases. When the Arabs learned Greek alchemy by the Nestorians, they introduced or improved chemical equipments and new chemicals were obtained such as sublimate (HgCl2), different salts, acids, alkaline carbonates and metal oxides. The first recorded account of animal experimentation on the toxicity of mercury comes from Rhazes (al-Razi) in the 9th century and in the 11th century Avicenna (Ibn Sina) had the foresight to recommend the use of mercury only as an external remedy, and quicksilver ointments were used by the Arabs in the treating of skin diseases. In the medieval west scientific experiments were forbidden since the interpretation of the world order should not be changed. Greek and Arabic medicine and alchemy were therefore authoritative and the breakthrough in scientific inventions first appeared after the introduction of the Renaissance. The Renaissance medicine included ancient medicine as well as "modern medicine", based on iatrochemistry, and this chemical approach was introduced by Paracelsus. The medicine included sulphur and salts or oxides of for instance mercury, copper, iron, antimony

  9. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  10. Stellar Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassé, Michel; Lyle, Translated by Stephen

    2003-08-01

    Preface; 1. Nuclear astrophysics: defence and illustration; 2. Light from atoms, light from the sky; 3. Visions; 4. Contents of the sky: atomic sources and fountains; 5. Nuclear suns; 6. Sociology of stars and clouds; 7. Histories; 8. Ancient stars in the galactic halo; 9. Conclusion; Appendices.

  11. Speedy Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Rolf A.; Berger, Carl F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for interfacing a pH meter directly to an Apple II microcomputer without an analog-to-digital converter. Includes program listing (with enough remark statements to make it self-documenting) in Integer Basic to display the pH readings. (Author/JN)

  12. Nuclear alchemy

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    "Physicists around the world are carrying out research on 'transmutation', a technique they believe could be used to destroy large quantities of long-lived radioactive waste. [The author] reviews the prospects for this novel technology" (2 pages)

  13. Ion source chemistry - alchemy or a field that can be mastered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    By ion source chemistry, one understands all processes on sample substances, such as e.g. conversion reactions or dissociation processes in the ion source of the mass spectrometer. As thermal surface ionization plays a realtively larger role in isotope ratio measurement of solids than the use of an oven ion source with electron collision, examples of ion source chemistry with thermal ionization are considered in this report; however many of these statements can easily be applied to oven ion sources with electron collision. The literature still contains many 'recipes' for isotope ratio measurements of solids which according to the author's opinion are of alchemy nature. Only the knowledge of ion source chemistry under the appropriates conditions (e.g. whether a redox reaction of a decay reaction is present) can lead to the development of possibly simpler and also more effective specifications for the sample preparation. Only by the complete understanding of ion source chemistry too, can one optimize a mass spectrometrical measuring process and above all can assess sources of error of the method correctly. A few important parameters are discussed which can influence the result of the measured isotope ratio in the ion source, and a few aspects of the optimization of measuring processes for the isotope ratio determination are then discussed by means of examples ( 44 Ca/ 40 Ca, 41 K/ 39 K, 48 Ca/ 40 Ca, 7 Li/ 6 Li, 35 Cl/ 37 Cl). (orig./HK) [de

  14. Exploring early modern chemistry: the first twenty-five years of the Society for the Study of Alchemy & Early Modern Chemistry 1935-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, W H

    2011-11-01

    The article uses the recently deposited archives of the Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry to explore the ideas, motives and disagreements of its founders and officers between 1935 and 1960. The origin of the title Ambix for the society's journal is also explained. An appendix identifies the initial membership of the society.

  15. Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual Alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main obsessions of the Early Modern Era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and the unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of re ligion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Engracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making «silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins».

    Una de las principales obsesiones de la Edad Moderna consistió en determinar las nociones de verdadero y falso para aplicarlas a los distintos campos del saber y, de ese modo, fundamentar la separación entre lo lícito y lo prohibido. Dicha tendencia iba a afectar especialmente a los terrenos de la religión y la ciencia, haciéndose necesario distinguir no sólo verdaderos y falsos espíritus, reliquias o milagros, sino también verdaderos y falsos astrólogos y alquimistas. Situada a caballo entre el idealismo y el materialismo, la alquimia ejemplificaba especialmente dichas tensiones, como se comprobará a través del proceso incoado en 1593 contra un fraile del monasterio jerónimo de Santa Engracia de Zaragoza, a quien su prior acusó de fabricar «plata de humo y joyas de trasgos».

  16. Alchemy: A Web 2.0 Real-time Quality Assurance Platform for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and BK Virus Quantitation Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto-Arroyo, Emmanuel; Coshatt, Gina M; Winokur, Thomas S; Harada, Shuko; Park, Seung L

    2017-01-01

    The molecular diagnostics laboratory faces the challenge of improving test turnaround time (TAT). Low and consistent TATs are of great clinical and regulatory importance, especially for molecular virology tests. Laboratory information systems (LISs) contain all the data elements necessary to do accurate quality assurance (QA) reporting of TAT and other measures, but these reports are in most cases still performed manually: a time-consuming and error-prone task. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based real-time QA platform that would automate QA reporting in the molecular diagnostics laboratory at our institution, and minimize the time expended in preparing these reports. Using a standard Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, PHP stack virtual machine running atop a Dell Precision 5810, we designed and built a web-based QA platform, code-named Alchemy. Data files pulled periodically from the LIS in comma-separated value format were used to autogenerate QA reports for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) quantitation, hepatitis C virus (HCV) quantitation, and BK virus (BKV) quantitation. Alchemy allowed the user to select a specific timeframe to be analyzed and calculated key QA statistics in real-time, including the average TAT in days, tests falling outside the expected TAT ranges, and test result ranges. Before implementing Alchemy, reporting QA for the HIV, HCV, and BKV quantitation assays took 45-60 min of personnel time per test every month. With Alchemy, that time has decreased to 15 min total per month. Alchemy allowed the user to select specific periods of time and analyzed the TAT data in-depth without the need of extensive manual calculations. Alchemy has significantly decreased the time and the human error associated with QA report generation in our molecular diagnostics laboratory. Other tests will be added to this web-based platform in future updates. This effort shows the utility of informatician-supervised resident/fellow programming projects as learning

  17. Alchemy: A web 2.0 real-time quality assurance platform for human immunodeficiency Virus, hepatitis C Virus, and BK Virus quantitation assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Agosto-Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The molecular diagnostics laboratory faces the challenge of improving test turnaround time (TAT. Low and consistent TATs are of great clinical and regulatory importance, especially for molecular virology tests. Laboratory information systems (LISs contain all the data elements necessary to do accurate quality assurance (QA reporting of TAT and other measures, but these reports are in most cases still performed manually: a time-consuming and error-prone task. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based real-time QA platform that would automate QA reporting in the molecular diagnostics laboratory at our institution, and minimize the time expended in preparing these reports. Methods: Using a standard Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, PHP stack virtual machine running atop a Dell Precision 5810, we designed and built a web-based QA platform, code-named Alchemy. Data files pulled periodically from the LIS in comma-separated value format were used to autogenerate QA reports for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV quantitation, hepatitis C virus (HCV quantitation, and BK virus (BKV quantitation. Alchemy allowed the user to select a specific timeframe to be analyzed and calculated key QA statistics in real-time, including the average TAT in days, tests falling outside the expected TAT ranges, and test result ranges. Results: Before implementing Alchemy, reporting QA for the HIV, HCV, and BKV quantitation assays took 45–60 min of personnel time per test every month. With Alchemy, that time has decreased to 15 min total per month. Alchemy allowed the user to select specific periods of time and analyzed the TAT data in-depth without the need of extensive manual calculations. Conclusions: Alchemy has significantly decreased the time and the human error associated with QA report generation in our molecular diagnostics laboratory. Other tests will be added to this web-based platform in future updates. This effort shows the utility of informatician

  18. The Royal Typographer and the Alchemist: John Dee, Willem Silvius, and the Diagrammatic Alchemy of the Monas Hieroglyphica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    John Dee's Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) was a work which involved a close collaboration between its author and his "singular friend" the Antwerp printer Willem Silvius, in whose house Dee was living whilst he composed the work and saw it through the press. This article considers the reasons why Dee chose to collaborate with Silvius, and the importance of the intellectual culture - and the print trade - of the Low Countries to the development of Dee's outlook. Dee's Monas was probably the first alchemical work which focused exclusively on the diagrammatic representation of the alchemical process, combining diagrams, cosmological schemes, and various forms of tabular grid. It is argued that in the Monas the boundaries between typography and alchemy are blurred as the diagrams "anatomising" his hieroglyphic sign (the "Monad") are seen as revealing truths about alchemical substances and processes.

  19. From alchemy to super-actinides. The preparation, physical-chemical properties and the limits of the Periodic Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review a brief history of the discovery of the periodic law, discoveries of elements from the epoch of alchemy to the synthesis of actinides and transactinides is described. The preparation of transactinides (elements with Z ≥ 104 to Z = 118) is discussed, using already proposed names of the elements with Z = 113, 115, 117 and 118: nihonium, moscovium, tennessine and oganesson. The Periodic Tables are presented in short form, the long 18-column and 32-column form. The periodic table containing elements of 8 th and 9 th periods and its possible range is discussed. By extrapolation of decay half-time of the heaviest isotopes of elements from thorium up to oganesson decay half-time of unbihexium (Z = 126) was predicted about 378 seconds. (author

  20. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles.

  1. Revealing the Nature and Distribution of Metal Carboxylates in Jackson Pollock's Alchemy (1947) by Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection FT-IR Spectroscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Francesca; Rosi, Francesca; Vichi, Alessandra; Cartechini, Laura; Pensabene Buemi, Luciano; Kazarian, Sergei G; Miliani, Costanza

    2017-01-17

    Protrusions, efflorescence, delamination, and opacity decreasing are severe degradation phenomena affecting oil paints with zinc oxide, one of the most common white pigments of the 20th century. Responsible for these dramatic alterations are the Zn carboxylates (also known as Zn soaps) originated by the interaction of the pigment and the fatty acids resulting from the hydrolysis of glycerides in the oil binding medium. Despite their widespread occurrence in paintings and the growing interest of the scientific community, the process of formation and evolution of Zn soaps is not yet fully understood. In this study micro-attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT-IR spectroscopic imaging was required for the investigation at the microscale level of the nature and distribution of Zn soaps in the painting Alchemy by J. Pollock (1947, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice) and for comparison with artificially aged model samples. For both actual samples and models, the role of AlSt(OH) 2 , a jellifying agent commonly added in 20th century paint tube formulations, proved decisive for the formation of zinc stearate-like (ZnSt 2 ) soaps. It was observed that ZnSt 2 -like soaps first form around the added AlSt(OH) 2 particles and then eventually grow within the whole painting stratigraphy as irregularly shaped particles. In some of the Alchemy samples, and diversely from the models, a peculiar distribution of ZnSt 2 aggregates arranged as rounded and larger particles was also documented. Notably, in one of these samples, larger agglomerates of ZnSt 2 expanding toward the support of the painting were observed and interpreted as the early stage of the formation of internal protrusions. Micro-ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, thanks to a very high chemical specificity combined with high spatial resolution, was proved to give valuable information for assessing the conservation state of irreplaceable 20th century oil paintings, revealing the chemical distribution of Zn soaps within the

  2. [Alchemy, freemasonry and homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    In this article we are showing that homeopathic doctrine has really esoteric and occult origins as it was suspected by a few authors, nevertheless we saw Hahnemann also using scientific writers. As early as twenty-two years old Hahnemann was initiate in the freemasonry, very in vogue at that time. He will be life long attached to it and will keep close to distinguished freemasons. Freemasonry has conveid enlightement philosophical ideas as well as occult, alchemical and theosophical ones by successive incursion of very different orders. Among these we can find a few rosicrucians orders. At the beginning of 17th century in Germany, the first rosicrucians authors appealed to Paracelse, and the first members of their legendary fraternity manifested their contempt for the practice of transmutation into gold and must devote themselves to gratuitous medical practice (famous utopia). Freemasonry took again these philanthropic views so that Hahnemann was certainly involved to the ideas of Paracelse and his followers through the Rosicrucians which played a substantial part within freemasonry before homeopathy rose.

  3. Wall Street Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Brian T.; Hanna, John P.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of restructuring its debt and taking on additional debt, Franklin Pierce College (New Hampshire) accepted the consequences of a downgrade in its investment-grade rating. This resulted in a successful bond sale, with bonds carrying an insured single-A rating. Events leading up to the restructuring and credit issues considered by the…

  4. Alchemy and the Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Clifford

    2003-01-01

    In order for teachers to reflect deeply upon themselves, they need powerful models and images to guide their introspection. In teacher reflectivity, as in the therapeutic processes, psychic energy must ultimately be "contained" by models and modalities that enable one to make sense out of one's inner and outer experiences. This enables those…

  5. Alchemy in The Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Alchemy in The Kitchen

    2014-01-01

    I cook because I love to eat; and I get great pleasure from seeing people enjoy the food I cook. I am thrilled when I encounter one of my recipes out there in the world and get to meet the person who has made it. (Melitzanosalata, a rocking Greek dip, seems to be the most popular party recipe - try it!) Even better are the emails from strangers halfway across the world that say, “Hey, I made one of your recipes, and you know what? It worked perfectly! I can cook!” although the ones that say “...

  6. The alchemy of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger-Biniores, Deborah

    2007-04-01

    Training in Zurich has its own special character but also is marked by the very fact that it is in Zurich. Zurich radiates its own distinct energy and carries a specific historical significance in the world of analytical psychology. This, like all things with psychic energy, has a spectrum of meaning. This spectrum, as well as the 'spirit' of the place, will be critically examined, taking into account the 'blessings' and 'curses' of such genius loci. Training in Zurich is experientially based and is first and foremost an initiation: an initiation into symbolic life, or rather life where symbol plays an important role. Training is understood to involve a transformation of one's self, much like the 8th century alchemist Morienus Romanus understood the opus as a 'human transformation system'. It is not merely an education. The requirement of 'immersion' is core to the experience of becoming an analyst in Zurich and this sets up a valuable discomfort between rational intellectual learning and intuitive experience, between knowing and not-knowing. How does this dis-serve the making of an analyst? What is implicit in this immersion and its discomfort? Does it have a role in today's emphasis on clinical and empirical training? Does Zurich still offer something unique and valuable in the world of training, or is it passé? From these questions, the dichotomy of what is 'urgent' and 'essential' in training will be examined.

  7. A alquimia organizacional: qualificação e construção do consentimento Organizational alchemy: managing skills and consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Araujo Castro

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Dirigimos a nossa reflexão neste texto para três questões: 1 Como se têm manufaturado novas formas de consentimento em situações de reestruturação em empresas que já se caracterizavam, no contexto brasileiro, por um tipo de gestão mais moderna das relações sociais de trabalho, como é o caso de indústrias de processo na cadeia químico-petroquímica? 2 Poder-se-ia dizer que uma nova alquimia organizacional dos interesses estaria em curso, a sugerir a possível emergência de um novo regime fabril? 3 Qual o lugar das estratégias e políticas empresariais com relação à qualificação neste novo arranjo institucional de interesses? Procuramos enfrentar estas indagações através da análise de quatro estudos de caso que tipificam situações diferenciadas em termos de posição das empresas na cadeia produtiva, propriedade de capital, perfil dos mercados regionais de trabalho, contextos sindicais, natureza do regime de welfare e tipo de cultura gerencial.This article addresses three main questions: 1 Do managerial strategies in modern chemical plants produce new forms of individual consent towards organizational restructuring and intense work rationalization? 2 Is there a new institutional alchemy of interests indicating the emergence of a different kind of micro-regulatory institutions (a new factory regime? 3 What is the role of human resources politics on skills and employability in re-shaping the institutional ambience? The answers emerge from the analysis of four case studies in Brazilian chemical-petrochemical plants which typify different situations in terms of: position in the productive chain, capital property, regional labor markets, unionism, welfare regime and managerial culture.

  8. Chemistry Teaching: Science or Alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that the development of good chemistry teaching and the pursuit of research have essentially the same structure. Similarities include the need for a clear focus, efficiency in time and effort, and a direction that is more often right than wrong. (DDR)

  9. Closing the Books on Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolln, Martha

    1981-01-01

    Finds serious flaws in the research asserting the uselessness of teaching grammar to composition classes. Proposes that writing teachers acknowledge the presence and importance of grammar in the writing class. (RL)

  10. Descartes, Cardiac Heat, and Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitsch, Dorothea

    2016-11-01

    René Descartes (1596-1650) insisted on a heat and light theory to explain cardiac movement, and used concepts such as distillation of the vital spirits, fermentation in the digestive process, and fermentation in the circulation of the blood. I argue that his theory of the body as a heat-exchange system was based on alchemical and natural philosophical notions of fire and light expounded by precursors and contemporaries who included Jean D'Espagnet, Jean Fernel, Jan Baptist van Helmont, and Andreas Libavius. Descartes endeavoured to mechanise their approaches, creating a theory in which fire and heat, a legacy from thermal explanations of physiology, were transformed into alchemical fire, and then into mechanistic or physicalist heat.

  11. The Alchemy of Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Penny; Choueke, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the authors' experiences as action learning set facilitators within a public sector organisation undergoing change. Our objectives were to assist in the identification of internal and external drivers for change and to work with the set to explore how people's roles and responsibilities might be enhanced and developed in a…

  12. “Who Began This Art? From Whence Did It Emerge?”: A Hermetic Frame Story on the Origins of Alchemy in Pseudo-Ibn Waḥshīya’s The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Braun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the context of a Hermetic frame story in the pseudepigraphical alchemical treatise The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary (Kitāb Sidrat almuntahā. The treatise is attributed to a prominent figure in the Arabic occult sciences, Abū Bakr b. Waḥshīya (fl. first half of the 4th/10th century. It was written in the form of a dialogue between the protagonist, Ibn Waḥshīya, and an alchemist from the Islamic West, al-Maghribī al-Qamarī. The last section of the introductory dialogue between these two characters consists of a frame story on the origins of alchemy and a legend of discovery (Fundlegende that introduces a cosmogony and an allegorical depiction of the process of transmutation. Both the frame story and the legend of discovery abound in Hermetic motifs and topoi known from other Greek and Arabic alchemical treatises. The exposition of the different prevailing theories on the beginnings of alchemy reflects, moreover, historical phenomena, such as the Graeco-Arabic translation movement and the shu‘ūbīya controversy. Consistent with the literary tradition of the Arabic Hermetica, Ancient Egypt emerges in this treatise as the cradle of alchemy; however, I suggest that more than merely literary convention, such evocations express a genuine fascination with Ancient Egypt and its surviving material culture. In this respect, the littleknown genre of Arabic books on hidden treasure might shed new light on common Hermetic narratives and their circulation in Arabic occult literature.

  13. Alchemy and Exorcism in American Educational Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbert, Edgar B.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents a critique of twentieth-century behaviorism and humanism as educational theories. He argues that the techniques of both lead to unwarranted intervention in individual lives and ceaseless human engineering. (SK)

  14. Information Alchemy: Transforming Information through Knowledge Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of knowledge utilization, what it encompasses, and its three waves of activity in America. Basic principles and strategies to consider are listed, and an example of how knowledge utilization is applied by the Center for Mental Health Services is given. (17 references) (EA)

  15. Alchemy of the Oracle: The Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the origins and foundations of the Delphi technique. Outlines procedures for using it in research to obtain the insights of experts. Addresses limitations of the technique. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  16. Viridarium Chymicum: The Encyclopedia of Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Vladimir

    1973-01-01

    Describes a book containing the best illustrations in the history of alchemical literature, and is also considered unique because each of the 107 engravings is provided with a short Latin epigram explaining the sense of the picture. (DF)

  17. Markov state models and molecular alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Christof; Nielsen, Adam; Weber, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Markov state models (MSMs) have attracted a considerable amount of attention with regard to modelling conformation changes and associated function of biomolecular systems. They have been used successfully, e.g. for peptides including time-resolved spectroscopic experiments, protein function and protein folding , DNA and RNA, and ligand-receptor interaction in drug design and more complicated multivalent scenarios. In this article, a novel reweighting scheme is introduced that allows to construct an MSM for certain molecular system out of an MSM for a similar system. This permits studying how molecular properties on long timescales differ between similar molecular systems without performing full molecular dynamics simulations for each system under consideration. The performance of the reweighting scheme is illustrated for simple test cases, including one where the main wells of the respective energy landscapes are located differently and an alchemical transformation of butane to pentane where the dimension of the state space is changed.

  18. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  19. Alchemy and uncertainty: What good are models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.L. Bunnell

    1989-01-01

    Wildlife-habitat models are increasing in abundance, diversity, and use, but symptoms of failure are evident in their application, including misuse, disuse, failure to test, and litigation. Reasons for failure often relate to the different purposes managers and researchers have for using the models to predict and to aid understanding. This paper examines these two...

  20. [The alchemy--epigenetic regulation of pluripotency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, Joanna; Grabowska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) self renew their population, also they are pluripotent which means they can differentiate into any given cell type. In specific culture conditions they remain undifferentiated. On the cellular level pluripotency is determined by many transcription factors, e.g. Sox2, Nanog, Klf4, Oct4. Epigenetic regulation is also crucial for both self renewal and pluripotency. This review focuses on epigenetic mechanisms, among them DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, ATP dependent chromatin remodeling and miRNAs interactions. These mechanisms affect embryonic stem cells functions keeping them poised for differentiation.

  1. Performance Based Education: A Social Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Millard

    1982-01-01

    An exploration of performance-based education is focused through these questions: What image of human beings does it project? What image of professionals does it project? What purpose does it serve? What image of knowledge does it project? (CT)

  2. [Some glass instruments of Arabic alchemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    From an as yet unpublished collection, kept in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, of some 20 Islamic glass items, 12 objects with an alchemical background have been selected and studied in detail. The most important items are two alchemical still heads which, according to an alchemical manuscript of al-Kindī, a significant 9th century Arabian philosopher, natural scientist, mathematician, physician and musician, are identified as still heads for the watersteam distillation of camphor in particular. Additionally the publication presented here features a medical utensil (probably recent), a measuring jug, a funnel, a mortar, a pestle, a test tube most probably 19th century and four small bottles--probably for perfume. Most of the objects originate in Iran, but some are from Egypt, Afghanistan and Palestine and date mainly from the 9th to the 13th century AD. Some misinterpretations and ambiguities to be found in the literature have been corrected and eliminated.

