WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcaligenes eutrophus ch34

  1. Extracellular polymerization of 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomers with the polymerase of Alcaligenes eutrophus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, Robert W.; Farcet, Celine; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Goodwin, Steve; Zhang, Shiming

    1999-01-01

    Previous investigations on the role of the polymerase in the synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) are reviewed, and the results from earlier in vitro studies on the activity and selectivity of the polymerase of Alcaligenes eutrophus are discussed. In the present study the effect of glycerol on

  2. Cybernetic structured modeling of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Alcaligenes Eutrophus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRAZ L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cybernetic structured mathematical model developed for the fermentation step of the process of production of the copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. This process is performed in two different fermentation stages. The first emphasizes the growth of the microorganism in a batch operation without substrates limitations, while in the second, the focus is on copolymer production by a fed-batch operation in the absence of the nitrogen source. This paper presents the results of the treatment of experimental data and of preliminary parameter estimation. The fitting of the proposed model to the experimental data of a standard experiment showed a good agreement.

  3. [High-level production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by feb-batch culture of Alcaligenes eutrophus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y B; Liu, M Q; Yi, Z H; Chen, Q; Weng, W Q

    2001-09-01

    Fermentation strategies for production P (3HB-co-3HV) from glucose and propionic (or valeric) acid by Alcaligenes eutrophus were studied. During the culture, we controlled pH of the broth by feeding precusors of 3HV- propionic or valeric acid after Ammonia feeding stopped. When propionic acid were used as the precusor, for 50 hours, we obtained a cell dry weight, a P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration, a P(3HB-co-3HV) content and a 3HV fraction of 149.9 g/L, 124.9 g/L, 83.3% and 12.4 mol%, respectively, with a PHA productivity of 2.50 g h-1 L-1. When valeric acid were used as the precusor, for 45 hours, we obtained a cell dry weight, a P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration, a P(3HB-co-3HV) content and a 3HV fraction of 160.2 g/L, 119.0 g/L, 74.2% and 17.7 mol%, respectively, with a PHA productivity of 2.64 g h-1 L-1. Prior to this study, it hasn't been reported to obtain such high level productivity and 3HV fraction at the same time by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  4. 氮源流加对Alcaligenes eutrophus 积累聚β-羟基丁酸的影响%EFFECTS OF NITROGEN FEEDING ON THE ACCUMULATION OF POLY-β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE WITH ALCALIGENES EUTROPHUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    堵国成; 陈坚; 尹洪波; 高海军; 伦世仪

    2000-01-01

    以真养产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes eutrophus)为聚β-羟基丁酸(PHB)的生产菌株,在分析了PHB发酵过程参数变化的基础上,进一步探讨了PHB合成期不同的硫酸铵流加速率对PHB合成的影响.研究结果表明,在PHB合成阶段,培养基中氮源的完全缺乏,导致细胞合成PHB能力的下降;在PHB合成期,不同的氮源流加速率对PHB合成过程存在着显著的影响,当流加速率较小时,尽管最终胞内PHB含量很高,但细胞干重、PHB浓度和PHB生产强度都较低.当氮源流加速率过大时,会导致最终胞内PHB含量显著下降,使PHB浓度和PHB生产强度降低.当硫酸铵流加速率在0.5g/h左右时,可以得到较好的发酵效果.

  5. 纳米铁-真养产碱杆菌柱实验去除硝酸盐%Denitration by nanoscale iron-alcaligenes eutrophus in column experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩倩; 王成斌; 安毅; 金朝晖; 李铁龙

    2012-01-01

    In this study,experimental column equipment was established to explore the nitrate removal efficiency and the products under the conditions of different media,initial nitrate concentrations and flow rates.The results show that the complex obtained by mixed culture of nanoscale iron and alcaligenes eutrophus for 5 days prior to the experiment,achieves removal rate of 75% and the yield of ammonia is just 2.99 mg/L.This is the best removal effects among the 4 media,the rest of which were nanoscale iron,alcaligenes eutrophus,simplely mixed culture of fresh nanoscale iron and alcaligenes eutrophus.The degradation of the NO-3-N by the nanoscale iron-alcaligenes eutrophus achieved the best effect when initial concentration of nitrate was 32mg / L.The removal rate can achieve 78.9%,and the amounts of ammonia and nitrite generation were 2.34 mg/L and 2.89 mg/L,respectively,which was lower than that when initial concentrations of nitrate were 65 mg/L or 95 mg/L;the nitrate removal rate reached to 77% at the flow rate of 6.0 cm/h,and when the flow rate was controlled at 2.4 cm/h,the nitrite generation would lower to 0.34 mg/L.%建立柱实验装置,探讨了反应柱中填加介质、硝酸盐的初始浓度及不同过水流速时硝酸盐的去除效果及产物的生成情况。4种不同材料,纳米铁、真养产碱杆菌、纳米铁与真养产碱杆菌简单混合体、纳米铁与真养产碱杆菌驯化培养5 d的复合体,分别与初始浓度为65 mg/L硝酸盐溶液反应。结果表明,经培养5 d的纳米铁-真养产碱杆菌复合体对硝酸盐的去除效果最佳,去除率可达到75%,且氨氮的生成量仅为2.99 mg/L;硝酸盐初始浓度分别为32、65和95 mg/L时,32mg/L的体系中硝酸盐的降解效果最好,去除率达78.9%且亚硝酸盐及氨氮的生成量分别为2.34 mg/L和2.89 mg/L,均低于另外2组;溶液流速为6.0 cm/h时,经驯化培养的纳米铁-真养产碱杆菌对硝酸盐的去除率达77%,当控制流速降至2.4cm/h

  6. Production of poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) from CO(2), H(2), and O(2) by high cell density autotrophic cultivation of Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Ishizaki, A; Kanamaru, T; Kawano, T

    1995-02-05

    Hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Alcaligenes eutrophus autotrophically produces biodegradable plastic material, poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), from carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and oxygen. In autotrophic cultivation of the microorganism, it is essential to eliminate possible occurrence of gas explosions from the fermentation process. We developed a bench-plant scale, recycled-gas, closed-circuit culture system equipped with several safety features to perform autotrophic cultivation of A. eutrophus by maintaining the oxygen concentration in the substrate gas phase below the lower limit for a gas explosion (6.9%). The culture vessel utilized a baskettype agitator, resulting in a K(L) a value of 2970 h(-1). Oxygen gas was also directly fed to the fermentor separately from the other gases. As a result, 91.3 g . dm(-3) of the cells and 61.9 g . dm(-3) of P(3HB) were obtained after 40 h of cultivation under this oxygen-limited condition. The results compared favorably with those reported for mass production of P(3HB) by heterotrophic fermentation. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Uranium and selenium resistance in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avoscan, L.; Untereiner, G.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, UMR9956, Lab Pierre Sue, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Degrouard, J. [Univ Paris 11, Ctr Commun Microscopie Elect, CNRS, UMR8080, Orsay, (France)

    2007-07-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, a soil bacterium, is known to resist a variety of heavy metals and metalloids. Its capacity to resist, accumulate and transform selenium (Se as selenite or selenate) and uranium (U as uranyl-carbonate and uranyl-citrate) was investigated. C. metallidurans CH34 resists to high U concentrations (up to 10 mM) whatever its speciation. However, no major accumulation could be measured: U-carbonate and U-citrate are not bio-available for the bacteria. The anaerobic response of C. metallidurans CH34 to U will be looked for. C. metallidurans CH34 resists to high Se concentrations (up to 4 mM of selenite and 8 mM of selenate). Bacteria exposed to 2 mM of selenite accumulate 25 times more Se than when they are exposed to same concentration of selenate. Se resistance is characterized by the reduction of oxy-anions in the bacteria. Selenite is reduced to elemental Se by an intracellular process, but the metabolic fate of selenate is unknown. By combining three methods of speciation (X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGE coupled with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)), we both identified and specified the chemical intermediates formed by this bacterium upon exposure to these oxy-anions. Two mechanisms of reduction of Se oxides in C. metallidurans CH34 were highlighted. Assimilation transforms selenite and selenate into organic Se, identified as seleno-methionine and leads to its non-specific incorporation into bacterial proteins (presence of selenious proteins). Detoxication precipitates selenite in nano-particles of elemental Se. (authors)

  8. The response of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to spaceflight in the international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Natalie; Baatout, Sarah; Rosier, Caroline; Dams, Annik; s'Heeren, Catherine; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    2009-08-01

    The survival and behavior of Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34 were tested in space. In three spaceflight experiments, during three separate visits to the 'International Space Station' (ISS), strain CH34 was grown for 10-12 days at ambient temperature on mineral agar medium. Space- and earth-grown cells were compared post-flight by flow cytometry and using 2D-gel protein analysis. Pre-, in- and post-flight incubation conditions and experiment design had a significant impact on the survival and growth of CH34 in space. In the CH34 cells returning from spaceflight, 16 proteins were identified which were present in higher concentration in cells developed in spaceflight conditions. These proteins were involved in a specific response of CH34 to carbon limitation and oxidative stress, and included an acetone carboxylase subunit, fructose biphosphate aldolase, a DNA protection during starvation protein, chaperone protein, universal stress protein, and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase. The reproducible observation of the over-expression of these same proteins in multiple flight experiments, indicated that the CH34 cells could experience a substrate limitation and oxidative stress in spaceflight where cells and substrates are exposed to lower levels of gravity and higher doses of ionizing radiation. Bacterium C. metallidurans CH34 was able to grow normally under spaceflight conditions with very minor to no effects on cell physiology, but nevertheless specifically altered the expression of a few proteins in response to the environmental changes.

  9. The stress response of bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 into simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; de Boever, Patrick; Coninx, Ilse; Janssen, Ann; Benotmane, Rafi; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    The stress response of bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 into simulated microgravity R. Van Houdt, P. De Boever, I. Coninx, A. Janssen, M.A. Benotmane, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. We have studied the response of Cupriavidus (formerly Ralstonia) metallidurans CH34 to simulated microgravity by culturing in a Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactor. This bioreactor technology generates a unique Low-Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) environment and is exploited as analogue for in vivo medical and space environments. Cupriavidus and Ralstonia species are relevant model bacteria since they are often isolated from the floor, air and surfaces of spacecraft assembly rooms and not only contaminate the clean rooms but have also been found prior-to-flight on surfaces of space robots such as the Mars Odyssey Orbiter and even in-flight in ISS cooling water and Shuttle drinking water. In addition, C. metallidurans CH34 is also being used in fundamental space flight experiments aimed to gain a better insight in the bacterial adaptation to space. The first objective was to elucidate the stress response of C. metallidurans CH34 grown in LSMMG compared to a normal gravity control. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that a significant part of the heat shock response was induced in LSMMG. Transcription of d naK, encoding the major heat-shock protein and a prokaryotic homologue of the eukaryotic Hsp70 protein, was induced 6.4 fold in LSMMG. DnaK is assisted by partner chaperones DnaJ and GrpE for which transcription respectively were induced 2.0 and 2.6 fold. Transcription of other chaperones known to belong to the heat shock response was also induced in LSMMG: hslV and hsl U, encoding the HslVU protease, were induced respectively 5.5 and 3.4 fold; htpG, encoding a Hsp90 family chaperone, was induced 4.6 fold

  10. Uranium interaction with two multi-resistant environmental bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Llorens

    Full Text Available Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV-phosphate or U(IV-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations.

  11. Analysis of bioreactor experimental data by the application of metabolic pathway stoichiometry to polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Alcaligenes Eutrophus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.AM. PICCOLI

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In biochemical processes, the stoichiometry can be the result of macroscopic balances (where the microorganism is specified by the elementary composition and only the chemical reactions of the conversion process are considered or the balances of the metabolic pathway, where biochemical knowledge available for metabolic reactions, in addition to the chemical characteristics of the system, are considered. It is possible to identify several linear relationships among the conversion rates in these processes. While several rates are measured, others can be calculated. If a calculated conversion rate is also measured, measurement errors or errors of the described model can be detected or even diagnosed by comparing these values, and accurate estimates can be obtained by combining them.

  12. The complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34, a master survivalist in harsh and anthropogenic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Janssen

    Full Text Available Many bacteria in the environment have adapted to the presence of toxic heavy metals. Over the last 30 years, this heavy metal tolerance was the subject of extensive research. The bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34, originally isolated by us in 1976 from a metal processing factory, is considered a major model organism in this field because it withstands milli-molar range concentrations of over 20 different heavy metal ions. This tolerance is mostly achieved by rapid ion efflux but also by metal-complexation and -reduction. We present here the full genome sequence of strain CH34 and the manual annotation of all its genes. The genome of C. metallidurans CH34 is composed of two large circular chromosomes CHR1 and CHR2 of, respectively, 3,928,089 bp and 2,580,084 bp, and two megaplasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30 of, respectively, 171,459 bp and 233,720 bp in size. At least 25 loci for heavy-metal resistance (HMR are distributed over the four replicons. Approximately 67% of the 6,717 coding sequences (CDSs present in the CH34 genome could be assigned a putative function, and 9.1% (611 genes appear to be unique to this strain. One out of five proteins is associated with either transport or transcription while the relay of environmental stimuli is governed by more than 600 signal transduction systems. The CH34 genome is most similar to the genomes of other Cupriavidus strains by correspondence between the respective CHR1 replicons but also displays similarity to the genomes of more distantly related species as a result of gene transfer and through the presence of large genomic islands. The presence of at least 57 IS elements and 19 transposons and the ability to take in and express foreign genes indicates a very dynamic and complex genome shaped by evolutionary forces. The genome data show that C. metallidurans CH34 is particularly well equipped to live in extreme conditions and anthropogenic environments that are rich in metals.

  13. The interactions of the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with basalt rock, on Earth and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byloos, Bo; Van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Nicholson, Natasha; Childers, Delma; Cockell, Charles; Boon, Nico

    2016-07-01

    Microbe-mineral interactions have become of interest for space exploration as microorganisms can biomine elements from extra-terrestrial materials, which could be used as nutrients in a life support system. This research is aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms behind the interaction of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 with basalt, a lunar-type rock, and determining the influence of space flight conditions on this interaction. Survival and physiology of CH34 was monitored, with and without basalt, in mineral water over several months by flow cytometry, plate counts, ICP-MS, microscopy and proteomics. To study the influence of space conditions, a flight experiment on board the Russian FOTON-M4 capsule was performed. The results obtained from from water survival experiments on ground showed that CH34 was able to survive in mineral water, in the absence and presence of basalt, for several months. The total cell concentration remained stable but the cultivable fraction dropped to 10%, indicating a transition to a more dormant state. In the presence of basalt, this transition was less pronounced and cultivability was enhanced. In addition, with basalt, CH34 attached to the rock surface and formed a biofilm. The space flight experiment indicated more viable and cultivable cells compared to the ground experiment, both in the absence and presence of basalt, indicating a positive effect of space flight on survival. Chemical analysis indicated that basalt leaches out elements which may contribute to a positive effect of basalt on survival. Basalt may thus enhance survival and viability of CH34 both in ground and space flight experimental conditions. This study hopefully can contribute to a better understanding of microbe-mineral interactions, opening the door to future applications, in space, and on Earth. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the BIOROCK project. We thank Kai

  14. New mobile genetic elements in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, their possible roles and occurrence in other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Monchy, Sébastien; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    2009-08-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34 is a beta-Proteobacterium that thrives in low concentrations of heavy metals. The genetic determinants of resistance to heavy metals are located on its two chromosomes, and are particularly abundant in the two megaplasmids, pMOL28 and pMOL30. We explored the involvement of mobile genetic elements in acquiring these and others traits that might be advantageous in this strain using genome comparison of Cupriavidus/Ralstonia strains and related beta-Proteobacteria. At least eleven genomic islands were identified on the main replicon, three on pMOL28 and two on pMOL30. Multiple islands contained genes for heavy metal resistance or other genetic determinants putatively responding to harsh environmental conditions. However, cryptic elements also were noted. New mobile genetic elements (or variations of known ones) were identified through synteny analysis, allowing the detection of mobile genetic elements outside the bias of a selectable marker. Tn4371-like conjugative transposons involved in chemolithotrophy and degradation of aromatic compounds were identified in strain CH34, while similar elements involved in heavy metal resistance were found in Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 and Bordetella petrii DSM12804. We defined new transposons, viz., Tn6048 putatively involved in the response to heavy metals and Tn6050 carrying accessory genes not classically associated with transposons. Syntenic analysis also revealed new transposons carrying metal response genes in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, and other bacteria. Finally, other putative mobile elements, which were previously unnoticed but apparently common in several bacteria, were also revealed. This was the case for triads of tyrosine-based site-specific recombinases and for an int gene paired with a putative repressor and associated with chromate resistance.

  15. Deletion of the zupT gene for a zinc importer influences zinc pools in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, M; Bauer, L; Nies, D H

    2014-03-01

    Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34 accomplishes a high level of transition metal resistance by a combination of rather unspecific transition metal import and controlled efflux of surplus metals. Using the plasmid-free mutant strain AE104 that possesses only a limited number of metal efflux systems, cellular metal pools were identified as counterparts of these transport reactions. At low zinc concentrations strain AE104 took up Zn(II) until the zinc content reached an optimum level of 70,000 Zn(II) per cell in the exponential phase of growth, whereas a ΔzupT mutant lacking the zinc importer ZupT contained only 20,000 Zn(II)/cell, possibly the minimum zinc content. Mutant and parent cells accumulated up to 125,000 Zn(II) per cell at high (100 μM) external zinc concentrations (optimum zinc content). When the mutant strain Δe4, which has all the known genes for zinc efflux systems deleted, was cultivated in the presence of zinc concentrations close to its upper tolerance level (10 μM), these cells contained 250,000 Zn(II) per cell, probably the maximum zinc content. Instead of zinc, 120,000 cobalt or cadmium ions could also fill-up parts of this zinc pool, showing that it is in fact an undefined pool of divalent transition metal cations bound with low substrate specificity. Even when the cells contained sufficient numbers of total zinc, the zinc importer ZupT was required for important cellular processes, indicating the presence of a pool of tightly bound zinc ions, which depends on ZupT for efficient replenishment. The absence of ZupT led to the formation of inclusion bodies, perturbed oxidative stress resistance and decreased efficiency in the synthesis of the zinc-dependent subunit RpoC of the RNA polymerase, leading to RpoC accumulation. Moreover, when a czc allele for a zinc-exporting transenvelope efflux system CzcCBA was constitutively expressed in a ΔzupT mutant, this led to the disappearance of the CzcA protein and the central subunit of the protein

  16. Scleral buckle infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kang Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of extraocular inflammation secondary to scleral buckle infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. A 60-year-old female with a history of retinal detachment repair with open-book technique of scleral buckling presented with purulent discharge and irritation in the right eye that had begun 4 weeks earlier and had been treated ineffectively at another hospital. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the scleral buckle was noted. The scleral buckle was removed and cultured. The explanted material grew gram-negative rod later identified as A. xylosoxidans. On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated by subconjunctival injection and fortified topical ceftazidime. After 4 weeks of treatment, the infection resolved.

  17. Scleral buckle infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Kang; Chang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Jiann-Torng

    2014-06-01

    We describe a rare case of extraocular inflammation secondary to scleral buckle infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. A 60-year-old female with a history of retinal detachment repair with open-book technique of scleral buckling presented with purulent discharge and irritation in the right eye that had begun 4 weeks earlier and had been treated ineffectively at another hospital. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the scleral buckle was noted. The scleral buckle was removed and cultured. The explanted material grew gram-negative rod later identified as A. xylosoxidans. On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated by subconjunctival injection and fortified topical ceftazidime. After 4 weeks of treatment, the infection resolved.

  18. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  19. Comparison of chemical washing and physical cell-disruption approaches to assess the surface adsorption and internalization of cadmium by Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaunay, Aurélien; Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Subcellular distribution of cadmium in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 cells. • Comparison of a chemical (EDTA washing) and a physical method (physical disruption). • EDTA washings strongly overestimated membrane-bound Cd concentrations. • The physical method revealed surprisingly over 80% of Cd internalization in the cells. • Metal biosorption by bacteria cannot be considered as a surface complexation process. - Abstract: Bacterial biosorption of heavy metals is often considered as a surface complexation process, without considering other retention compartments than cell walls. Although this approach gives a good description of the global biosorption process, it hardly permits the prediction of the fate of biosorbed metals in the environment. This study examines the subcellular distribution of cadmium (Cd) in the metal-tolerant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 through the comparison of an indirect chemical method (washing cells with EDTA) and a direct physical method (physical disruption of cells). The chemical washing approach presented strong experimental biases leading to the overestimation of washed amount of Cd, supposedly bound to cell membranes. On the contrary, the physical disruption approach gave reproducible and robust results of Cd subcellular distribution. Unexpectedly, these results showed that over 80% of passively biosorbed Cd is internalized in the cytoplasm. In disagreement with the common concept of surface complexation of metals onto bacteria the cell wall was poorly reactive to Cd. Our results indicate that metal sorption onto bacterial surfaces is only a first step in metal management by bacteria and open new perspectives on metal biosorption by bacteria in the environment, with implications for soil bioremediation or facilitated transport of metals by bacteria.

  20. Study of the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 resistance of selenite and selenate oxy-anions: accumulation, localisation and transformation of selenium; Etude de la resistance de Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 aux oxyanions selenite et seleniate: accumulation, localisation et transformation du selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avoscan, L

    2007-06-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for the living organisms but it is very toxic at high concentration. Selenite and selenate oxides, soluble forms, highly toxic and bio-assimilable, are the most prevalent forms in the environment. Some soil micro-organisms play a dominant role and contribute to the natural cycle of selenium. Our study model, Cupriavidus (formerly Ralstonia) metallidurans CH34, a telluric bacterium characteristic of metal-contaminated biotopes, is known to resist selenite by reducing it into elemental selenium, an insoluble and less toxic form of selenium. In order to better understand the mechanisms of selenium reduction in the bacteria, three methods of speciation were combined (XAS (XANES and EXAFS), HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGEPIXE). They were completed by the direct quantification of selenium accumulated in the bacteria. Speciation analyses highlighted the existence of two mechanisms of reduction of selenium oxides in C. metallidurans CH34. Assimilation transforms selenite and selenate into organic selenium, identified as seleno-methionine and leads to its non-specific incorporation into bacterial proteins (presence of selenious proteins). Detoxication precipitates selenite in nano-particles of elemental selenium. This way of detoxication is not set up after an exposure to selenate although it is nevertheless possible to detect elemental selenium but in very small amount compared to the exposure of selenite. Seleno-diglutathion is detected in bacteria stressed by an exposure to selenate in medium limited in sulphate. Bacteria exposed to selenite accumulate 25 times more selenium than when they are exposed to selenate. The study of mutants resistant to selenite, which do not express the membrane protein DedA, showed that the accumulation of selenium after exposure to selenite is decreased compared with the wild strain meaning probable link between the transport of selenite and the DedA protein. Finally, selenate would use the sulphate permease

  1. Purification of siderophores of Alcaligenes faecalis on Amberlite XAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, R Z; Chincholkar, S B

    2006-05-01

    Studies on siderophore production using Alcaligenes faecalis BCCM ID 2374 revealed hydroxamate and catecholate type of siderophores at 347 microg mL-1. These fractions were purified on Amberlite XAD-4 column, which resulted in the separation of two bands having absorption maxima at 264 and 224 nm. The amount of pure siderophore obtained in powdered form from first and second fraction was 297 and 50 microg mL-1 respectively.