  3. Alchemy and atomism in the Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Verdugo Caso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Quixote was published, the scientific and humanist languages were not split yet. In this work, passages in the novel have been studied that enable to relate both fields of knowledge. This allows us to understand the ideas that an educated person of that time had on what, in a wide sense, we know as science. Moreover, some scientific ideas are used in a creative way from a literary point of view. Understanding these ideas involves knowing more extensively purely artistic aspects of the novel. That symbiotic relation is limited in this work to the alchemical area in its diverse manifestations. It is also possible to find traces of atomism.

  4. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known physiological mechanism sustaining harmony and the term "harmonious" just has the informal meaning of "going well together." We argue that the intellectual flaw resides in the belief that a masterful individual can devise a "perfect methodology" that the engineer can then reduce to practice in a computer program. We suggest that the correct approach is to consider color forecasting as an act of distillation, where a palette is digested from the sentiment of a very large number of people. We describe how this approach can be reduced to an algorithm by replacing the subjective process with a data analytic process.

  5. Stellar alchemy. The celestial origin of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassé, Michel

    Why do the stars shine? What messages can we read in the light they send to us from the depths of the night? Nuclear astrophysics is a fascinating discipline, and enables connections to be made between atoms, stars, and human beings. Through modern astronomy, scientists have managed to unravel the full history of the chemical elements, and to understand how they originated and evolved into all the elements that compose our surroundings today. The transformation of metals into gold, something once dreamed of by alchemists, is a process commonly occurring in the cores of massive stars. But the most exciting revelation is the intimate connection that humanity itself has with the debris of exploded stars. This engaging account of nucleosynthesis in stars, and the associated chemical evolution of the Universe, is suitable for the general reader.

  6. Mesopotamia in the early history of alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A L

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to draw attention to two small and fragmentary cuneiform texts which, in my opinion, throw light on a chapter of the history of science which has hitherto been hardly touched upon.

  7. The Alchemy of Mathematical Experience: A Psychoanalysis of Student Writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Shares a psychological look at student images of mathematical learning and problem solving through students' writings about mathematical experiences. The analysis is done from a Jungian psychoanalytic orientation with the goal of assisting students develop a deeper perspective from which to view their mathematics experience. (MDH)

  8. Science, alchemy and light: paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiczak, Marek H

    2002-01-01

    This article considers two paintings by the English painter, Joseph Wright of Derby (1734-97), 'An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump' and 'The Alchemist in Search of the Philosopher's Stone' as painterly reflections on the early industrial culture. Particularly interesting in the "Experiment on a Bird" is the broad spectrum of spectator's reactions to the experiment; this can be related to the contemporary debate on the contextualization of science.

  9. The Educational Leader's Alchemy: Creating the Gold Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytsma, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    In going ahead and showing the way, leading can be seen as a process of changing. The busyness of day-to-day leadership in schools and other educational facilities bears witness to the necessity of leaders' "thinking on their feet" as they strive to resolve multiple issues. However, the constant pressure or stress of this lifestyle has its price…

  10. Enculturation, Not Alchemy: Professionalizing Novice Writing Program Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process of acculturation in three stages by which fledgling Writing Program Administrators can be transformed into change agents: (1) critically reading the program to locate key allies, potential advocates, and proven adversaries; (2) implementing changes on an infrastructural level to convert positive relations among colleagues into…

  11. Importance of Ananda kanda in the history of Indian alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K L Virupaksha; Chinta, Sridurga; Reddy, K R C

    2006-01-01

    Rasa Săstra is an important branch of Ayurvĕda developed for achieving therapeutic benefits from mineral materials. Ananda kanda is one of this subject text which gives an elaborate description of this subject. Dĕhavada concept of Rasa Săstra has been described elaborately along with Lŏha vada in this text. This book serves an important reference text. This book serves an important reference text for students and scholars of Rasa Săstra for teaching and training practical purposes.

  12. Constructing Core Journal Lists: Mixing Science and Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Via an overview of core journal studies, emphasizing the social sciences and education, this review looks for best practices in both motivation and methodology. Selection decisions receive particular focus. Lack of correlation between methods is indicative of the complexity of the topic and the need for judgment in design and use. (Author)

  13. Alchemy in Iowa: Arts Education at Harding Junior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Case study of an Iowa junior high school describes how the school and community identified their resources and used them to create successful arts education programs from ordinary resources. The article examines four types of commitment that shaped school practice, noting effective teaching practices and administrative policy. (SM)

  14. Modern alchemy: Fred Hoyle and element building by neutron capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, E. Margaret

    Fred Hoyle's fundamental work on building the chemical elements by nuclear processes in stars at various stages in their lives began with the building of elements around iron in the very dense hot interiors of stars. Later, in the paper by Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, we four showed that Hoyle's "equilibrium process" is one of eight processes required to make all of the isotopes of all the elements detected in the Sun and stars. Neutron capture reactions, which Fred had not considered in his epochal 1946 paper, but for which experimental data were just becoming available in 1957, are very important, in addition to the energy-generating reactions involving hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, for building all of the elements. They are now providing clues to the late stages of stellar evolution and the earliest history of our Galaxy. I describe here our earliest observational work on neutron capture processes in evolved stars, some new work on stars showing the results of the neutron capture reactions, and data relating to processes ending in the production of lead, and I discuss where this fits into the history of stars in our own Galaxy.

  15. Inner Alchemy: Transforming Dilemmas in Education Through Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on face-to-face and online qualitative research conducted with 25 teachers from 8 schools in Australia that explored their experience of mindfulness and reflection in relation to a self-identified relational dilemma with a student, colleague, or parent who was causing them concern at work. The aim of this study was to find out…

  16. Creating new β cells: cellular transmutation by genomic alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Larry G

    2013-03-01

    To address insulin insufficiency, diabetes research has long focused on techniques for replacing insulin-producing β cells. Studies in mice have suggested that, under some conditions, α cells possess the capacity to transdifferentiate into β cells, although the mechanisms that drive this conversion are unclear. In this issue, Bramswig et al. analyzed the methylation states of purified human α, β, and acinar cells and found α cells exhibit intrinsic phenotypic plasticity associated with specific histone methylation profiles. In addition to expanding our understanding of this potential source of β cells, this compendium of carefully generated human gene expression and epigenomic data in islet cell subtypes constitutes a truly valuable resource for the field.

  17. Changing Dielectrics into Multiferroics---Alchemy Enabled by Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlom, Darrell

    2011-03-01

    Ferroelectric ferromagnets are exceedingly rare, fundamentally interesting multiferroic materials. The properties of what few compounds simultaneously exhibit these phenomena pale in comparison to useful ferroelectrics or ferromagnets: their spontaneous polarizations (Ps) or magnetizations (Ms) are smaller by a factor of 1000 or more. The same holds for (magnetic or electric) field-induced multiferroics. Recently, however, Fennie and Rabe proposed a new route to ferroelectric ferromagnets---transforming magnetically ordered insulators that are neither ferroelectric nor ferromagnetic, of which there are many, into ferroelectric ferromagnets using a single control parameter: strain. The system targeted, EuTi O3 , was predicted to simultaneously exhibit strong ferromagnetism (Ms ~ ~ ~7~μB /Eu) and strong ferroelectricity (Ps ~ ~ ~10~ μ C/cm2) under large biaxial compressive strain. These values are orders of magnitude higher than any known ferroelectric ferromagnet and rival the best materials that are solely ferroelectric or ferromagnetic. Hindered by the absence of an appropriate substrate to provide the desired compression, we show 3 both experimentally and theoretically the emergence of a multiferroic state under biaxial tension with the unexpected benefit that even lower misfits are required, thereby enabling higher quality crystalline films. The resulting genesis of a strong ferromagnetic ferroelectric points the way to high temperature manifestations of this spin-phonon coupling mechanism. Our work demonstrates that a single experimental parameter, strain, simultaneously controls multiple order parameters and is a viable alternative tuning parameter to composition for creating multiferroics. C.J. Fennie and K.M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 267602.

  18. Courtroom Alchemy: Adequacy Advocates Turn Guesstimates into Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1960s, and accelerating unabated through to the present, plaintiffs have filed more than 125 court cases questioning the constitutionality of school district and school spending levels. Much of the litigation, particularly early on, centered on the issue of funding "equity." Few would seek to deny American public school…

  19. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  20. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  1. The Alchemy of "Costing Out" an Adequate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the rapid rise in court cases related to the adequacy of school funding, a variety of alternative methods have been developed to provide an analytical base about the necessary expenditure on schools. These approaches have been titled to give an aura of a thoughtful and solid scientific basis: the professional judgment model, the…

  2. Of Alchemy and Authenticity: Teaching about Daoism Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Siegler, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the complexities and responsibilities of teaching about Daoism in contemporary North American colleges and universities. Expanding and revising the findings of Kirkland (1998), they argue that enough has changed in educational and cultural contexts to warrant new strategies for teaching about Daoism. Textbooks are now available…

  3. Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

    2012-06-01

    In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

  4. Education and Alchemy: The Story of Wyndham Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, A. E.

    This is a critical account of the introduction of a new science curriculum in New South Wales, Australia. The introduction of the new courses is contrasted with methods used to update science courses in other countries and in other Australian States. Reactions from teachers, students, and the public are reported. Statements by the curriculum…

  5. Primordial alchemy: from the Big Bang to the present universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigman, Gary

    Of the light nuclides observed in the universe today, D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li are relics from its early evolution. The primordial abundances of these relics, produced via Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) during the first half hour of the evolution of the universe provide a unique window on Physics and Cosmology at redshifts ~1010. Comparing the BBN-predicted abundances with those inferred from observational data tests the consistency of the standard cosmological model over ten orders of magnitude in redshift, constrains the baryon and other particle content of the universe, and probes both Physics and Cosmology beyond the current standard models. These lectures are intended to introduce students, both of theory and observation, to those aspects of the evolution of the universe relevant to the production and evolution of the light nuclides from the Big Bang to the present. The current observational data is reviewed and compared with the BBN predictions and the implications for cosmology (e.g., universal baryon density) and particle physics (e.g., relativistic energy density) are discussed. While this comparison reveals the stunning success of the standard model(s), there are currently some challenge which leave open the door for more theoretical and observational work with potential implications for astronomy, cosmology, and particle physics.

  6. Seeing in the dark - I. Multi-epoch alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Eric M.; Hirata, Christopher M.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schlegel, David; Seljak, Uroš; Lupton, Robert H.

    2014-05-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure is an invaluable cosmological tool given that most of the energy density of the concordance cosmology is invisible. Several large ground-based imaging surveys will attempt to measure this effect over the coming decade, but reliable control of the spurious lensing signal introduced by atmospheric turbulence and telescope optics remains a challenging problem. We address this challenge with a demonstration that point spread function (PSF) effects on measured galaxy shapes in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) can be corrected with existing analysis techniques. In this work, we co-add existing SDSS imaging on the equatorial stripe in order to build a data set with the statistical power to measure cosmic shear, while using a rounding kernel method to null out the effects of the anisotropic PSF. We build a galaxy catalogue from the combined imaging, characterize its photometric properties and show that the spurious shear remaining in this catalogue after the PSF correction is negligible compared to the expected cosmic shear signal. We identify a new source of systematic error in the shear-shear autocorrelations arising from selection biases related to masking. Finally, we discuss the circumstances in which this method is expected to be useful for upcoming ground-based surveys that have lensing as one of the science goals, and identify the systematic errors that can reduce its efficacy.

  7. High-pressure alchemy on a small-pore zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While an ever-expanding variety of zeolites with a wide range of framework topology is available, it is desirable to have a way to tailor the chemistry of the zeolitic nanopores for a given framework topology via controlling both the coordination-inclusion chemistry and framework distortion/relaxation. This is, however, subjected to the ability of a zeolitic nanopore to allow the redistribution of cations-water assembly and/or insertion of foreign molecules into the pores and channels. Small-pore zeolites such as natrolite (Na16Al16Si24O80x16H2O), however, have been known to show very limited capacity for any changes in the confinement chemistry. We have recently shown that various cation-exchanged natrolites can be prepared under modest conditions from natural sodium natrolite and exhibit cation-dependent volume expansions by up to 18.5% via converting the elliptical channels into progressively circular ones. Here, we show that pressure can be used as a unique and clean tool to further manipulate the chemistry of the natrolite nanopores. Our recent crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of pressure-insertion of foreign molecules, trivalent-cation exchange under pressure, and pressure-induced inversion of cation-water coordination and pore geometry in various cation-exchanged natrolites will be presented.

  8. Cellular alchemy and the golden age of reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, George Q

    2012-12-07

    The 2012 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology recognizes the architects of two of the great paradigm-shifting discoveries of the last half-century of biology. In experiments performed nearly 50 years apart, Gurdon and Yamanaka made feasible the reawakening of pluripotency inherent in all cells and challenged forever our notions of cellular identity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accreditation's Alchemy Hour: Riding the Wave of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This article was adapted from Paul L. Gaston's address to the 2014 annual meeting of the "Association of American Colleges and Universities." The panel session talk "Accreditation: Riding the Wave of Innovation--or Going Under?" addressed issues surrounding the many proposals for demolishing and rebuilding higher education…

  10. Stellar alchemy: The origin of the chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    What makes the stars shine? This question puzzled human beings for thousands of years. Early in this century, chemists and physicists discovered radioactivity; and the nuclear model of the atom was developed. Once nuclear reactions were produced in the laboratory, it did not take long before their role in stellar energy generation was realized. The theory that nuclear fusion is the source of stellar energy was initially developed in the 1930's and was elaborated in detail in the 1950's. Only within the last ten years, however, have astronomical observations provided direct confirmation of these theoretical ideas. In this paper, I describe the sequences of nuclear reactions that are believed to be responsible for the power generation in stars. The ashes of these reactions are the heavy elements that we find on earth and throughout the universe. The evolution and final fates of stars are examined. The key astronomical observations that provide support for these theoretical ideas are presented

  11. Alchemy of feelings: Loss, laughter, eros, and new gender subjectivities

    OpenAIRE

    McCullen, Christie

    2012-01-01

    “The lights were low, all the candles on fertility altar lit, the mood—just right. Maddy pulled out all her blowjob tricks—the pepper grinder, the text message, the piccolo tickolo. Leroy was overcum with ecstasy as he spunked into a cup.” So begins the pornographic performance entitledMaddy & Leroy’s Artifuckial Insemination, a kinky tale of a heterosexual couple’s experience with an artificial insemination. It proceeds like this: Leroy spanks and doses Maddy with a hormonal supplement, Madd...

  12. Primordial alchemy: a test of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1987-01-01

    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis provides the only probe of the early evolution of the Universe constrained by observational data. The standard, hot, big bang model predicts the synthesis of the light elements (D, 3 He, 4 He, 7 Li) in astrophysically interesting abundances during the first few minutes in the evolution of the Universe. A quantitative comparison of the predicted abundances with those observed astronomically confirms the consistency of the standard model and yields valuable constraints on the parameters of cosmology and elementary particle physics. The current status of the comparison between theory and observation will be reviewed and the opportunities for future advances outlined

  13. Alquimia: Isaac Newton revisitado Alchemy: Isaac Newton Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Carmello Corrêa de Moraes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nota sobre publicações recentes que revelam aspectos pouco conhecidos da biblioteca de Newton - os numerosos textos religiosos, místicos e herméticos. Os biógrafos de Newton resistiram muito até admitir que os escritos esotéricos fossem genuíno interesse do sábio e que tivessem importância para entender sua trajetória intelectual. As publicações aqui indicadas afirmam o contrário, seguindo trilha aberta por ensaio pioneiro de J. M. Keynes (1946.A note on recent books about an unexplored side of Newton’s library: religious, mystical and hermetic texts. Newton's biographers had resisted so much to believe that esoteric writings were in Newton’s field of interest. Even if they recognized that, they didn't believe those strange works were important elements to understand his intellectual trajectory. The studies we mention here are saying just the opposite thing, exploring the way opened by the pioneer essay of J. M. Keynes (1946.

  14. Building Budgets and Trust through the Alchemy of Superintendent Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Superintendents have the burden and the opportunity to exert leadership through the budget-building process. This article details a dozen tenets which can be implemented by practicing superintendents. Doing so increases the chances of building trust among the stakeholders of administrators, staff, community, and school board members. The district…

  15. The Alchemy of Art: Transforming Student Art into Science Knowledge in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mickie

    2005-01-01

    Art provides students a way to visually represent their scientific knowledge and at the same time helps teachers assess student understanding. Examining a drawing allows teachers to scrutinize students' mental model of a science concept. Science can be described as a continuing process of discovering the order and recurring patterns in nature;…

  16. Laser alchemy: direct writing of multifunctional components in a glass chip with femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Lin, Jintian; Cheng, Ya

    2013-12-01

    Recently, hybrid integration of multifunctional micro-components for creating complex, intelligent micro/nano systems has attracted significant attention. These micro-/nano-systems have important applications in a variety of areas, such as healthcare, environment, communication, national security, and so on. However, fabrication of micro/nano systems incorporated with different functions is still a challenging task, which generally requires fabrication of discrete microcomponents beforehand followed by assembly and packaging procedures. Furthermore, current micro-/nano-fabrication techniques are mainly based on the well-established planar lithographic approach, which suffer from severe issues in producing three dimensional (3D) structures with complex geometries and arbitrary configurations. In recent years, the rapid development of femtosecond laser machining technology has enabled 3D direct fabrication and integration of multifunctional components, such as microfluidics, microoptics, micromechanics, microelectronics, etc., into single substrates. In this invited talk, we present our recent progress in this active area. Particularly, we focus on fabrication of 3D micro- and nanofluidic devices and 3D high-Q microcavities in glass substrates by femtosecond laser direct writing.

  17. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonge, George D.

    2008-01-01

    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  18. Ordinary Alchemy: Understanding School and Community Co-Development through the Experiences of a Community School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pineiro, Odalys Maria

    2010-01-01

    Practice and inquiry into school-community connections have been guided by problematic assumptions about the role of neighborhood schools, community based institutions, and local economic development policies in the evolution of urban communities. Formal relationships between schools and urban neighborhoods grounded in these assumptions have been…

  19. A case of cellular alchemy: lineage reprogramming and its potential in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuelime, Grace E; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-08-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is rapidly gaining momentum as an increasing number of reports emerge concerning the induced conversions observed in cellular fate reprogramming. While in recent years, much attention has been focused on the conversion of fate-committed somatic cells to an embryonic-like or pluripotent state, there are still many limitations associated with the applications of induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming, including relatively low reprogramming efficiency, the times required for the reprogramming event to take place, the epigenetic instability, and the tumorigenicity associated with the pluripotent state. On the other hand, lineage reprogramming involves the conversion from one mature cell type to another without undergoing conversion to an unstable intermediate. It provides an alternative approach in regenerative medicine that has a relatively lower risk of tumorigenesis and increased efficiency within specific cellular contexts. While lineage reprogramming provides exciting potential, there is still much to be assessed before this technology is ready to be applied in a clinical setting.

  20. The Alchemy of College Philanthropy: What Dynamics Inspire the Transformational Gift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Modest inquiry exists to elucidate why donors make large contributions to community colleges. Of every charitable dollar donated to education, two-year colleges receive 2 to 4 cents. This grounded theory study included 30 major donors to 23 colleges in 18 states. The questions were comprehensive: why donors and how donors make major gifts;…

  1. The Alchemy of Learning and Work: Negotiating Learner Knowledge in a Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    This article explores issues of literacy and identity of skilled migrants in an educational context in Australia as a learning society. First, it concentrates on forms of knowledge imposed on the learner and looks at how new discourses shape the self. Next, it tests the validity of the four pillars of education in the life of the learner. The…

  2. Concise review: alchemy of biology: generating desired cell types from abundant and accessible cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournasr, Behshad; Khaloughi, Keynoush; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Totonchi, Mehdi; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Baharvand, Hossein

    2011-12-01

    A major goal of regenerative medicine is to produce cells to participate in the generation, maintenance, and repair of tissues that are damaged by disease, aging, or trauma, such that function is restored. The establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells, followed by directed differentiation, offers a powerful strategy for producing patient-specific therapies. Given how laborious and lengthy this process can be, the conversion of somatic cells into lineage-specific stem/progenitor cells in one step, without going back to, or through, a pluripotent stage, has opened up tremendous opportunities for regenerative medicine. However, there are a number of obstacles to overcome before these cells can be widely considered for clinical applications. Here, we focus on induced transdifferentiation strategies to convert mature somatic cells to other mature cell types or progenitors, and we summarize the challenges that need to be met if the potential applications of transdifferentiation technology are to be achieved. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Digital Alchemy: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Investigation of Digital Storytelling for Peace and Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Thor

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of undergraduate students enrolled in an education I-Series (University of Maryland undergraduate courses designed to inspire innovation, imagination, and intellect) course, Good Stories: Teaching Stories for Peace and Justice. In this course students are asked to produce digital stories that project themes of…

  4. A Study of Understanding: Alchemy, Abstraction, and Circulating Reference in Tertiary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an…

  5. The new alchemy: Online networking, data sharing and research activity distribution tools for scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J; Peck, Lou; Ekins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    There is an abundance of free online tools accessible to scientists and others that can be used for online networking, data sharing and measuring research impact. Despite this, few scientists know how these tools can be used or fail to take advantage of using them as an integrated pipeline to raise awareness of their research outputs. In this article, the authors describe their experiences with these tools and how they can make best use of them to make their scientific research generally more accessible, extending its reach beyond their own direct networks, and communicating their ideas to new audiences. These efforts have the potential to drive science by sparking new collaborations and interdisciplinary research projects that may lead to future publications, funding and commercial opportunities. The intent of this article is to: describe some of these freely accessible networking tools and affiliated products; demonstrate from our own experiences how they can be utilized effectively; and, inspire their adoption by new users for the benefit of science.

  6. Alchemy in the underworld - recent progress and future potential of organic geochemistry applied to speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Speleothems are well used archives for chemical records of terrestrial environmental change, and the integration of records from a range of isotopic, inorganic, and organic geochemical techniques offers significant power in reconstructing both changes in past climates and identifying the resultant response in the overlying terrestrial ecosystems. The use of organic geochemistry in this field offers the opportunity to recover new records of vegetation change (via biomarkers and compound specific isotopes), temperature change (via analysis of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, a compound group derived from microbes and varying in structure in response to temperature and pH), and changes in soil microbial behaviour (via combined carbon isotope analysis). However, to date the use of organic geochemical techniques has been relatively limited, due to issues relating to sample size, concerns about contamination, and unanswered questions about the origins of the preserved organic matter and rates of transport. Here I will briefly review recent progress in the field, and present a framework for the future research needed to establish organic geochemical analysis in speleothems as a robust palaeo-proxy approach.

  7. Statistical Alchemy: Conceptual Validity and Mapping to Generate Health State Utility Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Jeff; Hawton, Annie

    2017-12-01

    Mapping between non-preference- and preference-based health-related quality-of-life instruments has become a common technique for estimating health state utility values for use in economic evaluations. Despite the increased use of mapped health state utility estimates in health technology assessment and economic evaluation, the methods for deriving them have not been fully justified. Recent guidelines aim to standardise reporting of the methods used to map between instruments but do not address fundamental concerns in the underlying conceptual model. Current mapping methods ignore the important conceptual issues that arise when extrapolating results from potentially unrelated measures. At the crux of the mapping problem is a question of validity; because one instrument can be used to predict the scores on another, does this mean that the same preference for health is being measured in actual and estimated health state utility values? We refer to this as conceptual validity. This paper aims to (1) explain the idea of conceptual validity in mapping and its implications; (2) consider the consequences of poor conceptual validity when mapping for decision making in the context of healthcare resource allocation; and (3) offer some preliminary suggestions for improving conceptual validity in mapping.

  8. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease: the demise of alchemy and rise of pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadczyk, T; Faulkner, A; Madeddu, P

    2013-05-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise as a way of addressing the limitations of current treatments of ischaemic disease. In preclinical models, transplantation of different types of stem cells or progenitor cells results in improved recovery from ischaemia. Furthermore, experimental studies indicate that cell therapy influences a spectrum of processes, including neovascularization and cardiomyogenesis as well as inflammation, apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Thus, distinct strategies might be required for specific regenerative needs. Nonetheless, clinical studies have so far investigated a relatively small number of options, focusing mainly on the use of bone marrow-derived cells. Rapid clinical translation resulted in a number of small clinical trials that do not have sufficient power to address the therapeutic potential of the new approach. Moreover, full exploitation has been hindered so far by the absence of a solid theoretical framework and inadequate development plans. This article reviews the current knowledge on cell therapy and proposes a model theory for interpretation of experimental and clinical outcomes from a pharmacological perspective. Eventually, with an increased association between cell therapy and traditional pharmacotherapy, we will soon need to adopt a unified theory for understanding how the two practices additively interact for a patient's benefit. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegmann, George; Yarranton, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  10. (Fullmetal) alchemy: the monstrosity of reading words and pictures in shonen manga

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Lesley Anne

    2011-01-01

    Shonen manga (Japanese comics aimed at an audience of teenage boys) are often teeming with monsters, but the texts themselves are more monstrous still. The monstrous combinations of words and picture dispersed across the manga page seem to expose and challenge a fissure within representation itself-but productively so. Through reading a short section of Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist, this paper explores the ways in which words and pictures can be combined to produce monstrous composite...

  11. Alchemy & algorithms: perspectives on the philosophy and history of open science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the reader a chance to experience, or revisit, PHOS16: a conference on the History and Philosophy of Open Science. In the winter of 2016, we invited a varied international group to engage with these topics at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Our aim was a critical assessment of the defining features, underlying narratives, and overall objectives of the contemporary open science movement. The event brought together contemporary open science scholars, publishers, and advocates to discuss the philosophical foundations and historical roots of openness in academic research. The eight sessions combined historical views with more contemporary perspectives on topics such as transparency, reproducibility, collaboration, publishing, peer review, research ethics, as well as societal impact and engagement. We gathered together expert panelists and 15 invited speakers who have published extensively on these topics, which allowed us to engage in a thorough and multifaceted discussion. Together with our involved audience we charted the role and foundations of openness of research in our time, considered the accumulation and dissemination of scientific knowledge, and debated the various technical, legal, and ethical challenges of the past and present. In this article, we provide an overview of the topics covered at the conference as well as individual video interviews with each speaker. In addition to this, all the talks were recorded and they are offered here as an openly licensed community resource in both video and audio form.

  12. Ossian & the Hare: An Experiment in Poetry and the Alchemy of Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, Naomi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ossian & the Hare is an experimental film-essay combination intended to work like two sides of the one coin. The 20-minute long film is designed to be more experiential than narrative driven, moving us through various spaces and atmospheres as if in a kind of dreamscape. In pointing up some of the thinking and ideas that are embedded in the film, the text provides a framework situating the film within a film-as-artwork context. It outlines many of the influences that contribute both to visual style and content, offering more depth to the overall experience of viewing the film.

  13. The alchemy of jargon: Etymologies of urologic neologisms. Number 5: oncology and its vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelfer, Lochlan

    2009-09-15

    As the scientific community is increasingly severed from the study of linguistics, the underlying significance of their common technical words is becoming blurred. This article will focus on the genesis of terminology in the field of Oncology. These notes will give a detailed background of the history of technical terms, including how they came into being, whence they were derived, and how they impacted the scientific community through the ages. In this installment, following terms are analyzed: Oncology, Cancer, Carcinoma, Metastasis, Neoplasm, Malignant, and Benign. This analysis of the history and significance of scientific terms common to the urological community works towards a fortification of their power by offering a reminder of their origins. Prostate 69: 1369-1371, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The alchemy of jargon: etymologies of urologic neologisms. number 6: the language of the urogenital system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelfer, Lochlan

    2009-11-01

    As the scientific community is increasingly severed from the study of linguistics, the underlying significance of their common technical words is becoming blurred. This article will focus on the genesis of terminology of the urogenital system. These notes will give a detailed background of the history of technical terms, including how they came into being, whence they were derived, and how they impacted the scientific community through the ages. In this installment, following terms are analyzed: Penis, Ampulla, Vas Deferens, Epididymis, Gonad, and Bladder. This analysis of the history and significance of scientific terms common to the urological community works towards a fortification of their power by offering a reminder of their origins.

  15. Art, archetypes and alchemy: images of self following treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Catherine; Sabo, Brenda M

    2012-04-01

    The loss or alteration of a breast poses a threat to a woman's selfhood, particularly those aspects that embrace feminine identity such as sexuality and caring. The use of art as a vehicle for recreating a sense of self after breast cancer surgery framed the study that generated the stories reported here. A team of nurse-researchers and professional artists entered into a collaborative partnership aimed at creating life-like prototypes of the torsos of two breast cancer survivors. The authors sought to understand participants' experiences of healing through the narratives of their breast cancer journeys and their experiences of creating art through the use of their bodies. The participants consented to having interviews and casting sessions audio-taped. The authors used thematic analysis to explore the narratives. The authors present excerpts of stories and comment on how participants articulated the feminine archetype in the form of the Greek goddesses Hestia, Artemis, and Aphrodite. The authors explore the transformative nature of participants' experiences. The emergence of the goddess archetypes in participants' narratives was an unanticipated result of the study. The authors invite readers to contemplate these anecdotes and embark on their own quest for deeper knowledge of breast cancer experiences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Software Alchemy: Turning Complex Statistical Computations into Embarrassingly-Parallel Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Matloff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of computationally intensive statistical procedures, especially with big data, has necessitated the usage of parallel computation on diverse platforms such as multicore, GPUs, clusters and clouds. However, slowdown due to interprocess communication costs typically limits such methods to "embarrassingly parallel" (EP algorithms, especially on non-shared memory platforms. This paper develops a broadlyapplicable method for converting many non-EP algorithms into statistically equivalent EP ones. The method is shown to yield excellent levels of speedup for a variety of statistical computations. It also overcomes certain problems of memory limitations.

  17. From alchemy to quarks the study of physics as a liberal art

    CERN Document Server

    Glashow, Sheldon L

    1994-01-01

    This text is intended for a short introduction to pre-calculus physics. Nobel Laureate physicist, Sheldon Glashow, who first proposed the charmed quark, the zee-zero particle, and the idea of grand unification, surveys science's on-going quest to explain the wonders of nature in terms of the simplest laws and the smallest particles - from fire, water, earth and air to quarks and leptons; from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to today's supercolliders.

  18. Conference "The Cultural Alchemy of the Exact Sciences : Revisiting the Forman Thesis"

    CERN Document Server

    Kojevnikov, Alexei; Trischler, Helmuth; Weimar culture and quantum mechanics : selected papers by Paul Forman and contemporary perspectives on the Forman thesis

    2011-01-01

    This volume reprints Paul Forman's classic papers on the history of physics in post-World War I Germany and the invention of quantum mechanics. The Forman thesis has become famous as the first argument in favor of the cultural conditioning of scientific knowledge, in particular for its demonstration of the historical connection between the culture of Weimar Germany - known for its irrationality and antiscientism - and the emerging concept of quantum acausality.This volume reprints Paul Forman's classic papers on the history of physics in post-World War I Germany and the invention of quantum mechanics. The Forman thesis has become famous as the first argument in favor of the cultural conditioning of scientific knowledge, in particular for its demonstration of the historical connection between the culture of Weimar Germany - known for its irrationality and antiscientism - and the emerging concept of quantum acausality. At the 2007 international conference in Vancouver, Canada, leading historians of physics disc...

  19. [The therapeutics of Paracelsus with reference to natural philosophy, alchemy and psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, H

    1993-01-01

    The controversial reception of Paracelsus is still going on. The crucial question is whether he is a man of the Middle Ages or of modern times. It is not possible to give a simple answer. We have to study the writings of Paracelsus within the scientific and cultural context of the Renaissance. This period is characterized by a new concept of natural philosophy. The theory of signature tries to read or translate certain constellations within the natural environment as a secret code. The idea of a sympathetic correspondence between natural bodies or substances implies the possibility of magical healing. A wellknown example is the preparation of the 'weapon salve'. There are two realities of spiritual powers at the same time: demons from the outside of the human body and powers of the mind from its inside which influence the body functions. The natural philosophy of the Renaissance tries to 'naturalize' the demons as a complement of matter. Paracelsus reflects the ideas of his time. The human being has got two bodies: a visible one which belongs to earth and an invisible one which belongs to heaven. The 'philosopher' as a pharmacist and a doctor has to detect the invisible body corresponding with the celestial world (stars, planets) by analysing the manifest astrological signs. The alchemical preparation of remedies has to purify the specific healing substances ('arcana') from the crude material. The pharmacist and doctor just imitates artificially the quasi alchemical metabolic process of nature itself continuing and finishing it. Paracelsus' concept of imagination ('imaginatio') implies a psychosomatic model how far spiritual powers can influence the body functions. Paracelsus stresses radically the importance of suggestions as a source of illness. The synchronical concepts are confusing today. Knowledge and superstition, scientific rationality and irrational speculations come together and can hardly be separated. Nevertheless, at the end of the 20th century we may have more mental relations to this scenario than we are able to realize it at the moment.

  20. The Crucible of Classroom Practice: Alchemy and Early Professional Learning in Secondary English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the metaphor of the classroom as a "crucible" for early professional learning where beginning teachers forge professional identities in complex, unpredictable, paradoxical, affectively and physically potent contexts of practice. It works into the dissonances and contradictions of the micro-narratives embedded in the…

  1. John Dee and the alchemists: Practising and promoting English alchemy in the Holy Roman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates John Dee’s relationship with two kinds of alchemist: the authorities whose works he read, and the contemporary practitioners with whom he exchanged texts and ideas. Both strands coincide in the reception of works attributed to the famous English alchemist, George Ripley (d. c. 1490). Dee’s keen interest in Ripley appears from the number of transcriptions he made of ‘Ripleian’ writings, including the Bosome book, a manuscript discovered in 1574 and believed to have been written in Ripley’s own hand. In 1583, Dee and his associate Edward Kelley left England for East Central Europe, taking with them a proportion of Dee’s vast library, including alchemical books—the contents of which would soon pique the interest of continental practitioners. Kelley used Ripley’s works, including the Bosome book, not only as sources of practical information, but as a means of furthering his own relationships with colleagues and patrons: transactions that in turn influenced Ripley’s posthumous continental reception. The resulting circulation of texts allows us to trace, with unusual precision, the spread of English alchemical ideas in the Holy Roman Empire from the late sixteenth century.

  2. ["The multiple science instructional curious artist". Alchemy, folk magic and folk medicine in baroque home reference books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesner, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Germany's Hausväterliteratur, the "literature of the fathers of the houses," was once a popular genre but today is seldom studied. Roughly, this literature, as its name suggests, comprises books on the proper keeping of noble households and mansions. Interestingly, besides the content which one might expect in such books, the organization of personnel, the arrangement of festivities, discussions of the various branches of technical skills, economic advice and the whole field of agriculture, fishing and hunting, these books also contain remarkably large amounts of information directly connected with magic and an associated popular medicine (Volksmedizin). This medicine involved treatment administered mostly by laywomen instead of regular physicians and was based not just upon traditional medical knowledge per se but also upon magical practices. Also found in such texts are alchemical ideas and recipes. This means that despite the fact that such books were written and published in the 17th and early 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, conceptions found in them are still deeply rooted in older intellectual currents, in Medieval and Renaissance thinking. The present study examines examples of alchemical, magical and popular medical ideas in three such works and seeks to explain how pre-enlightenment ideas and thought could maintain such an influential place in the intellectual world of a later time dominated by other philosophies.

  3. Lighting market alchemy: Will we find a pot of gold at the end of the III-V rainbow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kathryn M.

    2004-12-01

    With a focus on visible spectrum light emitting diodes (LEDs), three questions frame this update. First, what are the market and financial outlooks for light-producing compound semiconductor materials and devices? Second, which applications offer the greatest growth potential for the next five to ten years and with which technologies will they likely compete for market share? Third, how can photonics experts contribute to accelerated successes for LEDs and other solid-state lighting technologies such as quantum dots? Using the rainbow as a metaphor for the market, the author examines developments in single color, multiple color and "white light" products.

  4. Glass and Alchemy in Early Modern Europe: An Analytical Study of Glassware from the Oberstockstall Laboratory in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Umberto; Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2018-01-23

    Glass distillation equipment from an early modern alchemical laboratory was analyzed for its technology of manufacture and potential origin. Chemical data show that the assemblage can be divided into sodium-rich, colorless distillation vessels made with glass from Venice or its European imitation, and potassium-rich dark-brown non-specialized forms produced within the technological tradition of forest glass typical for central and north-western Europe. These results complete our understanding of the supply of technical apparatus at one of the best-preserved alchemical laboratories and highlight an early awareness of the need for high-quality instruments to guarantee the successful outcome of specialized chemical operations. This study demonstrates the potential of archaeological science to inform historical research around the practice of early chemistry and the development of modern science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cultural and Linguistic Alchemy: Mining the Resources of Spanish-Speaking Children and Families Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to gain insight into how early intervention (EI) services incorporate the cultural and linguistic resources of families and how EI professionals and families build partnerships with each other. Through observation and interview, the author looked deeply at the experiences of a small group of culturally and linguistically…

  6. The royal typographer and the alchemist: John Dee, Willem Silvius, and the diagrammatic alchemy of the Monas Hieroglyphica

    OpenAIRE

    Clucas, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    John Dee’s Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) was a work which involved a close collaboration between its author and his ‘singular friend’ the Antwerp printer Willem Silvius, in whose house Dee was living whilst he composed the work and saw it through the press. This article considers the reasons why Dee chose to collaborate with Silvius, and the importance of the intellectual culture – and the print trade – of the Low Countries to the development of Dee’s outlook. Dee’s Monas was probably the first ...

  7. The new alchemy: Online networking, data sharing and research activity distribution tools for scientists [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Williams

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of free online tools accessible to scientists and others that can be used for online networking, data sharing and measuring research impact. Despite this, few scientists know how these tools can be used or fail to take advantage of using them as an integrated pipeline to raise awareness of their research outputs. In this article, the authors describe their experiences with these tools and how they can make best use of them to make their scientific research generally more accessible, extending its reach beyond their own direct networks, and communicating their ideas to new audiences. These efforts have the potential to drive science by sparking new collaborations and interdisciplinary research projects that may lead to future publications, funding and commercial opportunities. The intent of this article is to: describe some of these freely accessible networking tools and affiliated products; demonstrate from our own experiences how they can be utilized effectively; and, inspire their adoption by new users for the benefit of science.

  8. Heavy metal: Can molten metal technology turn toxic dross into gold? A study in alchemy, controversy, and green tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, S.

    1995-12-31

    In a Massachusetts industrial park, inside a renovated helicopter factory, stands a giant, Rube Goldbergesque machine of metal boxes and pipes. Technicians in blue uniforms, hard hats, and safety glasses attend this contraption, watching over the fire at its heart: a cauldron of molten metal, usually iron, heated to some 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Hazardous wastes are injected into this molten bath. There, according to its inventor, the metal acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction that instantly reduces compound molecules to their elemental components. A considerable portion for the wastes thus digested are spit out again in the form of industrial-grade materials, ready for reuse or resale. This article describes both the processing of hazardous wastes by using molten metal to drive reactions that would recover useful materials from hazardous waste and the future possibilities for its use.

  9. Definition, Identification, Identity, and Culture: A Unique Alchemy Impacting the Success of Gifted African American Millennial Males in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Fred A., II; Lewis, Chance W.; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Hill-Jackson, Valerie; James, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the underrepresentation of African American males in gifted and talented programs, and offers a number of key recommendations to practitioners and researchers who seek viable strategies to circumvent this problem. Beyond the focus on underrepresentation, several additional topics for discussion are excogitated to provide a…

  10. Performative and Multimedia Aspects of Late-Renaissance Meditative Alchemy: The Case of Michael Maier’s Atalanta Fugiens (1617.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann F. W. Hasler.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1617 the alchemist, counselor and court physician to the then recently deceased Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612 published his Atalanta Fugiens (Atalanta feeing. The book fits into the general category of an ‘alchemical emblem book’, very popular in the day: it contains 50 beautiful engravings to which are assigned poetic sextets in both Latin and German. The main difference with all known similar works is that it includes a three-part canon with each engraving. According to the author, the purpose is for all of this input “to be looked at, read, meditated, understood, weighed, sung and listened to, not without a certain pleasure” (Maier 1990, 91. In this sense, this book might be interpreted as a very early example of multimedia, and as a work which requires a performative attitude and activity (in the form of singing and not merely to be read, for its original purpose to be fully accomplished. In this brief article I will describe the work, and present arguments to support my belief that it would be reasonable to conclude that it is an early form of multimedia.

  11. Vibration-rotation alchemy in acetylene (12C2H2), ? at low vibrational excitation: from high resolution spectroscopy to fast intramolecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David S.; Miller, Anthony; Amyay, Badr; Fayt, André; Herman, Michel

    2010-04-01

    The link between energy-resolved spectra and time-resolved dynamics is explored quantitatively for acetylene (12C2H2), ? with up to 8600 cm-1 of vibrational energy. This comparison is based on the extensive and reliable knowledge of the vibration-rotation energy levels and on the model Hamiltonian used to fit them to high precision [B. Amyay, S. Robert, M. Herman, A. Fayt, B. Raghavendra, A. Moudens, J. Thiévin, B. Rowe, and R. Georges, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 114301 (2009)]. Simulated intensity borrowing features in high resolution absorption spectra and predicted survival probabilities in intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) are first investigated for the v 4 + v 5 and v 3 bright states, for J = 2, 30 and 100. The dependence of the results on the rotational quantum number and on the choice of vibrational bright state reflects the interplay of three kinds of off-diagonal resonances: anharmonic, rotational l-type, and Coriolis. The dynamical quantities used to characterize the calculated time-dependent dynamics are the dilution factor φ d, the IVR lifetime τ IVR , and the recurrence time τ rec. For the two bright states v 3 + 2v 4 and 7v 4, the collisionless dynamics for thermally averaged rotational distributions at T = 27, 270 and 500 K were calculated from the available spectroscopic data. For the 7v 4 bright state, an apparent irreversible decay of is found. In all cases, the model Hamiltonian allows a detailed calculation of the energy flow among all of the coupled zeroth-order vibration-rotation states.

  12. Analytical psychology and Daoist inner alchemy: a response to C.G. Jung's 'Commentary on The Secret of the Golden Flower'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caifang Jeremy

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a historical, religious-philosophical context for the study of the Daoist text known as The Secret of the Golden Flower. An updated study is conducted into the controversy over the source of the text including the editions translated by Richard Wilhelm and Thomas Cleary. The main teachings of the text and the basics of two major denominations of Daoism are introduced to ground later critiques of Jung's commentary. The psychodynamics of analytical psychology, especially those concerned with integration of unconscious contents and the realization of the self (individuation) are compared with the psycho-spiritual dynamics of integration in Eastern spirituality based on the Golden Flower text. The paper concludes that it was amiss for Jung to have equated the Western 'unconscious' with states of higher consciousness in Eastern meditation practices, although his claim that Eastern higher consciousness is characterized by a nebulous state of non-intentionality does raise questions about the appropriateness of calling Eastern meditative states 'consciousness'. A new concept is required to characterize the special qualities of this psychic state shared generally by Eastern spiritual traditions and a more meaningful comparison may be found in Jung's concept of the self.

  13. Will and Wille | Wright | Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ronald Gray. Shakespeare on Love: The Sonnets and Plays in Relation to Plato's Symposium, Alchemy, Christianity and Renaissance Neo-Platonism. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011.

  14. Slut med trylleri på markederne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Kronikken omhandler bogudgivelse af den tidligere direktør for Bank of England, Mervyn King: The End of Alchemy (WW Norton & Co, 2016/2017)......Kronikken omhandler bogudgivelse af den tidligere direktør for Bank of England, Mervyn King: The End of Alchemy (WW Norton & Co, 2016/2017)...

  15. Lead, Zinc and Nitrite Levels of Staple Crop Cultivars in Ameka and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    contain high lead since fibrous seed coat retains minerals. Other dietary sources of lead are vegetables and meats. ... coats, were peeled or unshelled. All samples were subsequently dried in electric oven at. 110 0C for 12 ..... Nitrate in winter greenhouse leafy vegetables New Alchemy quarterly, newly. Alchemy Institute Inc.