  2. Development of a lipase fermentation process that uses a recombinant Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, G; Hommes, R.W J; Quax, Wim

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes M-l secretes an alkaline lipase, which has excellent characteristics for the removal of fatty stains under modern washing conditions. A fed-batch fermentation process based on the secretion of the alkaline lipase from P. alcaligenes was developed. Due to the inability of P. a

  3. Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans) meningitis associated with a gunshot wound.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The microbiological and clinical features of a case of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans) meningitis associated with a gunshot wound are described. To our knowledge, this is the third confirmed case report of meningitis caused by this organism.

  4. The phenotype enhancement method identifies the Xcp outer membrane secretion machinery from Pseudomonas alcaligenes as a bottleneck for lipase production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, G; Ure, R; Bizoullier, F; Quax, WJ

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes M-1 has been selected from an intensive screening for micro-organisms that can naturally produce a lipase active in detergent formulations. The lipase expression has been increased to allow high level secretion from Pseudomonas alcaligenes, via the introduction of multi-copy

  5. Purification and characterization of alkaline protease from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, E Berla; Rajkumar, G Suseela

    2002-04-01

    Extracellular alkaline protease from the alkalophilic bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis was purified by a combination of ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatographic methods, and its properties were examined. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 563.8 micromol of tyrosine/min per mg of protein and gave a single band on native PAGE and SDS/PAGE with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. Gelatin zymogram also revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity which corresponded to the band obtained with native PAGE and SDS/PAGE. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 9.0 and exhibited its highest activity at 55 degrees C. The enzyme activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting the presence of serine residues at the active site. The enzyme had a K(m) of 1.66 mg/ml and a V(max) of 526 units/min per mg of protein with casein as the substrate.

  6. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    1991-06-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

  7. Purification and characterization of beta-glucosidase of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y W; Srinivasan, V R

    1969-12-01

    A cellobiose-utilizing bacterium isolated from sugar cane bagasse and identified as a strain of Alcaligenes faecalis (ATCC 21400) produced an inducible beta-glucoside-splitting enzyme. The enzyme was purified by a series of streptomycin and ammonium sulfate fractionations and by Sephadex and diethylaminoethyl column chromatography. The final preparation was purified 130-fold, with a recovery of about 10% of the initial enzyme activity. The enzyme had a wide pH range, with optimal activity at pH 6.0 to 7.0. The enzyme was stable in solution at pH 6.5 to 7.8 when kept at 30 C for 2 hr, but it was destroyed by temperatures above 55 C. At 58 and 60 C, the time required to inactivate 90% of the initial activity was 16 and 6.5 min, respectively. An activation energy of 9,500 cal/mole and a K(m) of 1.25 x 10(-4)m were obtained by using p-nitrophenyl beta-glucoside as a substrate. The K(i) value and hydrolysis of cellobiose by the enzyme indicated a high affinity of the enzyme for the cellobiose. The enzyme had its specificity on beta-glucosidic linkage and the rate of hydrolisis of glucosides depended upon the nature of the aglycon moiety. The inactivation studies showed the presence of sulfhydryl groups in the enzyme. The activity of the enzyme was easily destroyed by the Cu(++) and Hg(++) ions. The Michaelis-Menton relationship and the rate of heat inactivation indicated the presence of one type of noninteracting active site in the bacterial beta-glucosidase. Molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated by gel filtration (Sephadex G-200) and sucrose density gradient, and a value of 120,000 to 160,000 was obtained.

  8. Investigation of cadmium resistance in an Alcaligenes sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, J.D.; Woodrow, J.R.; Quirk, A.V.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanisms of metal resistance of a cadmium-resistant Alcaligenes sp. were studied. Growth in a defined medium was unaffected by cadmium at concentrations up to 0.1 mM, while at concentrations up to 2.5 mM, growth occurred after an extended lag phase. The increase in length of the lag phase was abolished by repeated subculturing at these higher concentrations. However, subculture in the absence of cadmium reversed the adaptation process. Plasmid DNA was not detected in adapted cells, suggesting that adaptation is not plasmid mediated. Increased sulfide production in response to cadmium was observed, although the levels were too low to account fully for cadmium resistance. Adaptation of cells to cadmium resulted in the appearance of a major new membrane preparation. This protein was induced at cadmium concentrations of 0.1 mM and above, but below this level the protein was absent. The onset of growth at concentrations above 0.1 mM was coincident with the appearance of this protein, which was also induced by zinc (0.4 mM) but not by manganese or nickel. The protein was only solubilized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate-2-mercaptoethanol mixture. Similar solubility properties were shown by a second major membrane protein (molecular weight, 33,000). These two proteins proved to be similar by peptide-mapping experiments and amino acid analysis. The appearance of the 34,500-molecular-weight protein and its possible role in cadmium resistance are discussed.

  9. [Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteremia in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Zeynep Alp; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celik, Nigar; Celkan, Tiraje

    2009-07-01

    Alcaligenes xylosoxidans which is an aerobic, non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus found in aqueous environments and human flora, can lead to opportunistic infections. It causes infections in elderly, immunocompromised patients, patients with chronic disorders or premature infants. In this report, a case of A. xylosoxidans bacteremia that developed in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was presented. Four-years-old male patient under ALL induction therapy was admitted with symptoms of lethargy, headache, somnolence, and fever (39 degrees C). Cerebrospinal fluid, blood, throat and urine cultures were taken from the patient and empirical treatment with sulbactam cefoperazon and amikacin was initiated. Blood cultures in BacT Alert 3D (Bio Merieux, France) revealed the growth of a gram-negative coccobacillus. The agent which was non-fermentative, indol and H2S negative, was identified as A. xylosoxidans by API 20 NE (Bio Merieux, France). Since fever continued under the current antibiotic treatment, the therapy was switched to imipenem (90 mg/kg 3x/day) and the patient's condition improved markedly after 24 hours. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing of the isolate revealed that it was resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, amikacin, netilmicin and gentamicin; susceptible to amoxicillin clavulanate, piperacillin tazobactam, seftazidime, cefepime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Following 14 days of imipenem therapy, the patient recovered and discharged from the hospital on routine follow-up. It is important to consider A. xylosoxidans as a possible causative agent particularly in the infections that develop in high risk patients at oncology, dialysis and neonatal intensive care units.

  10. Unusual causes of peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arikan Hakki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  11. Lipase expression in Pseudomonas alcaligenes is under the control of a two-component regulatory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeslak, Joanna; Gerritse, Gijs; van Merkerk, Ronald; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary observations in a large-scale fermentation process suggested that the lipase expression of Pseudomonas alcaligenes can be switched on by the addition of certain medium components, such as soybean oil. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of induction of lipase expression, we have set

  12. [Case report: respiratory infection due to Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with Mounier-Kuhn syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cózar, Marta; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Merlos, Eva M; Vielba, David; Macías, Enrique

    2012-10-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare entity characterized by abnormal dilatation of the trachea and main bronchi (tracheobronchomegaly). Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is a non fermenting gram-negative pathogen common in extra-and intra-hospital environment, which may be related to immunosuppression states. We describe the case of a 75 years old male, ex-smoker with moderate functional obstruction, chronic respiratory failure and chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeuriginosa. He had an infectious exacerbation of his disease, reason that previously required several hospital admissions. The patient was treated with antibiotics and his evolution was favourable with negativization in cultures of the pathogen. This is the first description of the isolation of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans as a cause of respiratory infection in a patient with Mounier-Kuhn syndrome.

  13. Meningitis caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Espinoza-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to inform about the first case of meningitis associated to the bacteria Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with HIV/AIDS. The patient was a 46-year-old male, with the antecedent of have been diagnosed for HIV/ AIDS, who attended in the Hospital Universitario de Colima, Mexico, with fever, shock and meningismus. The study of the cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and hypoglycorrhachia. The culture yielded the presence of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans with sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. After 14 days of treatment with this antibiotic, the patient showed neurologic improvement and was able to continue with his outpatient antiretroviral treatment. The present case shows the importance of the inclusion of this bacterium in the differential diagnosis of the neurological infections in HIV/AIDS patients and emphasizes the importance of considering the bacterial meningitis in this population.

  14. Post-ERCP bacteremia caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with pancreas cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcay Korhan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, nonfermentative Gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been isolated from intestine of humans and from various hospital or environmental water sources. A.xylosoxidans is both waterborne and results from the poor-hygienic conditions healthcare workers are in. In this case report, the bacteremia which appeared in a patient with pancreas cancer after ERCP was described.

  15. The secretion of lecithinase of Pseudomonas alcaligenes S2 was via type II secretion pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jing; LI Fan; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2005-01-01

    Strain S2 is a lecithin (or phosphatidylcholine)- solubilizing bacterium, which was isolated from the rice rhizosphere in rural areas of Beijing, China. On the basis of a polyphasic study involving phenotypic tests, physiological and biochemical tests, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, G+C content determination and DNA-DNA hybridizations analysis, strain S2 was identified as Pseudomonas alcaligenes. P. alcaligenes S2 was mutagenized with Tn5 and four mutants showing decreased or increased solubilizing ability of lecithin were isolated based on the halo size around colonies on the solid plate supplemented with egg yolk. To characterize the genes of P. alcaligenes S2 involved in solubilization of lecithin, the EcoR I fragments of the chromosomes from the four mutant strains carrying a single transposon were cloned, and the DNA sequences flanking the Tn5 were determined. The Tn5 insertion sites in the mutants M808, M1329 and M1400, showing decreased solubilizing ability of lecithin, were found to be located in the xcpS, xcpX and xcpW , respectively, whose products XcpS, XcpX and XcpW were the components of type II secretion pathway. Complementation of xcpS, xcpX and xcpW could restore the corresponding mutants M808, M1329 and M1400 to solubilize lecithin. The data suggested that mutation in one of these xcp genes would lead to the absence of mature lecithinase secretion into the extracellular medium. The data also indicated that the secretion of lecithin-hydrolyzing enzyme of P. alcaligenes was via type II secretion pathway. In the mutant M20 showing increasing lecithin-hydrolyzing activity, the interrupted gene showed 86% identity with chpA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, whose product plays an important role in controlling twitching motility of the bacterial cells.

  16. Modification of cell surface properties of Pseudomonas alcaligenes S22 during hydrocarbon biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorek, Ewa; Moszyńska, Sylwia; Olszanowski, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    Biodegradation of water insoluble hydrocarbons can be significantly increased by the addition of natural surfactants one. Very promising option is the use of saponins. The obtained results indicated that in this system, after 21 days, 92% biodegradation of diesel oil could be achieved using Pseudomonas alcaligenes. No positive effect on the biodegradation process was observed using synthetic surfactant Triton X-100. The kind of carbon source influences the cell surface properties of microorganisms. Modification of the surface cell could be observed by control of the sedimentation profile. This analytical method is a new approach in microbiological analysis.

  17. Conversion of celluloses to proteins. [Use of Cellulomonas and Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, C.A.; Joson, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulosic wastes in the form of sugar cane bagasse was converted to single-cell protein by the action of Cellulomonas species subsequent to hydrolysis by NaOH and(or) autoclaving. As an aid to the process, in order to decompose the inhibitory cellobiose, Alcaligenes faecalis was introduced along with the Cellulomonas. Fungal enzyme production was greatest at the onset of fermentation, while the bacterial cellulases were produced over a more prolonged period, after an initial lag period. Biomass yield showed no correlation with enzyme production. The single-cell protein obtained comprised mainly lysine, methionine, cysteine, glycine, and valine.

  18. MICROBIAL LIPASES: PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE ENZYME BY ALCALIGENES VISCOSUS (DOGE-1 STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Sekhar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrially important extracellular lipase enzyme production was explored by utilizingmicrobial strain isolated from dairy effluents. Alcaligenes viscosus DOGE-1 strain isolated from dairywaste waters proved to produce extracellular lipase. Various growth factors were attempted to maximizethe lipase production by this strain. Growth factors like NH4PO4, Peptone, Urea coupled with peptone,KH2PO4, Olive oil and pH were found to be favored the maximum lipase production. This microbialstrain was found to have a high lipolytic activity.

  19. Character of ammonia removal by heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria Alcaligenes sp.S3 and its kinetics%异养硝化细菌Alcaligenes sp.S3除氮特性及动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余润兰; 苗雷

    2012-01-01

    从湘江生活污水排污口分离纯化的一株菌Alcaligenes sp.S3,在氨氮浓度为400 mg/L时,经过192 h的降解,氨氮的去除率达到88%,并且NH2OH和NO2--N并没出现积累。在对不同浓度的氨氮进行一级动力学拟合时发现,只有氨氮浓度较高时才很好地符合,浓度为500 mg/L时R2达到0.9923。酸性环境对Alcaligenes sp.S3生长有抑制作用,在pH7.5~10生长较好。摇床转速对Alcaligenes sp.S3除氮影响不大,C/N过低或过高对Alcaligenes sp.S3除氮都有影响。%A stain heterotropic nitrifier Alcaligenes sp.S3 was isolated from drain outlet of domestic sewage of Xiangjiang River.After 192 hours incubation,the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen by Alcaligenes sp.S3 was 88%,with the initial concentration of 400 mg/L,and the NH2OH and NO-2-N were not accumulated.When fitting with fist-order kinetics at diffrent concentrations of ammonia nitrogen,the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen was fitted better only at higer concentration,such as 500 mg/L,with the R2 of 0.9923.Alcaligenes sp.S3 grew badly in acidic environment,and grew well at pH of 7.5~10.The shaker speed had little effect on the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen,but the C/N ratio had great influence on the removal efficiency.

  20. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endocarditis of a prosthetic valve and pacemaker in a 62-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Abhishek C; Srivatsa, Sanjay S; Castro, Luis J

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is known to cause several nosocomial infections; however, it rarely causes endocarditis, which has a very high mortality rate. Early isolation of the infection source and prompt identification of the patient's antibiotic sensitivities are paramount if the infection is to be treated adequately. We present what is apparently only the second documented case of the successful eradication of bioprosthetic valve endocarditis that was caused by pacemaker lead infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. A 62-year-old woman with multiple comorbidities presented with endocarditis of a recently placed bioprosthetic aortic valve. The infection was secondary to pacemaker lead infection. She underwent antibiotic therapy, but an unusual pattern of antibiotic resistance developed. Despite initially adequate therapy, the infection recurred because of virulence induced by antibiotic resistance. Emergent, high-risk surgical treatment involved excising the infected valve and removing the source of the infection (the pacemaker leads). The patient eventually recovered after prolonged antibiotic therapy and close vigilance for recurrent infection. In addition to the patient's case, we discuss the features of this bacteremia and the challenges in its diagnosis.

  1. [Extraction, Purification and Identification of a Dexamethasone-degrading Enzymes Generated by Pseudomonas Alcaligenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lili; Yang, Zhibang; Yang, Qian; Shi, Zhongquan; Deng, Xichuan

    2015-10-01

    In this research a strain of isolated Pseudomonas alcaligenes which causes degradation of dexamethasone was acclimated further and its proteins of every position in the bacterium were separated by the osmotic shock method. The separated intracellular proteins which had the highest enzyme activity were extracted by the salting out with ammonium sulfate and were purified with the cation exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. The purified proteins which was active to cause degradation of dexamethasone had been detected were cut with enzyme and were analyzed with mass spectrometry. The results showed that the degradation rate to dexamethasone by acclimated Pseudomonas alcaligenes were increased from 23.63% to 52.84%. The degrading enzymes were located mainly in the intracellular of the bacteria and its molecular weight was about 41 kD. The specific activity of the purified degrading enzymes were achieved to 1.02 U x mg(-1). Its 5-peptide amino acid sequences were consistent with some sequences of the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. The protein enzyme may be a new kind degrading enzyme of steroidal compounds. Our experimental results provided new strategies for cleanup of dexamethasone in water environment with microbial bioremediation technique.

  2. Degradation of h-acid by free and immobilized cells of Alcaligenes latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Usha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcaligenes latus, isolated from industrial effluent, was able to grow in mineral salts medium with 50 ppm (0.15 mM of H-acid as a sole source of carbon. Immobilization of Alcaligenes latus in Ca-alginate and polyurethane foam resulted in cells embedded in the matrices. When free cells and immobilized cells were used for biodegradation studies at concentration ranging from 100 ppm (0.3 mM to 500 ppm (1.15 mM degradation rate was enhanced with immobilized cells. Cells immobilized in polyurethane foam showed 100% degradation up to 350 ppm (1.05 mM and 57% degradation at 500 ppm (1.5 mM. Degradation rate of Ca-alginate immobilized cells was less as compared to that of polyurethane foam immobilized cells. With Ca-alginate immobilized cells 100% degradation was recorded up to 200 ppm (0.6 mM of H-acid and only 33% degradation was recorded at 500 ppm (1.5 mM of H-acid. Spectral analysis of the products after H-acid utilization showed that the spent medium did not contain any aromatic compounds indicating H-acid degradation by A. latus.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of an Alcaligenes faecalis Strain Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoobi Avini, M. (MSc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The bacteria living in the specific ecological conditions are among the most promising antimicrobial producers. This study aimed at isolating antimicrobial producing bacteria from soils contaminated with crude oil. Material and Methods: the samples were obtained from crude oil contaminated soils around Dezful located in Khuzestan province, Iran, and antimicrobial producing bacteria were isolated using disc diffusion and cross streak culture. Then, the best bacterium was selected and its antimicrobial potency was studied against indicator microorganisms. The isolate was also characterized based on biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis. Results: based on the results, the highest antimicrobial activity of isolated bacterium was related to Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. An intermediate effect was determined against Serratia marcesens and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas no effect was observed against three strains of Enterococcus. Using biochemical characteristics and phenotypic traits, the isolate was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Conclusion: given that the isolate has broad spectrum activity against a various range of microorganisms and in comparison with some antimicrobial compounds produced by other Alcaligenes species, it seems the novelty of this antimicrobial compound.

  4. Class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Arthrobacter spp., Alcaligenes spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium glutamicum. The 257 isolates were screened for in-1. Eighty-one of the gram-negative isolates were also screened for the Tc-r genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(C), and all (n = 72) gram...

  5. Met144Ala mutation of the copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans reverses the intramolecular electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Eady, Robert R; Sawers, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis has been employed to investigate the intramolecular electron transfer (ET) between the type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) copper sites in the Met144Ala Alcaligenes xylosoxidans nitrite reductase (AxCuNiR) mutant. This mutation increases the reduction potential of the T1 copper center...

  6. Uniform designation for genes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate pathway of bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabita, F. Robert; Gibson, Janet L.; Bowien, Botho; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Meijer, Wilhelmus

    1992-01-01

    Structural and regulatory genes encoding enzymes and proteins of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway have been isolated from a number of bacteria recently. In the phototroph Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and in two chemoautotrophic bacteria, Alcaligenes eutrophus and Xanthobacter flavus, these genes

  7. Postoperative Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endophthalmitis: report of two cases Endoftalmite pós-operatória causada por Alcaligenes xylosoxidans: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra de-la-Torre

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of postoperative Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endophthalmitis. A 78-year-old woman in good general health developed A. xylosoxidans endophthalmitis one month after an uncomplicated phacoemulsification procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens. It was performed on her left eye, at another institution. Removal of the intraocular lens and capsule was performed because of recurrent inflammation after vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotic injections. Her son, a 55-year-old man, developed A. xylosoxidans endophthalmitis in his left eye, two months after an uncomplicated phacoemulsification procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens (it also was performed by the same surgeon. He also required vitrectomy with removal of the intraocular lens and capsule because of persistent disease. A. xyloso - xidans can cause chronic low-grade and progressive endophthalmitis after cataract extraction that is often resistant to corrective antibiotic therapy. This kind of case is rare. There have been only previously reported seven cases worldwide to the best of our knowledge.Relatamos dois casos de endoftalmite pós-operatória causada por Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Uma mulher de 78 anos de idade e saúde geral boa desenvolveu endoftalmite por A. xylosoxidans um mês após ser submetida a facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior, sem complicações. A cirurgia foi realizada no olho esquerdo em outra instituição. A remoção da lente e da cápsula intra-ocular foi realizada em conseqüência da inflamação recorrente após vitrectomia e injeções intravítreas de antibiótico. Seu filho, de 55 anos, desenvolveu endoftalmite por A. xylosoxidans, no olho esquerdo, dois meses após facoemulsificação com implante de lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior (realizada também pelo mesmo cirurgião. Foi necessária também realização de vitrectomia com remoção da lente intra-ocular e da c

  8. Aderência in vitro do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes em lentes intra-oculares In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar e comparar a aderência in vitro das bactérias Staphylococcus epidermidis e Pseudomonas alcaligenes em diferentes tipos de lentes intra-oculares (LIOs. MÉTODOS: Quatorze lentes intra-oculares foram usadas no experimento. Quatro de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA, quatro de silicone, quatro de hidrogel e duas de acrílico. Oito lentes intra-oculares foram colocadas em oito tubos de ensaio contendo 4 ml de suspensão de Pseudomonas alcaligenes, e seis lentes intra-oculares foram colocadas em seis tubos de ensaio contendo 4 ml de suspensão de Staphylococcus epidermidis. A concentração do caldo utilizada para o teste de aderência foi de 10(8 unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro (CFU/mL que corresponde a 0,5 na escala de McFarland. As lentes foram incubadas a 37° por duas horas. Após, foram removidas dos caldos e enxaguadas em água destilada estéril por duas vezes. As lentes foram cultivadas em placas de ágar-sangue a 35-37° e evaliadas a cada 24h por um período de 72h. Nas amostras que tiveram crescimento bacteriano, foram contadas as colônias utilizando os métodos convencionais de laboratório. Todos os ensaios foram executados em duplicata. RESULTADOS: A aderência do Staphylococcus epidermidis nas lentes de PMMA foi menor se comparada com as de silicone e de hidrogel. A aderência daPseudomonas alcaligenes nas lentes de hidrogel foi menor se comparada com as de silicone, PMMA e acrílico. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a aderência do Staphylococcus epidermidis e da Pseudomonas alcaligenes nas lentes intra-oculares é influenciada pelo tipo de material da lente e pela espécie do microorganismo. A aderência bacteriana pode ter papel importante na patogenicidade da endoftalmite pós-cirurgia de catarata.PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes to different intraocular lenses (IOLs. METHODS: Fourteen intraocular lenses were

  9. Anaerobic taurine oxidation: a novel reaction by a nitrate-reducing Alcaligenes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-06-01

    Enrichment cultures were prepared under strictly anoxic conditions in medium representing fresh water and containing an organosulfonate as electron donor and carbon source, and nitrate as electron acceptor. The inoculum was from the anaerobic digestor of two communal sewage works. The natural organosulfonates 2-aminoethanesulfonate (taurine), DL-2-amino-3-sulfopropionate (cysteate) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate (isethionate) all gave positive enrichments, whereas unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, such as methanesulfonate and arenesulfonates, gave no enrichment. Two representative enrichments were used to obtain pure cultures, and strains NKNTAU (utilizing taurine) and NKNIS (utilizing isethionate) were isolated. Strain NKNTAU was examined in detail. Out of 18 tested organosulfonates, it utilized only one, taurine, and was identified as a novel Alcaligenes sp., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Carbon from taurine was converted to cell material and carbon dioxide. The amino group was released as ammonium ion and the sulfonate moiety was recovered as sulfate. Nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas.