  16. Modern alchemy : plasma-arc conversion of garbage into energy, water and aggregate is the stuff of science fiction, and it may be coming soon to the Red Deer dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2009-10-15

    Plasco Energy Group will now need to win government support for the construction of a new waste facility in Red Deer, Alberta. The Ottawa-based company uses a plasma waste conversion technology to generate electricity by refining hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the gasification process into a synthetic gas. An 85 ton per day demonstration plant has been operating in Ottawa since 2007. The average ton of municipal waste contains 13,000 mega joules of energy. The Plasco process will also help to treat waste water for release into the environment. The garbage is reduced to 1 per cent of its original volume after the water and gases are stripped away. The remaining garbage is melted with plasma arc torches for use as clean aggregates. The process also yields one and a half kg per ton of heavy metals. It was concluded that many cities are now showing an interest in the waste treatment technology. 1 fig.

  17. California's "Free" Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudhea, David

    1974-01-01

    Heliotrope, Orpheus, and Communiversity, San Francisco's three free universities, offer curricula with combinations of alchemy, magic, Volkswagen repairs, options in education, dance, conversational Mandarin, basic plumbing, and brain wave experiences. (Author/PG)

  18. Z pokladů... Knihovny Ústavu pro českou literaturu AV ČR : zedník alchymistou?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínek, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 10 (2015), s. 3 ISSN 0011-2321 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : academic libraries * Institute of Czech Literature, CAS * history of alchemy Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  19. An Improved Algorithm for Generating Database Transactions from Relational Algebra Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Dougherty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alloy is a lightweight modeling formalism based on relational algebra. In prior work with Fisler, Giannakopoulos, Krishnamurthi, and Yoo, we have presented a tool, Alchemy, that compiles Alloy specifications into implementations that execute against persistent databases. The foundation of Alchemy is an algorithm for rewriting relational algebra formulas into code for database transactions. In this paper we report on recent progress in improving the robustness and efficiency of this transformation.

  20. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  1. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, H W

    1994-01-01

    The language of alchemy may be divided into five layers. - Within the first layer the alchemists explicitly and undisguisedly conveyed chemical informations. But they described chemical substances and chemical operations in a way which reminds us of sociological or psychological descriptions and the treatment of complex personalities. - Within the second layer the alchemists also gave chemical informations albeit encoded in much the same way as craftmen's guilds encoded their knowledge to fend off competition from outsiders. - Within the third layer the alchemists refer to verbal associations and to myths from their cultural environment so that their texts can only be properly understood within a certain cultural context. As the language of this layer was often handed down to later generations of alchemists who were not acquainted with the specific cultural context it tended to cause confusions and misunderstandings. - Within the fourth layer the alchemists deliberately used an arcane language for within this layer they tried to convey the paradoxa of alchemy. - Within the fifth ayer alchemy is treated as a literary tradition in which all classical texts contain the truth but no text does it in a fully comprehensible way. - These last two layers show that au fond alchemy is not a process of riddle solving but a quest for cosmic secrets. This gives us a demarcation criterion to distinguish alchemy from genuine natural sciences.

  2. Astrologie alchemiche: Ermetismi in transizione e culture occidentali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Albrile

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alchemy is the “sacred art” of the transmutation of metals or human beings, and often these two tendencies are expressed together in an allegorical mode infused with an astrological imager reflecting their mystical nature. The astrology is bound to alchemy in the search for the most favorable moment for commencing an enterprise (catarchic astrology or in the form of the interrogational method, in which the horoscope of the precise moment at which a query is made to the astrologer is interpreted to provide an answer. Finally, the article illustrates these themes in some ancient manuscripts from Turin’s National University Library.

  3. A autoridade, o desejo e a alquimia da política: linguagem e poder na constituição do papado medieval (1060-1120 Authority, desire and the alchemy of politics: language and power in the constitution of the Medieval Papacy (1060-1120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Duarte Rust

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste artigo é a compreensão política propagada entre as décadas de 1060 e 1120 por eminentes eclesiásticos engajados na legitimação e no exercício do poder papal. O exame de epístolas, crônicas e de outros registros escritos do período revela que os assim chamados "papistas" freqüentemente operavam uma transfiguração da política ao envolvê-la em ancestrais tramas de sentido colhidas junto à tradição letrada eclesiástica. Aspecto exemplificado pela idéia de "desejo", que desponta na documentação quando o historiador volta suas atenções para a investigação dos fundamentos do poder político na civilização medieval. Ela permeia as experiências de autoridade e legitimidade, os posicionamentos acerca do recurso à violência; a crença na hierarquização de poderes. Este breve estudo se detém, portanto, nas imbricadas relações existentes entre a prática do poder, o pensamento político e a linguagem.The theme of this paper is the political vision propagated between the decades of 1060 and 1120 by prominent churchmen engaged in the legitimacy and the exercise of the pontifical power. An examination of epistolae, chronicae and other written records of the period reveal that the so-called "papists" frequently performed a transfiguration of politics by involved it in the ancient webs of meaning conveyed from the ecclesiastical literate tradition. Aspect exemplified by the idea of "desire", which occurs in the historical sources very frequently when the historian turns his attention to investigate the basis of political power in the medieval civilization. It permeates the ideas of authority and legitimacy, the positions about the use of violence and the beliefs in the hierarchy of the powers. Therefore, this brief study aims at the intertwined relationship between the practice of power, political thought and language.

  4. Lux in Tenebris : The Visual and the Symbolic in Western Esotericism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lux in Tenebris is a collection of eighteen original interdisciplinary essays that address aspects of the verbal and visual symbolism in the works of significant figures in the history of Western Esotericism, covering such themes as alchemy, magic, kabbalah, angels, occult philosophy, Platonism,

  5. Das alchemistische Traktat des Marcus Eugenius Bonacina von 1616 über Trinkgold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Purš, Ivo

    -, č. 8 (2008), s. 77-90 ISSN 1213-5372 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800330702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : alchemy * iconography * history Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. Cabala Chymica or Chemia Cabalistica - Early Modern Alchemists and Cabala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationships between early modern alchemy and the Jewish mystical tradition of Kabbalah, following its introduction to the Christian West by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola at the end of the fifteenth century, and its promulgation by Johannes Reuchlin in the early

  7. Kryštof Harant v kontextu alchymického konvolutu Šimona Tadeáše Budka – příspěvek k dějinám rudolfínské alchymie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hausenblasová, J.; Purš, Ivo

    -, č. 1 (2009), s. 69-80 ISSN 1804-1132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Simon Thadeas Budek * Christoph Harant of Polžice * Rudolf II * alchemy * history Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. A Critique of Alternatives to Foundational Epistemology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... psychology as alchemy to chemistry (Bradie, 1989). The second objective of naturalized epistemology is to show that the problem of epistemic foundation of justification is answered from within science where a naturalistic account is given. On this, Quine (1985) states that, ―we. A Critique of Alternatives to ...

  9. Simon Thadeas Budek und Christoph Harant von Polžice unter den Alchemisten Kaiser Rudolfs II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hausenblasová, J.; Purš, Ivo

    -, č. 9 (2009), s. 70-86 ISSN 1213-5372 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Simon Thadeas Budek * Christoph Harant of Polžice * Rudolf II * alchemy * history Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. Hybridite linguistique et ecriture de la violence dans Le crepuscule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptible undermining of the French language with Flora Hazoumé can be traced back to René Maran (1921), and especially to Derrida with his deconstructionist theory. The analysis deals with the presence of violence in Le crépuscule de l'homme and to identify by what linguistic alchemy, especially transgression, ...

  11. Business, Anthropology, and Magical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2014-01-01

    —encompassing related concepts of alchemy, animism, and enchantmen—is reflected in other business practices, which have developed their own parallel and interlocking systems of magic. Certain forms of capitalism, the—fashion, for example, or finance—may be analysed as a field of magical systems....

  12. The Use of Molecular Modeling Programs in Medicinal Chemistry Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Marc W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of a molecular modeling computer program (Alchemy II) in a pharmaceutical education program. Provided are the hardware requirements and basic program features as well as several examples of how this program and its features have been applied in the classroom. (GLR)

  13. Oswald Croll und die Symbolik des Titelblattes seines Werkes Basilica chymica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Purš, Ivo

    -, č. 15 (2015), s. 64-87 ISSN 1213-5372 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/1268 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : paracelsian alchemy * art history * iconography * Oswald Croll Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Green chemistry education in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-06-01

    The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.

  15. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  16. Jakub Horčický (Sinapius) und seine Nobilitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolka, J.; Purš, Ivo

    -, č. 14 (2014), s. 101-113 ISSN 1213-5372 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/1268 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : alchemy * heraldry * symbols * Rudolf II * Voynich manuscript Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. English in Africa - Vol 40, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revelation and Legitimation in Albie Sachs's The Strange Alchemy of Life and Law · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Versions of Hospitality in Recent Writing on the Fiction of J. M. Coetzee · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  18. The Prophetic Voice in Jeremy Rifkin's "Algeny."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dale

    1990-01-01

    Argues that Jeremy Rifkin's "Algeny" is epideictic rhetoric, related to the European "Jeremiad," a traditional lamentation mode. Notes that Rifkin draws a parallel between genetic engineering and alchemy and adopts a world view dominated by a static hierarchy. Suggests that the teaching of the epideictic genre underscore both…

  19. The Aspiring Adept: Robert Boyle and His Alchemical Quest (Lawrence M. Principe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1999-10-01

    Robert Boyle is widely regarded as the Father of Modern Chemistry, who broke once and for all from the irrational, misguided alchemy that preceded him. One of the goals of this carefully researched and argued new book by Lawrence M. Principe, Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry and the Institute for the History of Science, Medicine, and Technology at The Johns Hopkins University, is to refute the two errors in this characterization of Boyle and to understand his life, thought, and work in the intellectual and social context of his time. This book is not for the casual reader; it is a detailed scholarly treatise in the history of science, but it provides a fresh and interesting perspective on Boyle and on the development of chemistry in the 17th century. Boyle is usually characterized as a modern scientist and his most famous book, The Skeptical Chymist, as a critique of traditional alchemy. Principe demonstrates that this characterization is based on a selective and sometimes incorrect reading of Boyle's works. Like Newton, Boyle was deeply involved in traditional transmutational alchemy, reading the works of other alchemists, performing experiments, and even witnessing transmutations. Alchemy, however, was not a monolith and Boyle adhered to what Principe tentatively identifies as a uniquely English school of supernatural alchemy. According to Principe, The Skeptical Chymist was mainly a criticism of the Paracelsians interested in chemical medicine rather than a defense of what we would now regard as modern chemistry. To further support his characterization of Boyle and to better reveal Boyle's involvement in alchemyparticularly the transmutation of base metals to gold, termed chrysopoeiaPrincipe has reconstructed from some 20 fragments one of Boyle's alchemical manuscripts, his Dialogue on the Transmutation of Metals. The full text of this lost work is included as Appendix 1. Two other primary sources, Interview Accounts of Transmutations and

  20. Evaluation of Entity Recognition Algorithms in Short Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fonseca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major consequences of the growth of social networks has been the generation of huge volumes of content. The text that is generated in social networks constitutes a new type of content, that is short, informal, lacking grammar in some cases, and noise prone. Given the volume of information that is produced every day, a manual processing of this data is unpractical, causing the need of exploring and applying automatic processing strategies, like Entity Recognition (ER. It becomes necessary to evaluate the performance of traditional ER algorithms in corpus with those characteristics. This paper presents the results of applying AlchemyAPI y Dandelion API algorithms in a corpus provided by The SemEval-2015 Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis Conference. The entities recognized by each algorithm were compared against the ones annotated in the collection in order to calculate their precision and recall. Dandelion API got better results than AlchemyAPI with the given corpus.

  1. La influencia de la Alquimia medieval hispana en la Europa moderna,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The pseudolullian texts of german paracelsists in Spain specify the peninsular paracelsism. This texts, and many others, were influenced by other previous texts, like these of the same Lull, Arnau of Vilanova and John of Rupescissa, that's the reason why this ideas made a return trip and the spanish mediaeval alchemy determined directly to the european alchemy.

    Los textos pseudolulianos de paracelsistas alemanes en España concretan los años del paracelsismo peninsular. Dichos textos, y algunos más, estaban influenciados por otros anteriores, como los del propio Lulio, Arnau de Vilanova y Juan de Rupescissa, por lo que dichas ideas hicieron un viaje de ida y vuelta y la Alquimia hispana medieval influenció directamente a la europea.

  2. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Erisman, J.W.; Dentener, F.; Moller, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik (United Kingdom). Edinburgh Research Station

    2008-12-15

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  3. Ammonia in the environment: from ancient times to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark A; Erisman, Jan Willem; Dentener, Frank; Möller, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  4. Heat/fire concept and its journey from prehistoric time into the third millennium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jaroslav; MacKenzie, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-147 ISSN 1418-2874. [International Congress on Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry/12./. Copenhagen, 14.08.2000-18.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA 114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thermal analysis * thermodynamics * history * alchemy * renaissance * modern thermal physics * pedogogy * ICTAC Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2001

  5. Nano Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu; and others

    2006-02-15

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  6. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon

    2006-08-15

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  7. Sobre la relación entre la mujer y la alquimia: del laboratorio al símbolo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Pariente, Joaquín; Pascual Valderrama, Ignacio M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the connection between women and alchemy, in particular the women alchemists and the symbolic meaning of woman in alchemical works. The work and life of the following women are reviewed: Mary the Jewish; the alchemical couple in Flamel and Mutus Liber; Martine de Bertereau;Christina of Sweden and, finally, Mary Ann Atwood, active in the second half of XIX century. There is an abundant representation of woman in alchemical documents, symbolizing both laboratory work and theo...

  8. The Real Madrassah Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    grammar, calligraphy, poetry , alchemy, astronomy, and geography. 14 This does not mean that the madāris of the subcontinent had a standard...captures the impact of supporting the mujahedeen as such, The [psychological war ] experts of [Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence] coined the slogans...Islam in Danger’ and ‘Holy War ’ as apt motivation for the Afghan resistance against a godless foe, and the CIA could not have improved on this

  9. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  10. "Time to Bail Out: Alternatives to the Bush-Paulson Plan"

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitri B. Papadimitriou; L. Randall Wray

    2008-01-01

    While serving as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, Alan Greenspan advocated unsupervised securitization, subprime lending, option ARMs, credit-default swaps, and all manner of financial alchemy in the belief that markets "work" to reduce and spread risk, and to allocate it to those best able to assess and bear it--in his view, markets would stabilize in the absence of nasty government intervention. But as Greenspan now admits, he could never have imagined the outcome: a financial and eco...

  11. To search new technology of dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Chang Uk

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with new technology of dream like cold nuclear fusion is possible, alchemy of the 21 century, cold transmutation of element, cold nuclear fusion on the desk, fire of multiarc recalling earth environment, like miracle fire and multiarc device, field fulfilling of dream, pioneers of anti gravity research, dream of anti gravity which is realized by mobius, N-machine and space energy, challenge for infinite power unit like engine of dream, Kawai magnet motor and attaching magnet on the motorcycle.

  12. Decoding the Hermetic Discourse in Salomon Trismosin's Splendor Solis - A Semiotic Study of Three Ways of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peter Södergård

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchemy and the Hermetic Art are terms that denote a most interesting transitional space, circumscribing an opaque region of human cultural history, shared between matter and psyche, between phantasmagoric reveries and practical experiments, between sincere natural theology and conscious fraud. This is an area of human experience that has been notoriously difficult to define and understand, and which has triggered off contradictory interpretations that are, in their own, of semiotic interest. It has been said that a text — in our case Splendor Solis, and the Hermetic–alchemical texts at large — is a picnic, a Dutch party, in which the author provides the words and the reader, especially a reader with too much or too little erudition, comes up with the meaning of the words. In this article, the author tries to give an overview of the general interpretations of alchemy that have been put forward, and apply Umberto Eco's intentional approach to these interpretations, viz. consider them as various sorts of intentions. The author uses a pseudonymous alchemical tractate from the sixteenth century, Salomon Trismosin's treatise Splendor Solis as an opportunity to picture and evaluate the three main decodings of alchemy that have been attempted; a chemical, a religious—soteriological and a psychological. The author also explores the intertextual web in the Hermetic discourse, and see if its mapping can generate usable knowledge about what has, since the Middle Ages, been called alchemy: a term acknowledging the taking up of a science or art which had been cultivated by Muslim and Nestorian scholars, but with its fountain head in Late Antiquity.

  13. Open Access what's been going on

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    New gold journals, alchemy at work on existing journals, hybrids and chimaeras; new repositories, growing repositories, empty repositories; Anglo-Saxon governments in a tizz; funder fudges, funders holding firm; employer moves; gold publishers, green publishers, grey publishers, green publishers going grey; authors - yes, no, don't know; Dutch cream, Scotland the Brave, the QUT-ting edge; Google; Jan Velterop. And more. All in 30 minutes.

  14. Adaptive Bureaucracy and Creative Destruction Creating Maneuver Space in the DOD Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    logic plays a role in problem-solving. East Asians, in contrast…understand events always require consideration of a host of factors that operate in...command is not a mechanical process that the commander follows blindly. Instead, it is a continual cognitive effort to understand, adapt, and...discipline; a balance of an innovative ethic of entrepreneurship and a culture of discipline. He called this a “magical alchemy of superior

  15. Architects and the housing challenge: a process, not a product

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , creative responses can be encouraged through design products and processes. This is referred to as a process of ?negotiated reactions?; Gwendolyn Wright refers to it as the ?alchemy of design and social interaction? and this responds positively... Challenge A Process, Not a Product Dr Amira Osman is a Senior Researcher in the area of Sustainable Human Settlements (Planning Support Systems) at the Built-Environment Unit of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. We asked her...

  16. Iznīqī and Jābir, Sirr and Miftāḥ: Two Authors, Four Titles, One Alchemical Treatise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Carusi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An alchemical Arabic treatise alternatively entitled Miftāḥ al-ḥikma, Miftāḥ jannāt al-khuld, Sirr al-asrār and Sirr al-sārr wa-sirr al-asrār is attributed in its manuscripts to two different authors: al-Iznīqī and Jābir b. Ḥayyān. In this article I briefly discuss some characteristic aspects of the treatise and its significance for the history of alchemy. These aspects include its ancient and important sources, such as the Muṣḥaf al-jamā‛a (Turba philosophorum and the Kitāb al-Ḥabīb, and its connection with the tradition of the artists and the activity of the workshop and laboratory, which first comes to the fore in Greek alchemy and later in Islamic alchemy. Furthermore, the work includes references to alchemical physical theories in which the influence of Islamic theology may perhaps be traced. This article, which summarises the results of investigations carried out over the last few years, could be considered as a kind of introduction to the edition and translation of the text currently in progress.

  17. "[N]ot subject to our sense” : Margaret Cavendish's fusion of Renaissance science, magic and fairy lore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This article explores Margaret Cavendish's depictions of alchemy, witchcraft and fairy lore in her scientific treatise Philosophical Letters and in fictional texts from Natures Pictures and Poems and Fancies. Though Cavendish was a dedicated materialist, she appropriates theories of magic from early modern science and folklore into her materialist epistemology. As Cavendish draws upon a fusion of early modern conceptions of magic, she creates a radical theory of matter which not only challenges patriarchy and binary oppositions, but also explores the plurality and mystery that can exist within an infinitely complex material world.

  18. “Though Hermes never taught thee”: The Anti-Patriarchal Tendency of Charles Brockden Brown’s Mercurial Outcast Carwin, the Biloquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Jan van Leeuwen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the allusions to the utopian cultural schemas of alchemy and hermetic philosophy in Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland and “Memoirs of Carwin the Biloquist” in order to show that the mysterious anti-hero Carwin does not have to be cast in the role of gothic villain but instead can play the part of marginalised utopian idealist, whose dissident presence in the novel reveals that the seemingly enlightened community of Mettingen is in fact reliant on old-world patriarchal ideology to ensure its stability.

  19. Color and symbology: symbolic systems of color ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Diana

    2002-06-01

    Color has been used symbolically in various different fields, such as Heraldry, Music, Liturgy, Alchemy, Art and Literature. In this study, we shall investigate and analyse the structures of relationships that have taken shape as symbolic systems within each specific area of analysis. We shall discuss the most significant symbolic fields and their systems of color ording, considering each one of them as a topological model based on a logic that determines the total organization, according to the scale of reciprocities applied, and the cultural context that gives it meaning.

  20. Data mining practical machine learning tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Ian H

    2005-01-01

    As with any burgeoning technology that enjoys commercial attention, the use of data mining is surrounded by a great deal of hype. Exaggerated reports tell of secrets that can be uncovered by setting algorithms loose on oceans of data. But there is no magic in machine learning, no hidden power, no alchemy. Instead there is an identifiable body of practical techniques that can extract useful information from raw data. This book describes these techniques and shows how they work. The book is a major revision of the first edition that appeared in 1999. While the basic core remains the same

  1. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This book contains two parts about items by chemistry. The first part introduces Alfred Bernhard Nodel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne and Firefly. The second part lists PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond Incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation work, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Freon gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and winners of Nobel prize in physics.

  2. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This book has two parts of items related chemistry. The contents of the first part are Preface, Alfred Bemhard Nobel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne, and firefly. The contents of the second part are PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond, an incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation works, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Propane gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and reference.

  3. Mixtum compositum: oniric image in the analytical treatment of a Transsexual FtM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gullì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of individuation of a transsexual female to male using the dream analysis in Jungian perspectives. The dreams were amplified using fairy-tales, alchemy, and archetypes theory. After a description of some dreams of the beginning of therapy it was suggest that was symbolized image of androgynous as representation of emersion of the archetypes of Anima and Animus and the integration of this image can facilitated individuation process and Self constellation. It seems that take place in a dream with a Self image confirming that analytical process can facilitate personal growth and the integration between consciousness and unconsciousness.

  4. Legacy of the Luoshu the 4,000 year search for the meaning of the magic square of order three

    CERN Document Server

    Swetz, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A symbol of the Divine, a good luck charm, a cosmogram of the world order, a template for fengshui -through the ages, the luoshu, or magic squre of order three, has fascinated people of many different cultures. In this riveting account of cultural detective work, renowned mathematics educator, Frank J. Swetz relates how he uncovered the previously hidden history of the luoshu, from its Chinese origins, shrouded in legend, through its eventual association with Chinese fortunetelling, Daoism, and fengshui, to its incorporation into Islamic astrology and alchemy and its migration into Kabbalistic

  5. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This book has two parts of items related chemistry. The contents of the first part are Preface, Alfred Bemhard Nobel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne, and firefly. The contents of the second part are PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond, an incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation works, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Propane gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and reference.