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel caffeine oxidase from Alcaligenes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, B R; Harris, N; Nordin, R; Mazumder, A

    2006-09-18

    Alcaligenes species CF8 isolated from surface water of a lake produced a novel serine type metallo-caffeine oxidase. The optimal medium for caffeine oxidase production by this strain was (w/v) NaNO(3), 0.4%; KH(2)PO(4), 0.15%; Na(2)HPO(4), 0.05%; FeCl(3).6H(2)O, 0.0005%; CaCl(2).2H(2)O, 0.001%; MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 0.02%; glucose, 0.2%; caffeine, 0.05%, pH 7.5. The enzyme was purified to 63-fold by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange (diethylaminoethyl-cellulose) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-100) chromatographic techniques. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified caffeine oxidase was monomeric with a molecular mass of 65 kDa. The purified caffeine oxidase with a half-life of 20 min at 50 degrees C had maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 35 degrees C. The purified caffeine oxidase had strict substrate specificity towards caffeine (K(m) 8.94 microM and V(max) 47.62 U mg protein(-1)) and was not able to oxidize xanthine and hypoxanthine. The enzyme activity was not inhibited by para-chloromercuribenzoic acid, iodoacetamide, n-methylmaleimide, salicylic acid and sodium arsenite indicating the enzyme did not belong to xanthine oxidase family. The enzyme was not affected by Ca(+2), Mg(+2) and Na(+), but was completely inhibited by Co(+2), Cu(+2) and Mn(+2) at 1mM level. The novel caffeine oxidase isolated here from Alcaligenes species CF8 may be useful in biotechnological processes including waste treatment and biosensor development.

  11. Structure of a new azurin from the denitrifying bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, F E; Hasnain, S S; Abraham, Z H; Eady, R R; Smith, B E

    1995-11-01

    It has been reported previously that Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (NC1MB 11015) grown under denitrifying conditions produces two azurins instead of the single previously identified azurin [Dodd, Hasnain, Hunter, Abraham, Debenham, Kanzler, Eldridge, Eady, Ambler & Smith (1995). Biochemistry. In the press]. The new azurin, called azurin II, has been crystallized as blue elongated rectangular prisms with the tetragonal space group P4(1)22 and unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.65, c = 100.63 A. X-ray crystallographic data extending to 1.9 A resolution were collected by the Weissenberg method using 200 x 400 mm image plates and synchrotron X-rays of wavelength 0.97 A. The three-dimensional structure of azurin II has been solved by the molecular-replacement method using the structure of azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans NCTC 8582 with which this new azurin shows a close homology. The quality of the initial map was sufficient to predict a number of sequence differences. The model is currently refined to an R-factor of 18.8% with X-ray data between 8.5 and 1.9 A. The final model of 961 protein atoms, one Cu atom and 50 water molecules has r.m.s. deviations from ideality of 0.009 A for bond lengths and 1.7 degrees for bond angles. The overall structure is similar to that of the azurin from A. denitrificans NCTC 8582. It has a beta-barrel structure with the Cu atom located near the top end of the molecule. The Cu atom is coordinated to Ndelta of His46 and His117 at 2.02 A and to Sgamma of Cys112 at 2.12 A, while the carbonyl O atom of Gly45 and Sdelta atom of Met121 provide the additional interactions at 2.75 and 3.26 A, respectively.

  12. Structure of the 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase from Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, R.; Lebedev, A. [RAL, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Erskine, P.; Guo, J.; Wood, S. P. [UCL Division of Medicine (Royal Free Campus), Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Hopper, D. J. [Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA Wales (United Kingdom); Rigby, S. E. J. [University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); Cooper, J. B., E-mail: jon.cooper@ucl.ac.uk [UCL Division of Medicine (Royal Free Campus), Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); RAL, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    The first X-ray structure of a 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase from Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP at a resolution of 2.2 Å is reported. This structure establishes that the enzyme adopts the cupin-fold, forming compact dimers with a pronounced hydrophobic interface between the monomers. Each monomer possesses a catalytic ferrous iron that is coordinated by three histidines (76, 78 and 114) and an additional ligand which has been putatively assigned as a carbonate, although formate and acetate are possibilities. The enzyme 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase (DAD) catalyses the conversion of 2, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and formic acid with the incorporation of molecular oxygen. Whilst the vast majority of dioxygenases cleave within the aromatic ring of the substrate, DAD is very unusual in that it is involved in C—C bond cleavage in a substituent of the aromatic ring. There is evidence that the enzyme is a homotetramer of 20.3 kDa subunits, each containing nonhaem iron, and its sequence suggests that it belongs to the cupin family of dioxygenases. In this paper, the first X-ray structure of a DAD enzyme from the Gram-negative bacterium Alcaligenes sp. 4HAP is reported, at a resolution of 2.2 Å. The structure establishes that the enzyme adopts a cupin fold, forming dimers with a pronounced hydrophobic interface between the monomers. The catalytic iron is coordinated by three histidine residues (76, 78 and 114) within a buried active-site cavity. The iron also appears to be tightly coordinated by an additional ligand which was putatively assigned as a carbonate dianion since this fits the electron density optimally, although it might also be the product formate. The modelled carbonate is located in a position which is highly likely to be occupied by the α-hydroxyketone group of the bound substrate during catalysis. Modelling of a substrate molecule in this position indicates that it will interact with many conserved amino acids in

  13. The crystal structure of cobalt-substituted pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Renate; Kyvelidou, Christiana; Papadovasilaki, Maria; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2011-03-01

    The Cu(II) center at the active site of the blue copper protein pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis has been substituted by Co(II) via denaturing of the protein, chelation and removal of copper by EDTA and refolding of the apo-protein, followed by addition of an aqueous solution of CoCl(2). Sitting drop vapour diffusion experiments produced green hexagonal crystals, which belong to space group P6(5), with unit cell dimensions a = b = 50.03, c = 98.80 Å. Diffraction data, collected at 291 K on a copper rotating anode X-ray source, were phased by the anomalous signal of the cobalt atom. The structure was built automatically, fitted manually and subsequently refined to 1.86 Å resolution. The Co-substituted protein exhibits similar overall geometry to the native structure with copper. Cobalt binds more strongly to the axial Met86-Sδ and retains the tetrahedral arrangement with the four ligand atoms, His40-Nδ(1), Cys78-Sγ, His81-Nδ(1), and 86Met-Sδ, although the structure is less distorted than the native copper protein. The structure reported herein, is the first crystallographic structure of a Co(II)-substituted pseudoazurin.

  14. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cholecystitis and meningitis acquired during bathing procedures in a burn unit: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Masaki; Oka, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Riko; Yakabe, Aka; Chikaaki, Nakamichi

    2008-12-01

    The information in this article was presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Burn, Nagoya, Japan, June 7-8, 2008. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, a nonfermentative, Gram-negative rod often found in aqueous environments, has been isolated from respirators, incubators, and disinfectant solutions in the hospital environment. It is known to cause disease in immunocompromised (eg, burn) patients and represents a cross-contamination risk related to wound care. In the authors' burn unit, two patients, admitted with deep dermal burns during a 1-month time period, acquired serious A. xylosoxidans infections. The first involved A. xylosoxidans-associated cholecystitis in an adult with 32% total body surface area (TBSA) burns and the second involved A. xylosoxidans meningitis in an adult with 30% TBSA burns. Both patients received hydrotherapy (bathing) in the same bathing tub, one patient after the other. Culture from environmental sources isolated A. xylosoxidans from the bathing mattress. Bacterial analysis of the isolates, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggested the patients had been infected by the same strain - ie, cross-contaminated - probably during treatment of their burns. The isolated strains were resistant not only to broad-spectrum penicillins and cephalosporins, but also to imipenem, to which past A. xylosoxidans strains have been susceptible. These findings underscore the need for strict infection control to prevent cross-contamination and disease outbreak.

  15. Alcaligenes faecalis ZD02, a Novel Nematicidal Bacterium with an Extracellular Serine Protease Virulence Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shouyong; Lin, Jian; Zheng, Jinshui; Wang, Shaoying; Zhou, Hongying; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-29

    Root knot nematodes (RKNs) are the world's most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), and they can infect almost all crops. At present, harmful chemical nematicides are applied to control RKNs. Using microbial nematicides has been proposed as a better management strategy than chemical control. In this study, we describe a novel nematicidal bacterium named Alcaligenes faecalis ZD02. A. faecalis ZD02 was isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans cadavers and has nematostatic and nematicidal activity, as confirmed by C. elegans growth assay and life span assay. In addition, A. faecalis ZD02 fermentation broth showed toxicity against C. elegans and Meloidogyne incognita. To identify the nematicidal virulence factor, the genome of strain ZD02 was sequenced. By comparing all of the predicted proteins of strain ZD02 to reported nematicidal virulence factors, we determined that an extracellular serine protease (Esp) has potential to be a nematicidal virulence factor, which was confirmed by bioassay on C. elegans and M. incognita. Using C. elegans as the target model, we found that both A. faecalis ZD02 and the virulence factor Esp can damage the intestines of C. elegans. The discovery that A. faecalis ZD02 has nematicidal activity provides a novel bacterial resource for the control of RKNs.

  16. Crystallization and X-ray structure analysis of a thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Nishant Kumar; Suresh Kumar, R.; Ignatova, Zoya; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Dodson, Eleanor; Suresh, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme penicillin G acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) catalyzes amide-bond cleavage in benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) to yield 6-aminopenicillanic acid, an intermediate chemical used in the production of semisynthetic penicillins. A thermostable penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfPGA) has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in two different space groups: C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.9, b = 86.0, c = 260.2 Å, and P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.6, c = 298.8 Å. Data were collected at 293 K and the structure was determined using the molecular-replacement method. Like other penicillin acylases, AfPGA belongs to the N-terminal nucleophilic hydrolase superfamily, has undergone post-translational processing and has a serine as the N-­terminal residue of the β-chain. A disulfide bridge has been identified in the structure that was not found in the other two known penicillin G acylase structures. The presence of the disulfide bridge is perceived to be one factor that confers higher stability to this enzyme. PMID:22442220

  17. Thermodynamics of ligand binding to histone deacetylase like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyners, Christian; Baud, Matthias G J; Fuchter, Matthew J; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2014-03-01

    Thermodynamic studies on ligand-protein binding have become increasingly important in the process of drug design. In combination with structural data and molecular dynamics simulations, thermodynamic studies provide relevant information about the mode of interaction between compounds and their target proteins and therefore build a sound basis for further drug optimization. Using the example of histone deacetylases (HDACs), particularly the histone deacetylase like amidohydrolase (HDAH) from Bordetella/Alcaligenes, a novel sensitive competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based binding assay was developed and the thermodynamics of interaction of both fluorescent ligands and inhibitors to histone deacetylase like amidohydrolase were investigated. The assay consumes only small amounts of valuable target proteins and is suitable for fast kinetic and mechanistic studies as well as high throughput screening applications. Binding affinity increased with increasing length of aliphatic spacers (n = 4-7) between the hydroxamate moiety and the dansyl head group of ligand probes. Van't Hoff plots revealed an optimum in enthalpy contribution to the free energy of binding for the dansyl-ligand with hexyl spacer. The selectivity in the series of dansyl-ligands against human class I HDAC1 but not class II HDACs 4 and 6 increased with the ratio of ΔH(0)/ΔG(0). The data clearly emphasize the importance of thermodynamic signatures as useful general guidance for the optimization of ligands or rational drug design.

  18. Nitrogen removal characteristics of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis C16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang Liu; Yao Wang; Yi Li; Hua An; Yongkang Lv

    2015-01-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis C16 was found to have the ability to heterotrophically nitrify and aerobical y denitrify. In order to further understand its nitrogen removal ability and mechanism, the growth and ammonium removal response were investigated at different C/N ratios and ammonium concentrations in the medium with citrate and acetate as carbon source separately. Furthermore, experiments of nitrogen sources, production of nitrogen gas and enzyme assay were conducted. Results show that the bacterium converts NH4+-N and produces NH2OH during the growing phase and nitrite accumulation is its distinct metabolic feature. A. faecalis C16 is able to tolerate not only high ammonium concentration but also high C/N ratio, and the ammonium tolerance is associated with carbon source and C/N ratio. The nitrogen balance under different conditions shows that approximately 28%–45%of the initial ammonium is assimilated into the cells, 44%–60%is denitrified and several percent is converted to nitrification products. A. faecalis C16 cannot utilize hydroxylamine, nitrite or nitrate as the sole nitrogen source for growth. However, nitrate can be used when ammonium is simultaneously present in the medium. A possible pathway for nitrogen removal by C16 is suggested. The preliminary enzyme assay provides more evidence for this nitrogen removal pathway.

  19. Cloning and sequence analysis of Alcaligenes faecalis nifHDK gene cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海予; 林敏; 萧凤回; 朱新生; 方宣钧; 尤崇杓; 朱玉贤

    1997-01-01

    Total DNA of Alcaligenes faecalis was probed with both the nifH and nifHD sequences from K. pneumoniae. One positive band of about 4.6 kb was discovered. This nifH homologous fragment was cloned into the vector pBluescript SK to construct the recombinant plasmid pBZl. The inserted fragment in pBZl was analyzed by physical mapping and was further subcloned for sequencing. It was found that this A. faecalis nifHDK homology pos-sessed a typical σ54-dependent promoter region with upstream activator sequence (UAS) and A-T rich region. The nifH and nifD ORFs were 888 and 1 476 bp long respectively. The GC contents of these two genes were about 61. 6% and 60.0% . The intergenic regions of nifH-nifD and nifD-nifK were 101 and 105 bp respectively. There were sepa-rate SD sequences upstream of all the three genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of the nifH gene product (the Fe-protein ) and the nifD gene product (the Mo-Fc-protein) were also highly homologous to other nitrogen-fixing bacteria, especially in th

  20. 联合固氮菌Alcaligen faecalis泌铵突变体离子束选育及鉴定%Screening and characterization of NH4 + -excreting mutants of Alcaligen faecelis induce by ion inplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂友斌; 王纪; 姚建明

    2000-01-01

    N+注入野生型菌株(Alcaligen faecalis 1.488),筛选出抗51.6mmol/L乙二胺的泌铵突变株EM1105,它以KNO3为氮源时,培养21h泌铵量可达到1.10mmol/L.研究了该突变株在不同氮源下的培养特性,推断为铵载体缺陷型.

  1. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Usup, Gires [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  2. Kinetics modeling for welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp.CGMCC2428 in batch fermentation%Alcaligenes sp.CGMCC2428产威兰胶的分批发酵动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会; 李莎; 徐虹

    2010-01-01

    利用分批发酵研究Alcaligenes sp. CGMCC2428产微生物多糖威兰胶的合成特性,结果表明威兰胶的合成和菌体生长模型为部分偶联型. 菌体和威兰胶质量浓度分别达到3.30和26.50g/L, 威兰胶对细胞干质量得率系数(YP/X)为8.20. 根据分批发酵实验结果采用Logistic方程、Luedeking-Piret方程和Luedeking-Piret相似方程,得到了描述Alcaligenes sp. CGMCC2428生长、威兰胶以及葡萄糖底物消耗分批发酵动力学模型.同时改变初始葡萄糖质量浓度,实验数据与模型预测值进行了比较拟合,平均相对误差小于10%,表现出很好的适用性.

  3. 高产腈水解酶Alcaligenes faecalis ULA4菌株的诱变筛选%Mutation Breeding of Nitrilase High-Yielding Alcaligenes faecalis Strain UL44

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建明; 柳志强; 徐建妙; 张金峰; 郑裕国

    2011-01-01

    A nitrilase producer Alcaligenes faecalis strain ZJBO9133 screened and preserved in the lab was carried out composite mutation with UV-LiCl and low-energy ion. A high yielding mutant UL44 was screened with the nitrilase activity as high as 74.6 U/g, increased by 124.5% higher than the starter strain. The obtained UL44 strain proclaimed genetically stable after passing five rounds of generation.%应用紫外-氯化锂和低能离子束复合诱变的方法,对1株本实验室筛选得到并保藏的腈水解酶产生菌Alcaligenes faecalis ZJB09133进行诱变育种,筛选到高产菌株UL44,其腈水解酶酶活达到74.6 U/g,较出发.菌株酶活提高124.5%.得到的高产菌株UL44经过5次传代,其遗传稳定性良好.

  4. Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg⁻¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant.

  5. Biocatalytic synthesis of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid from racemic mandelonitrile by a newly isolated nitrilase-producer Alcaligenes sp. ECU0401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Cai He; Jian He Xu; Yi Xu; Li Ming Ouyang; Jiang Pan

    2007-01-01

    By using acetonitrile as the sole nitrogen source, a microbial strain with high nitrilase activity, named as Alcaligenes sp.ECU0401, was newly isolated from soil, which could enantioselectively transform racemic mandelonitrile into (R)-(-)-mandelic acid, with an enantiomeric excess of>99.9%.

  6. A systematic study of the influence of peptide modification of a gold electrode on the cyclic voltammetry of pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis strain S-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astier, Y; Bond, AM; Wijma, HJ; Canters, GW; Hill, HAO; Davis, JJ

    2004-01-01

    The influence of peptide-protein interactions on the electrochemistry of copper-containing pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis strain S-6 has been investigated by covalently binding cysteine-containing hexapeptides to a gold electrode surface. The hexapeptides contain three cysteines in the same

  7. Structure of apo-azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans at 1.8 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, W E; Kingston, R L; Anderson, B F; Baker, E N

    1993-05-01

    The structure of apo-azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans has been determined at high resolution by X-ray crystallography. Two separate structure analyses have been carried out, (i) on crystals obtained from solutions of apo-azurin and (ii) on crystals obtained by removal of copper from previously formed crystals of holo-azurin. Data to 1.8 A resolution were collected from the apo-azurin crystals, by Weissenberg photography (with image plates) using synchrotron radiation and by diffractometry, and the structure was refined by restrained least-squares methods to a final R value of 0.160 for all data in the range 10.0-1.8 A. The final model of 1954 protein atoms, 246 water molecules (66 half-weighted), four SO(4)(2-) ions, and two low-occupancy (0.13 and 0.15) Cu atoms has r.m.s. deviations of 0.012, 0.045 and 0.013 A from standard bond lengths, angle distances and planar groups. For copper-removed azurin, data to 2.2 A were collected by diffractometry and the structure refined by restrained least squares to a final R value of 0.158 for all data in the range 10.0-2.2 A. The final model of 1954 protein atoms, 264 water molecules, two SO(4)(2-) ions, two low occupancy (0.18 and 0.22) metal atoms and one unidentified atom (modelled as S) has r.m.s. deviations of 0.013, 0.047 and 0.012 A from standard bond lengths, angle distances and planar groups. The two structures are essentially identical to each other and show no significant differences from the oxidized and reduced holo-azurin structures. The ligand side chains move slightly closer together following the removal of copper, with the radius of the cavity between the three strongly binding ligands, His 46, His 117 and Cys 112, shrinking from 1.31 A in reduced azurin to 1.24 A in oxidized azurin and 1.16 A in apo-azurin. There is a suggestion of increased flexibility in one of the copper-binding loops but the structure supports the view that the copper site found in holo-azurin is a stable structure, defined by the

  8. Construction and characterization of partially ntrC-deleted mutants in Alcaligenes faecalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the effect of ntrC gene product on the expression and regulation of other important nitrogen-fixing genes in Alcaligenes faecalis, partially ntrC-deleted mutants of A. faecalis have been generated. To start with, the ntrC gene of A. faecalis was cloned into a suicide plasmid pSUP202 to create a recombinant plasmid pSUM1. The ntrC gene in pSUM1 was then replaced by a lacZ-Kmr fragment resulted in the generation of a plasmid pSUM2. The lacZ fragment in pSUM2 was further removed and a plasmid pSUM3 produced. As a second step, the plasmid pSUM2 or pSUM3 was introduced into the wild type of A. faecalis A1501 by conjugation and two partially ntrC-deleted mutants A15CM1 (ntrC∷lacZ) and A15CM2 (ntrC-) were obtained. To understand the regulatory effect of the NtrC on the expression of nifH and nifA, a nifH-lacZ gene or a nifA-lacZ gene was introduced into the ntrC- mutant by conjugation. The results indicated that: (ⅰ) although the ntrC- mutant was nif + , its nitrogen fixation activity was only 20% that of the wild type; (ⅱ) the ntrC- mutant failed to grow on the medium containing nitrate as a sole nitrogen source; (ⅲ) the regulation of ntrC gene expression did not require its own product; (ⅳ) the expression of nifH in A . faecalis was positively regulated by the ntrC. Deletion of the ntrC resulted in the reduction of nifH expression or even totally inactivated nitrogen fixation; (ⅴ) there was no obvious influence on the expression of nifA in A. faecalis if the ntrC gene was deleted.

  9. Cultivation of demulsifying bacteria Alcaligenes sp.S-X J-1 using ultrasonic pretreated excess sludge%剩余污泥超声提取液培养生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 朱其玮; 申昌明; 王珅; 陆丽君; 刘佳

    2014-01-01

    将超声法预处理剩余污泥得到的提取液用于培养高效生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-X J-1,以探索剩余污泥资源化利用的新途径.使用超声能量(Es)为443~56647kJ/kg TS的超声条件处理剩余污泥,获得的污泥提取液中氨氮、有机氮、总磷的浓度最高分别为171.94,142.20,76.29mg/L,提取液中包含K、Ca、Mg、Fe等破乳菌生长必须的金属元素.将污泥提取液(Es为885~56647kJ/kg TS)作为培养基用于合成高效破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-X-1,产量较MMSM培养基可提高0.3%~68.3%,其中Es为56647kJ/kg TS时破乳菌产量最高,为2.03g/L.污泥提取液中的pH缓冲能力对菌体产量有重要影响,提取液的有机氮浓度可能是破乳菌产量提高的关键因素.污泥提取液培养的破乳菌破乳性能稳定保持在80.0%左右,菌体细胞表面疏水性与菌体C/N较MMSM培养基培养菌体无明显差异.说明以剩余污泥超声提取液作为培养基可以培养稳定高效的破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-X J-1.