  6. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This book contains two parts about items by chemistry. The first part introduces Alfred Bernhard Nodel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne and Firefly. The second part lists PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond Incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation work, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Freon gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and winners of Nobel prize in physics.

  7. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Mark A.; Erisman, Jan Willem; Dentener, Frank; Moeller, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority. - Past ammonia applications reveal new emphases in biospheric transformations

  8. Site determination of Ni atoms in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys by electron channelling enhanced microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Yoshiyuki; Tadaki, Tsugio; Shimizu, Ken-ichi

    1990-01-01

    The crystallographic site of Ni atoms in the parent phase of differently heat-treated Cu-28.6Al-3.7Ni (at.%) shape memory alloys has been examined by electron channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) in order to clarify effects of heat-treatments on the Ni atom site and M s temperature. The heat-treatments were as follows: (a) Quenching into a 10% NaOH solution at 263 K, (b) Quenching into hot water at 363 K and (c) Aging at 523 K for 3.6 ks after treatment (b). The M s temperatures of specimens (a), (b) and (c) were 158, 185 and 259 K, respectively, increasing with lowering quenching rate or aging. ALCHEMI revealed that Ni atoms occupied an identical site in all the three kinds of specimens: The Ni atoms were located at the nearest neighbor sites around Al atoms. This preferential occupation of Ni atoms was attributed to the strong binding force between Ni and Al atoms. Thus, the change in M s temperature due to different heat-treatments was not directly related to the crystallographic site of Ni atoms, but might be caused by the ordering between the next nearest neighbor Cu and Al atoms. (author)

  9. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  10. The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung

    CERN Document Server

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    "The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...

  11. Cofrentes maintenance. Life essence; Mantenimiento en Cofrentes. Esencia de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, J.

    2009-07-01

    Even though it may seem like something much more complex, maintenance is not more than the seed of continuity, the alchemy of eternal youth or the key to combating the cruel passage of time that haunts us all. Little does it matter where you are from or where you are going; it is irrelevant whether you are man, woman or machine. If you do not have a more or less sensible strategy of survival, reality can take you by surprise, without prior warning, at the wrong place and the wrong time. It is sad to see how what we thought was eternal, and thus do not care for and pamper as we should, eventually loses its qualities and functions over the years and fades away like a vague memory. (Author)

  12. Mendeleyev’s dream the quest for the elements

    CERN Document Server

    Strathern, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this elegant, erudite but entertaining book, Paul Strathern, the award-winning novelist and expositor of complex ideas, unravels the dramatic history of chemistry through the quest for the elements. Framing this history is the life-story of the nineteenth-century Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleyev, who fell asleep at his desk and awoke after conceiving the Periodic Table in a dream - the template upon which modern chemistry is founded, and the formulation of which marked chemistry's coming of age as a science. From ancient philosophy, through medieval alchemy to the splitting of the atom, this is the true story of the birth of chemistry and the role of one man's dream.

  13. Evidence for the occurrence of LENR-type processes in alchemic transmutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Pariente, Joaquin [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The relevance of experimental aspects of alchemy have been neglected for too long in the academic milieu, but in recent years more thoughtful studies of texts from the middle ages and early modern European alchemy evidence the presence of coherent and relevant laboratory practices. However, the central core of western alchemy, the quest for the Philosophers' Stone, the substance claimed to transmute base metals into gold, remains, needless to say, elusive. While no book will ever tell us how to prepare such substance, it is nevertheless also true that detailed reports on alchemic transmutations, often authored by witnesses of such events, can be found profusely in alchemic literature. These reports usually contain valuable information regarding quantitative aspects of the transmutation processes. Taking into account numerical parameters of alchemic transmutations such as the weights of starting base metal, gold and Philosophers' Stone, and the duration of the transmutation experiences, it has been found that the transmutation processes follow a specific pattern similar to that generally observed in conventional catalytic reactions. In the present work, several examples of alchemic practices and objects are reported that, taken as a whole, challenge our actual view on the constitution of matter. First, new data are presented which support the catalytic-like performance of the Philosophers' Stone. Indeed, such behaviour is consistent with the alchemic view on the evolution of metals, which conceives the transmutation as an acceleration of the ripening of base metals towards the more perfect gold which takes place in Nature by means of a slow maturation process inside the Earth's womb. Second, differences between the weight of the starting base metal and the weight of the gold (or silver) obtained at the end of the transmutation process are often noticed in the texts, but no satisfactory explanation for such observation has been given so far

  14. Los griegos y la doctrina esotérica de los elementos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Casas Ulate

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Empedocles, a Greek philosopher, scientist, healer and ser, who lived in Sicily in the fifth century B.C., all m atter consists of “rootclumps” or elements. Empedocles described these elements not only as physical manifestations, but also as spiritual essences. He as associated them with four gods and goddesses. Empedocles philosophy was influenced by Pythagoras and by the ancient greek mystery traditions. In the works and practices of the alchemists, neoplatonists and gnostics that further developed his theories, the elements are not only material and spiritual forces, but also facets of a human being. Their varying combinations result in different personality types. Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961, one of the founders of modern psychology, studied mystical literature and alchemy and his conceptualization of the four basic components of personality is a derivation of Empedocles ancient theories about earth, water, air and fire.

  15. Kohn-Sham density-functional theory and renormalization of many-body perturbation expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiev, Marat

    1998-03-01

    Numerous practical applications provide strong evidence that despite its simplicity and crude approximations, density-functional theory leads to a rather accurate description of ground state properties of various condensed matter systems. Although well documented numerically, to our knowledge a theoretical explanation of the accuracy of density-functional theory has not been given. This issue is clarified in marat/>this work by demonstrating that density-functional theory represents a particular renormalization procedure of a many-body perturbation expansion. In other words, it is shown that density-functional theory is a many-body perturbation theory whose convergence properties have been optimized. The realization of this fact brings new meaning into density-functional theory and explains the success of density-functional based calculations. For more information go to marat/>http://alchemy.ucsd.edu/marat/ .

  16. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics.

  17. The diffident naturalist robert boyle and the philosophy of experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    2009-01-01

    In a provocative reassessment of one of the quintessential figures of early modern science, Rose-Mary Sargent explores Robert Boyle's philosophy of experiment, a central aspect of his life and work that became a model for mid- to late seventeenth-century natural philosophers and for many who followed them. Sargent examines the philosophical, legal, experimental, and religious traditions-among them English common law, alchemy, medicine, and Christianity-that played a part in shaping Boyle's experimental thought and practice. The roots of his philosophy in his early life and education, in his religious ideals, and in the work of his predecessors-particularly Bacon, Descartes, and Galileo-are fully explored, as are the possible influences of his social and intellectual circle. Drawing on the full range of Boyle's published works, as well as on his unpublished notebooks and manuscripts, Sargent shows how these diverse influences were transformed and incorporated into Boyle's views on and practice of experiment.

  18. Supervising the uncanny: the play within the play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The writer offers a combined experience in analysis and the performing arts to explore uncanny aspects of the unconscious subtext of the patient's inner drama; subtext which can remain hidden from view in supervision. Freud and Jung's understanding of uncanny experience is considered together with a painting from medieval alchemy and Matte Blanco's conceptions concerning the symmetrical nature of unconscious process. Theatre and the work of the theatre director and actor in approaching the multidimensional aspects of a play are then introduced. Finally clinical case material from group supervision demonstrates how the 'theatre of therapy' and the work of the supervisory couple and group promote the emergence of a more authentic conscious asymmetrical response to the patient's 'script' that can break the 'spell' of the transference/countertransference relationship. This in turn brings meaning to the underlying and implicit 'stage directions' that the patient has been unconsciously communicating. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  19. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  20. Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other? Does Dialogue have a chance? Introductory remarks by John A. Macpherson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other? Does dialogue have a chance? My short answer to both questions posed as the title for this discussion is 'no'. And I would add: There is no point in trying to bring opposite poles together, it requires too much investment for too little return. A nuclear dialogue will have a chance only it a distinction can be shown between physics and metaphysics, between chemistry and alchemy, and if the gap can be bridged between the polarized views of the world's societal needs which, incidentally, create the nuclear issue in the first place. This is a daunting task Movements in search of a cause have a passion for preaching rather than a love for listening

  1. Ordering and site occupancy of D03 ordered Fe3Al-5 at%Cr evaluated by means of atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Rademacher, Thomas W.

    2011-05-01

    Addition of ternary elements to the D03 ordered Fe3Al intermetallic phase is a general approach to optimise its mechanical properties. To understand the physical influences of such additions the determination of the probability of site occupancies of these additions on the lattice site and ordering parameters is of high interest. Some common experimental techniques such as X-ray diffraction or Atom Location by Channelling Enhanced Microanalysis (ALCHEMI) are usually applied to explore this interplay. Unfortunately, certain published results are partly inconsistent, imprecise or even contradictory. In this study, these aspects are evaluated systematically by atom probe tomography (APT) and a special data analysis method. Additionally, to account for possible field evaporation effects that can falsify the estimation of site occupancy and induce misinterpretations, APT evaporation sequences were also simulated. As a result, chromium occupies most frequently the next nearest neighbour sites of Al atoms and local ordering parameters could be achieved. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Strange fires, weird smokes and psychoactive combustibles: entheogens and incense in ancient traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaway, Frederick R

    2010-12-01

    This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire. The text provides details of primary "incense cults" while highlighting some commonalities and shared influences when possible. Further speculation suggests that selective burning of certain substances, such as mercury and sulphur, may have contributed to their lasting use and veneration in alchemy from India and China to the Arabian and European protochemists. This article would have a companion online database for images and further examples of ingredients in various incenses from China to ancient Greece.

  3. History of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minder, W.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the historical development of the physics of atoms and nuclei. After a consideration of the ancient Greek philosophy concerning atoms the behaviour of gases is discussed with regards to statistical mechanics. Then the developement of chemistry from alchemy is described. Thereafter the early studies of gas discharges are described with regards to the electronic structure of atoms. In this connection the periodic system of elements is considered. Then the detection of the α-radiation of Uranium by Becquerel and the detections of M. and P. Curie are described. Thereafter the radiactive decay of nuclei is discussed. Then a popular introduction into nuclear structure is given with special regards to artificial radioactivity and nuclear fission. Finally nuclear reactors, the atomic bombs, applications of radionuclides, and problems of radiation protection are described. (HSI) [de

  4. Cofrentes maintenance. Life essence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, J.

    2009-01-01

    Even though it may seem like something much more complex, maintenance is not more than the seed of continuity, the alchemy of eternal youth or the key to combating the cruel passage of time that haunts us all. Little does it matter where you are from or where you are going; it is irrelevant whether you are man, woman or machine. If you do not have a more or less sensible strategy of survival, reality can take you by surprise, without prior warning, at the wrong place and the wrong time. It is sad to see how what we thought was eternal, and thus do not care for and pamper as we should, eventually loses its qualities and functions over the years and fades away like a vague memory. (Author)

  5. [Federik Grisogono and alchemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausek-Bazdar, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    Frederico Grisogono's 1958 collection of essays De modo collegiandi, prognosticandi et curandi febres: necnon de humana felicitate ac denique de fluxu et refluxu maris presents his views on alchemy. He acknowledges the traditional association between the sky and earth and the correlation between the seven planets and seven earthly metals. He attempted to empirically determine the position and the properties of these planets (the Sun and the Moon were also considered planets at the time). He clearly distinguished the good and the bad planets and those that agree (love) or disagree (hate) with one another. However, Grisogono abandons the traditional Renaissance viewpoint on planet position inasmuch as he claims that Venus (copper) and Jupiter (tin) need to change places. He discards alchemist practical teaching that base metals can be turned into noble metals such as gold and silver. His argument against it is based on then generally adopted sulphur-mercury metal structure theory.

  6. The diffident naturalist Robert Boyle and the philosophy of experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    2009-01-01

    In a provocative reassessment of one of the quintessential figures of early modern science, Rose-Mary Sargent explores Robert Boyle's philosophy of experiment, a central aspect of his life and work that became a model for mid- to late seventeenth-century natural philosophers and for many who followed them. Sargent examines the philosophical, legal, experimental, and religious traditions-among them English common law, alchemy, medicine, and Christianity-that played a part in shaping Boyle's experimental thought and practice. The roots of his philosophy in his early life and education, in his religious ideals, and in the work of his predecessors-particularly Bacon, Descartes, and Galileo-are fully explored, as are the possible influences of his social and intellectual circle. Drawing on the full range of Boyle's published works, as well as on his unpublished notebooks and manuscripts, Sargent shows how these diverse influences were transformed and incorporated into Boyle's views on and practice of experiment.

  7. Fiesta y Patria durante la Regeneración en Colombia. Santander (1886-1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Blanco Mejía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    La fiesta patria durante la Regeneración en Colombia, adquiere importancia  no sólo porque es la representación de una nación católica en el país, acorde con el proyecto político implementado por los conservadores, sino además, y lo más importante,  porque cumple un papel de alquimia social, que transforma lo arbitrario en legitimo al  instaurar una rutina. Para comprender esta función, la presente ponencia pasara revista de manera breve a los orígenes de las fiestas nacionales en la región, y posteriormente, se adentrará en el  tema de la Regeneración.

     

    Palabras claves: Fiesta  republicana, regeneración, alquimia social.

     

    Abstract

    The national holiday during Regeneration in Colombia, becomes important not only because was the representation of a Catholic nation in the country, according to the political project implemented by the Conservatives, but also and most importantly, it plays the role of social alchemy, which transforms the arbitrary toward legitimate to establish a routine. To understand this function, this essay  briefly  review of the origins of national holidays in the region, and subsequently, will development  the theme of Regeneration.

     

    Keywords: Republican holiday, regeneration, social alchemy.

  8. ‘ISLANDS OF EMPOWERMENT’: ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAW AND THE QUESTION OF RACIAL EMANCIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Bhabha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In her evocative masterpiece, The Alchemy of Race and Rights, published in 1991, Patricia Williams captured a moment in American legal thought that marked a turning point in expressions about race and power, and the implications for social equality. It contained lessons extending beyond America’s unique race history, to the general social and political dynamics in liberal democracy that create conditions of privilege and exclusion. She invited us to think about the place of law in the social and institutional practices that sustain status quo hierarchies, despite proclaimed civil rights commitments to justice. She also inspired hope that the role of the lawyer could be one of mutinous agitator—struggling from the inside, using the tools and skills of practice to support the causes of identifiable communities and social movements.   Dans son chef-d’œuvre évocateur, The Alchemy of Race and Rights, publié en 1991, Patricia Williams a saisi un moment dans la pensée juridique américaine qui a marqué un tournant au niveau des expressions concernant la race et le pouvoir, ainsi que les répercussions pour l’égalité sociale. L’ouvrage contenait des leçons qui allaient au-delà de l’histoire raciale unique des États-Unis et qui abordaient la dynamique sociale et politique générale de la démocratie libérale qui crée des conditions de privilège et d’exclusion. L’auteure nous a invités à examiner la place du droit dans les pratiques sociales et institutionnelles qui maintiennent les hiérarchies du statu quo, malgré les engagements en matière de droits civils qui ont été pris en faveur de la justice. Elle a aussi laissé espérer que l’avocat pourrait jouer un rôle d’agitateur rebelle — luttant de l’intérieur, en utilisant les outils et compétences pratiques pour soutenir les causes des collectivités et des mouvements sociaux identifiables.

  9. [Jakub Barner (1640-1683) and his Chymia philosophica (1698): side notes on the publication of the Polish translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinke, Rafat T

    2014-01-01

    The translation of Chymiaphilosophica by Jakub Barner is the second publication in Polish historiography of a printed source work on early modem chemistry (alchemy) written by a Polish citizen, well known and influencial across Europe (the first such translation comprised the treatises of Michael Sendivogius). This admirable initiative of unquestionable value to Polish historians of science resulted in an elegantly published volume, with an extensive introduction and useful appendices. The language of the translation is pleasant to read, retaining the spirit of the original by means of a moderate use of archaisms and generally accurate selection of proper terminology. A closer comparison of some fragments of the translation reveals, however, that it omits essential words, phrases and even entire sentences. The translation itself is occasionally incorrect as well, completely changing the meaning of the author's text and distorting his intentions, thereby undermining the reliability of the Polish translation as a whole. In the factual layer, identifying both chemical substances and (especially) the names of the authors cited by Barner often appear to be doubtful or problematic. Apart from numerous obvious mistakes, as well as leaving many surnames unidentified even when it was very difficult, the translators and/or editors of the Polish text created some non-existent authors as a result of errors produced while copying their surnames from the original text or due to unfounded assumptions that some chemical or botanical terms are names of chemical authors. There is also no consistency in the spelling of surnames (usually left in the Latin form, sometimes spelled with wrong inflection, but also modernised). In the biographical introduction there are also numerous factual errors and some bizarre mistranslations. Not only did its author fail to correct invalid information of earlier biographers of Barner, relying only on the most obvious and accessible publications, but

  10. La alquimia y los sacerdotes mineros en el Virreinato del Perú en el siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available L’ALCHIMIE ET LES PRÊTRES MINIERS DANS LA VICE-ROYAUTÉ DU PÉROU AU XVIIÈME SIÈCLE À travers l’examen des manuels de minéralogie et de métallurgie de Alonso Barba, curé résidant à Potosí et de Miguel de Monsalve, dominicain résidant à Lima, ce travail se propose d’analyser un ensemble d’idées alchimiques qui circulèrent au Pérou pendant le XVIIème siècle, et les modalités de leur transfert et d’implantation dans le vice-royaume. De manière plus générale, cette étude se veut une contribution à la réflexion sur la construction d’un corpus de savoirs miniers dans le Pérou colonial et sur les mécanismes de leur transmission. A través del examen de los manuales mineralógicos y metalúrgicos de Alonso Barba, sacerdote seglar residente en Potosí y de Miguel de Monsalve, dominico residente en Lima, este trabajo se propone analizar un conjunto de ideas alquímicas que circularon en el Perú en el siglo XVII, estudiar sus modalidades de traslación e implantación en este virreinato. De manera más general este estudio pretende reflexionar sobre la construcción de un corpus de saberes mineros en el Perú colonial y sobre sus mecanismos de transmisión. ALCHEMY AND PRIESTS ENVOLVED IN MINING PROJECTS IN THE VICEROYALTY OF PERU IN THE 17TH CENTURY Through the study of the manuals of mineralogy and metallurgy written by Alonso Barba, a lay priest residing in Potosi, and Miguel de Monsalve, a Dominican residing in Lima, this article sets out to analyse a series of ideas concerning alchemy which circulated in Peru in the 17th century and to study the ways in which they were introduced and developed in the viceroyalty. In more general terms, the study aims at analysing the establishment of a corpus of mining knowledge in colonial Peru and the mechanisms of its transmission.

  11. Aterradora transcendência? Uma análise simbólica do Bafomé de Éliphas Lévi (Terrifying transcendence? A symbolic analysis of Eliphas Levi's Baphomet - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n31p1129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Ganem Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bafomé, a mais duradoura criação do escritor Éliphas Lévi, é um ícone do universo esotérico: é a imagem “satânica” mais conhecida da história. Na tentativa de desvendar a sua rica composição simbólica, uma exegese iconográfica será conduzida por intermédio da psicologia analítica, fundada pelo psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung. As origens de Bafomé na alquimia, na cabala e no gnosticismo serão perscrutadas e os conceitos Junguianos do inconsciente coletivo e dos arquétipos irão, em grande parte, balizar a interpretação proposta neste trabalho. Tal análise será dividida em oito subáreas, entre elas: o significado do seu aspecto animalesco na escatologia cristã, o hermafroditismo na psicologia e nas ciências arcanas, as qualidades mágicas do pentagrama e a importância hermética do caduceu. Por fim, conclui-se que o Bafomé é um símbolo de self, o arquétipo da totalidade psíquica. Bafomé tem por finalidade ser uma alternativa à imagem primordial cristã de autorrealização, mais integradora e menos repressora que esta. Palavras-chave: Alquimia. Cristianismo. Magia. Psicologia junguiana. Religião e psicologia.   Abstract Baphomet, the lasting creation of the French writer Éliphas Lévi, is an icon of the esoteric universe: it is the history’s best-known “satanic” image. In an attempt to unravel its rich symbolic composite, an iconographic exegesis will be conducted through the use of analytical psychology, founded by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung. The origins of Baphomet in alchemy, Kabbalah and Gnosticism will investigated mostly through the application of Jungian concepts such as the collective unconscious and the archetypes. Such analysis will be divided into eight sub-areas, including: the significance of his animal appearance in Christian eschatology, hermaphroditism in psychology and the arcane sciences, the magical qualities of the pentagram and the importance of the caduceus in

  12. [A study of development of medicine and science in the nineteenth century science fiction: biomedical experiments in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jae-Uk

    2014-12-01

    As the sciences advanced rapidly in the modern European world, outstanding achievements have been made in medicine, chemistry, biology, physiology, physics and others, which have been co-influencing each of the scientific disciplines. Accordingly, such medical and scientific phenomena began to be reflected in novels. In particular, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein includes the diverse aspects of the change and development in the medicine and science. Associated with medical and scientific information reflected in Frankenstein and Frankenstein's experiments in the text, accordingly, this research will investigate the aspects of medical and scientific development taking place in the nineteenth century in three ways. First, the medical and scientific development of the nineteenth century has been reviewed by summerizing both the information of alchemy in which Frankenstein shows his interest and the new science in general that M. Waldman introduces in the text. Second, the actual features of medical and scientific development have been examined through some examples of the experimental methods that M. Waldman implicitly uttered to Frankenstein. Third, it has been checked how the medical and scientific development is related to the main issues of mechanism and vitalism which can be explained as principles of life. Even though this research deals with the developmental process of medicine & science and origin & principles of life implied in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, its significance is that it is the interdisciplinary research focussing on how deeply medical and scientific discourse of Mary Shelley's period has been imbedded in the nineteenth century novel.

  13. John Napier life, logarithms, and legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Havil, Julian

    2014-01-01

    John Napier (1550–1617) is celebrated today as the man who invented logarithms—an enormous intellectual achievement that would soon lead to the development of their mechanical equivalent in the slide rule: the two would serve humanity as the principal means of calculation until the mid-1970s. Yet, despite Napier’s pioneering efforts, his life and work have not attracted detailed modern scrutiny. John Napier is the first contemporary biography to take an in-depth look at the multiple facets of Napier’s story: his privileged position as the eighth Laird of Merchiston and the son of influential Scottish landowners; his reputation as a magician who dabbled in alchemy; his interest in agriculture; his involvement with a notorious outlaw; his staunch anti-Catholic beliefs; his interactions with such peers as Henry Briggs, Johannes Kepler, and Tycho Brahe; and, most notably, his estimable mathematical legacy. Julian Havil explores Napier’s original development of logarithms, the motivations for his approa...

  14. Canada's toxic tar sands : the most destructive project on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.; Price, M. [Environmental Defence, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    This document addressed the environmental problems associated with tar sands development in Alberta, with particular reference to toxicity problems associated with global warming and the impending destruction of the boreal forest. The authors cautioned that the tar sand projects are highly destructive, leaving downstream toxics equivalent to that of a massive slow motion oil spill that has the potential to poison people. Negligent oversights by the government regarding the impact of tar sands development were also discussed, with reference to toxics on site; toxics downwind; and toxics down the pipe. The report also provided information on the future of tar sands development and global warming in Canada. It included a discussion of reverse alchemy; Canada's failed climate politics; a tar sands tax; and taking responsibility. Last, the report addressed toxic enforcement, including the Fisheries Act; Canadian Environmental Protection Act; Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; and Alberta law. It was concluded that while it is a stretch to believe the tar sands can truly be sustainable, there is a great deal that can be done to clean it up. The authors recommended that new tar sands approvals should wait until certain reform elements are implemented, such as passing a real carbon cap; using dry tailings; requiring wildlife offsets; cleaning up refineries and upgraders; ensuring Aboriginal control and benefit; and having regulation and independent monitoring. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Transatlantic tussles in the fission race

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, R

    2003-01-01

    Atom-smashing was as popular as barrel-smashing in the 1930s. Ernest Rutherford, who many believed was a force of nature, inspired experimental physicists to probe the atomic nucleus, which he had discovered with brute force. His early discoveries all employed the simple sources that nature offered the would-be students of alpha and beta rays. However, his transmutation of the nitrogen nucleus at the end of the First World War persuaded him that nature needed help from man if the nucleus was to yield its secrets. Rutherford was well aware of the allure of what he called the 'newer alchemy' even if he failed to share contemporary visions of nuclear energy and the bombs that might harness it. And when he summoned kindred spirits to the task, they did come, even from the deepest recesses of America. Per Dahl's book chronicles three of the principal groups of atom-smashers who answered Rutherford's call. They were: Ernest Lawrence and his Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley; John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton at the C...

  16. Using Twitter to Better Understand the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Public Sentiment: A Case Study in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; MacNaughton, Piers; Deng, Zhengyi; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Xi; Allen, Joseph G

    2018-02-02

    Twitter provides a rich database of spatiotemporal information about users who broadcast their real-time opinions, sentiment, and activities. In this paper, we sought to investigate the holistic influence of land use and time period on public sentiment. A total of 880,937 tweets posted by 26,060 active users were collected across Massachusetts (MA), USA, through 31 November 2012 to 3 June 2013. The IBM Watson Alchemy API (application program interface) was employed to quantify the sentiment scores conveyed by tweets on a large scale. Then we statistically analyzed the sentiment scores across different spaces and times. A multivariate linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the fixed effects of land use and the time period on the variations in sentiment scores, considering the clustering effect of users. The results exposed clear spatiotemporal patterns of users' sentiment. Higher sentiment scores were mainly observed in the commercial and public areas, during the noon/evening and on weekends. Our findings suggest that social media outputs can be used to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of public happiness and well-being in cities and regions.

  17. Microreactors for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis: From Faraday to Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Taifur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The seminal work of Michael Faraday in 1850s transmuted the “Alchemy of gold” into a fascinating scientific endeavor over the millennia, particularly in the past half century. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs arguably hold the central position of nanosciences due to their intriguing size-and-shape dependent physicochemical properties, non-toxicity, and ease of functionalization and potential for wide range of applications. The core chemistry involved in the syntheses is essentially not very different from what Michael Faraday resorted to: transforming ions into metallic gold using mild reducing agents. However, the process of such reduction and outcome (shapes and sizes are intricately dependent on basic operational parameters such as sequence of addition and efficiency of mixing of the reagents. Hence, irreproducibility in synthesis and maintaining batch-to-batch quality are major obstacles in this seemingly straightforward process, which poses challenges in scaling-up. Microreactors, by the virtue of excellent control over reagent mixing in space and time within narrow channel networks, opened a new horizon of possibilities to tackle such problems to produce GNPs in more reliable, reproducible and scalable ways. In this review, we will delineate the state-of-the-art of GNPs synthesis using microreactors and will discuss in length how such “flask-to-chip” paradigm shift may revolutionize the very concept of nanosyntheses.

  18. ESOTERIC IN CONTEMPORARY LITHUANIAN PROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Naikienė

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on esotericism in contemporary Lithuanian prose. For the revelation of this topic, Donaldas Kajokas’ novel Ežeras ir kiti jį lydintys asmenys (The Lake and Other Escort Members, 2003 and Jurga Ivanauskaitė’s novel Placebas (Placebo, 2012 have been chosen. The analysed writings reveal the point of view of contemporary Lithuanian writers about esoteric beliefs. In this article, esotericism is related with persons’ feelings but is excluded from occult and parapsychology fields such as alchemy, cabbala, Tarot, etc. This work focuses on the idea that an individual, who has only a few senses, cannot reach actuality. On the other hand, the possibility of acquiring those senses is not rejected. In addition, obtaining those senses would help to reach higher, over-sensational worlds and in that way to discover personal correlation with forms of multiple personal identities. This article establishes an idea that awareness of higher worlds/spheres unlocks the possibilities of revealing the main core of human (as micro-cosmos and the Universe (as macro-cosmos. The possibility to perceive oneself as a micro-cosmos discloses not only personal identity, but also the value of Other’s entity and inevitable entities stratifying.

  19. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  20. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2010-11-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  1. Newton's apple Isaac Newton and the English scientific renaissance

    CERN Document Server

    Aughton, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In the aftermath of the English Civil War, the Restoration overturned England's medieval outlook and a new way of looking at the world allowed the genius of Isaac Newton (b. 1642) and his contemporaries to flourish. Newton had a long and eventful life apart from his scentific discoveries. He was born at the beginnings of the Civil War, his studies were disrupted by the twin disasters of the Great Plague and the Fire of London; a brilliant and enigmatic genius, Newton dabbled in alchemy, wrote over a million words on the Bible, quarrelled with his contemporaries and spent his last years as Master of the Royal Mint as well as President of the Royal Society. This book sets Newton's life and work against this dramatic intellectual rebirth; among his friends and contemporaries were Samuel Pepys, the colourful diarist, John Evelyn, the eccentric antiquarian, the astronomers Edmund Halley and John Flamsteed, and Christopher Wren, the greatest architect of his age. They were all instrumental in the founding of the Ro...

  2. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  3. The Oxford Guide to the History of Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, John L.

    2005-06-01

    With over 150 alphabetically arranged entries about key scientists, concepts, discoveries, technological innovations, and learned institutions, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy traces the history of physics and astronomy from the Renaissance to the present. For students, teachers, historians, scientists, and readers of popular science books such as Galileo's Daughter , this guide deciphers the methods and philosophies of physics and astronomy as well as the historical periods from which they emerged. Meant to serve the lay reader and the professional alike, this book can be turned to for the answer to how scientists learned to measure the speed of light, or consulted for neat, careful summaries of topics as complicated as quantum field theory and as vast as the universe. The entries, each written by a noted scholar and edited by J. L. Heilbron, Professor of History and Vice Chancellor, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, reflect the most up-to-date research and discuss the applications of the scientific disciplines to the wider world of religion, law, war, art and literature. No other source on these two branches of science is as informative or as inviting. Thoroughly cross-referenced and accented by dozens of black and white illustrations, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy is the source to turn to for anyone looking for a quick explanation of alchemy, x-rays and any type of matter or energy in between.

  4. Newton’s apple and other myths about science

    CERN Document Server

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    A falling apple inspired Isaac Newton’s insight into the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But the more intriguing question is why such stories endure as explanations of how science happens. Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of great scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present. Among the myths refuted in this volume is the idea that no science was done in the Dark Ages, that alchemy and astrology were purely superstitious pursuits, that fear of public reaction alone led Darwin to delay publishing his theory of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel was far ahead of his time as a pioneer of genetics. Several twentieth-century myths about particle physics, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and more are discredited here as well. In addition, a number of broad generalizations about science go under the microscope of history: the notion that religion impeded science, that scientists typically a...

  5. Sirr al-khalīqa and its influence in the Arabic and Persianate world: ‘Awn b. al-Mundhir’s commentary and its unknown Persian translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karimi Zanjani Asl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Islamic period, Apollonius of Tyana (c. 15-100 CE was well known both as “Lord of the Talismans” (ṣāḥib al-ṭilasmāt and as a Neo-Pythagorean-Hermetic philosopher. In his Kitāb al-Aḥjār, Jābir b. Ḥayyān cites “the Muslim advocates of Apollonius” (aṣḥāb Balīnās al-Islāmīyūn. The reference shows that Apollonius’ most prominent work, Sirr alkhalīqa, was already famous in the Arabicspeaking world from very early on. This article gives an overview of citations of Apollonius in Islamic sources from different fields and of the works generally attributed to him. Furthermore, I review Sirr al-khalīqa, its influences on the Jābirian works and its reception in the Ismā‘īlī tradition. This article additionally discusses an Arabic commentary of Sirr al-khalīqa by ‘Awn b. al-Mundhir (4th/10th century, which is extant in a unique manuscript, and its hitherto unknown Persian translation. This Persian translation covers parts of Ibn al-Mundhir’s work not available in the Arabic excerpt and is therefore an important source for the history of Islamic alchemy. An edition of the Persian translation is given as an appendix.

  6. Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemblance is considerably exaggerated. The placebo effect does not work as strongly as it is advertised to do in some efforts to elicit it. Half-truths about the placebo effect are now in circulation, reinforced by a number of other equivocations that it seems to attract. As the deceptive use of placebos has fallen into discredit, the use of half-truths and exaggerations-neither of which is technically a deception-becomes an ever more inviting possibility. However, there are risks and costs associated with the half-truth that the doctor possesses the power to make his or her words come true by the alchemy of the placebo effect.

  7. Using Twitter to Better Understand the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Public Sentiment: A Case Study in Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Twitter provides a rich database of spatiotemporal information about users who broadcast their real-time opinions, sentiment, and activities. In this paper, we sought to investigate the holistic influence of land use and time period on public sentiment. A total of 880,937 tweets posted by 26,060 active users were collected across Massachusetts (MA, USA, through 31 November 2012 to 3 June 2013. The IBM Watson Alchemy API (application program interface was employed to quantify the sentiment scores conveyed by tweets on a large scale. Then we statistically analyzed the sentiment scores across different spaces and times. A multivariate linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the fixed effects of land use and the time period on the variations in sentiment scores, considering the clustering effect of users. The results exposed clear spatiotemporal patterns of users’ sentiment. Higher sentiment scores were mainly observed in the commercial and public areas, during the noon/evening and on weekends. Our findings suggest that social media outputs can be used to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of public happiness and well-being in cities and regions.

  8. A collective unconscious reconsidered: Jung's archetypal imagination in the light of contemporary psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Harry T

    2012-02-01

    A needed rapprochement between Jung and the contemporary human sciences may rest less on the much debated relevance of a biologistic collective unconscious than on a re-inscribing of an archetypal imagination, as the phenomenological and empirical core of Jungian psychology. The most promising approaches in this regard in terms of theory and research in psychology come from combining the cognitive psychology of metaphor and synaesthesia, individual differences in imaginative absorption and openness to numinous experience and spirituality as a form of symbolic intelligence. On the socio-cultural side, this cognitive psychology of archetypal imagination is also congruent with Lévi-Strauss on the metaphoric roots of mythological thinking, and Durkheim on a sociology of collective consciousness. This conjoined perspective, while validating the cross cultural commonality of physical metaphor intuited by Jung and Hillman on alchemy, also shows Jung's Red Book, considered as the expressive source for his more formal psychology, to be far closer in spirit to a socio-cultural collective consciousness, based on metaphoric imagination, than to a phylogenetic or evolutionary unconscious. A mutual re-inscribing of Jung into congruent areas of contemporary psychology, anthropology, sociology, and vice versa, can help to further validate Jung's key observations and is fully consistent with Jung's own early efforts at synthesis within the human sciences. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Synthesis meets theory: Past, present and future of rational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fianchini, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Chemical synthesis has its roots in the empirical approach of alchemy. Nonetheless, the birth of the scientific method, the technical and technological advances (exploiting revolutionary discoveries in physics) and the improved management and sharing of growing databases greatly contributed to the evolution of chemistry from an esoteric ground into a mature scientific discipline during these last 400 years. Furthermore, thanks to the evolution of computational resources, platforms and media in the last 40 years, theoretical chemistry has added to the puzzle the final missing tile in the process of "rationalizing" chemistry. The use of mathematical models of chemical properties, behaviors and reactivities is nowadays ubiquitous in literature. Theoretical chemistry has been successful in the difficult task of complementing and explaining synthetic results and providing rigorous insights when these are otherwise unattainable by experiment. The first part of this review walks the reader through a concise historical overview on the evolution of the "model" in chemistry. Salient milestones have been highlighted and briefly discussed. The second part focuses more on the general description of recent state-of-the-art computational techniques currently used worldwide by chemists to produce synergistic models between theory and experiment. Each section is complemented by key-examples taken from the literature that illustrate the application of the technique discussed therein.

  10. Gardens of Delight, or What's Cookin'? Leonora Carrington in the Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Assa

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the short stories written between the years 1937 and 1941 by Leonora Carrington, a Surrealist painter and story-teller, are centered around an eating scene: "une scène" and/or "cène." Few of her stories fail to include an allusion to eating, and more often to devouring, while the food in question is seldom "innocent." The experience of the body or "corps propre" as represented in her narratives, is that of a body eating/being eaten, a place of culinary alchemies which is also manipulated, or manipulates itself, in order to exercise control over the outside world. In this fictional realm dominated by magic, perversion and anarchic excess, food elaboration and food consumption are posited as the central act of the narrative. A fascination with the abject and a willingness to provoke her readers' disgust in a language that is marked by the extreme nimbleness of phobic speech, seem to me to offer the clue to Carrington's fiction. That her "oral center," the appetite as/and voice should be the place of writing, reveals the distinctive femininity of her inspiration. For, as many historical, anthropological and psychological studies have suggested, women use appetite as a form of expression more often than men. Rather than "dis-moi qui tu hantes," I will therefore ask "dis-moi ce que tu manges," hoping to found out "ce que tu es."

  11. Synthetic Biology: Applications in the Food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Aparna, S V; Mallappa, Rashmi H; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2016-08-17

    Synthetic biology also termed as "genomic alchemy" represents a powerful area of science that is based on the convergence of biological sciences with systems engineering. It has been fittingly described as "moving from reading the genetic code to writing it" as it focuses on building, modeling, designing and fabricating novel biological systems using customized gene components that result in artificially created genetic circuitry. The scientifically compelling idea of the technological manipulation of life has been advocated since long time. Realization of this idea has gained momentum with development of high speed automation and the falling cost of gene sequencing and synthesis following the completion of the human genome project. Synthetic biology will certainly be instrumental in shaping the development of varying areas ranging from biomedicine, biopharmaceuticals, chemical production, food and dairy quality monitoring, packaging, and storage of food and dairy products, bioremediation and bioenergy production, etc. However, potential dangers of using synthetic life forms have to be acknowledged and adoption of policies by the scientific community to ensure safe practice while making important advancements in the ever expanding field of synthetic biology is to be fully supported and implemented.

  12. A journey through the maze: interpreting Carmelina Sánchez-Cutillas «Els jeroglífics i la pedra de Rosetta»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Àngels Francés Díez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper studies a unique and amazing work on the Valencian poetry scene of the 1970s: Carmelina Sánchez-Cutillas’s Els jeroglífics i la pedra de Rosetta (1976. This unusual example of poetic prose represents a radical change from the realism that characterized her early poems towards the most extreme and cryptic formalism, which defies the ancestral and hieroglyphic silence imposed by the hostility of the environment. In the poem, a space where the author’s own words are combined with those borrowed from other texts, Bakhtin’s dialogism, heteroglossia and polyphony, and Kristeva’s intertextuality can be found. Thus, an extraordinary background of mythological, religious, scientific and historical references, which remind us of Salvador Espriu’s influence, construct the gloomy labyrinth of the poem, an alchemy that transforms the foundations of traditional culture into an expression of rebellion, of anger that underlies the written text, as in a palimpsest.Key words: Carmelina Sánchez-Cutillas, Valencian poetry, dialogism, heteroglossia, polyphony, intertextuality.

  13. All That Glitters Is Not Gold

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The surface treatment lab team. From left to right, J. Carosone, M. Malabaila, J-P. Malivert (front row), M. Thiebert, and A. Lasserre (back row). Apiece of stainless steel equipment, destined for the LHC, was delivered to building 102 last Friday morning. This past Monday the equipment emerged from the same building in the afternoon, looking very much the same as it did when it arrived... with one small difference. The equipment was no longer steel, but gold. This may sound like medieval alchemy, but not all is as it appears. In fact there is no sorcery involved, just lots of careful chemical engineering. No wizards either, but rather a talented team of individuals... the CERN surface treatment lab group. Copper, silver, and gold are all incredibly important to particle physics projects because of their ability to conduct electricity with very low resistance. Unfortunately, these metals are also expensive and cannot be used frequently in large quantities. So instead of building equipment out of gold, equi...

  14. [Picture of Paracelsus, the physician--and we today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, F

    1993-12-21

    This article features the question whether Paracelsus and his dark, sometimes contradictory doctrine still includes some messages for modern physician. The lonely, pugnacious fighter from Central Switzerland remains today 'confused between favour and hatred from the parties'. Some contradictory examples shall outline controversies lasting for centuries. Subsequently Paracelsus' picture of nature, man and medicine is outlined, particular his meaning of nature and work of a good physician, but also his furious often unjustified overwhelming criticism about those physicians who went astray "in the labyrinthus medicorum". Sheep-physicians and wolf-physicians are confronted mercilessly and in a black and white scheme by this Lutherus medicorum. This likewise strange as well as also fascinating picture of a physician by this man of Hohenheim does not imply a clearly conceived temple inviting for an easy academic stroll. The sketch of a temple, however, serves as a symbol for the paracelsic science of healing: Philosophy, astronomy and alchemy are the three columns for the physician. These three columns are founded on virtue, the ethos of the physician. Religion the love for god, serves as a celestial roof. Finally the author expresses his opinion, that even today 500 years later, a modern, scientifically educated physician may profit from the philosophic and ethic principles of Paracelsus, who himself was a contemporary of a time of change like we are in our days.

  15. Hiding in plain sight: Jung, astrology, and the psychology of the unconscious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stephanie

    2018-04-01

    Astrology was a lifelong interest for C.G. Jung and an important aid in his formulation of psyche and psychic process. Archetypally configured, astrology provided Jung an objective means to a fuller understanding of the analysand's true nature and unique individuation journey. Jung credits astrology with helping to unlock the mystery of alchemy and in so doing providing the symbol language necessary for deciphering the historically remote cosmology of Gnosticism. Astrology also aided Jung's work on synchronicity. Despite astrology's worth to Jung's development of analytical psychology, its fundamental role in guiding his discoveries is all but absent from historical notice. The astrological natal chart seems rarely used clinically, and many clinicians seem unaware of its value as a dynamic diagram of the personality and the potentialities within which nature and nurture foster and/or discourage for individual growth and development over the lifespan. This paper charts Jung's interest in astrology and suggests why his great regard for it and other paranormal or occult practices remains largely neglected and unknown. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. Variable Emittance Electrochromic Devices for Satellite Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    An all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) was designed for electronic variable emissivity (VE) control. In this paper, a low weight (5g/m2) electrochromic thermal control device, the EclipseVEECD™, is detailed as a viable thermal control system for spacecraft outer surface temperatures. Discussion includes the technology's performance, satellite applications, and preparations for space based testing. This EclipseVEECD™ system comprises substrate/mirror electrode/active element/IR transparent electrode layers. This system tunes and modulates reflection/emittance from 5 μm to 15 μm region. Average reflectance/emittance modulation of the system from the 400 K to 250 K region is about 75%, while at room temperature (9.5 micron) reflectance/emittance is around 90%. Activation voltage of the EclipseVEECD™ is around ±1 Volt. The EclipseVEECD™ can be used as a smart thermal modulator for the thermal control of satellites and spacecraft by monitoring and adjusting the amount of energy emitted from the outer surfaces. The functionality of the EclipseVEECD™ was successfully demonstrated in vacuum using a multi-purpose heat dissipation/absorption test module, the EclipseHEAT™. The EclipseHEAT™ has been successfully flight checked and integrated onto the United States Naval Alchemy MidSTAR satellite, scheduled to launch December 2006.

  17. Mining Tacitus: secrets of empire, nature and art in the reason of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Vera

    2012-06-01

    A new political practice, the 'reason of state', informed the ends and practices of natural study in the late sixteenth century. Informed by the study of the Roman historian Tacitus, political writers gathered 'secrets of empire' from both history and travel. Following the economic reorientation of 'reason of state' by Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), such secrets came to include bodies of useful particulars concerning nature and art collected by an expanding personnel of intelligencers. A comparison between various writers describing wide-scale collections, such as Botero, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Jakob Bornitz (1560-1625) and Matthias Bernegger (1582-1640), reveals that seventeenth-century natural intelligencers across Europe not only were analogous to political intelligencers, but also were sometimes one and the same. Those seeking political prudence cast themselves as miners, prying precious particulars from the recesses of history, experience and disparate disciplines, including mathematics, alchemy and natural philosophy. The seventeenth-century practice of combining searches for secrets of empire, nature and art contests a frequent historiographical divide between empirical science and Tacitism or reason of state. It also points to the ways political cunning shaped the management of information for both politics and the study of nature and art.

  18. Using Twitter to Better Understand the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Public Sentiment: A Case Study in Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Deng, Zhengyi; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Xi; Allen, Joseph G.