  10. First reported case of Alcaligenes faecalis isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage in a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial co-infections have been reported in association with dengue fever (DF and can exacerbate dengue infections. However, DF with acute respiratory distress syndrome and co-infection with Alcaligenes faecalis (A. faecalis has not been reported earlier. Most infections caused by A. faecalis are opportunistic. Urinary tract infection, bacterial keratitis, postoperative endophthalmitis, skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, meningitis, wound infections, and peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis have been described in association with A. faecalis. A. faecalis, a Gram-negative environmental organism rarely cause significant infections. Treatment can be difficult in some cases due to the high level of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. We report a case of fatal bronchopneumonia caused by extensively drug resistance A. faecalis in a patient of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  11. 来源于Alcaligenes A-6的D-氨基酰化酶基因的合成与融合表达%Gene Synthesis and Fusion Expression D-Aminoacylase Gene from Alcaligenes A-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯欣彤; 董媛; 林瑞东; 于梁; 任媛媛; 李剑光; 高朝辉; 滕利荣

    2014-01-01

    将来源于Alcaligenes A-6的D-氨基酰化酶基因用大肠杆菌中的丰沛密码子替换,利用化学和基于聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术的酶促方法进行基因全合成,利用pET-32a构建重组表达载体pET-dan,转化进E. coil BL21(DE3)中进行融合表达.经SDS-PAGE电泳、Western-blot检测和活性测定发现, D-ANase可在大肠杆菌中高效表达,目的蛋白可达到菌体总蛋白的69.2%,密码子优化后基因构建的工程菌发酵活性为96 U/mL,重组蛋白经超声细胞破碎及Ni2+柱亲和层析纯化,比活可达1692.3 U/mg,纯度可达95%以上.%The codons of D-ANase gene from Alcaligenes A-6 were substituted by the codons abundant in E. coli. , then the D-ANase gene was synthesized by the two-step method based on PCR technology. Synthetic gene and pET-32a vector were digested with BglII and XhoⅠ, ligated by T4 DNA ligase. The ligation mix-ture transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) competent cell. Recombinant protein was detected by SDS-PAGE, Western-blot and activity assay. D-ANase can be expressed efficiently in E. coli and the expressed protein content can reach to 69.2% of the total bacterial protein content. In addition, the fermentation activity can achieve 96 U/mL. After the ultrasonic cell disruption, the recombinant protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography column. The specific activity of the purified recombinant enzyme was 1692.3 U/mg and the purity could be up to 95%. Furthermore a firm foundation was laid for the industrial use of the D-ANase.

  12. Characteristics of Nitrogen Source Utilization for Biodemulsifying Strain of Alcaligenes sp.S-X J-1%生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1氮源利用特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 倪晓静; 刘佳; 陆丽君

    2013-01-01

    以六种氨基酸及硝酸铵为氮源培养胞壁结合型生物破乳剂产生菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1,进而分析菌体对谷氨酸和硝酸铵的利用过程,并建立菌体的生长及氮源利用模型.结果表明:氮源种类和投量是影响菌体产量和性能的重要因素;菌体对氮源的利用顺序依次为有机氮、氨态氮、硝态氮;谷氨酸为氮源时对生物破乳菌产量的促进效果最佳,相比于硝酸铵为氮源时,菌体最大比增长速率和产率系数更高,用于菌体代谢供能的氮源消耗量更低.%Six animo acids and ammonium nitrate were tested to study the effects of nitrogen source on the growth of cellbound biodemulsifying strain of Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1.And then the utilization process of nitrogen source was studied when glutamic and ammonium nitrate was separately used as nitrogen source.The growth model and nitrogen utilization model of S-XJ-1 were built up as well.The results show that S-XJ-1 prefers to use organic nitrogen when organic nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen coexist in the substrate,and ammonium nitrogen is preferred rather than nitrate nitrogen.Also,the yield and property of biodemulsifying bacteria were significantly affected by the variety of nitrogen source,and glutamic is testified to be the best nitrogen source for S-XJ-1 among the six amino acids.When glutamic is used as nitrogen source,S-XJ-1 exhibits a higher maximum specific microbial incremental rate and utilization ratio of nitrogen source,but a lower energy cost.

  13. pH对破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1破乳性能的影响%Influence of pH on Emulsion Breaking Performance of a Demulsifying Strain Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 尚家佳; 陆丽君; 刘佳

    2010-01-01

    从受石油污染的土壤中筛选出一株破乳茵Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1,该菌在初始pH 6.0-11.0均可生长,其最适初始pH为10.0.在初始pH 10.0条件下培养,破乳菌产量最高可达4.8 g/L,茵悬液投加量为1000 mg/L时,24 h破乳率在85%以上.同时,该培养条件下得到的生物破乳茵细胞表面疏水性最大,对碳氢化合物的吸附能力达72.7%,接触角达115°.采用稳定性分析仪分别对pH 7.0和pH 10.O条件下培养得到的菌体的破乳效果进行分析,结果发现与初始pH 7.O相比,初始pH 10.0培养得到的破乳茵可以加速分散相粒径的增大,最终使乳状液破乳速率大幅提高.

  14. Production of Welan Gum by Alcaligenes sp.NX-3 with Fed-batch Fermentation%Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶的补料分批发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会; 李莎; 冯小海; 汪芙蓉; 徐虹

    2009-01-01

    在7.5 L发酵罐上考察了Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶的发酵工艺.选用葡萄糖为碳源,通过分析比较不同初糖浓度下的细胞比生长速率和产物比合成速率,进一步研究了不同补料方式对产胶的影响.结果表明,采用分批补糖发酵工艺,威兰胶产量较分批发酵提高了13.6%,而且有效地缩短了发酵周期.在50 L发酵罐上进行补料分批发酵放大实验,威兰胶产量高达27.0 g/L,葡萄糖转化率由初始的44%提高到54%.

  15. Studies on Production Conditions and Enzymatic Properties of Alkaline Lipase by Alcaligenes sp.%Alcaligenes sp.碱性脂肪酶产生条件及酶学性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪骏; 夏黎明

    2002-01-01

    Alcaligenes sp.产碱性脂肪酶的工艺条件进行了研究.结果表明,适宜产酶培养基为:3%黄豆粉,1%果糖,O.2%K3PO4,1%NaNO3,0.6%柠檬酸钠,O.03%FeSO4,0.5%聚乙烯十八烷基醚;最佳培养条件为25℃,初始pH9.0.脂肪酶活力可高达120IU/mL.该酶在55℃以下,pH6.0~10.5范围内稳定;酶反应适宜温度为40℃,适宜pH9.0.该酶制剂在洗涤和制革工业中有良好的应用前景.

  16. Cellulase production process of Alcaligenes faecalis DL-08 by response surface optimization%响应面法优化粪产碱菌Alcaligenes faecalis DL-08产纤维素酶培养工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冰; 郑来久; 魏取福

    2015-01-01

    利用粪产碱菌Alcaligenes faecalis DL-08,进行产纤维素酶培养,在Plackett-Burman设计基础上,通过Design-Expert中心组合实验,建立了培养条件优化的二次回归模型,并通过响应曲面分析,确定了最佳培养条件.由响应面分析结果可知,产纤维素酶条件:温度37.98℃,碳氮比1:1,接种量2%,初始pH 7,时间24 h.在此条件下,预测值OD520为1.237.经3组平行试验,OD520平均值为1.229,与模型预测值基本一致,且与未优化条件相比,纤维素酶活力提高了5.6%,可达1 303.2 U/mL.

  17. The Fermentation Conditions of Curdlan by Alcaligenes faecalis Strain%一株粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)产热凝胶的发酵条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹晓北; 韩杰; 李珍雨; 朱莉; 王磊; 朱一晖

    2001-01-01

    通过对一株粪产碱杆菌WX-C12(Alcaligenes faecalis)的摇瓶发酵研究,确定了其最佳发酵培养基组成及最适摇瓶发酵工艺条件.摇瓶实验确定的最佳培养基组成为(g/L):葡萄糖50,NH4Cl 1.07, KH2PO4 2.72, K2HPO4 1.71, MgSO4*7H2O 0.49,酵母膏 1,少量无机盐溶液.最佳工艺条件为:初始pH 7.0,装液量为60 mL/250 mL摇瓶,摇床转速为220 r/min,温度为30 ℃.15 L自动机械搅拌罐放大试验结果表明,在不改变操作参数的情况下,经60 h发酵,热凝胶产量可达2.2%,转化率超过50%.

  18. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Peng, Kaiming; Huang, Xiangfeng; Lu, Lijun; Cheng, Hang; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi; Deng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield. In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffin as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and determination of bioactive components from marine Alcaligenes faecalis extract against a sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdSharad, Ali; Usup, Gires; Sahrani, Fathul Karim; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-11-01

    Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in petroleum reservoir. The serious threat normally comes from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Alcaligenes faecalis was tested in this study for the ability to inhibit the growth of SRB. Ethyl acetate extraction of A. faecalis grown in marine broth was carried out to produce crude ethyl acetate of A. faecalis (CEAF). CEAF was diluted at concentrations 0.2-12.8 mg/mL and was tested for anti-microbial activity by microdilution susceptibility tests in 96-wells plate. CEAF was then analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The microdilution susceptibility tests showed that the crude have anti- microbial activities on SRB. CEAF showed immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium which suggest the presence of active chemical compounds with antimicrobial activity. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 20 different chemical compounds in CEAF, The major components in CEAF can be related to antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, pesticide, metabolism, toxicity, anticancer and corrosion inhibition activities. In conclusion, crude ethyl acetate extract of A. faecalis has the ability to inhibit SRB growth.

  20. Production and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) generated by Alcaligenes latus using lactose and whey after acid protein precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwig, Karina Hammel; Baldasso, Camila; Dettmer, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Whey after acid protein precipitation was used as substrate for PHB production in orbital shaker using Alcaligenes latus. Statistical analysis determined the most appropriate hydroxide for pH neutralization of whey after protein precipitation among NH4OH, KOH and NaOH 10%w/v. The results were compared to those of commercial lactose. A scale-up test in a 4L bioreactor was done at 35°C, 750rpm, 7L/min air flow, and 6.5 pH. The PHB was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. NH4OH provided the best results for productivity (p), 0.11g/L.h, and for polymer yield, (YP/S), 1.08g/g. The bioreactor experiment resulted in lower p and YP/S. PHB showed maximum degradation temperature (291°C), melting temperature (169°C), and chemical properties similar to those of standard PHB. The use of whey as a substrate for PHB production did not affect significantly the final product quality.

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG{sub 5} of Alcaligenes faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santal, Anita Rani, E-mail: anita.gangotra@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Singh, N.P. [Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India); Saharan, Baljeet Singh [Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The Alcaligenes faecalis strain SAG{sub 5} decolorizes 72.6 {+-} 0.56% of melanoidins. {yields} The decolorization was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day. {yields} The distillery effluent after biological treatment is environmentally safe. - Abstract: Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 {+-} 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 {sup o}C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG{sub 5}.

  2. Identification of a New Alcaligenes faecalis Strain MOR02 and Assessment of Its Toxicity and Pathogenicity to Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of a bacterium from Galleria mellonella larva and its identification using genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis. This bacterium was named Alcaligenes faecalis strain MOR02. Microscopic analyses revealed that the bacteria are located in the esophagus and intestine of the nematodes Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and H. bacteriophora. Using G. mellonella larvae as a model, when the larvae were injected with 24,000 CFU in their hemocoel, more than 96% mortality was achieved after 24 h. Additionally, toxicity assays determined that 1 μg of supernatant extract from A. faecalis MOR02 killed more than 70% G. mellonella larvae 96 h after injection. A correlation of experimental data with sequence genome analyses was also performed. We discovered genes that encode proteins and enzymes that are related to pathogenicity, toxicity, and host/environment interactions that may be responsible for the observed phenotypic characteristics. Our data demonstrates that the bacteria are able to use different strategies to colonize nematodes and kill insects to their own benefit. However, there remains an extensive group of unidentified microorganisms that could be participating in the infection process. Additionally, a nematode-bacterium association could be established probably as a strategy of dispersion and colonization.

  3. Heterotrophic Nitrification Capability and ts Enzyme Activity of Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR%异养硝化菌Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR的硝化性能及其酶活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安强; 赵彬; 何义亮

    2012-01-01

    A heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR, was isolated from a membrane bioreactor. Citrate and ammonium were used as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources respectively to investigate nitrification characteristics of the new isolate. Under the aerobic condition of 30 ℃ and 120 r/ min, the removal rates of NH(+,4)-N are 94.8%, 93.5% and 94.5% respectively when the initial concentrations are 20, 40 and 60 mg/L. And strain NR shows nitrification capability of producing nitrite and nitrate. To further understand the heterotrophic nitrification, enzyme assay was conducted. Sonication was used to obtain the key enzymes of AMO and HAO during nitrification process. Based on the single-factor and orthogonal experimental results, the optimal ultrasonic conditions are: cell OD600 1. 876, total working time 600 s, work/interval time 4, 6 s and power 300 W. The AMO and HAO enzyme activities under aerobic conditions are 0.011 U/mg protein and 0.016 U/mg protein respectively.%从膜生物反应器的活性污泥中分离出一株异养硝化细菌Alcaligenes faecalis strain NR,采用柠檬酸三钠为碳源、氯化铵为氮源研究其硝化性能,通过超声波破碎法对调控其硝化过程的2个关键酶——氨单加氧酶(AMO)和羟胺氧化酶(HAO)进行粗提,考察影响其提取率的主要因素(功率、工作与间歇时间、菌液浓度和总工作时间),并采用正交实验进行优化.结果表明:菌株NR具有产生亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐的能力;在30℃和120r/min的好氧条件下,当NH(+,4)-N浓度为20、40和60mg/L时,菌株NR在24h内对NH(+,4)-的去除率分别为94.8%、93.5%和94.5%;粗酶提取的最佳工作条件为茵液光密度1.876,总工作时间600S,工作和间歇时间4、6S,功率300W;在好氧条件下,测得AMO和HAO的酶比活力分别为0.011和0.016U/mg protein.

  4. Curdlan Production by Alcaligenes faecalis with Varied Feeding Strategy%不同的底物流加方式对Alcaligenes faecalis发酵生产热凝胶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠; 詹晓北; 吴剑荣

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究了在不同阶段、不同的底物流加方式及底物浓度对菌体生长和热凝胶合成的影响,并对粪产碱杆菌WX-C12(Alcaligenes faecalis)发酵生产热凝胶的补料工艺进行了优化.方法:15L发酵罐发酵生产热凝胶,改变培养基中氮源、碳源浓度及流加方式,测定残氮、残糖、菌体浓度及热凝胶产量的变化,确定较优的补料工艺.结果:在菌体生长阶段用氨水控制pH在7.0,可使培养基中氮源浓度维持相对稳定状态,且NH4Cl初始浓度较低(0.5g/L)更适合菌体生长;热凝胶合成阶段采用葡萄糖连续流加优于间歇补加培养.菌体浓度为11.9g/L时,热凝胶产量最高(72g/L),产物得率Yp/s为78.8%;当菌体浓度再增加时,热凝胶产量反而下降.结论:确定了粪产碱杆菌发酵生产热凝胶的较优工艺条件,热凝胶产量最高为72g/L,比分批发酵28g/L增加了157%.

  5. ω-Amino Acid:Pyruvate Transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a New Catalyst for Kinetic Resolution of β-Amino Acids and Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hyungdon; Lim, Seongyop; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2004-01-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic β-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity...

  6. Effects of heavy metal stress on antibiotics resistance of Pseudomonas alcaligenes LH7%重金属胁迫对Pseudomonas alcaligenes LH7抗生素抗性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温丽华; 许燕滨; 周艳; 阮晶晶; 侯毛宇; 孙浩; 屈毛毛; 袁保红; 郑莉

    2015-01-01

    从广州某养猪场废水处理系统中筛选出1株优势菌Pseudomonas alcaligenes LH7.为了研究重金属胁迫对细菌抗生素抗性响应的影响,采用琼脂稀释法和K-B纸片扩散法,测定了重金属(Cu2+、Zn2+、Cr6+)的最小抑制浓度(MIC),及不同重金属种类和浓度胁迫下,四种抗生素(红霉素、阿莫西林、头孢拉定、四环素)的抑菌圈直径.结果表明:菌体对Cu2+、Zn2+、Cr6+的MIC分别为125、125、100 mg/L,并且具有四环素、阿莫西林、红霉素和头孢拉定多重抗性.重金属与抗生素之间的交互作用对细菌的抗性有显著影响(P<0.05).重金属和抗生素间的交互作用随重金属种类和浓度的不同而改变,可分为三类:低浓度重金属与抗生素共存时表现为协同抗性,高浓度时则表现为协同杀菌,如Cr6+或Zn2+与红霉素,Cu2+与头孢拉定;低浓度重金属与抗生素共存时表现为协同杀菌,高浓度时则表现为协同抗性,如Cr6+或Zn2+与阿莫西林;只与共存重金属种类相关的抗性组合有Cu2+与四环素或阿莫西林或红霉素,Cr6+与头孢拉定.环境中重金属离子的共存将改变抗生素污染物的生态危害和环境行为,并最终影响对应的污染防治技术的开发和应用.

  7. Alcaligenes sp.XJ-T-1利用废弃油脂生产破乳剂研究%Production of Biodemulsifier by Alcaligenes sp. XJ-T-1 with Waste Frying Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 黄翔峰; 陆丽君; 陈旭远; 杨殿海; 周琪

    2009-01-01

    生物破乳剂是一种应用于油水乳状液分离的新型破乳剂.本研究对筛选得到的1株高效破乳剂产生菌XJ-T-1(鉴定结果为Alcaligenes sp.)代谢产生的生物破乳剂进行了理化性质、破乳能力和废弃油脂利用能力分析.采用废弃油脂Ⅱ为碳源,可提高生物破乳剂产量4.6倍,XJ-T-1在以液体石蜡和废弃油脂培养8 d后该菌能使水的表面张力从72 mN/m下降到32 mN/m, CMC-1分别为10、 20;以液体石蜡为碳源培养得到的生物破乳剂在油包水型、水包油型模型乳状液的破乳率分别达到了96%、 50%;而以废弃油脂Ⅱ为碳源培养得到的生物破乳剂的破乳率分别为97.8%、 65%;采用煤油脱出率、乳状液脱除率和水脱出率3种评价方式对破乳效果评价发现生物破乳剂最先作用于乳状液的连续相;采用TLC和IR对废弃油脂生产破乳剂得到的破乳剂有效成分进行鉴定,结果为脂肽与石蜡培养产物相同.

  8. Efficacy of polysaccharide from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 administration as protection against γ-radiation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Amal I; Ghoneim, Mona A M; Mahmoud, Manal G; Asker, Mohsen M S; Mohamed, Saher S

    2016-03-01

    Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 10(4) g mol(-1). This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole-body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that

  9. 热凝胶的高产策略及功能研究进展%Advances in curdlan of production by Alcaligenes faecalis and function of curdlan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛; 詹晓北; 郑志永; 陈定强

    2009-01-01

    热凝胶(curdlan)又名β-(1→3)-D-葡聚糖,在食品、医药、保健品等领域具有重要的应用潜力.由粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)或土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium sp.)生物合成的热凝胶以成本低廉、提取与纯化技术成熟而成为研究热点.笔者主要针对提高热凝胶产量的菌株改造和发酵控制策略以及热凝胶生物活性的研究进展和相关专利进行综述.

  10. Isolation and preliminary characterization of a o-nitrobenzaldehyde-degrading Alcaligenes sp. ND1 Isolamento e caracterização preliminar de lcaligenes SP ND1 degradador de o-nitrobenzaldeido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fang-Bo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the isolation and characterization of a new o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA-degrading bacterium, Alcaligenes sp. ND1. ND1 degraded almost all ONBA (100 mg L-1 in M9 medium within 36 hours. The key enzyme(s involved in the initial biodegradation was a constitutively intracellular enzyme(s. This bacterium has great potential utility for bioremediation.Esse trabalho relata o isolamento e a caracterização de uma nova bactéria degradadora de o-nitrobenzaldeido (ONBA, Alcaligenes sp ND1. A bactéria ND1 decompôs todo o ONBA (100 mg.L-1 do meio M9 em 36 horas. A enzima-chave envolvida na biodegradação inicial foi uma enzima constitutiva intracelular. Esta bactéria apresenta um potencial de aplicação para bioremediação.

  11. Preparation on immobilization of penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis%固定化粪产碱杆菌青霉素G酰化酶的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡婷; 张柏超; 钱梦瑶; 徐婷婷; 倪楠; 周芝兰; 陈玮

    2014-01-01

    The penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis was covalently immobilized to epoxy-type carrier Eurpergit C.The immobilization conditions including the ratio of the enzyme to the support,reaction time,pH and temperature were studied.The optimized immobilization conditions are 375 mg recombinantAlcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase of 5 000 U/g specific activi-ty to per gram Eupergit C,pH 8.0 and 30 ℃.After stirring for 120 h,the activity of immobilized penicillin G acylase is up to 220 U/g and the efficiency is 10.7%.The immobilized enzyme can completely hydrolysis penicillin G potassium salt in saturated butyl-acetate phosphate buffer.After hydrolyzing penicillin G potassium salt 15 times in a reactor,the immobilized enzyme still remains 95% activity and it shows a good operational stability.%粪产碱杆菌来源的青霉素 G 酰化酶通过共价结合在环氧型载体 Eupergit C 上,通过对酶质量浓度、固定化反应时间、pH 值以及反应温度等条件的考察,确定了最优固定化条件:375 mg 比活力5000 U/g 的重组粪产碱杆菌青霉素 G 酰化酶蛋白对应1 g 载体,最适 pH 8.0,反应温度30℃。反应120 h 后制得固定化青霉素 G 酰化酶活力达到220 U/g,固定化酶效率为10.7%。该固定化酶可在含饱和乙酸丁酯磷酸缓冲液中彻底水解青霉素 G 钾盐。经过15批连续水解反应,固定化酶仍保持95%的活力,展现出良好的稳定性。

  12. Preparation of (R)-o-Chloromandelic Acid Via Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of o-Chloromandelonitrile by Whole Cells of Alcaligenes faecalis CGMCC 1.2006%Alcaligenes faecalis CGMCC 1.2006整细胞催化邻氯扁桃腈动态动力学拆分制备(R)-邻氯扁桃酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红梅; 何从林; 熊文娟; 韦燕禅; 夏仕文

    2014-01-01

    从6株粪产碱杆菌中筛选出对邻氯扁桃腈具有较高芳基乙腈水解酶活性和中等对映选择性的Alcaligenes faecalis CGMCC 1.2006.研究了反应介质对Alcaligenes faecalis CGMCC 1.2006芳基乙腈水解酶活性和对映选择性的调控作用.反应介质中水溶性辅溶剂如甲醇的加入降低芳基乙腈水解酶活性,但显著提高对映选择性.而非离子表面活性剂的加入具有相反的作用.系统优化了底物浓度、细胞浓度、pH、温度和反应时间等反应条件对芳基乙腈水解酶活性和对映选择性的影响.在最优反应条件下,采用分批补料策略,(R)-邻氯扁桃酸的产量在22 h内达到32.2 g/L,产率82.4%,ee 93.1%.以邻氯苯甲醛和氰化钾为底物合成(R)-邻氯扁桃酸,收率89.5%,ee 98.6%.

  13. Identification of two vicinal operons for the degradation of 2-aminobenzenesulfonate encoded on plasmid pSAH in Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Jürgen; Smits, Theo H M; Cook, Alasdair M; Schleheck, David

    2010-05-30

    Alcaligenes sp. strain O-1 inducibly deaminates 2-aminobenzenesulfonate (ABS) via dioxygenation to 3-sulfocatechol, which is desulfonated during meta ring-cleavage to yield 2-hydroxymuconate. This intermediate is transformed through the oxalocrotonate-branch of the sulfocatechol meta-pathway (Scm). The complete pathway is encoded on the 180-kb plasmid pSAH, 20kb of which was sequenced. Twenty open reading frames (ORFs) were detected. Two clusters (abs and scm) with degradative genes were surrounded by several transposon-related ORFs. The six genes of the abs cluster were shown to be co-transcribed, and contained the genes for two characterised subunits of the oxygenase component of the ABS-dioxygenase system, and genes putatively encoding ABS-transport functions with similarities to (a) an ABC-type transporter system and (b) a putative major facilitator superfamily transporter. No gene encoding the reductase for the oxygenase system was present in the abs gene cluster, but a candidate gene was found in the scm cluster. The seven-gene scm cluster was also transcribed as single polycistronic message. Functions could be attributed to the gene products, but one enzyme, which was shown to be present, 2-hydroxymuconate isomerase, was not encoded in the scm cluster. No transcriptional regulator was found. This genetic information on the degradation of ABS in strain O-1 provides another example of both split operons and dispersed pathway genes.

  14. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-X J-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Kaiming Peng; Xiangfeng Huang; Lijun Lu; Hang Cheng; Dianhai Yang; Qi Zhou; Huiping Deng

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield.In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffn as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  15. Influence of Yeast Extract on the Fermentation of Glucose by the Demulsifying Strain Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1%酵母提取物对葡萄糖发酵生产生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 王凯; 黎明霞; 王彩林; 陆丽君; 刘佳

    2013-01-01

    以从石油污染的土壤中筛选出1株生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1为对象,考察了以葡萄糖为碳源时添加酵母提取物对生物破乳菌菌体性质、破乳性能以及菌体元素组成的影响.结果表明,酵母提取物的投加能够有效提高生物破乳菌产量,在酵母提取物浓度为5g·L-1时,生物破乳菌产量达到3.0g·L-1,此时葡萄糖利用率亦达到最大的58%.随着酵母提取物的投加浓度的增大,培养得到的菌体破乳性能提高,在投加浓度为10 g·L-1时,破乳率达到76%;而培养得到的菌体C/N有所降低,对其菌体表面蛋白进行提取测定发现菌体总蛋白含量升高,这与FTIR分析破乳菌菌体表面蛋白质类物质提高的结论一致.推测该生物破乳菌菌体蛋白含量的提高增强了菌体的破乳性能,菌体蛋白类物质是影响其破乳性能的关键组分之一.%The demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, isolated from oil contaminated soil, was cultivated with glucose as the carbon source. The influences of yeast extract on the growth, demulsifying ability and the element composition of the strain were investigated. The results showed that the yeast extract could increase the biomass and enhance the glucose utilization of Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1. When the concentration of the yeast extract was 5 g·L-1 , the biomass was increased up to 3.0 g·L-1, and the glucose utilization achieved 58% . The demulsifying ability of the strain was improved with increasing yeast extract concentration. When the concentration of the yeast extract was 10 g·L-1 , the demulsification ratio of the obtained cell was 76% . While the C/N ratio of the cells decreased with the increasing concentration of yeast extract. The proteins of cells were extracted and measured. The results showed that the proteins of the obtained cell increased with the increasing concentration of yeast extract, in accordance with the increased concentrations of proteins on the

  16. Keratinase production and biodegradation of polluted secondary chicken feather wastes by a newly isolated multi heavy metal tolerant bacterium-Alcaligenes sp. AQ05-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Phang, Lai Yee; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shamaan, Nor Aripin; Abdul Khalil, Khalilah; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2016-12-01

    Biodegradation of agricultural wastes, generated annually from poultry farms and slaughterhouses, can solve the pollution problem and at the same time yield valuable degradation products. But these wastes also constitute environmental nuisance, especially in Malaysia where their illegal disposal on heavy metal contaminated soils poses a serious biodegradation issue as feather tends to accumulate heavy metals from the surrounding environment. Further, continuous use of feather wastes as cheap biosorbent material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents has contributed to the rising amount of polluted feathers, which has necessitated the search for heavy metal-tolerant feather degrading strains. Isolation, characterization and application of a novel heavy metal-tolerant feather-degrading bacterium, identified by 16S RNA sequencing as Alcaligenes sp. AQ05-001 in degradation of heavy metal polluted recalcitrant agricultural wastes, have been reported. Physico-cultural conditions influencing its activities were studied using one-factor-at-a-time and a statistical optimisation approach. Complete degradation of 5 g/L feather was achieved with pH 8, 2% inoculum at 27 °C and incubation period of 36 h. The medium optimisation after the response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in a 10-fold increase in keratinase production (88.4 U/mL) over the initial 8.85 U/mL when supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) sucrose, 0.15% (w/v) ammonium bicarbonate, 0.3% (w/v) skim milk, and 0.01% (w/v) urea. Under optimum conditions, the bacterium was able to degrade heavy metal polluted feathers completely and produced valuable keratinase and protein-rich hydrolysates. About 83% of the feathers polluted with a mixture of highly toxic metals were degraded with high keratinase activities. The heavy metal tolerance ability of this bacterium can be harnessed not only in keratinase production but also in the bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted feather wastes.

  17. The crystal structure of D-threonine aldolase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans provides insight into a metal ion assisted PLP-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Michael K; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Steinkellner, Georg; Riegler-Berket, Lina; Mink, Daniel; van Assema, Friso; Schürmann, Martin; Gruber, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Threonine aldolases catalyze the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent cleavage of threonine into glycine and acetaldehyde and play a major role in the degradation of this amino acid. In nature, L- as well as D-specific enzymes have been identified, but the exact physiological function of D-threonine aldolases (DTAs) is still largely unknown. Both types of enantio-complementary enzymes have a considerable potential in biocatalysis for the stereospecific synthesis of various β-hydroxy amino acids, which are valuable building blocks for the production of pharmaceuticals. While several structures of L-threonine aldolases (LTAs) have already been determined, no structure of a DTA is available to date. Here, we report on the determination of the crystal structure of the DTA from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (AxDTA) at 1.5 Å resolution. Our results underline the close relationship of DTAs and alanine racemases and allow the identification of a metal binding site close to the PLP-cofactor in the active site of the enzyme which is consistent with the previous observation that divalent cations are essential for DTA activity. Modeling of AxDTA substrate complexes provides a rationale for this metal dependence and indicates that binding of the β-hydroxy group of the substrate to the metal ion very likely activates this group and facilitates its deprotonation by His193. An equivalent involvement of a metal ion has been implicated in the mechanism of a serine dehydratase, which harbors a metal ion binding site in the vicinity of the PLP cofactor at the same position as in DTA. The structure of AxDTA is completely different to available structures of LTAs. The enantio-complementarity of DTAs and LTAs can be explained by an approximate mirror symmetry of crucial active site residues relative to the PLP-cofactor.

  18. The crystal structure of D-threonine aldolase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans provides insight into a metal ion assisted PLP-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Uhl

    Full Text Available Threonine aldolases catalyze the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP dependent cleavage of threonine into glycine and acetaldehyde and play a major role in the degradation of this amino acid. In nature, L- as well as D-specific enzymes have been identified, but the exact physiological function of D-threonine aldolases (DTAs is still largely unknown. Both types of enantio-complementary enzymes have a considerable potential in biocatalysis for the stereospecific synthesis of various β-hydroxy amino acids, which are valuable building blocks for the production of pharmaceuticals. While several structures of L-threonine aldolases (LTAs have already been determined, no structure of a DTA is available to date. Here, we report on the determination of the crystal structure of the DTA from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (AxDTA at 1.5 Å resolution. Our results underline the close relationship of DTAs and alanine racemases and allow the identification of a metal binding site close to the PLP-cofactor in the active site of the enzyme which is consistent with the previous observation that divalent cations are essential for DTA activity. Modeling of AxDTA substrate complexes provides a rationale for this metal dependence and indicates that binding of the β-hydroxy group of the substrate to the metal ion very likely activates this group and facilitates its deprotonation by His193. An equivalent involvement of a metal ion has been implicated in the mechanism of a serine dehydratase, which harbors a metal ion binding site in the vicinity of the PLP cofactor at the same position as in DTA. The structure of AxDTA is completely different to available structures of LTAs. The enantio-complementarity of DTAs and LTAs can be explained by an approximate mirror symmetry of crucial active site residues relative to the PLP-cofactor.

  19. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Control Strategies on Welan Gum Fermentation by Alcaligenes sp.NX-3%溶氧调控策略对Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶发酵过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万萍; 李会; 徐浩; 陈飞; 徐虹

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了发酵过程中溶氧调控策略对Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶的影响.在7.5 L发酵罐中,首先考察了不同通气量对菌体生长、威兰胶浓度、葡萄糖消耗、威兰胶黏度等的影响.结果表明,通气量为1vvm时,有利于威兰胶浓度的提高.通过研究不同供氧水平对威兰胶发酵的影响,发现较高的溶氧水平有利于威兰胶的合成,但是不利于威兰胶黏度的提高.因此提出了低供氧-中供氧-高供氧、高供氧-中供氧-低供氧2种不同溶氧调控策略.实验结果表明:采用高供氧-中供氧-低供氧策略,能够使威兰胶浓度达到25.4 g/L,葡萄糖对威兰胶的转化率提高到0.51g/g,威兰胶黏度达到2.700 Pa·s.%The dissolved oxygen control in the production of welan gum by Alcaligenes sp. NX - 3 was investigated. Firstly, based on the analysis of the effect of various aeration rate on cell growth, welan gum concentration, glucose consumption, dissolved oxygen level, and welan gum viscosity, we confirmed that in a 7.5 L bioreactor 1 vvm aeration rate was beneficial for welan gum production. After that, the effect of different oxygen supply levels on the welan gum fermentation was studied. The results indicated that high oxygen supply level could improve the welan gum production, but it was not helpful for welan gum viscosity. Therefore, the two oxygen supply strategies:low-moderatehigh oxygen supply level and high-moderate-low oxygen supply level were proposed. The results showed that the latter was better for the welan gum fermentation. Finally, the maximum concentration of welan gum reached 25.4 g/L with a yield of 0.51 g/g and the welan gum viscosity of 2. 700 Pa · s .

  20. 超声波处理对生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1破乳性能影响研究%Influence of ultrasonic treatment on emulsion breaking performance of a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 王彩林; 杨硕; 陆丽君; 刘佳

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the cell integrity and demulsifying ability, the influence of ultrasonic treatment on demulsifying strain of Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1 was studied. The demulsifying strain was isolated from the contaminated soil near an oil production well in Karamay oil field of Xinjiang. The results showed that the strain treated by ultrasonic cell disruption system ( power intensity, 0. 2 W/mL) had a rougher cell surface and flat shape. The cell surface hydrophobicity was changed and the highest cell surface hydrophobicity achieved 95 % treated by 5 min. After treated for 30 min by ultrasonic, the emulsion breaking ratio of the demulsifying strain dropped to 55%. Also,there was a negative relationship(R2 =0.884) between DNA concentration and emultion breaking ratio. The study also found that cells accelerated the coalescence process by absorption bridging effect which contributed to its higher demulsifying efficiency.%以新疆克拉玛依油田某采油井附近长期受石油污染的土壤中筛选出的生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1为研究对象,考察超声波处理对生物破乳菌菌体性质和破乳性能的影响.结果表明,超声波处理(0.2 W/mL)后菌体表面变粗糙,部分细胞呈现凹陷或扁平状.短时间超声波处理(0~5 min)使菌体颗粒粒径迅速降低,菌体细胞表面疏水性提高,最大值达到95%;超声波处理30 min后,其对W/O乳状液的破乳率降至55%.研究还发现,细胞破碎程度与破乳率呈现负相关(R2=0.884),推测菌体细胞通过吸附架桥作用加速液滴聚集聚并过程,从而提高破乳速率和破乳率.

  1. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the Activation of Ribulosebiphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, M. I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hartman, F. C.

    1983-08-01

    Molecular structure of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase isolated from Rhodospirillium was compared with the enzyme isolated from Alcaligens eutrophus. Peptides derived from the active center of the bacterial enzyme were highly homologous with those isolated from spinach. Molecular shapes of the carboxylases were estimated using neutron scattering data. These studies suggested that the enzyme as isolated from R. rubrum is a solid prolate ellipsoid or cylinder, while the spinach enzyme resembles a hollow sphere.

  2. ISOLATION AND NH4+-N REMOVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A HIGH-EFFICIENT HETEROTROPHIC NITRIFYING BACTERIUM ALCALIGENES FAECALIS Ni3-1%高效异养硝化细菌Alcaligenes faecalis Ni3-1的分离及其脱氨特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青云; 江林峰; 陈建奇; 赵稳; 毛涛; 李利; 余知和

    2015-01-01

    从生活排污渠中分离筛选出高效异养硝化菌株Ni3-1,通过形态和16S rDNA序列分析,初步鉴定为Alcaligenes faecalis.脱氨特性研究表明:Ni3-1的异养硝化作用主要发生在指数期;碳源对菌株脱氨效果影响较大,柠檬酸三钠和丁二酸钠为最佳碳源;在氨氮为10~1 000 mg/L时,Ni3-1均表现出较高的脱氨能力;Ni3-1适应能力较强,温度为25~35℃,pH为6~9,C/N为10 ~15时,24 h氨氮去除率均达95%以上.将Ni3-1用于处理高氨氮猪场废水,48 h氨氮去除率可达93.2%,且未检测到亚硝态氮和硝态氮的积累.总体而言,菌株Ni3-1在脱氨效率和适应能力方面具有明显优势,在污水脱氮处理中具有一定的开发利用价值.

  3. Isolation, identification and phosphorus-removal characterization of bacteria Alcaligenes sp.strain ED-12 for phosphorus-accumulation%高效聚磷菌Alcaligenes sp.ED-12菌株的分离鉴定及其除磷特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄志刚; 韩永和; 章文贤; 周志华; 陈佳兴; 李敏

    2014-01-01

    利用经典的微生物筛选方法,从福州市闽侯县上街镇高岐村某排污口淤泥中分离出1株高效聚磷菌,并结合16SrRNA基因序列分析进行了菌株鉴定.结果表明,该菌株为产碱杆菌,将其命名为Alcaligenes sp.ZGED-12.理化因素实验显示,在以乙酸钠为碳源、NH4Cl为氮源,当C/N为3∶1,pH为8.0,温度和摇床转速分别为35℃和100 r·min-1时,该菌株的生长状态最好,对磷的去除能力也最强,最高除磷率可达80%.此外,该菌株能够耐受较高浓度的磷,当磷浓度超过45 mg·L-1时会产生抑制效应.同时,以聚乙烯醇(PVA)和海藻酸盐(SA)制备了聚磷微生物固定化小球,并考察了菌球对氮磷废水的净化效果.结果表明,氮磷的去除包括固定化材料的吸附作用及微生物的生长利用和/或贮存,显示出了良好的应用前景.

  4. Report of 1 patient with primary septicemia from Pseudomonas alcaligenes infection secondary to AIDS%艾滋病伴类产碱假单胞菌感染所致原发性败血症1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立奇

    2004-01-01

    艾滋病病人由于获得性免疫缺陷,消化系统机会感染甚为常见,易发生沙门氏菌、志贺菌及空肠弯曲菌感染,其中人畜共患的鼠伤寒沙门氏菌尤其多见,同时亦常发生各类细菌引起的败血症。我院在2003年7月收治1例艾滋病病人合并类产碱假单胞菌(p.pseudo-alcaligenes)感染所致原发性败血症,报告如下。

  5. Reclassification of Alcaligenes latus strains IAM 12599T and IAM 12664 and Pseudomonas saccharophila as Azohydromonas lata gen. nov., comb. nov., Azohydromonas australica sp. nov. and Pelomonas saccharophila gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-Hui; Yokota, Akira

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the taxonomic position of the nitrogen-fixing and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria Alcaligenes latus strains IAM 12599T, IAM 12664 and IAM 12665 and Pseudomonas saccharophila IAM 14368T. It was found that the type strain of Alcaligenes latus, IAM 12599T, showed 99 x 9 and 96 x 1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strains IAM 12665 and IAM 12664, respectively. A comparison using DNA-DNA hybridization suggested that strains IAM 12599T and IAM 12665 belong to a single species (89 x 7 %) and that strain IAM 12664 (35 x 1 %) forms a separate species. The phenotypic characteristics also support the conclusion that these bacteria should be identified as two species of a new genus: Azohydromonas lata gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain IAM 12599T=DSM 1122T=LMG 3321T=ATCC 29712T; reference strain IAM 12665=DSM 1123=LMG 3325=ATCC 29714) and Azohydromonas australica sp. nov. (type strain IAM 12664T=DSM 1124T=LMG 3324T=ATCC 29713T). Pseudomonas saccharophila IAM 14368T was found to be closely related to the phototrophic bacterium Roseateles depolymerans, with 96 x 8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, but the two bacteria are quite different with respect to their metabolism and some significant phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they cannot be included in a single genus. Further studies on their nifH gene sequences, G+C content of the DNA and cellular fatty acid composition confirm that Pseudomonas saccharophila should be reclassified: the name Pelomonas saccharophila gen. nov., comb. nov. is proposed, with the type strain IAM 14368T (=LMG 2256T=ATCC 15946T).

  6. Isolation, identification and characterization of an Alcaligenes strain capable of degrading quinclorac%二氯喹啉酸降解菌的分离鉴定及降解特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董俊宇; 罗坤; 柏连阳; 周小毛; 曾爱平; 范俊

    2013-01-01

    A bacterium strain designated as J3,able to degrade quinclorac efficiently,was isolated from soil with long-term application of quinclorac by enrichment culture method.Base on biochemicalphysiological identification and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA,strain J3 was identified as Alcaligenes sp..At initial quinclorac concentration of 100 mg/L and J3 inoculation quantity of 4%,more than 70% of quinclorac was degraded in 6 days at pH 7 and temperature of 30 ℃.At J3 inoculation quantity of 4%,temperature of 25 ℃,quinclorac concentration of 25 % of its recommendation dose,the rehabilitation rate of the potted tobacco reached 69 %.%采用富集培养技术从长期施用二氯喹啉酸的土壤中分离得到1株能够降解二氯喹啉酸的细菌,将其命名为J3,通过生理生化特性和16s rDNA同源性序列分析,鉴定其为产碱菌属(Alcaligenes sp.).在二氯喹啉酸初始质量浓度为100 mg/L、接种量为4%、pH 7、30℃条件下,接种后第6天,菌株J3对二氯喹啉酸的降解率可达到70%以上;在25℃、接种量为4%条件下,其生物修复作用可使受二氯喹啉酸(25%田间推荐剂量)药害盆栽烟草的恢复率达到69%.

  7. pH对兼性嗜碱菌Alcaligenes sp. XJ-T-1产生物破乳剂性能的影响%Impact of pH on properties of bio-demulsifier produced by facultative alkaliphilic strain Alcaligenes sp. XJ-T-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高赛男; 黄翔峰; 王俊儒; 刘佳; 陆丽君

    2010-01-01

    从受石油污染土壤中筛选出一株生物破乳剂产生菌Alcaligenes sp. XJ-T-1,生长的最适初始pH范围为9.0~11.0,为兼性嗜碱菌,能在初始pH 6.0 ~ pH 11.0生长并产生生物破乳剂,但只有在碱性环境下才产生胞外产物.XJ-T-1菌悬液和胞外产物溶液可将蒸馏水表面张力分别降低到30 mN/m左右和35 mN/m左右.经过TLC分析,初步推测XJ-T-1产生的胞外产物为脂肽类和糖脂类的混合物.XJ-T-1菌悬液主要针对O/W型乳状液破乳,胞外产物主要针对W/O型乳状液破乳,初始pH 9.0培养下的菌悬液和胞外产物破乳效果最好.投加210 mg/L菌悬液可使O/W型乳状液在24 h的破乳率达77.5%,投加40 mg/L胞外粗产物溶液可使W/O型乳状液在24 h的破乳率达90.0%.通过透射电镜照片推测,随着培养pH提高到9.0以上,胞外产物的产生使XJ-T-1利用石蜡的过程发生变化.

  8. Extraction of Surface Active Substance and Analysis of Demulsifying Characteristics for the Demulsifying Strain Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1%生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1表面活性物质提取与其破乳特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔峰; 张树聪; 彭开铭; 陆丽君; 刘佳

    2013-01-01

    对胞壁结合型生物破乳菌Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1的表面破乳活性物质进行提取和初步鉴定,并探讨了菌体和表面活性物质的破乳过程,以揭示生物破乳菌的破乳特性.采用碱液提取破乳菌表面活性物质,并通过单因素试验和正交试验得到最优提取条件:温度35℃、碱液浓度0.08 mol·L-1、料液比12 g·L-1、提取时间4h,在此条件下提取率为36.1%,500 mg·L-1破乳菌表面活性物质48 h破乳率为77%;采用凝胶过滤色谱和红外光谱对破乳菌表面活性物质的分子量和表面基团进行分析,发现其相对分子质量分布于55 ~ 61 256,表面存在糖脂类、脂类和蛋白类物质的特征基团;成分分析表明破乳菌表面活性物质含糖类、脂类和蛋白类分别为22.2%、7.5%和13.4%.胰蛋白酶处理破乳菌表面活性物质几乎使其完全丧失破乳活性,表明蛋白类物质是其破乳活性的关键因素.使用稳定性分析仪对破乳菌菌体和表面活性物质的破乳过程进行分析,发现二者破乳过程有较大差异,菌体表面活性物质是菌体破乳活性的主要来源,菌体表面结构在破乳过程中起辅助作用,菌体的破乳性能是破乳活性物质和菌体形态共同作用的结果.%Extraction and identification of surface active substance of Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1,as well as description of its emulsion breaking process were conducted to reveal the demulsifying characteristics of this demulsifying strain.Alkali solvent was adopted in the extraction process with conditions optimized as 35℃,0.08 mol· L-1 of alkali concentration,12 g· L-1 of sample to solution ratio,and 4 h of extraction time by launching both single-factor and orthogonal tests.Under this optimal condition,the extracted surface active substance (the extraction ratio was 36.1%) achieved 77% emulsion breaking ratio for 500 mg·L-1 within 48 h.FT-IR showed the existence of glycolipids,lipids and proteins in the

  9. 硝酸盐还原菌JNS05抑制聚驱粘损的应用研究%Inhibition of Viscosity Loss of Polymer Solution by Alcaligenes sp.JNS05

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏奇; 皮文清; 李昂

    2014-01-01

    聚合物驱油是油田三次采油的重要方式,聚合物溶液在注入管道中存在着严重的粘度损失,影响了油田的生产和开发效果,而硫酸盐还原菌的广泛存在是导致聚合物粘损的重要原因.为此,从大庆油田回注水中筛选得到一株硝酸盐还原菌Alcaligenes sp.JNS05,室内试验表明,菌株JNS05对硫酸盐还原菌具有显著的抑制效果,将菌株培养液注入聚合物注入管道中,现场检测结果显示,聚合物粘度损失可降低5%以上.