    2018-01-01

    Twitter provides a rich database of spatiotemporal information about users who broadcast their real-time opinions, sentiment, and activities. In this paper, we sought to investigate the holistic influence of land use and time period on public sentiment. A total of 880,937 tweets posted by 26,060 active users were collected across Massachusetts (MA), USA, through 31 November 2012 to 3 June 2013. The IBM Watson Alchemy API (application program interface) was employed to quantify the sentiment scores conveyed by tweets on a large scale. Then we statistically analyzed the sentiment scores across different spaces and times. A multivariate linear mixed-effects model was used to quantify the fixed effects of land use and the time period on the variations in sentiment scores, considering the clustering effect of users. The results exposed clear spatiotemporal patterns of users’ sentiment. Higher sentiment scores were mainly observed in the commercial and public areas, during the noon/evening and on weekends. Our findings suggest that social media outputs can be used to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of public happiness and well-being in cities and regions. PMID:29393869

  19. Importance of All-in-one (MCNPX2.7.0+CINDER2008) Code for Rigorous Transmutation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Oyeon [Institute for Modeling and Simulation Convergence, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghyun [RadTek Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    It can be utilized as a possible mechanism for reducing the volume and hazard of radioactive waste by transforming hazardous radioactive elements with long half-life into less hazardous elements with short halflife. Thus, the understanding of the transmutation mechanism and beneficial machinery design technologies are important and useful. Although the terminology transmutation was rooted back to alchemy which transforms the base metals into gold in the middle ages, Rutherford and Soddy were the first observers by discovering the natural transmutation as a part of radioactive decay of the alpha decay type in early 20th century. Along with the development of computing technology, analysis software, for example, CINDER was developed for rigorous atomic transmutation study. The code has a long history of development from the original work of T. England at Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) in the early 1960s. It has been used to calculate the inventory of nuclides in an irradiated material. CINDER'90 which is recently released involved an upgrade of the code to allow the spontaneous tracking of chains based upon the significant density or pass-by of a nuclide, where pass-by represents the density of a nuclide transforming to other nuclides. Nuclear transmutation process is governed by highly non-linear differential equation. Chaotic nature of the non-linear equation bespeaks the importance of the accurate input data (i.e. number of significant digits). Thus, reducing the human interrogation is very important for the rigorous transmutation study and 'allin- one' code structure is desired. Note that non-linear characteristic of the transmutation equation caused by the flux changes due to the number density change during a given time interval (intrinsic physical phenomena) is not considered in this study. In this study, we only emphasized the effects of human interrogation in the computing process solving nonlinear differential equations, as shown in

  20. Preparation and characterization chemistry of nano-crystalline Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kumar, Shalendra [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, HP (India); Roy, Aashis S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2-x}In{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrites were synthesized by citrate-nitrate precursor auto combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties decreased due to the substitution of In{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric properties decreased with increase in frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This composition can be used for multilayer chip inductor (MLCI) applications. - Abstract: In submitted research; nanocrystalline powders having elements Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2-x}In{sub x}O{sub 4} with varied amounts of indium (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) were grown-up by modified citrate to nitrate alchemy. The realism of single phase cubic spinel creation of the synthesized ferrite samples was studied by the DTA-TGA, XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR, VSM and dielectric measurements. SEM was applied to inspect the morphological variations and EDX was used to determine the compositional mass ratios. The studies on the dielectric constant ({epsilon} Prime ), dielectric loss ({epsilon} Double-Prime ), loss tangent (tan {delta}), ac conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}), resistive and reactive parts of the impedance analysis (Z' and Z') at room temperature were also carried out. The saturation magnetizations (Ms) were determined using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Ms. decreased with the increase In{sup 3+} doping content, as Fe{sup 3+} of 5{mu}{sub B} ions are replaced by In{sup 3+} of 0 {mu}{sub B} ions.

  1. Canto pré-natal: alquimias sonoras para gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Trasel Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo irá focar no canto pré-natal; nos benefícios da música e do canto durante a gestação; na audição do feto no ventre e na escuta da gestante do seu corpo. Como metodologia para pesquisar sobre estes temas foram realizados estudos teóricos nas áreas da musicoterapia obstétrica, da terapia sonora e da medicina e também foram realizadas práticas de canto pré-natal. Arte, movimento e saúde são integrados com as alquimias sonoras para ampliar a consciência da corporeidade da mulher durante a gestação. Com cantos femininos em um círculo de mulheres, nos apoiamos e nos fortalecemos durante a gestação e enviamos vibrações sonoras harmoniosas para o bebê no ventre. ABSTRACT This article will focus on prenatal singing; on the benefits of music and singing during pregnancy; on the baby's hearing in the womb and on the listening of the pregnant woman to her body. To determine the methodology for researching these themes, theoretical studies were done in obstetrical music therapy, sound therapy, medicine and also practical research in prenatal singing classes. Art, movement and health are integrated with sound alchemy to widen the woman’s body awareness during pregnancy. With feminine chants in a circle of women, we support and strengthen ourselves during pregnancy and we send harmonious sounds vibrations to the baby in the womb. KEYWORDS Prenatal singing, prenatal music, pregnancy, listening, consciousness.

  2. A descriptive statistical analysis of volume, visibility and attitudes regarding nursing and care robots in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Eriksson, Henrik

    2017-10-15

    Technology in the healthcare sector is undergoing rapid development. One of the most prominent areas of healthcare in which robots are implemented is nursing homes. However, nursing and technology are often considered as being contradictory, an attitude originating in the view of "the natural" versus "the artificial". Social media mirror this view, including in attitudes and societal debates regarding nursing and care robots. However, little is known about this topic in previous research. To examine user behaviour in social media platforms on the topic of nursing and care robots. A retrospective and cross-sectional observation study design was applied. Data were collected via the Alchemy streaming application programming interface. Data from social media were collected from 1 January 2014 to 5 January 2016. The data set consisted of 12,311 mentions in total. Nursing and care robots are a small-scale topic of discussion in social media. Twitter was found to be the largest channel in terms of volume, followed by Tumblr. News channels had the highest percentage of visibility, while forums and Tumblr had the least. It was found in the data that 67.9% of the mentions were positive, 24.4% were negative and 7.8% were neutral. The volume and visibility of the data on nursing robots found in social media, as well as the attitudes to nursing robots found there, indicate that nursing care robots, which are seen as representing a next step in technological development in healthcare, are a topic on the rise in social media. These findings are likely to be related to the idea that nursing care robots are on the breakthrough of replacing human labour in healthcare worldwide.

  3. It’s Not [Just] Cricket: The Art and Politics of the Popular – Cultural Imperialism, ‘Sly Civility’ & Postcolonial Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashutosh Gowariker’s critically acclaimed Lagaan (2001, is a marvellous piece of cinematic troubling, which, via an astute use of allegory, reflects upon identity politics and power relations in both colonial and postcolonial contexts. Bringing two cornerstones of Indian popular culture together, namely cricket and Hindi formulae films, Gowariker produces an engagingly, affective alchemy of image and sound, which intervenes critically in the discourses of British colonial rule. This article’s intention is to demonstrate the mimetic devices inherent in Lagaan’s narrative, and how they mirror the regional resilience evident in the global success of both popular Indian cinema and the Indian performance of cricket. The sport of cricket and its role and effectiveness within a larger colonial project, is contextualized and reconsidered by tracing some resistant tangents in the sports evolution and performance in the Asia Pacific region. Making the most of the South Asian diaspora, which has exploited the networks and routes of the former British Empire, Indian popular cinema, likewise, serves to illustrate the point that local cultural dynamics can add their own nuances to global media flows. Interdisciplinary approaches are required to traverse within and between cultures, and to underscore the deep currents of contestation, as well as the radical and often surprising politics that characterise popular culture. In this respect, a range of scholars from different fields of study are consulted; Ashis Nandy, Arjun Appadurai, Chandrima Chakraborty and Homi Bhabha amongst them. Their voices will help to open up uncertainties in the conventional discourses, and to articulate some of the cultural politics and poetics at play in Lagaan specifically and the performance of cricket more generally.

  4. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  5. WEATHER DERIVATIVES: THE MOST COMMON PRICING AND VALUATION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years , weather derivatives have become a common tool in risk management for many sectors. This has its roots in that there is no unique way to determine de value and price solutions that would be generally approved by market-participants, like in the case of the Black-Scholes formula for options on non-dividend-paying stocks is the source for a constant debate between academics and practitioners. One look for fair and truly correct prices, while the others search every-day applicable solutions. To be honest... this is somehow like alchemy. This paper has as purpose the examination of statistical characteristics of weather data, data clearing and filling techniques. The study will be referring to temperatures because that is the best analyzed phenomenon, being the most common. This was also heavily influenced by energy companies and energetic interests, because the degree days were of interest ever before weather derivatives were put for sale. Main ideas are explaining what ways of pricing and valuation are, put into perspective for this financial instrument, taking into consideration that the Black-Scholes Model is not suitable. Also here, we will present the pros and cons that we found for each method. The methods are: the Burn analysis, the index value simulation method (IVSM, the daily simulation method (DSM.On the hole, this paper wants to shed light the weather derivatives pricing methods a mix of insurance pricing and standard financial models. At the end we will prospect the discounting problem, by means of the Consumption based Capital Asset Pricing Model (CCAPM.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics: a new era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiescher, Michael; Aprahamian, Ani [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame (United States); Regan, Paddy [Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2002-02-01

    The latest generation of radioactive-ion-beam facilities promises to shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. The most fundamental question in nature is where do we come from, or, put another way, what are we made of? The late Carl Sagan poetically said that we are all made of stardust, but the origin of the elements has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. Many of the greatest medieval and renaissance scientists dabbled in alchemy, trying to create the elements that make up the cosmos, but we had to wait until the early 20th century to recognize that elements are really defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. According to our current understanding, after the big bang most of the normal or baryonic material in the universe consisted of the lightest two elements, hydrogen and helium, with only trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. All the heavier elements that occur naturally on Earth were created from this original material via a series of nuclear reactions in the cores of stars or in stellar explosions. Over the last decade, ground-based telescopes and satellite-based Observatories have opened new windows on the stars across the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to gamma radiation. New technology now makes it possible to observe and analyse short-lived stellar explosions. Indeed, the distribution of elements in 'planetary nebula' and in the ejecta of supernovae and novae give a direct glimpse of individual nucleosynthesis processes. In the February issue of Physics World, Michael Wiescher, Paddy Regan and Ani Aprahamian describe how sate-of-the-art facilities are set to plug many of the gaps in our understanding of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  7. Archetypal-Imaging and Mirror-Gazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B.

    2013-01-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject’s unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for “imaging of the unconscious”. Future researches have been proposed. PMID:25379264

  8. Production of drugs by microbial biosynthesis and biotransformation. Possibilities, limits and future developments (1st communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslich, K

    1986-04-01

    Before the advent of alchemy the therapeutic aids for man and animals consisted exclusively of using natural products in many different forms. Chemical syntheses have been used for little more than 100 years as a means of obtaining drugs. The discovery of penicillin and the first industrial production of this compound in 1941/42 opened the door to a third way for the preparation of drugs by exploitation of the manifold biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to produce antibiotics or more recently other pharmacologically active substances. The selective use of individual enzymatic transformation stages with microorganisms in chemical production pathways in particular by biotransformations of steroids in 1950 expanded the field of biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals. The increasing knowledge in the regulation of the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites, the growing experience in the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts and source of valuable enzymes and the development of new economical technical procedures raised the number and volume of drugs prepared by microbial biosynthesis and biotransformation. The modern method of the genetic engineering supported by the chemical DNA-synthesis enabled the preparation of important proteohormones and physiologically active peptides in microorganisms. Finally, the development of monoclonal antibodies, although at present still formed in mammalian cells, will lead to new ways of therapy in future. A review is given on the present state of biotechnological productions of antibiotics, vitamins, steroids, alkaloids, amino acids and pharmaceutical enzymes combined with new developments in the preparation of blood factors, enzyme inhibitors, hormones and physiologically active peptides and the possible future use of monoclonal antibodies.

  9. To succeed in the long-term, focus on the middle-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geoffrey A

    2007-01-01

    When a mature company fails to endure over the long term, it's often due to the "Horizon 2 vacuum," argues Moore, author of Crossing the Chasm and several other books on innovation strategy, and managing director of the consulting firm TCG Advisors. The reference is to the strategic horizons outlined by McKinsey's Mehrdad Baghai and colleagues in The Alchemy of Growth: Horizon 1 is today's cash-generating business, Horizon 2 is the set of innovations just being commercialized, and Horizon 3 consists of forward-thinking R&D. Most companies understand they must invest in their future, so the funding and management of Horizon 3 is not the problem. The trouble starts when those innovations are brought to market and must compete with the mainstay business for company resources. They disappear from top management's radar screen and suffer a level of neglect few ventures could survive. Cisco Systems is one company that has recognized the problem and tried to address it. To begin with, CEO John Chambers has insulated Horizon 2 projects from many of the pressures of Horizon 1--for example, by reorchestrating sales coverage so that emerging markets won't be neglected. He has also kick-started some Horizon 2 businesses by augmenting them with acquisitions, increasing their scale, and giving them more management attention. For the same reason, he has challenged his head of product development to think in terms of new businesses, not simply new products--knowing that the latter tend to get lost in salespeople's bags. Most important, Cisco is handicapping its Horizon 2 projects so that they need not compete head-to-head with established businesses. Their success is judged by metrics that are appropriate to new businesses, and they are given the benefit of Cisco's best managerial talent.

  10. Archetypal-Imaging and Mirror-Gazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Caputo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject’s unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for “imaging of the unconscious”. Future researches have been proposed.

  11. Delivery of Forecasted Atmospheric Ozone and Dust for the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking System - An Open Source Geospatial Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Sanchez-Silva, R.; Cavner, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    New Mexico's Environmental Public Health Tracking System (EPHTS), funded by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), aims to improve health awareness and services by linking health effects data with levels and frequency of environmental exposure. As a public health decision-support system, EPHTS systems include: state-of-the-art statistical analysis tools; geospatial visualization tools; data discovery, extraction, and delivery tools; and environmental/public health linkage information. As part of its mandate, EPHTS issues public health advisories and forecasts of environmental conditions that have consequences for human health. Through a NASA-funded partnership between the University of New Mexico and the University of Arizona, NASA Earth Science results are fused into two existing models (the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model) in order to improve forecasts of atmospheric dust, ozone, and aerosols. The results and products derived from the outputs of these models are made available to an Open Source mapping component of the New Mexico EPHTS. In particular, these products are integrated into a Django content management system using GeoDjango, GeoAlchemy, and other OGC-compliant geospatial libraries written in the Python and C++ programming languages. Capabilities of the resultant mapping system include indicator-based thematic mapping, data delivery, and analytical capabilities. DREAM and CMAQ outputs can be inspected, via REST calls, through temporal and spatial subsetting of the atmospheric concentration data across analytical units employed by the public health community. This paper describes details of the architecture and integration of NASA Earth Science into the EPHTS decision-support system.

  12. De los dioses a los hombres: Un recorrido histórico del descubrimiento de los elementos químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellón González, I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the apparently simple Periodic Table of the Elements has implied tremendous efforts over thousands of years. In this paper we present a brief history of the discovery of the chemical elements from prehistory to the present day, revealing the controversies that arose on the way and claiming the important work performed by alchemists in the advancement of knowledge. This is especially important if we consider that alchemy had a period of existence of many thousands of years, while the “Chemistry”, officially established as a science in the eighteenth century, has operated as such for only a few hundred years. Even so, if we consider the progress of discovery and isolation of chemical elements throughout history, it can be observed that the number of elements identified is achieved mainly in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, reflecting the development of instrumental techniques, that facilitated this task.Llegar hasta la aparentemente sencilla Tabla Periódica de los Elementos le ha costado a la humanidad enormes esfuerzos a lo largo de miles de años. En este trabajo se recorre la historia del descubrimiento de los elementos químicos desde la Prehistoria hasta nuestros días, reflejando las controversias que se suscitaron y reivindicando el importante trabajo que realizaron los alquimistas en el progreso de los conocimientos, ya que la alquimia tuvo un período de existencia de muchos miles de años, mientras que la “Química” oficialmente establecida como ciencia en el siglo XVIII consta de sólo unos cientos de años. Aún así, al realizar un balance de la progresión del descubrimiento y aislamiento de los elementos químicos a lo largo de la Historia se puede comprobar el elevado número de elementos identificados en los siglos XIX y XX, reflejo del perfeccionamiento de las técnicas instrumentales que facilitaron esta labor.

  13. ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY THROUGH POPULAR SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan KUPATADZE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Popularization of Ecological Chemistry is the aim of scientific-popular articles, which are published in the online journal for teachers. With the articles of this type Ecological Chemistry is linked with literature and history. Due to this linkage articles, this module turns into an easily comprehensible one and it becomes fun. In all articles there is also included very useful and interesting information pertaining to Ecological Chemistry. It must be underlined the titles of such articles, because they should not only show the common meaning of article, but they should also attract readers.The utmost interest is generated by the historical papers, where chemical issues are connected with history. The period of alchemy is more popular and that’s why the alchemical stories are described in the articles.The outcome of the pedagogical experiment has made it clear, that such a method of teaching of Ecological Chemistry with scientific popular articles affects positively on school students motivation and changes their attitude towards the environmental pollution.CHIMIA ECOLOGICĂ ÎN ARTICOLELE ȘTIINȚIFICO-POPULAREPopularizarea Chimiei ecologice este scopul articolelor științifico-populare, care sunt publicate în reviste online pentru profesori. Prin intermediul articolelor de acest tip, Chimia ecologică este legată de literatură și istorie. Datorită respectivelor publicaţii, acest modul este ușor de înțeles și el devine distractiv. Toate articolele conțin informații foarte utile și interesante referitoarela Chimiaecologică. Trebuie de subliniat importanţa titlurilor acestor articole, deoarece ele ar trebui nu doar să redea succint înțelesul articolului, dar şi să atragă cititorul.Un interes deosebit trezesc documentele istorice, în cazul în care problemele chimiei sunt legate de istorie. Perioada alchimiei este mai populară, de aceea şi sunt descrise în articole poveștile alchimice.Rezultatul experimentului

  14. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken

  15. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  16. The light in the architecture of minimalism: Architectura sine luce nulla architectura est: Alberto Campo Baeza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field of interest of man is directly linked to the vision and illusion, and they again with the light. We live in an era when the light as a concept of changes is very emphasized, so it is understandable that as 'all roads lead to Rome', in architecture all roads lead to the light. We can look at an architectural history as a display of objects that are creatively adapted to the light. One focus of observation may be the connection between what people see and the construction of building. Designers rely on light and its ability to discover the form as a way of creating these links. Appropriate combinations of different types of light provide for the connoisseur, the infinite possibilities in architecture. Throughout history, the light has always been a central theme in the architecture: the oldest religious architecture dedicated to the Sun, through a combination of direct and indirect light in the Hagia Sofia, the heavy - light Romanesque or Gothic aspiration to organize the light in order to provide the spatial tension. Or through the baroque, as well as an alchemy of light and Bernini's table for measuring light, to Corbusier, Wright and Miss. There are many examples today, which show different aspects of light in architecture. If we design by light, we could ask many questions: Is light a substance in architecture? Is not the history of architecture, just a quest for understanding and domination of light? Is our time the right time when we have all the means suitable for the final domination of light? Light is treated, in the architecture of minimalism, as a matter and as a material. When one uses the axiom 'Architectura sine luce nulla architectura est', Alberto Campo Baeza, one then can say that there is no architecture that is possible without light. In this paper, through examples that follow, the author considers the different aspects of light in architecture minimalism. They are: form - geometry - lines, transparency - glass - windows

  17. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan Balasubramanian

    2009-07-18

    This is a continuing DOE-BES funded project on transition metal and actinide containing species, aimed at the electronic structure and spectroscopy of transition metal and actinide containing species. While a long term connection of these species is to catalysis and environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes, the immediate relevance is directly to other DOE-BES funded experimental projects at DOE-National labs and universities. There are a number of ongoing gas-phase spectroscopic studies of these species at various places, and our computational work has been inspired by these experimental studies and we have also inspired other experimental and theoretical studies. Thus our studies have varied from spectroscopy of diatomic transition metal carbides to large complexes containing transition metals, and actinide complexes that are critical to the environment. In addition, we are continuing to make code enhancements and modernization of ALCHEMY II set of codes and its interface with relativistic configuration interaction (RCI). At present these codes can carry out multi-reference computations that included up to 60 million configurations and multiple states from each such CI expansion. ALCHEMY II codes have been modernized and converted to a variety of platforms such as Windows XP, and Linux. We have revamped the symbolic CI code to automate the MRSDCI technique so that the references are automatically chosen with a given cutoff from the CASSCF and thus we are doing accurate MRSDCI computations with 10,000 or larger reference space of configurations. The RCI code can also handle a large number of reference configurations, which include up to 10,000 reference configurations. Another major progress is in routinely including larger basis sets up to 5g functions in thee computations. Of course higher angular momenta functions can also be handled using Gaussian and other codes with other methods such as DFT, MP2, CCSD(T), etc. We have also calibrated our RECP

  18. Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Clusters, Actinide Complexes and Their Reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    This is a continuing DOE-BES funded project on transition metal and actinide containing species, aimed at the electronic structure and spectroscopy of transition metal and actinide containing species. While a long term connection of these species is to catalysis and environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes, the immediate relevance is directly to other DOE-BES funded experimental projects at DOE-National labs and universities. There are a number of ongoing gas-phase spectroscopic studies of these species at various places, and our computational work has been inspired by these experimental studies and we have also inspired other experimental and theoretical studies. Thus our studies have varied from spectroscopy of diatomic transition metal carbides to large complexes containing transition metals, and actinide complexes that are critical to the environment. In addition, we are continuing to make code enhancements and modernization of ALCHEMY II set of codes and its interface with relativistic configuration interaction (RCI). At present these codes can carry out multi-reference computations that included up to 60 million configurations and multiple states from each such CI expansion. ALCHEMY II codes have been modernized and converted to a variety of platforms such as Windows XP, and Linux. We have revamped the symbolic CI code to automate the MRSDCI technique so that the references are automatically chosen with a given cutoff from the CASSCF and thus we are doing accurate MRSDCI computations with 10,000 or larger reference space of configurations. The RCI code can also handle a large number of reference configurations, which include up to 10,000 reference configurations. Another major progress is in routinely including larger basis sets up to 5g functions in thee computations. Of course higher angular momenta functions can also be handled using Gaussian and other codes with other methods such as DFT, MP2, CCSD(T), etc. We have also calibrated our RECP

  19. History of the discovery of transmutation at Texas A and M University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockris, J.O.M. [Molecular Green Technology, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    . Earlier (1990) the author had received a letter from a Roberto Monti. He complained that he had not got a reply from writing to Fleischmann and Pons and he decided to write to him instead. His letter concerned a theory which he said would easily rationalize the synthesis of tritium from deuterium and moreover indicate conditions under which many elements in the periodic table could be transmuted to neighboring elements in the cold. On reading the letter, the author thought that the writer must be elderly and out of touch with theoretical chemistry, for what he said was clearly impossible, indeed, it sounded like a claim to alchemy. The author replied, humoring the writer and promised to meet with him in the forthcoming Cold Fusion meeting in Como in Italy (1991). When the author met, Monti he was astonished to find that Monti seemed to be a bright normal person about 40-year old and speaking in a vigorous and seemingly informed manner. He had an established position in an Italian Research Institute in Bologna. His emphasis was not on the reactions which Fleischmann and Pons had carried out but on his own work where he claimed that he was able to carry out transmutation reactions. In spite of author's impression that Monti was a normal scientist, the author still regarded transmutation with extreme skepticism.