  10. 异养硝化-好氧反硝化粪产碱杆菌处理高氨氮污泥厌氧消化液%High strength ammonium removal in sludge digestate by Alcaligenes faecalis strain No.4 with heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 刘文静; 高桥润一; 正田诚; 李宁

    2016-01-01

    具有异养硝化-好氧反硝化特性的粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis No.4)直接处理污泥厌氧消化液中的高浓度氨氮时,在60 h内氨氮(原始浓度441 mg/L)去除率约为18%.沼液中碳源验证实验表明,乙酸可作为其优质碳源.因而,可以通过外加乙酸钠的方式来解决污泥厌氧消化液碳源不足的问题.当污泥消化液中添加足够的碳源-乙酸钠使得C/N为10时,Alcaligenes faecalis No.4的脱氮效果良好,氨氮的去除率达到了98%以上.研究结果表明,在利用粪产碱杆菌处理高浓度氨氮沼液时,酸化污泥作为外加碳源的方式具有其理论可行性.

  11. 粪产碱杆菌 D-氨基酰化酶的分离纯化及发酵条件优化%Isolation,Purification and Fermentation Conditions Optimization of Alcaligenes Faecalis D-Aminoacylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶金; 倪孟祥

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock method was applied to transform recombinant plasmid containing Alcaligenes faeca-lis D-aminoacylase gene into Escherichia coli ,and then the recombinants were screened.D-Aminoacylase from the engineering bacteria was isolated and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography.The fermentation condi-tions of D-aminoacylase were optimized by a single factor experiment.The results showed that D-aminoacylase was purified up to 12.4 times with a recovery rate of 50%,and its specific activity was 456.71 U·mg-1 .The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows:after aerobic cultured at 37 ℃ to OD 600 value of 0.6,induced 5 h with addition of 0.5 mmol·L-1 IPTG.Under above conditions,D-aminoacylase activity was 90.9 U·mL-1 .%采用热激法将含粪产碱杆菌 D-氨基酰化酶基因载体的质粒导入大肠杆菌,筛选重组子,对该工程菌产生的D-氨基酰化酶用 Ni2+柱进行分离纯化;通过单因素实验优化 D-氨基酰化酶的发酵条件。结果表明,纯化后的 D-氨基酰化酶比活力为456.71 U·mg-1,纯化回收率为50%,纯化倍数为12.4倍;最佳发酵条件为:37℃通气培养至菌体浓度OD 600值为0.6时,加入0.5 mmol·L-1诱导剂 IPTG 诱导5 h,在此条件下,D-氨基酰化酶酶活力为90.9 U·mL-1。

  12. Characterization of an Indole-3-Acetamide Hydrolase from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis and Its Application in Efficient Preparation of Both Enantiomers of Chiral Building Block 2,3-Dihydro-1,4-Benzodioxin-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Mishra

    Full Text Available Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity. Our interest in finding a biocatalyst for efficient production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid lead us to discover an amidase activity from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, which was able to kinetically resolve 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxyamide with E value of >200. Thus, at about 50% conversion, (R-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid was produced in >99% e.e. The remaining amide had (S-configuration and 99% e.e. The amide and acid were easily separated by aqueous (alkaline-organic two phase extraction method. The same amidase was able to catalyse, albeit at much lower rate the hydrolysis of (S-amide to (S-acid without loss of e.e. The amidase activity was identified as indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (IaaH. IaaH is known to catalyse conversion of indole-3-acetamide (IAM to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, which is phytohormone of auxin class and is widespread among plants and bacteria that inhabit plant rhizosphere. IaaH exhibited high activity for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which was about 65% compared to its natural substrate, indole-3-acetamide. The natural substrate for IaaH indole-3-acetamide shared, at least in part a similar bicyclic structure with 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which may account for high activity of enzyme towards this un-natural substrate. To

  13. A suitable procedure to choose antimicrobials as controlling agents in fermentations performed by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Romulo C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of nitrofurantoin, erythromycin and streptomycin at 50, 25 and 12,5% of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC on maximum specific growth rate (µmax and specific polymer accumulation rate (µPHB of Alcaligenes eutrophus, considered resistant to those antimicrobials. Nitrofurantoin strongly affected µmax even at 50% MIC. Streptomycin moderately affected µmax only at 50%MIC. Nitrofurantoin showed the most harmful effect on µPHB when 50% MIC was applied and erythromycin was not harmful.

  14. 粪产碱杆菌 ZWS11菌株对烟嘧磺隆的酶促降解特性%Enzymatic degradation characteristics of nicosulfuron byAlcaligenes faecalis ZWS11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫松; 邱立红; 郭庆港; 鹿秀云; 李社增; 王培培; 张晓云; 马平

    2016-01-01

    In order to study enzymatic degradation characteristics of nicosulfuron byAlcaligenes faecalis ZWS11, extracellular, intracellular crude enzymes and cell debris were extracted from strain ZWS11 by methods of acetone precipitation, ultrasonic fragmentation and centrifuge separation. The enzyme activity of the extraction from ZWS11 was systematic studied under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the enzyme activity was high when the ratio of fermentation broth and acetone was 1:3 (V/V). At the presence of extracellular, intracellular crude enzymes and cell debris, the average degradation rates of nicosulfuron (24.9 μmol/L) were 87.4%, 16.9% and 17.4%, respectively. The degradation capability was significantly different between the extracellular enzymes and intracellular crude enzymes or cell debris (P 60%) were achieved when the pH ranged from 4.0 to 9.0, and temperature ranged from 35℃ to 70℃, which demonstrated that the degrading enzymes had a broad pH tolerance and a good thermal stability. The activity of degrading enzymes could be inhibited in the presence of different concentrations of SDS and PMSF. The results provided scientific basis for further studies on the large-scale production of nicosulfuron-degrading enzymes and the bioremediation of nicosulfuron-contaminated soil.%为明确粪产碱杆菌Alcaligenes faecalis ZWS11菌株对烟嘧磺隆的酶促降解特性,采用丙酮沉淀、超声波破碎和高速离心等方法,提取制备了 ZWS11菌株的胞外和胞内粗酶液以及菌体碎片悬浮液,并分别测定了其酶活力。结果表明:当V(菌体发酵液):V(丙酮)=1:3时提取到的胞外粗酶液具有较高的酶活力;胞外粗酶液、胞内粗酶液和菌体碎片悬浮液对24.9μmol/L烟嘧磺隆的平均降解率分别为87.4%、16.9%和17.4%,胞外粗酶液的降解能力与胞内粗酶液或菌体碎片悬浮液相比差异显著(P<0.05),由此确定对烟嘧磺隆起降

  15. Preliminary study on the biological characteristics of antagonist bacteria (Alcaligenes faecalis) to entomophagous fungus(Verticillium lecanii)%蜡蚧轮枝菌拮抗菌——粪产碱杆菌生物学特性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美; 张龙

    2009-01-01

    分离到了一种对蜡蚧轮枝菌具有明显抑制作用的细菌,采用生理生化反应方法对该细菌进行种类鉴定.结果表明,该细菌为粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)菌株.在不同温度下对该细菌的生长速度和对不同抗生素的敏感性进行研究,发现在弱酸性条件下,该菌生长最快的温度为30-39 ℃,对卡那霉素、氯霉素、四环素、链霉素都敏感,对卡那霉素的完全抑制最低浓度为60 μg·mL-1.

  16. Purification and Biochemical Characteristics of Cyanide-degrading Enzyme from Alcaligenes sp.DN25%产碱杆菌DN25中降氰酶的分离纯化及生化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪艳华; 刘幽燕; 唐爱星; 李青云; 王顺成

    2012-01-01

    The cyanide-degrading enzyme from Alcaligenes sp. DN25 was purified through ultrafiltration, precipitation with 30 mg/mL protamine sulfate, 30%~70% fractional ammonium sulphate precipitation and hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl-Toyopearl 650M, and the pure enzyme with the specific activity of 44 U/mg was obtained. After the proper reaction conditions including enzyme concentration and reaction time were determined for the cyanide-degrading activity assay, the purified enzyme properties were then studied in order to provide a theoretical basis for the future researches on cyanide-degradation mechanism and genetic engineering of strain DN2S. The results showed that the optimal pH and temperature were 8.0 and 30℃, respectively. Good stability of the enzyme was observed at pH 7.6-8.0 and its activity decreased quickly when pH reached up to 9.0. The activity of the purified enzyme could keep stable when preserved at 30 t for 10 h while fast deactivation happened at 60 CC. However, with glycine added, the enzyme activity still remained 19.6% after incubated at 60 ℃ for 20 min. The degradation of cyanide by the purified enzyme followed a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with Km of 3.11 mmol/L and Vmax of 0.23 mmol L-1 min-1. Fig 11, Tab 1, Ref 23%以一株可降氰的产碱杆菌DN25为酶来源,通过超滤、30 mg/mL硫酸鱼精蛋白沉淀、30%~70%硫酸铵盐析和Phenyl-Toyopearl 650M疏水层析等步骤,获得比活力为44 U/mg的纯化酶制剂.在确定酶浓度、反应时间等氰降解活力测定条件后开展酶学性质研究,试图为将来氰降解代谢机理的深入研究和菌株的基因工程改造提供理论基础.研究结果表明,此纯化酶催化氰化物水解的最适pH值为8.0,最适温度为30℃.该酶在pH 7.0~8.0区域稳定,而在pH>9时会很快失活;在30℃保存10 h,酶活力保持稳定,高于60℃,酶快速失活.加入甘氨酸稳定剂,在60℃下保存20 min酶活仍可保留19.6%.酶促反应动

  17. 细菌Ⅱ型分泌途径控制产碱假单胞菌(Pseudomonas alcaligenes) S2中卵磷脂酶的分泌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕静; 李繁; 陈三凤; 李季伦

    2005-01-01

    从水稻根际分离筛选出1株降解卵磷脂的有机磷降解细菌菌株S2,通过形态指标、生理生化性状、16S rDNA序列、(G+C)含量以及DNA-DNA杂交分析,鉴定为产碱假单胞菌(Pseudomonas alcaligenes). 采用双亲接合的方法将带有Tn5转座子的质粒导入产碱假单胞菌S2菌株中进行转座子插入诱变,从5000个卡那霉素抗性的Tn5插入突变株中,筛选到3株丧失解磷能力的突变株(M808,M1329和M1400)和1株解磷能力增强的突变株(M20). 对Tn5插入位点的基因进行DNA测序表明,丧失解磷能力突变株中被突变的基因分别是xcpS,xcpX和xcpW,它们分别编码XcpS,XcpX和XcpW蛋白,这些蛋白是细菌Ⅱ型分泌途径中的主要成分. 将xcpS,xcpX和xcpW基因分别构建在pLAFR3载体上,通过双亲接合的方式分别导入上述M808,M1329和M1400三个丧失解磷能力突变株中进行功能互补实验,结果表明这3个基因都能使各自相对应的突变株恢复解磷能力. 以上结果表明,在产碱假单胞菌中卵磷脂酶的分泌是通过Ⅱ型分泌途径来完成的. 解磷能力的丧失可能是由于Tn5插入xcp基因簇中的某一基因破坏了卵磷脂酶向胞外的分泌,造成突变株不能降解有机磷. 在解磷能力增强突变株M20中,被突变的基因与铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa) PAO1中的chpA基因(参与细菌的颤动)同源性达88%.

  18. 产碱假单胞菌碱性脂肪酶的克隆表达及酶学性质%Gene Cloning,Expression and Characterization of An Alkaline Lipase from Pseudomonas alcaligenes PA-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘滔滔; 刘明瑞; 刘恒嘉; 杜丽琴; 梁智群; 韦宇拓

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to obtain the lipase that can be applied to the hydrolysis and syn-thesis of esters,the alkaline lipase-producing strains that hydrolyze long chain fatty acid ester were screened and isolated.The related genes were cloned and expressed,and enzyme charac-terization was studied.[Methods]A strain,which degraded glycerol tristearate,was isolated from the environment,and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analyses.Then the lipase gene and the lipase chaperone gene were amplified by PCR.The target genes lipPA-9A and lipPA-9B were introduced into expression vector pET-22b(+)and induced for expression inEscherichiacoli BL21(DE3).Finally,the char-acteristics of the recombinant enzyme were stud-ied in detail.[Results]The strain was identified as the genus of Pseudomonas alcaligenes by ana-lyzing of 16S rDNA sequence.And the lipase gene (lipPA-9A ) and lipase chaperone gene (lipPA-9B)were cloned.The co-expression re-combinant plasmid of pET22b-lipPA-9A-9B was successfully constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3).The maximum activity of LIP-9A was obtained at 35℃,pH 10.5,and pNPO was the most suitable substrate.Meanwhile,the active LIP-9A could catalyze fatty alcohols and fatty acids to generate esters.[Conclusion]LIP-9A is a lipase with relatively high activity in al-kaline conditions and can catalyze esterification reaction.Its characteristics are of high value in the detergent industry and biocatalytic applications.%【目的】为获得可应用于酯类水解及合成的脂肪酶资源,本研究通过筛选分离得到能够水解长链脂肪酸酯的脂肪酶产生菌,克隆表达其脂肪酶基因并研究脂肪酶的酶学性质。【方法】从环境中筛选分离出可水解三硬脂酸甘油酯的菌株,利用16S rDNA对其进行分子鉴定,并扩增其脂肪酶基因和脂肪酶分子伴侣基因。以 pET-22 b(+)为表达载体,构建共表达重组质粒,转化Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)进行异源表达,并对重组酶进行酶

  19. 产碱杆菌ECU0401催化拆分扁桃酸及其衍生物%Preparation of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid and its derivatives from racemates by enantioselective degradation with strain Alcaligenes sp.ECU0401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉财; 许建和

    2009-01-01

    从土壤中分离的1株产碱杆菌Alcaligenes sp.ECU0401具有扁桃酸脱氢酶活性,可以以扁桃酸、苯甲酰甲酸或苯甲酸为唯一C源生长,并且具有较高的脱氢酶活力.以外消旋扁桃酸为C源,采用分批补料策略培养(或反应)99 h,扁桃酸累计投入量为30.4 g/L,(S)-(+)-扁桃酸被完全降解,(R)-(-)-扁桃酸回收产率为32.8%,对映体过量值(e.e.)>99.9%.利用静息细胞作为催化剂不对称降解外消旋扁桃酸的氯代衍生物,制备获得光学活性的(R)(-)邻氯扁桃酸、(S)-(+)-间氯扁桃酸和(S)-(+)-对氯扁桃酸,光学纯度均超过99.9%e.e..

  20. Interaction of nanosecond laser pulse with tetramethyl silane (Si(CH34 clusters: Generation of multiply charged silicon and carbon ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purav M. Badani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work reports significantly high levels of ionization, eventually leading to Coulomb explosion of Tetramethyl silane (TMS clusters, on interaction with laser pulses of intensity ∼109 W/cm2. Tetramethyl silane clusters, prepared by supersonic expansion were photoionized at 266, 355 or 532 nm and the resultant ions were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It is observed that wavelength of irradiation and the size of the cluster are crucial parameters which drastically affect the nature of charge species generated upon photoionization of cluster. The results show that clusters absorb significantly higher energy from the laser field at longer wavelengths (532 nm and generate multiply charged silicon and carbon ions which have large kinetic energies. Further, laser-cluster interaction at different wavelengths has been quantified and charge densities at 266, 355 and 532 nm are found to be 4x 1010, 5x 1010 and 5x 1011 charges/cm3 respectively. These unusual results have been rationalized based on dominance of secondary ionization processes at 532 nm ultimately leading to Coulomb explosion of clusters. In another set of experiments, multiply charged ions of Ar (up to +5 state and Kr (up to +6 state were observed when TMS doped inert gas clusters were photoionized at 532 and 355 nm. The extent of energy absorption at these two wavelengths is clearly manifested from the charge state of the atomic ions generated upon Coulomb disintegration of the doped cluster. These experiments thus demonstrate a novel method for generation of multiply charged atomic ions of inert gases at laser intensity of ∼ 109 W/cm2. The average size of the cluster exhibiting Coulomb explosion phenomena under giga watt intensity conditions has been estimated to be ∼ 6 nm. Experimental results obtained in the present work agree qualitatively with the model proposed earlier [D. Niu, H. Li, F. Liang, L. Wen, X. Luo, B. Wang, and H. Qu, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 151103(2005] and point towards interaction of quasi-free electrons, generated during primary multiphoton ionization step, with a given wavelength in the presence of Coulombic field.

  1. Purification and Characterization of Alcaligenes faecalis Penicillin G Acylase Expressed in Bacillus subtilis%粪产碱杆菌青霉素G酰化酶在枯草芽孢杆菌中的表达、纯化及其性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周政; 周丽萍; 陈美娟; 张延良; 李仁宝; 杨晟; 袁中一

    2003-01-01

    利用PCR技术克隆了粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis, CICC AS1.767)青霉素G酰化酶(pencillin G acylase, PGA)基因(GenBank 登录号AF455356). 通过构建工程菌E.coli( pETAPGA), 该酶在大肠杆菌中获得了表达, 表达产物分泌到周质空间. 进一步构建的工程菌B. subtilis (pMAPGA)和B. subtilis (pBAPGA)实现了该酶的胞外分泌表达. 分泌表达的最高表达量为653 u/L, 比野生型A. faecalis 表达量高109倍. 表达产物经硫酸铵分级沉淀和DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B两步纯化, 纯度提高86倍, 活力回收率达到81%, 纯化后的PGA活力为1.469 u/mg. 研究表明, PGA家族成员中只有粪产碱杆菌PGA和巨大芽孢杆菌PGA可以在枯草芽孢杆菌中分泌表达. 与巨大芽孢杆菌PGA相比, 粪产碱杆菌PGA的最适pH值为8.0, 最适温度为60 °C, 而且在有机溶剂中具有更强的稳定性. 该酶在水相中具有较低的头孢氨苄合成活力. 本研究为粪产碱杆菌PGA的获得提供了新的途径.%The Alcaligenes faecalis PGA gene encoding heterodimeric penicillin G acylase (PGA) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis respectively. In contrast to E.coli hosts where the enzymes were retained in the periplasm, B. subtilis cell secreted the recombinant enzyme into the medium. Contrary to limited expression yield of E. coli (pETAPGA), PGA extracellularly expressed by B. subtilis (pBAPGA) and B. subtilis (pMAPGA) reached the highest yield of 653 u/L. This yield increased 109-fold higher than the native expression of A. faecalis CICC AS1.767. The enzyme was fractionated with (NH4)2SO4 and purified by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B with a yield of 81%. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 1.469 u/mg. Furthermore, some enzyme characteristics, such as the pH and temperature optimum, the stability against organic solvent and the ratio of cepholexin synthesis to hydrolysis were determined. By overexpressing A. faecalis PGA in B. subtilis

  2. 2011-2013年包头医学院第三附属医院木糖氧化产碱杆菌的分布与耐药性分析%Analysis on distribution and drug resistance ofAlcaligenes xylosoxidans in Third Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇晓霞; 任志明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution and drug resistance ofAlcaligenes xylosoxidans in Third Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College.Methods The distribution and drug resistance ofA. xylosoxidans in Third Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College from 2011 to 2013 were reviewed, retrospectively.Results The specimens were mainly obtained from the sputum, accounting for 90.0%. The minority were from wounds secretions and enterocoelia fester, accounting for 10.0%. The infections distributed widely in ICU and respiratory department, accounting for 47.5% and 25.0%, followed by cerebral surgery department (17.5%) and other departments (10.0%). The drug resistance rates ofAlcaligenes xylosoxidans had increased in three years. The drug resistance rates of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (100.0%) and aztreonam (90.0%) were higher than others. The drug resistance rates of aminoglycosides varied from 77.5% to 80.0%. Those of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and cefepime were 57.5%, 82.5%, and 75.0%, respectively. The drug resistance rates of cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone and imipenem were 2.5%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 5.0%, and 30%, respectively.ConclusionAlcaligenes xylosoxidans infection mainly occurs in respiratory system and its drug resistance is more and more serious. According to the results of drug resistance, the antibiotics are selected to reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infection and drug resistance strains.%目的:分析包头医学院第三附属医院木糖氧化产碱杆菌的分布与耐药性。方法对2011-2013年包头医学院第三附属医院木糖氧化产碱杆菌的分布及其耐药情况进行回顾性统计分析。结果木糖氧化产碱杆菌主要来自痰液标本,占90.0%,其余来自于伤口分泌物和腹腔脓液,占10.0%。感染区分布主要以重症监护病房和呼吸科为主,分别占47.5%、25.0%,脑外科及其他科室分别占17.5%、10.0%。菌株耐药率3年呈现逐年增

  3. Development of PCR primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braker, G.; Witzel, K.P. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Limnologie, Ploen (Germany); Fesefeldt, A. [Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Mikrobiologie

    1998-10-01

    A system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the application of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with PCR. Primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) after comparative sequence analysis. Whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. Likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laboratory strains. The nirK gene could be amplified from Blastobacter denitrificans, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, and Alcaligenes sp. (DSM 30128); the nirS gene was amplified from Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 530 and from the denitrifying isolate IFAM 3698. For each of the two genes, at least one primer combination amplified successfully for all of the test strains. Specific amplification products were not obtained wit h nondenitrifying bacteria or with strains of the other nir type. The specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by subsequent sequencing. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples. This was shown by applying the generally amplifying primer combination for each nir gene developed in this study to total DNA preparations from aquatic habitats.

  4. 生物塑料的开发潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯为

    2005-01-01

    在我国有很多单位和高校早已开展生物塑料的研发。武汉大学张世炜先生研究一种固氮细菌产塑料物质算是较早的.以后南北方研究人员相继开展了生物塑料的研发,得到了好些产塑料物质的微生物。如真养产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes eutrophus),利用碳水化合物、CO2、氧为基物发酵生产天然多聚物,即聚羟基丁酸酯(PHB,基侧链聚β羟基丁酸酯),产量可达菌体重量的70%;

  5. Identification of the region of a 14-kilodalton protein of Rhodococcus ruber that is responsible for the binding of this phasin to polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper-Fürst, U; Madkour, M H; Mayer, F; Steinbüchel, A

    1995-05-01

    The function of the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granule-associated GA14 protein of Rhodococcus ruber was investigated in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue, which coexpressed this protein with the polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHB) biosynthesis operon of Alcaligenes eutrophus. The GA14 protein had no influence on the biosynthesis rate of PHB in E. coli XL1-Blue(pSKCO7), but this recombinant E. coli strain formed smaller PHB granules than were formed by an E. coli strain that expressed only the PHB operon. Immunoelectron microscopy with GA14-specific antibodies demonstrated the binding of GA14 protein to these mini granules. In a previous study, two hydrophobic domains close to the C terminus of the GA14 protein were analyzed, and a working hypothesis that suggested an anchoring of the GA14 protein in the phospholipid monolayer surrounding the PHA granule core by these hydrophobic domains was developed (U. Pieper-Fürst, M. H. Madkour, F. Mayer, and A. Steinbüchel, J. Bacteriol. 176:4328-4337, 1994). This hypothesis was confirmed by the construction of C-terminally truncated variants of the GA14 protein lacking the second or both hydrophobic domains and by the demonstration of their inability to bind to PHB granules. Further confirmation of the hypothesis was obtained by the construction of a fusion protein composed of the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase II of A. eutrophus and the C terminus of the GA14 protein containing both hydrophobic domains and by its affinity to native and artificial PHB granules.

  6. The emulsifying effect of biosurfactants produced by food spoilage organisms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianah O. Ogunmola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food spoilage organisms were isolated using standard procedures on Nutrient Agar, Cetrimide Agar and Pseudomonas Agar Base (supplemented with CFC. The samples were categorized as animal products (raw fish, egg, raw chicken, corned beef, pasteurized milk and plant products (vegetable salad, water leaf (Talinium triangulare, boiled rice, tomatoes and pumpkin leaf (Teifairia occidentalis.They were characterised as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Serratia rubidaea, Corynebacterium pilosum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus laterosporus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus macerans, Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes eutrophus. Preliminary screening for biosurfactant production was done using red blood haemolysis test and confirmed by slide test, drop collapse and oil spreading assay. The biosurfactant produced was purified using acetone and the composition determined initially using Molisch’s test, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The components were found to be ethanol, amino acids, butoxyacetic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, lauryl peroxide, octadecanoic acid and phthalic acid. The producing organisms grew readily on several hydrocarbons such as crude oil, diesel oil and aviation fuel when used as sole carbon sources.  The purified biosurfactants produced were able to cause emulsification of kerosene (19.71-27.14% as well as vegetable oil (16.91-28.12% based on the emulsification index. This result suggests that the isolates can be an asset and further work can exploit their optimal potential in industries.

  7. ASSOCIATION OF Alcaligenes faecalis WITH RICE ROOTS%粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)与水稻根的结合作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤崇杓; 肖家祝; 李信; 周法永; 王有为

    1984-01-01

    @@ 从水稻根分离的粪产碱菌A-15具有较高的固氮能力[1-3].它能与水稻建立联合固氮体系.粪产碱菌与水稻结合的部位主要是附着在根表[3],部分细菌可能进入稻根内部,但迄今未曾得到有力的证明.本工作应用稳定性同位素10B的α径迹分析方法[4-5],探索了粪产碱菌与水稻根的结合及其进入根内部的能力,同时也开拓了研究固氮体系的新方法.

  8. Trends of bio-hydrogen research and development in Europe. Report for the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesing, B.

    1997-03-01

    Research into applied aspects of biological hydrogen production is carried out on a much lower level in Europe than basic hydrogenase research. However, the screening for good H{sub 2} producers, their cultivation, and the development of optimised culture and bioreactor systems has never been a strength in Europe. Although there are a few good groups in Europe major contributions in this field traditionally come from countries outside Europe. However, in the nineties a special application-oriented research subfield has begun to evolve in Europe: the use of genetic enginering to rationally optimise H{sub 2} producing organisms. The most important players who focus on green algae, cyanobacteria, and purple bacteria can be found in Germany, France, and Sweden. In European biohydrogen research, a large and diverse variety of organisms is investigated. Among the organisms most thoroughly studied are Alcaligenes eutrophus, Escherichia coli, Rhodobacter capsulatus, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria. Moreover, a leading position has been obtained with respect to molecular genetics of green algae and cyanobacteria, albeit on a low level. The fact that such a broad range of diverse organisms is studied has advantages and disadvantages. A positive aspect is that the multitude of different approaches had led to several unexpected results which had otherwise been overlooked. On the other hand, an obvious link to biohydrogen production is often lacking. Moreover, there are many 'me-too' approaches and results in which previous findings are only reproduced for another organism as well. (orig.)

  9. Novel membrane bioreactor with gas/liquid two-phase flow for high-performance degradation of phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.; Mercier-Bonin, M.; Lindley, N.D.; Lafforgue, C. [Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse (France)

    1998-09-01

    The use of a membrane bioreactor with cell retention to achieve high biomass concentrations has been examined for phenol degradation by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. This process is particularly interesting for toxic substrates as the hydraulic dilution rate and the growth rate are independently controlled. In the case of a transitory excess of phenol, this potentially toxic situation can be overcome by modifying the substrate concentration or the dilute rate without any loss of cells. The injection of a gas phase at the filter inlet increased both the permeate flow rate and the oxygen transfer capacity. This has enabled the cell concentration to reach a maximum value of 60 g L{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic dilution rate of 0.5 h{sup {minus}1} and a phenol feed concentration of 8 g L{sup {minus}1}. The volumetric productivity of this process corresponds to a phenol degradation rate approaching 100 kg m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The on-line measurement of the characteristic yellow color of 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde, a metabolic intermediate of the phenol degradation pathway, in the permeate provides an interesting basis for process control of phenol supply into the reactor since the color intensity correlates directly to the specific rate of phenol degradation.

  10. Decreasing ammonium generation using hydrogenotrophic bacteria in the process of nitrate reduction by nanoscale zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yi; Li, Tielong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control/Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processed and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Jin, Zhaohui, E-mail: jinzh@nankai.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control/Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processed and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Dong, Meiying; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Shuaima [College of Environmental Science and Engineering/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control/Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processed and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2009-10-15

    An integrated nitrate treatment using nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) and Alcaligenes eutrophus, which is a kind of hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, was conducted to remove nitrate and decrease ammonium generation. Within 8 days, nitrate was removed completely in the reactors containing NZVI particles plus bacteria while the proportion of ammonium generated was only 33%. That is a lower reduction rate but a smaller proportion of ammonium relative to that in abiotic reactors. It was also found that ammonium generation experienced a biphasic process, involving an increasing period and a stable period. After domestication of the bacteria, the combined NZVI-cell system could remove all nitrate without ammonium released when the refreshed nitrate was introduced. Nitrate reduction and the final product distribution were also studied in batch reactors amended with different initial NZVI contents and biomass concentrations, respectively. Both the nitrate removal rate and the ammonium yield decreased when the initial content of NZVI reduced and the initial biomass concentration increased. However, about 27% of the nitrate was converted to ammonium when excess bacteria (OD{sub 422} = 0.026) were used, which was higher than that with appropriate amount of bacteria.

  11. Direct Production of Propene from the Thermolysis of Poly(..beta..-hydroxybutyrate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi M.; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    To transform biomass components into hydrocarbon fuels it is clear that there are two main transformations that need to occur, i.e., deoxygenation and carbon chain extension. The potential routes for decreasing the oxygen content of biomass intermediates include dehydration, hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation. One route that is examined here is the conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) to alkenes that would be intermediates to hydrocarbon fuels.Thermal breakdown of PHA proceeds via an intermediate carboxylic acid, which can then be decarboxylated to an alkene. Oligomerization of alkenes by well-known commercial technologies would permit production of a range of hydrocarbon fuels from a carbohydrate derived intermediate. Moreover, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be produced in Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) and Alcaligenes eutrophus on a variety of carbon sources including glucose, fructose and glycerol with PHB accumulation reaching 75 percent of dry cell mass. We conducted thermal conversion of PHB and pure crotonic acid (CA), the intermediate carboxylic acid produced by thermal depolymerization of PHB, in a flow-through reactor. The results of initial experiments on the thermal conversion of CA showed that up to 75 mole percent yields of propene could be achieved by optimizing the residence time and temperature of the reactor. Further experiments are being investigated to optimize the reactor parameters and enhance propene yields via thermal conversion of PHB.

  12. Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.; Somerville, C. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States))

    1994-12-20

    In the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus, three genes encode the enzymes necessary to catalyze the synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) from acetyl-CoA. In order to target these enzymes into the plastids of higher plants, the genes were modified by addition of DNA fragments encoding a pea chloroplast transit peptide, a constitutive plant promoter, and a poly(A) addition sequence. Each of the modified bacterial genes was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and plants containing all three genes were obtained by sexual crosses. These plans accumulated PHB up to 14% of the dry weight as 0.2- to 0.7-[mu]m granules within plastids. In contrast to earlier experiments in which expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in the cytoplasm led to a deleterious effect on growth, expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in plastids had no obvious effect on the growth or fertility of the transgenic plants and resulted in a 100-fold increase in the amount of PHB in higher plants. The high level of PHB accumulation also suggests that the synthesis of plastid acetyl-CoA is regulated by a mechanism which responds to metabolic demand. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  13. 乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB克隆及其表达初探%Molecular cloning and primary expressed exploration of acetoacetyl-CoA reductase gene (phbB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苍晶; 姜晓娟; 徐志超; 林忠平; 杜娟

    2014-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of NADPH-dependent acetyl-CoA enzyme reductase gene named phbB (GenBank ID: KC191672) as the key enzymes of PHB synthase gene were cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis (Alcaligenes eutrophus). According to entrophusPhbB (FJ897462.1) sequences that has been speculated. The gene homology was 70.99%, with the length of 740 bp encoded 246 amino acids( aa). The recombinant plasmid named pET28a (+)-phbB-HE were constructed successfully.The products were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis, it confirmed that high efficiency expression of the phbB protein fragments (ca.31 ku) were demonstrated. It laid a solid foundation for further study of phbB gene activity and late protein identification.%从真养产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes eutrophus)中克隆得到PHB合成的关键酶基因,NADPH依赖性的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB(GenBank ID:KC191672),其DNA长度为741 bp,编码246个氨基酸(aa),与GenBank数据库中的entrophusPhbB(FJ897462.1)的同源性为70.99%。属于膜蛋白或分泌蛋白,推测该蛋白可能定位在细胞膜上。成功构建原核表达载体pET28a(+)-phbB-HE。经SDS-PAGE电泳检测获得phbB基因表达蛋白,其分子质量为31 ku,为研究乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶活性及后期蛋白功能鉴定奠定基础。

  14. Effect of Tween 80 on the production of curdlan by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenqiang

    2013-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the effects of Tween 80 on curdlan production, cell growth, and glucosyltransferase activity. The addition of Tween 80 to the culture medium increased curdlan production. However, curdlan production did not increase further when excessive Tween 80 (>0.3% Tween 80) was added to the culture medium. The addition of Tween 80 to the culture medium did not affect cell growth. The glucosyltransferase activity involved in the curdlan synthesis increased with the increase of Tween 80 concentration. The glucosyltransferase activity did not increase further when excessive Tween 80 (>0.3% Tween 80) was added to the culture medium. Maximum curdlan was observed at day 5 and then levelled off. The biomass continued to increase until the end of the experimental period (6d). Maximum glucosyltransferase activity was also observed at day 5 and decreased thereafter. The results indicate that the enhanced curdlan production by Tween 80 is highly correlated with glucosyltransferase activity.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments of arylmalonate decarboxylase from Alcaligenes bronchisepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasako, Masayoshi, E-mail: nakasako@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); The RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obata, Rika; Okubo, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Shyuichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Crystals of arylmalonate decarboxylase from A. bronchisepticus were obtained which diffracted X-rays to a resolution of at least 3.0 Å. Arylmalonate decarboxylase catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methylmalonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates. The enzyme was crystallized with ammonium sulfate under alkaline pH conditions with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the enantioselective reaction. X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at cryogenic temperature showed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.13, b = 99.62, c = 139.64 Å. This suggested that the asymmetric unit would contain between four and six molecules. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the enzyme exists as a monomer in solution. Thus, the assembly of molecules in the asymmetric unit was likely to have been induced during the crystallization process.

  16. Biodegradation of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan by bacterial strain Alcaligenes faecalis JBW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfen; Zhu, Shaoyuan; Zhu, Lusheng; Xie, Hui; Su, Kunchang; Yan, Tongxiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Fengxia

    2013-11-01

    The recently discovered endosulfan-degrading bacterial strain Alcaligenesfaecalis JBW4 was isolated from activated sludge. This strain is able to use endosulfan as a carbon and energy source. The optimal conditions for the growth of strain JBW4 and for biodegradation by this strain were identified, and the metabolic products of endosulfan degradation were studied in detail. The maximum level of endosulfan biodegradation by strain JBW4 was obtained using broth at an initial pH of 7.0, an incubation temperature of 40 degreeC and an endosulfan concentration of 100 mg/L. The concentration of endosulfan was determined by gas chromatography. Strain JBW4 was able to degrade 87.5% of alpha-endosulfan and 83.9% of beta-endosulfan within 5 days. These degradation rates are much higher than the previously reported bacterial strains. Endosulfan diol and endosulfan lactone were the major metabolites detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; endosulfan sulfate, which is a persistent and toxic metabolite, was not detected. These results suggested that A. faecalis JBW4 degrades endosulfan via a non-oxidative pathway. The biodegradation of endosulfan by A. faecalis is reported for the first time. Additionally, the present study indicates that strain JBW4 may have potential for the biodegradation of endosulfan residues.

  17. Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis.

  18. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Díaz-Pérez, César; Vargas, Eréndira; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Campos-García, Jesús; Cervantes, Carlos

    2008-06-01

    Chromium is a non-essential and well-known toxic metal for microorganisms and plants. The widespread industrial use of this heavy metal has caused it to be considered as a serious environmental pollutant. Chromium exists in nature as two main species, the trivalent form, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous, and the hexavalent form, Cr(VI), considered a more toxic species. At the intracellular level, however, Cr(III) seems to be responsible for most toxic effects of chromium. Cr(VI) is usually present as the oxyanion chromate. Inhibition of sulfate membrane transport and oxidative damage to biomolecules are associated with the toxic effects of chromate in bacteria. Several bacterial mechanisms of resistance to chromate have been reported. The best characterized mechanisms comprise efflux of chromate ions from the cell cytoplasm and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chromate efflux by the ChrA transporter has been established in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Cupriavidus metallidurans (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus) and consists of an energy-dependent process driven by the membrane potential. The CHR protein family, which includes putative ChrA orthologs, currently contains about 135 sequences from all three domains of life. Chromate reduction is carried out by chromate reductases from diverse bacterial species generating Cr(III) that may be detoxified by other mechanisms. Most characterized enzymes belong to the widespread NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein family of reductases. Several examples of bacterial systems protecting from the oxidative stress caused by chromate have been described. Other mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromate involve the expression of components of the machinery for repair of DNA damage, and systems related to the homeostasis of iron and sulfur.

  19. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  20. Production of Biodemulsifier by Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1 Using Waste Diesel Oil%Alcaligenes sp.S-XJ-1利用废弃柴油合成生物破乳剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 冯贵颖; 陆丽君; 刘佳; 黄翔峰

    2010-01-01

    生物破乳剂是一种用于油水分离的新型破乳剂.采用废弃柴油培养生物破乳剂产生菌Alcaligelies sp.S-XJ-1,培养7 d,菌株干重最高可达2.0 s/L,10 g/L的菌株细胞悬液能够将水表面张力从72.0 mN/m降低到29.7 mN/m.生物破乳剂产量为0.3 g/L,其CMC为150 mg/L,表面活性优于化学表面活性剂SDS,且对W/O模型乳状液的破乳效果在70%以上.废弃柴油CC-MS测试结果表明,S-XJ-1菌株能够利用废弃柴油中的C14~C20正构烷烃,且C20正构烷烃几乎被完全利用,其利用率高达99%.S-XJ-1菌株对不同碳链长度正构烷烃复配碳源的利用率及破乳性能随着碳链长度的延长而逐渐增加.与其他正构烷烃复配碳源相比,S-XJ-1菌株对C20正构烷烃利用率最高,合成破乳剂的性能最好,且与废弃柴油研究结果最为接近.TLC和FTIR分析表明S-XJ-1菌株利用废弃柴油合成的生物破乳剂为脂肽类物质.

  1. PCR detection and characterization of a phenol-degrading bacteria (Alcaligenes faecalis BC2001)%一株苯酚降解菌(Alcaligenes faecalis BC2001)的PCR检测及其苯酚降解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智敏; 宋亚娜; 姚梅宾; 陈彬; 郑伟文

    2007-01-01

    根据苯酚羟化酶基因高度保守序列设计一对该基因的特异引物.采用该特异引物从粪产碱菌BC2001总DNA中扩增一条大小为684 bp的片段.将该DNA片段进行序列分析,发现其与Proteobacterium L-18 菌 (登录号为:AY346142)的基因序列的同源性为97%.另降解试验表明BC2001菌在pH=6时(质量浓度为500 mg·L-1)其生长最佳,而在苯酚质量浓度为300 mg·L-1时也是菌株具降解能力的有效例子.

  2. Drug Resistance of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans%木糖氧化产碱菌的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫英; 高英; 吴巍; 董晓勤; 周田美; 余道军

    2006-01-01

    目的调查我院2000年1月~2004年12月5年间木糖氧化产碱菌的分布与耐药现况,为临床合理选用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法院内分离菌株经VITEK-AMS全自动细菌鉴定仪GNI+卡鉴定到种;药敏试验采用其配套的GNS-KI或GNS-121卡进行耐药分析;部分药敏应用K-B纸片法.结果木糖氧化产碱菌对一、二、三、四代头孢菌素(头孢他啶除外)耐药率>77%;对氨基糖苷类耐药率>76%;对氨苄西林、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、头孢西丁、头孢呋辛的耐药率均为100%;对氨曲南耐药率为92.86%;对喹诺酮类药物环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星的耐药率分别为66.67%、44.44%.结论木糖氧化产碱菌检出率呈逐年增多趋势,且呈多重耐药,该菌所致感染应根据细菌药敏试验的结果合理选用抗菌药物.

  3. Nosocomial Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Infection%木糖氧化产碱菌医院感染调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何岱昆; 申捷; 李刚; 李宏治

    2008-01-01

    目的 调查木糖氧化产碱菌医院感染分布及耐药特点,以探讨发生原因与防治措施.方法 对医院2004年9月-2006年8月临床标本中分离的1323株木糖氧化产碱菌进行回顾性分析.结果 木糖氧化产碱菌主要出现于痰标本中,占99.85%,偶尔出现在伤口分泌物和粪标本中;木糖氧化产碱菌感染尤以呼吸科和重症监护病房(ICU)分布为多,分别占46.94%和12.77%,其次是心内科、内分泌科和血液科病房;该菌对氨基糖苷类(阿米卡星、庆大霉素)、喹诺酮类(环丙沙星)、氨曲南、头孢吡肟等耐药现象严重,耐药率>98.00%;而其对碳青酶烯类药物、含酶抑制剂复合制剂及三代头孢(头孢哌酮、头孢他啶)等抗菌药物敏感,耐药率<5.00%.结论 加强医院环境管理和器械消毒,合理使用抗菌药物,控制木糖氧化产碱菌在医院内的定植与播散.

  4. Rebinding of Proximal Histidine in the Cytochrome c' from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Acts as a Molecular Trap for Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Martin, Jean-Louis; Andrew, Colin R.; Negrerie, Michel

    Transient absorption spectra on cytochrome c' and their kinetics were recorded to identify the formation of 5-coordinate (5c)-NO and 5c-His hemes from 4c-heme (99% and 1% amplitudes; 7-ps and 100-ps time constants, respectively). We demonstrate that proximal histidine precludes NO rebinding at the proximal site.

  5. Influence of medium composition on the characteristics of a denitrifying biofilm formed by Alcaligenes denitrificans in a fluidised bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, C. F.; Melo, L. F.; Vieira, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the ratio carbon/nitrogen and phosphorus concentration on the performance of a biofilm fluidised bed reactor used for denitrification and on the properties of the biofilm was studied. Although the removal efficiencies of C and N reached steady-state values, the thickness of the biofilm steadily increased. The dry density of the biofilm did not seem to be dependent on the loading conditions, although a denser biofilm was obtained when there was no nutrient limitation ...

  6. Analysis of the Components of Thymus Essential Oil and Its Antioxidant and antibacterial Activity%百里香精油的成分分析及其抗氧化和抑菌活性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴海闰; 韩笑; 曹学丽

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil was extracted from Thymus by using steam distillation and the chemical constituents were analyzed and identified by CC-MS. The components were quantitatively determined by normalization method, the amount of the identified components accounted for more than 90.331% of all that in the essential oil, and the major were Thymol (23.872%), P-cymene (15.054%), Carvacrol (7.051%). The antioxidant activity of Thymus essential oil a-gainst soybean oil oxidation were investigated in this paper. The result showed that the oil had strong antioxidation activity which is in proportion to the added amount. The antibacterial activity of Thymus essential oil was also examined. The results showed that the essential oil had strong inhibition activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtUis, Es-cherichia coli and Alcaligenes eutrophus. The overall results obtained in this paper indicated that the essential oil could be used as a promising multifunctional natural additives in food and personal care products.%采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取宁夏百里香精油,通过气相色谱—质谱联用技术分析鉴定,共鉴定出54种组分,占精油总成分的90.331%.用面积归一化法对各成分进行定量,其主要成分为百里酚(23.872%)、对—聚伞花素(15.054%)、香荆香酚(7.051%).抗氧化活性试验结果表明,百里香精油对大豆油有较强的抗氧化作用.在试验范围内,百里香精油的抗氧化活性与添加量呈正相关.抑菌活性试验结果表明,百里香精油对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌和真养产碱菌均有不同程度的抑制作用.

  7. Isolation of Alcaligenes sp strain L6 at low oxygen concentrations and degradation of 3-chlorobenzoate via a pathway not involving (chloro)catechols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krooneman, J; Wieringa, EBA; Moore, ERB; Gerritse, J; Prins, RA; Gottschal, JC

    1996-01-01

    Isolations of 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA)-degrading aerobic bacteria under reduced O-2, partial pressures yielded organisms which metabolized 3CBA via the gentisate or the protocatechuate pathway rather than via the catechol route. The 3CBA metabolism of one of these isolates, L6, which,vas identified a

  8. 产碱假单胞菌精氨酸脱亚胺酶的纯化%Purification of Arginine Deiminase From Pseudomonas alcaligenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操凤; 刘雪冰; 曹献英

    2015-01-01

    提取精氨酸脱亚胺酶粗酶液,采用硫酸铵分级沉淀法初步分离精氨酸脱亚胺酶,然后通过DEAE-Sephadex A 50柱色谱层析和Sephadex G-100柱色谱层析进一步分离纯化精氨酸脱亚胺酶,并利用SDS-PAGE电泳法来鉴定其纯度,最终达到纯化产碱假单胞菌来源的精氨酸脱亚胺酶(ADI)的目的.结果表明:分离纯化过程中,粗酶液的总酶活为424.43 U,比酶活为0.42 U·mg-1;盐析透析酶液的总酶活是222.10 U,比酶活为2.05 U·mg-1;离子交换分析活性部位的总酶活为105.83 U,比酶活是5.61 U·mg-1;凝胶渗透分析活性部位的总酶活为17.94 U,比酶活为11.80 U·mg-1.纯化得到了电泳纯级别的ADI,其相对纯度为96%.因此,本研究方法可以得到较高纯度和酶活的精氨酸脱亚胺酶.