  20. Water 2010. Abstracts; Wasser 2010. Kurzreferate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2010 of the Wasserchemischen Gesellschaft (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) from 10th to 12th May, 2010, in Bayreuth (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Retention and fouling in submerged membranes and hybrid procedure (F. Saravia); (2) Fouling of organic membranes in the ultrafiltration of municipal sewage sludges (J. Haberkamp); (3) Arsenic meets NOM - On the abiotic interactions of a toxic element with natural organic material (M. Bauer); (4) Application possibilities of modern bio-analytic methods in the water chemistry? (U. Billitewski); (5) Discussion of the applicability of new reporter cell test systems for the detection of pharmaceutical active substances in water (D. Sokolis); (6) Analytics of chlorine paraffines - a priority group of materials of the European Water Framework Directive (Preparation of ISO 12010) (S. Geiss); (7) Investigation of the disinfection side products in the chlorinbation of N,N-dimethyl sulfamid (DMS) (O. Happel); (8) Development of a photometric analysis method for polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) as a basis for a cost-effective process monitoring analytics in the galvanic industry (A. Emmel), (9) An investigation of the elution of organic trace contaminants from artificial turf into the groundwater by means of HPTLC/AMD in combination with LC-MS (S.C. Weiss); (10) From the alchemy to contaminated sites - The chemical factory Marktredwitz: It began with the production of gold, at the end it cost million Euro (R. Roeder); (11) An investigation of the influence of the water quality on the effort for drinking water purification - a statistic model (B. Skibinski); (12) Phosphate adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide: isotherm and fixed-bed column studies (A. Sperlich); (13) Advantages of an upstream bank filtration in the combination of ozonation and groundwater recharge (U. Huebner); (14) An oxidative treatment of barrage water in the purification of drinking water

  1. SentiHealth-Cancer: A sentiment analysis tool to help detecting mood of patients in online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ramon Gouveia; das Dores, Rafael Marques; Camilo-Junior, Celso G; Rosa, Thierson Couto

    2016-01-01

    into English, and submitted to sentiment analysis tools that do not support the Portuguese language (AlchemyAPI and Textalytics) and also to Semantria and SentiStrength, using the English option of these tools. Six experiments were conducted with some variations and different origins of the collected posts. The results were measured using the following metrics: precision, recall, F1-measure and accuracy The proposed tool SHC-pt reached the best averages for accuracy and F1-measure (harmonic mean between recall and precision) in the three sentiment classes addressed (positive, negative and neutral) in all experimental settings. Moreover, the worst accuracy value (58%) achieved by SHC-pt in any experiment is 11.53% better than the greatest accuracy (52%) presented by other addressed tools. Finally, the worst average F1 (48.46%) reached by SHC-pt in any experiment is 4.14% better than the greatest average F1 (46.53%) achieved by other addressed tools. Thus, even when we compare the SHC-pt results in complex scenario versus others in easier scenario the SHC-pt is better. This paper presents two contributions. First, it proposes the method SentiHealth to detect the mood of cancer patients that are also users of communities of patients in online social networks. Second, it presents an instantiated tool from the method, called SentiHealth-Cancer (SHC-pt), dedicated to automatically analyze posts in communities of cancer patients, based on SentiHealth. This context-tailored tool outperformed other general-purpose sentiment analysis tools at least in the cancer context. This suggests that the SentiHealth method could be instantiated as other disease-based tools during future works, for instance SentiHealth-HIV, SentiHealth-Stroke and SentiHealth-Sclerosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Christianson, J. R.; Hadravová, A.; Hadrava, P.; Solc, M.

    2003-01-01

    The 16th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on the History of Science in the Rudolphine Period. The meeting was held in Prague from 22 to 25 October 2001, on the 400th anniversary of Tycho's sudden death, and was attended by approximately 65 scientists and historians. The volume contains 36 contributions dealing with the life and work of Tycho Brahe, the astronomy of the era, and many cultural aspects of Rudolphine Prague. One of the first papers is an eye-opener on the fact that Tycho Brahe was a cosmologically-driven observer. This is followed by a very illuminating paper on gender roles in science in the late 16th century, with emphasis on the role of Sophie Brahe, Tycho's youngest sister. Several subsequent papers reveal the existence of barely known links between Tycho and his contemporaneous colleagues. These extremely-well documented papers also deal with the broader philosophical investigation he was involved in, viz. meteorology, medicine, astrology, alchemy and even theology. Important names of Tycho's days are Petrus Severinus, Johannes Pratensis, Theophrastus Paracelsus, John Craig, Ursus (Nicolai Reymers Baer) etc. Very illuminating is the information on the relations between Tycho and the Jesuits in Prague, explaining the reason why this order was very supportive of the Tychonic cosmological model. The relationsship with Kepler, and also Kepler's observational activities (after Tycho's death) are highlighted as well as the hideous mode of communication between Galileo and Kepler. More than one paper deals with the accuracy and precision of Tycho's observations, and the causal impact of this accuracy on the scientific revolution. Another study discusses the study of Tycho's handwriting, this paper brings the aditional bonus of a list of accessible works which contain notes by him. One very interesting project was Brahe's proposal to the Republic of Venice to determine the exact latitudes of

  3. Educação, meio ambiente e cultura: alquimias do conhecimento na sociedade de controle Education, environmental and culture: alchemical of knowledge in the control society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Godoy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Por meio da noção de regime pedagógico, investiga-se a articulação entre epistemologia e política em dois eixos de funcionamento: um em torno da disciplina corporal ligado às exigências do processo de industrialização, outro em torno da autonomia do sujeito ligado à formação dos Estados nacionais. Os historiadores da educação situaram no coração das práticas escolares a inscrição pedagógica do cidadão como sujeito político dotado de direitos e obrigações; essa inscrição respondeu às exigências inerentes ao quadro conceitual próprio das sociedades democráticas. A noção de alquimia, proposta por Popkewitz, foi retomada para compreender como as práticas pedagógicas traduzem saberes disciplinares em conteúdos psicológicos que são inseparáveis de contextos políticos mais amplos; esse aspecto confere à pedagogia uma dimensão estratégica que deve ser levada em conta na análise dos investimentos pedagógicos no presente. Considerando as características que atravessam as práticas sociais de nossos dias, a intervenção de tipo ambiental (Foucault e a lógica do controle (Deleuze, são abordados Educação, Meio Ambiente e Cultura como domínios de objetos sobre os quais atua o investimento pedagógico hoje.Through the notion of pedagogic regime, we investigate the articulation between epistemology and politics in two operational axes: one concerning the body discipline related to the needs of the industrialization process, the other concerning the subject's autonomy related to the formation of the national States. Educational historians set, on the core of school practices, the citizen's pedagogic inscription as a political citizen endowed with rights and obligations; this inscription responded to the inherent demands of the democratic societies' own conceptual perspectives. The alchemy notion, proposed by Popkewitz, was used to comprehend how pedagogic practices translate discipline knowledge into

  4. Savoirs mondains, savoirs savants : les femmes et leurs cabinets de curiosités au siècle des Lumières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gargam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans la France des Lumières, la culture de la curiosité est un phénomène de mode mais surtout un jeu social et intellectuel. La présente étude entend retracer l’histoire d’une trentaine de cabinets féminins de curiosité tenus à cette époque. Des femmes fortunées de l’aristocratie et de la bourgeoisie parisienne et provinciale ont alors constitué sous l’emprise de leur libido sciendi des cabinets d’alchimie, de minéralogie, de physique‑chimie, d’histoire naturelle et d’anatomie naturelle et artificielle. Ces cabinets obéissent à une typologie particulière. Il en existe deux catégories : les cabinets d’amateurs, constitués pour la parade et le spectacle des visiteurs et fonctionnant comme de véritables écoles de plaisirs intellectuels et éducatifs ; les cabinets à finalité scientifique et didactique, formés par des savantes expérimentées qui se livrent dans leurs laboratoires à des recherches personnelles et expérimentales au nom des progrès de la science médicale et de l’instruction publique. La réflexion porte aussi sur le fonctionnement de ces cabinets privés de curiosité, particulièrement sur leur mode de constitution, leur décor intérieur ainsi que sur le contenu des collections qui nécessitaient certaines techniques d’organisation, d’acquisition et de conservation communes à celles de leurs homologues masculins.During the Enlightenment in France, curiosity culture constituted both a fashion and an intellectual and social game.  This article explores thirty cabinets of  curiosities run by women during this period. Wealthy women from the Parisiain and provincial aristocracy and middle classes organized cabinets in alchemy, mineralogy, physics and chemistry, natural history and biology studies. These cabinets can be divided into two distinct categories. The first represented amateur interests; they were developed for show and served as schools for intellectual and

  5. Perrault's experiments, a matter of soil hydrology and epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Berta, Andrea; Settura, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    to misinterpretate the experiments by a physical point of view. As his interpretation of the experiments did not corroborate the hypothesis that precipitation might be at the origin of all the springs, it accepted one of the forms of the traditional scheme of water circulation. According to it, greatly productive springs should be sustained by evaporation and condensation processes taking place below the soil surface. Even if Perrault's conclusions went in the direction of the ancient opinion, not only De l'origine des fontaines is a seminal work of experimental hydrology, but also it can be regarded to as a milestone of scientific revolution. In his critique of both ancient (e.g. Aristotle) and modern scholars (e.g. Nicolas Papin) he makes use of principles drawn by the works of Bacon, Galilei and Pascal. Stating that "the first and most usual maxim of our moderns is to doubt everything", he shows deep awareness of the specific essence of scientific modernity. Moreover his rejection of alchemy, analogical reasoning and astrological influences arises from the conviction that "it is to experiments that we owe the finest knowledge we now have concerning the things of nature". According to this perspective, despite of all the difficulties of the soil-hydrologic laboratory practice, Perrault was nevertheless able to report his experiments in terms that we can properly reproduce nowadays.

  6. Complaint in Shahriyar’s poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadoolah Nasroolahi

    2016-06-01

    , Shahriyar is of a spiritual mystic old face who has fallen far away from the right and truth and desirably plays the return song to Sugar Cane plantation like Mawlanaw’s reed. In the Philosophical Complaint, one can find sort of Khayyam’s thought in not finding and not obtaining a response to truth. Despite the fact that Shahriyar’s grievances are diverse, one can say that their tone is sad and is accompanied by a sharp and stinging rebuke and protest in order to express the atmosphere of this chain of emotional vocabularies, words and phrases like emotional, sentence composition, using Monada he employs appropriate rhymes. Apart from the tone of the speech, he has also used other literary devices.  He has mostly used symbols of classical Persian poetry to express grievances and complaints. Another feature of Shariyar’s grievances is expression of regret and nostalgia of the soul. The sense of being a stranger and loss of time and youth are among the most significant subjects. Yet another feature of Shahriyar’s Complaint is the simple expression of and invocation to the common expressions of the slang and street appeal in which the poet contributes a lot to their beauty and strength by selecting exact titles to them. The poet has mostly chosen the form of Ghazal to express his Complaint.   Finally, the experience of the poet’s emotional breakdown was a minor wickedness that transformed Shahriyar into one of the greatest poets, at least in the area of composing Complaint. This was the alchemy that transformed him from school and the limited environment into a mate of the sun and the moon and the Ghazal’s Shahriyar.

  7. Historic Essay on the Popularization of Chemistry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2012-05-01

    molecular structure, X-ray analysis, polymers.The most profluent author of popular science, and especially chemistry, nowadays is Nenad Raos (b. 1951, theoretical chemist from Zagreb; he has written six popular books and authored five exhibitions in chemistry, among others books and exhibitions in other fields of science. He wrote about the history of chemistry, Deset kemijskih pokusa koji su promijenili svijet (Ten Chemical Experiments that Changed the World, 2000, alchemy, Zlatni san (The Golden Dream, 1999, water, Što je voda? (kako za koga (What is Water? (Depends on the individual, 1996, and also wrote a popular chemical lexicon with about 200 cartoons, Kemijski leksikon u stripu (Chemical Lexicon in Strip Fashion, 2010.In the last few years, young chemists (Nenad Judaš, Tomislav Portada, Vladimir Stilinović organize scientific events for school and preschool children. International manifestations like FameLab and Science Festival are also organized in which Croatian chemists also participate. KUI -9/2012Received June 24, 2011Accepted September 28, 2011

  8. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  9. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    Women who made significant contributions in the chemical sciences prior to the 20th century do not come readily to mind. Yet, as this book relates so engagingly, women have been influential in chemistry since the earliest period of recorded history. However, Women in Chemistry is more than a dated collection of biographical sketches of notable women scientists. The book highlights the main periods of history when it was possible for women to have some measure of success in the chemical sciences and focuses on their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-20th century. By glimpsing into the life and work of individuals in the context of the time in which they lived, the authors impart a credible and moving image of the restraints imposed on aspiring women scientists and the obstacles that confronted them-making the extent of their contributions all the more remarkable. Each chapter has a theme into which are woven selected biographical sketches. Chapter 1 offers a whirlwind tour of the centuries from Babylonian times (1200 B.C.E.) through the Middle Ages and into the 17th century, giving perspective on how the various civilizations did (or did not) consider women capable of intellectual achievement or permit such of them. This short but powerful chapter invokes appreciation for the major contributions made by women in the face of enormous obstacles of prejudice, superstition (witchcraft), monastic reprisals, pseudoscience (alchemy), and denial of education. The women featured include Maria Hebraea (around 300 C.E.famed for the water bath, bain Marie), Hypatia (mathematician, 400 C.E.), Western alchemists (de Gourney and Meudrac), and Chinese alchemists. By the 18th century, science had progressed and alchemy was at an end. Though enlightened scientifically, western society still considered women's intellect inferior. But, as Chapter 2 relates, the literary salons of France nurtured intellectual discussion in society women, and it was in this context that

  10. Fragmentos da história das concepções de mundo na construção das ciências da natureza: das certezas medievais às dúvidas pré-modernas Episodes in the history of conceptions of the world of natural sciences: from medieval certainties to pre-modern doubts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    2003-01-01

    do mundo. Os pensadores italianos, como uma reação à Escolástica, constroem um pensamento humanista influenciado pelo pensamento grego clássico original e pelos últimos filósofos bizantinos. Por todas essas mudanças se inicia a construção de um novo universo e de um novo método, que viria décadas mais tarde.The philosophical concept of world thought begins with the Greeks, synthesized by Plato and Aristotle. For Plato the one physical world is apparent and, to reach the truth, it is necessary to remember the original ideas that determine its meaning. For Aristotle, material things are guided by ideas and logic is needed to understand them. During the Hellenistic period, the school of Alexandria elaborated Neo-Platonism, the base of Patristics. After the fall of Rome, the Byzantine philosophers kept the classic inheritance. The Church built a Neo-Platonic vision of Christianity, Scholastacism. In the east the Persians also came under Greek influence. Among the Arabs of the East Neo-Platonic thought guided philosophers and religious people so that for them reason and faith were not separated. At this point sciences grew: physics, alchemy, botany, medicine, mathematics and logic, until they were overtaken by the conservative doctrine of the Ottomans. In Muslin Spain, without the restrictions of theology, Aristotle's philosophy was better understood than in the rest of Islam.

  11. Matta en el inverso del universo con sus amigos detrás del espejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de Santiago

    2015-08-01

    . Matta evokes the immersion from a project of the being to a cosmic and alchemic project where the relationship between alchemy and science concurs with irrevocable determination: Eliphas Lévi, Fulcanelli, and Albert Einstein; the text also deals with the communication means between artist Matta’s search and his very free commitment to the surrealistic movement (Breton and to himself, en la medida en lo extrae y traduce ??? from such artistic movement and from his interventions and participation in movements of modern art and his own movement. According to Roberto Matta’s own words in 1965: An artist’s role in our society involves being that glaring and repudiated character (the child of Andersen’s short story who is the only one that affirms that the king is nude. This denouncement of the scandal makes of him a minority member. For the artist, it is not a question of establishing a relationship between color blue and color green: these aesthetic scenarios belong in a certain way to those who contemplated them. On the contrary, I want to agitate so that the contemplating person becomes a minority member. I want the spectator to be possessed by the picture instead of possessing it; I want him to be bombarded from everywhere with a huge amount of consciousness. In this way, caught within an unbearable situation caused by the picture, he is then forced to perform a poetic creation act to possess it: beset by the real world he feels defeated and then forced to reflect. In this way, this essay about Roberto Matta deals with the aesthetic furor. There is not aesthetics without science and evidence, as proposed and induced by Matta.

  12. Pratiques historiennes croisées de la mémoire et expériences de l’histoire dans L’Invention du quotidien (1980 de Michel de Certeau et Le Passé d’une illusion (1995 de François Furet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Poitras

    2011-04-01

    end of the moment mémoriel in the West: L’Invention du quotidien (1980 by Michel de Certeau, Le Passé d’une illusion (1995 by François Furet. By identifying two historians’ uses of “memory” and to what they relate, the author tries less to define an inventory or the contents of memory than to explore the current operations practiced by the historian in order to make the past “act” in the present of the contemporaries that he studies. Instead of thinking memory as a “something” for which it would suffice to identify its characteristics, we will outlined a few characteristics defining how historians use memory, a use that consists less of a theoretical and systematical articulation than of a epistemological sensibility which is itself solidary of a feeling of historicity. Distant in many respects to each other, the books are marked by their contemporaneity, beyond their respective objects and approaches, as such that the temporal articulation done by the historian covers tenuously his own experience of history. Memory, though not the object of neither books, is constantly solicited, either as a vast background (collective memory or as an explicative principle in order to understand the contemporaries’ actualizations, the influence of their memories and the alchemies that they effectuate between their practices, passions and beliefs. Separated by their objects, the historians François Furet and Michel de Certeau find eventually themselves around the problem of modernity, sending back the comparatist to its own game and to the distance that he has created or abolished between his “objects” and him.

  13. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    American opposite number, John Bahcall, prefers to stress those quasar hosts that look like undisturbed galaxies. But the important thing is that we have wonderfully clear pictures to argue about. Quasar theories were mostly pure speculation before we had Hubble." The history of the elements Astronomers at the Hamburger Sternwarte use the Faint Object Spectrograph to analyse ultraviolet light from distant quasars, which they also examine by visible light from the ground. They trace the origin, through cosmic time, of elements like carbon, silicon and iron, from which planets and living things can be built. On its way to Hubble, the quasar light passes through various intervening galaxies and gas clouds, like the skewer of a kebab. Each object visited absorbs some of the quasar light, depending on the local abundances of the elements. As they detect more and more objects, Dieter Reimers and his colleagues form an impression of galaxies building up their stocks of elements progressively through time, by the alchemy of successive generations of stars. Apart from primordial hydrogen the second lightest element, helium, has also been abundant since the origin of the Universe. The first major discovery after Hubble's last refurbishment came from Peter Jakobsen of ESA's Space Science Department at Noordwijk, who detected ionized helium in the remote Universe, by the light of a very distant quasar, 0302-003. That was in January 1994, and since then Jakobsen has looked for the ionized helium using other quasars. He now suspects that this helium is nearly all gathered in clumps, rather than scattered freely through intergalactic space. If so, it greatly increases the estimates of the total mass of ordinary matter in the Universe. Through a lens to the early Universe Natural lenses scattered through the cosmos reveal distant galaxies, and make an astronomical tool for Richard Ellis of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge (UK). The strong gravity of an intervening cluster of galaxies

  14. Inventário e digitalização do patrimônio museológico da educação: um projecto de preservação e valorização do património educativo - The inventory and digitalization of the heritage museum of education: a project of preservation and valorization of the ed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Mogarro, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2011-03-01

    reused. Historically, these objects are connected to several of the subjects taught; they play a key role in the interconnection between scientific knowledge and the  alchemy to which this knowledge was subjected  in   order  to  become  teaching  material.  We  establish, therefore,  the  convergence with  the  current  policies   that   value education  and cultural heritage, with  research  and organisation of museums dedicated to the school, to its heritage and legacy in several countries.  It   is  a   transnational   movement,  and  the  similarities between countries emphasise the globalisation of the school form and its materials. Keywords: Educational heritage; inventory; museology;  school culture.   INVENTARIO Y DIGITALIZACIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO MUSEOLÓGICO DE LA EDUCACIÓN: UN PROYECTO DE PRESERVACIÓN Y VALORIZACIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO EDUCATIVO Resumen En  este texto presentamos el Proyecto Inventario y Digitalización  del Patrimonio  Museológico de la Educación, desarrollado por el Ministerio de la Educación portugués.  Las escuelas que integran el Proyecto poseen   importantes   colecciones de  patrimonio  museológico y   se pretende  realizar  su  inventario,  preservación y   divulgación.  Las instituciones escolares fueron acogiendo muchos objetos a lo largo del tiempo  y se lleva en  cuenta  su  recorrido, dónde se utilizaron  y reutilizaron los materiales. Estos materiales se integran, históricamente, al campo de diversas  disciplinas, teniendo un papel fundamental en la interconexión entre el conocimiento científico y la alquimia a que este conocimiento estuvo sujeto para transformarse en materia de enseñanza. Se establece, de ese modo, la convergencia con las actuales políticas de valorización de la educación y del patrimonio cultural, con investigaciones y organización de museos dedicadas a la escuela, a su patrimonio y memoria en diversos países. Se trata de un movimiento