  9. 木糖氧化产碱杆菌生物学特性研究%STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGICAL CHARCTERISTICS OF ALCALIGENES XYLOSOXIDANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚建中

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨木糖氧化产碱杆菌生物学特性和药敏试验结果.方法院内采集患者血液、脑脊液、脓汁、病灶分泌物和咽拭子分离病菌,经培养及生化反应鉴定取得木糖氧化产碱杆菌.对该菌的生物学特性和药敏试验进行研究.抗生素敏感试验方法采用KB纸片法,最低抑菌浓度采用琼脂稀释法.结果从24例患者共分离该细菌36个菌株.该菌为革兰染色阴性菌.可生长于血琼脂培养基.生化反应:氧化酶(+),触酶(+),硫化氢 (-),氧化-发酵:氧化,葡萄糖(+),果糖(-),半乳糖(-/+),甘露糖(+/-),鼠李糖(-),木糖(+),蔗糖(-),甘露醇(-),葡萄糖酸盐氧化(+),硝酸盐还原亚硝酸盐(+),苯丙氨酸脱氨酶(-),水解乙酰胺(+).体外抗生素敏感试验显示,该菌对诺氟沙星、头孢噻肟、复方新诺明、头孢哌酮、头孢呋肟、头孢曲松等敏感.结论为木糖氧化产碱杆菌所致感染的临床、治疗提供了资料.

  10. 固氮粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)表面基团与水稻根系粘质…

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宣钧; 林敏

    1995-01-01

    应用荧光探针FMA和荧光胺,证明EPS中多肽的一些基因如SH基和NH基参予了与 系粘质的相互作用。NH4^+浓度可诱导EPS中SH基和NH基数量的变化,并导致EPS中多肽的构象改变,EPS中的这些基因在粪产碱菌与水稻根系的结合过程起了重要作用。

  11. 固氮粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)胞外多糖突变株的筛选及特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宣钧; 林敏

    1995-01-01

    应用Tn5转座子对粪产碱菌野生型菌株A1501进行诱变处理,用荧光增白剂及TTC为标记筛选,分别获得胞外多糖缺陷型和丰富型突变株。激光共聚焦观察证实,EPS突变株确实具有与野生型不同的表面特性,贴根试验表明,突变株贴根菌数均少于野生型,胞外多糖生成过多或过少均影响菌体与根表的有效结合。

  12. 固氮粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)胞外多糖的理化特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宣钧; 林敏; 尤崇杓

    1996-01-01

    EPS结构分析表明,EPS突变株及工程菌株的糖骨架结构与野生型菌株相比有差异,尤其是ntrC-nifA基因结合子A1532的糖骨架结构明显不同于其它菌株,各个菌株之间,其侧链基因均稍有改变。ETIR证实,各个菌株EPS中蛋白构象存在差异,EPS中均有丰富的β折叠构象。EPS丰富型突变株中无规卷曲构象所占比例较大,而野生型菌株中EPS则没有无规卷曲构象。

  13. 产碱菌(Alcaligenes sp.)119转化苯丙酮酸形成L—苯丙氨酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方佩静; 闫章才

    1993-01-01

    从土壤中分离到一株产碱菌119,能将苯丙酮酸一步转化成L-苯丙氨酸。酶反应的最适pH为8.5,该酶在pH8-9之间稳定,最适反应温度为37-45℃,金属离子Fe^2+,Mn^2n等对酶有不同程度的抑制作用。该菌株培养在由葡萄糖,蛋白胨、牛肉膏等组成的培养基中,可获得最高转化率。L-天冬氨酸为酶反应的最佳氨基供体。当苯丙酮酸浓度为0.2mol/L时,细胞在37℃下反应16小时,可产L-苯丙氨酸30.

  14. 固氮粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)exoC基因的克隆及其特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宣钧; 海伟力

    1995-01-01

    应用A.brasilense sp7的exoC基因为探针,发现A.faecalis A1501具有与A.brasilense Sp7 exoC基因同源的基因。A.brasilense exoC基因能恢复A.faecalis EPS缺陷型(EPS^-)突变,表明粪产碱菌EPS的产量为exoC基因产物所调控。本工作已获得类似A.brasilense Sp7的exoC-like基因的克隆

  15. 固氮粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)表面蛋白变构作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宣钧; 卢景芬

    1995-01-01

    采用电子自旋共振技术(ESR),以马来酰亚胺自旋标记粪产碱菌野生型(A1501)、胞外多糖突变株(exo^-和exo^++)及工程菌(nif某A和ntrC-nifA重组子),监测由粪产碱菌表面多肽及些膜蛋白构象变化引起的ESR波谱的变化。结果表明,粪产碱菌野生型菌株细胞表面特性显著不同于胞外多糖突变株及工程菌,根系粘质及NH4^+都能引起粪产碱菌表面蛋白的构象变化,标记后菌体ESR参数τc的变化与

  16. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    was predominantly Gram-negative, comprising more then 75% of the total isolated strains. Aeromonas, Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas were the most frequently encountered genera (prevalence > 10%) in water, whereas Alcaligenes. Enterobacteriacae, Pseudomonas...

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers from forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas M; Nakas, James P; Tanenbaum, Stuart W

    2006-07-01

    /w) PHA contents, and 4-67 mol% 3HV compositions. These data are comparable to copolymer yields and cellular contents reported for hexose plus levulinic acid-based shake-flask cultures, as reported using Alcaligenes eutrophus and Pseudomonas putida. However, our findings presage a conceivable alternative, forestry-based biorefinery approach for the production of value-added biodegradable PHA polymers. Specifically, this review describes the current and potential utilization of lignocellulosic process streams as platform precursors to PHA polymers including hemicellulosic hydrolysates, residual cellulose-derived levulinic acid, tall oil fatty acids (Kraft pulping residual), and lignin-derived aromatics.

  18. 产碱假单胞菌在油菜根圈定殖的动态和分布研究%Rhizosphere colonization of rapeseed by Pseudomonas alcaligenes A9(LacZ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小加; DanielRoberts

    2002-01-01

    采用LacZ基因标记技术和常规方法跟踪产碱假单胞菌A9(LacZ)在缩影系统油菜根圈的定殖情况.A9(LacZ)在油菜不同根段部位的定殖密度,表现从上到下逐渐递减的现象,随着接种后时间的延长而逐渐下降.在根段8cm以外的根区几乎检测不到接种菌.在油菜播种后3d,定殖密度可达最高水平(7.6×105个/g),然后急速下降,30d后保持相对稳定的较低水平(1.1×102个/g).

  19. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Production of Arginine Deiminase from Pseudomonas alcaligenes%产碱假单胞菌产精氨酸脱亚胺酶的发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操凤; 刘雪冰; 曹献英

    2015-01-01

    对产碱假单胞菌产精氨酸脱亚胺酶的发酵条件进行了优化,结果表明,产碱假单胞菌产ADI的最佳发酵条件为:10 g·L-1蔗糖为碳源,6g·L-1蛋白胨为氮源,10g·L-1精氨酸诱导物,4%的接种量和30%的装液量,发酵温度29℃,发酵时间24h,摇床转速为150 r·min-1,发酵液的初始pH8.5.在此条件下,产碱假单胞菌产ADI的酶活最高.

  20. Biodegradation of Cyanide by Immobilized Alcaligenes sp.DN25 Corncob as the Carrier%玉米芯固定化产碱杆菌DN25处理含氰废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺莉丽; 刘幽燕; 李青云; 徐少滨

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究使用玉米芯作为固定化载体处理氰化物.[方法]以玉米芯为载体,对一株产碱杆菌DN25进行固定化,以实验室配制的模拟含氰废水为底物进行降解试验.[结果]采用菌体附着载体生长的方式来制备固定化细胞,最佳培养条件为温度30℃,pH8.0.固定化细胞对50 mg/L含氰废水45 min的降解率为98.5%,对300 mg/L含氰废水降解率可达91.9%.批式重复使用固定化细胞进行降解,前5次对氰化物的降解率仍可维持在80%以上.所设计的固定床反应器中系统运行稳定,固定化细胞降解效果良好,连续运行25d,前15 d对于氰化物的最大降解率高达99.25%.[结论]与其他传统载体相比,玉米芯为天然绿色植物,廉价易得,可降解,本身不会对环境造成二次污染,且玉米芯多孔、吸附能力强、固定化效果好.%[Objective] The aim was to study biodegradation of cyanide by immobilized Akaligenes sp. DN25 corncob as the carrier. [ Method ] The treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater by the immobilized Akaligenes sp. DN25 with the corncob as carrier was studied. [ Result ] The immobilization could be realized through the growth of the cell on the corncob during the culture process and the optimal culture condition was found to be 30 ℃ , pH 8.0. The degradation rate of 50 mg/L cyanide by the immobilized cell might achieve 98. 5% at 45 min, while the conversion of 91.9% achieved for 300 mg/L. The degradation of cyanide by the corncob-immobilized cell was carried out in the batch. The immobilized cell could be used repeated and the degradation rate of cyanide could maintain above 80% during the first five circle. When the immobilized cell was employed in a continuous-bioreactor for 25 days, it showed a good operation stability and degradation ability. The highest degradation rate could reach 99.25% during the first fifteen days. [ Conclusion] Compared with other traditional carrier, corncob, a natural green plant,was biodegradable, low cost and will not become pollution sources and moreover, it was of plenty holes and stong absorbility, thus possibly becoming a good immobilization carrier.

  1. Distribution and drug resistance of clinically isolated Alcaligenes xylosoxidans%木糖氧化产碱杆菌的临床分布与耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 朴信爱; 蒋捍东

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and resistance of clinically isolated Alcaligenesxylosoxidans (AL xylosoxidans) strains. METHODS The distribution of 85 trains of Al. Xylosoxidans causing nosocomial infection was retrospectively analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer method. RESULTS Of the specimens from which Al. Xylosoxidans strains were isolated, 95. 29% were from sputum, the minority were from wounds or keratitis secretions, which was mainly obtained from patients with low immunity. The infections distributed widely in respiratory department and ICU, accounting for 43. 53 % and 25. 88%, respectively, followed by cerebral surgery department (10. 59%) , neurology department (7. 06%) .endocrinology department (5. 88%), oncology department (3. 53%), orthopedics department (2. 35%) and ophthalmology department (1.18%). The drug resistance rates of the isolates to aztreonam and aminoglycoside antibiotics varied from 78. 82% to 87. 06%. The drug resistance rates to ceftriaxone, cefotaxim, cefepime, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin.and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were 58. 82%, 63. 53%, 62. 35%, 52. 94%, 63. 53%, and 62.35%, respectively. The strains were susceptible to carbapenems,β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and ceftazidime with the drug resistance varying from 0 to 18. 82%. CONCLUSION Al. Xylosoxidans infections mainly occurs in respiratory tract. Disinfection of hospital environment with strict sterilization management system shall be strengthened and antibiotics should be used reasonably so as to reduce nosocomial infections.%目的 调查木糖氧化产碱杆菌在临床的分布及耐药性.方法 回顾性调查85株木糖氧化产碱杆菌的医院感染分布,采用K-B法分析细菌敏感性.结果 木糖氧化产碱杆菌多来自痰标本,占95.29%,少数来自于伤口及角膜炎分泌物标本中,后者均来自免疫力低下患者;感染主要分布于呼吸科和重症监护病房(ICU),分别占43.53%和25.88%,其次是脑外科占10.59%、神经内科占7.06%、内分泌科占5.88%、骨科占3.53%、肿瘤科占2.35%及眼科占1.18%;该菌对氨曲南、氨基糖苷类耐药率为78.82%~87.06%,属严重耐药;对头孢曲松、头孢噻肟、头孢吡肟、哌拉西林、环丙沙星、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶耐药率依次为58.82%、63.53%、62.35%、52.94%、63.53%、62.35%;对碳青酶烯类、含酶抑制剂复合制剂、头孢他啶等敏感,耐药率为0~18.82%.结论 木糖氧化产碱杆菌感染以呼吸系统为主,应加强医院环境管理,严格消毒管理制度,合理应用抗菌药物,减少医院感染.

  2. One strain of Alcaligenes Xylosoxidans isolated from feces of a diarrheal child%从腹泻患儿粪便中检出1株木糖氧化产碱杆菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新峰; 毕秀娟; 张爱华; 胡彬

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解腹泻病人粪便中分离的疑似木糖产碱杆菌系统生化鉴定和耐药试验情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 2015年12月从1例儿童腹泻病人粪便中检出1株菌株疑似菌为木糖氧化产碱杆菌,分离培养依据腹泻病症候群监测技术方案进行,菌株鉴定使用MicroScan auto AS4微生物分析仪,药敏试验采用96孔板微量肉汤稀释法.结果 疑似菌为木糖氧化产碱杆菌,概率为95.03%,该株菌只对复方新诺明、强力霉素、环丙沙星、阿奇霉素、头孢西丁、亚胺培南6种抗生素敏感.结论 该菌株为木糖氧化产碱杆菌,耐药情况严重.

  3. Cloning and expression of nitrite reductase gene from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans%木糖氧化产碱菌中亚硝酸盐还原酶基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 陈萍; 毕云枫; 曲宁宁; 刘琼; 孙鑫泽

    2013-01-01

    目的:对木糖氧化产碱菌中亚硝酸盐还原酶基因(nir)进行克隆并表达,并测定酶的活力,探讨亚硝酸盐还原酶(NiR)对亚硝酸盐的降解特性.方法:提取木糖氧化产碱菌DNA,根据GenBank公布的nir基因序列设计引物,利用PCR技术扩增nir基因,克隆至表达载体pET-28a中,构建重组质粒pET-28a-nir,通过双酶切和测序鉴定后,将阳性重组质粒转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中,经IPTG诱导表达,获得重组蛋白.将细胞发酵液超声破碎,提取粗酶,测定酶活力.结果:经PCR扩增及测序鉴定得到长度为1 083 bp的目的片段;经终浓度0.6 mmol·L-1 IPTG、30℃诱导表达5h,获得相对分子质量为37 000的重组蛋白;在pH6.5、反应温度35℃时,测得酶活力为51.74U·mL-1.结论:成功克隆nir基因,在大肠杆菌BL21 (DE3)中获得表达,且表达产物有酶活.

  4. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in Child:Its Biological and Clinical Characteristics%小儿木糖氧化产碱菌感染临床及生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚建中

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨木糖氧化产碱菌致感染的临床表现和生物学特性.方法医院采集患者血液、脑脊液、脓液、病灶分泌物和咽拭子分离病菌,经培养及生化反应鉴定取得木糖氧化产碱菌;并对该菌所致感染进行临床流行病学调查;抗生素敏感试验方法采用K-B纸片法,最低抑菌浓度(MIC)采用琼脂稀释法.结果 10例患儿中,医院感染9例,有原发病和诱因者9例,5例死亡;败血症3例,脑膜炎3例,肺炎2例,伤口感染及中耳炎各1例;各种类型感染的临床表现均无特异性;共分离该细菌18个菌株,均为革兰染色阴性菌;该菌对诺氟沙星、头孢噻肟、复方磺胺甲唑、头孢呋肟、头孢哌酮、头孢曲松等敏感.结论木糖氧化产碱菌可致严重的感染,而且临床表现无特异性;早期诊断和治疗可提高患儿的生存率.

  5. Remediation of Degrading Bacterium Alcaligenes sp. J3 on Phytotoxicity Caused by Quinclorac%降解菌J3对茄科作物二氯喹啉酸药害的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翅; 罗坤

    2015-01-01

    为了明确二氯喹啉酸降解菌J3对茄科作物二氯喹啉酸药害的修复作用,在湖南农业大学教学实习基地进行了田间试验。结果表明:经降解菌J3处理后,茄子的叶长、叶宽、株高分别恢复到了空白对照的93.98%、91.88%、95.55%,而药害对照组茄子的叶长、叶宽、株高仅为空白对照的55.23%、49.71%、75.76%;降解菌处理后,烟草的叶长、叶宽及株高分别恢复到了空白对照组的90.95%、92.37%、91.91%,而药害对照组烟草的叶长、叶宽及株高仅为空白对照组72.81%、37.55%、68.45%。由此表明,二氯喹啉酸降解菌J3对茄科作物茄子、烟草的药害可以起到良好的修复效果,可以广泛用于田间作物二氯喹啉酸药害的生物修复。%Field experiment was conducted in order to test remediation effect of quinclorac degrading bacteria J3 on quinclorac phytotoxicity to Solanaceae crops.The results showed that with application of strain J3,leaf length,leaf width and plant height of eggplant were recovered to 93.98%,91.88%,95.55%of CK,while that of control were only 55.23%,49.71%,75.76%of CK;with application of strain J3,leaf length,leaf width and plant height of tobacco were recovered to 90.95%,92.37% and 91.91% of healthy tobacco,while that of control were only 72.81%,37.55%,68.45% of healthy tobacco.It’s indicated that J3 could effectively alleviate quinclorac phytotoxicity of Solanaceae crops,and it could be widely used for bioremediation of quinclorac phytotoxicity.

  6. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the phen

  7. 21 CFR 172.809 - Curdlan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) produced by pure culture fermentation from the nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic bacterium Alcaligenes... Curdlan,” by Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., 12-10 Nihonbashi, 2-Chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 103, Japan,...

  8. Microbial Fouling and its Effect on Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    atlanticus, T6C Pseudomonas alcaligenes Flavobacterium species Vibrio alginolyticus Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Sphaerotilus natans Enterobacter aerogenes Bacillus... Enterobacter aerogenes , and Sphaerotilus natans were used to study the influence of temperature on biofilm formation. 5 - Pseudomonas atlanticus

  9. Kinetic Resolution of 2-Chloro-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanol by Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-Hui; LI Ya-Feng; LIU Yong-Jun; ZHANG Shu-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Kinetic resolution of racemic 2-chloro-l-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanol was performed by free Alcaligene sp. lipase-catalyzed irreversible transesterification affording the (R)-isomer with≥95% ee and the (S)-isomer with ≥90% ee. The activity of lipase Alcaligene sp. strongly depends on the basicity of the reaction system, and an organic base such as triethylamine can enhance the activity of the lipase and enantioselectivity markedly.

  10. Thiry-nine Types of Resistant-related Genes in a Pan-resistant Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp xylosoxidans in Sputum from a Severe Chronic Hepatitis Patient%慢性重型肝炎患者痰泛耐药木糖氧化产碱菌木糖氧化亚种39种耐药基因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏智军; 明德松

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究慢性重型肝炎患者痰泛耐药木糖氧化产碱菌木糖氧化亚种(AXXxx)39种耐药基因.方法 应用API鉴定条/PSE5.0药敏条和NMIC/ID-109鉴定/药敏板鉴定和细菌药敏试验,用PCR法检测分离于慢性重型肝炎患者合格痰标本1株泛耐药AXXxx临床分离株16S rRNA、29种β-内酰胺酶基因(bla)、6种氨基糖苷类修饰酶基因(AMEs)、1种消毒剂/磺胺耐药基因(qacE△1-sul1)、3种整合子基因(int Ⅰ1、2、3)等39种耐药基因,经测序和同源性分析证实并分析其分布情况.结果 该菌经16S rRNA测序和同源性分析,证实为AXXxx;经测序和同源性分析证实7种耐药基因阳性[两种bla基因(blaTEM-116、blaCARB-8)、3种AMEs基因aac(6′)-Ⅱ、aae(3)-Ⅱ、ant(3″)-Ⅰ、qacE△1-sul1和Ⅰ类整合子基因(int Ⅰ1)];其他27种bla基因、3种AMEs基因(aac (6′)-Ⅰ b、aac(3)-Ⅰ、ant(2″)-Ⅰ]和2种整合子基因(intⅠ 2、intⅠ 3)均为阴性.结论 该株泛耐菌耐药机制为多重机制,主要与7种耐药相关基因[blaTEM-116、blaCARB-8、aac(6′)-Ⅱ、aac(3)-Ⅱ、ant(3″)-Ⅰ、qacE△1-sul1和Ⅰ类整合子]有关.

  11. Modeling of Cd Uptake and Efflux Kinetics in Metal-Resistant Bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajdu, R.; Pinheiro, J.P.; Galceran, J.; Slaveykova, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    The Model of Uptake with Instantaneous Adsorption and Efflux, MUIAE, describing and predicting the overall Cd uptake by the metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, is presented. MUIAE takes into account different processes at the bacteria-medium interface with specific emphasis on

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02594-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DL172026 ) Methods for Identifying the Target of a Compound ... 42 0.049 2 ( DJ377761 ) Identification of E...e cDNA clone:VS... 670 0.0 2 ( CU469464 ) Candidatus Phytoplasma mali strain AT complete ch... 34 0.015 11 (

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12038-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 ( CU469464 ) Candidatus Phytoplasma mali strain AT complete ch... 34 0.005 19 ( DW248180 ) pOP-EON00464_EST_C_1_pSK_SK EON (Oil... Palm Embryoi... 54 0.013 1 ( EY410093 ) pOP-EO07491_EST_C_1_pSK_SK EO (Oil

  14. Results of the Study of Mutagenic Effects of Microbial Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Sidorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of mutagenic effects of Pseudomonas alcaligenеs polysaccharides. Pseudomonas genus – non-fermentative ubiquitous bacteria, having specific metabolic cycles and unique physical, chemical and biological properties was used as a producer of natural exopolysaccharides. In an experiment using the Ames test, three variants of test compounds were studied: 1. a compound of the Pseudomonas alcaligenes biofilm, 2. exopolysaccharide matrix and the microorganism cell wall compound, and 3. actually the microbial exopolysaccharide. In all cases the lack of mutagen action of polysaccharides of Pseudomonas alcaligenes is proved that make them perspective for use as nanomaterials of new generation – alternative wound coverings.

  15. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria: Comparison between coastal and deep sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biche, S.; Pandey, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -Proteobacteria Alcaligenes in the deep sea sediments. The average enzyme activity of the PSB in coastal region was twice (0.46 μg P ml-1 h-1) that of their deep sea counterparts (0.24 μg P ml-1 h-1). It related positively to TOC with its variation being more influenced...

  16. Sensing nitrite through a pseudoazurin-nitrite reductase electron transfer relay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astier, Y; Canters, GW; Davis, JJ; Hill, HAO; Verbeet, MP; Wijma, HJ

    2005-01-01

    Nitrite is converted to nitric oxide by haem or copper-containing enzymes in denitrifying bacteria during the process of denitrification. In designing an efficient biosensor, this enzymic turnover must be quantitatively assessed. The enzyme nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis contains a redo

  17. Reconstitution of the type-1 active site of the H145G/A variants of nitrite reductase by ligand insertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, HJ; Boulanger, MJ; Molon, A; Fittipaldi, M; Huber, M; Murphy, MEP; Verbeet, MP; Canters, GW

    2003-01-01

    Variants of the copper-containing nitrite reductase (NiR) of Alcaligenes faecalis S6 were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis, by which the C-terminal histidine ligand (His145) of the Cu in the type-1 site was replaced by an alanine or a glycine. The type-1 sites in the NiR variants as isolated

  18. Bidirectional catalysis by copper-containing nitrite reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, HJ; Canters, GW; de Vries, S; Verbeet, MP

    2004-01-01

    The copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 was found to catalyze the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrite, the reverse of its physiological reaction. Thermodynamic and kinetic constants with the physiological electron donor pseudoazurin were determined for both directions

  19. Development of eco-friendly bioplastic like PHB by distillery effluent microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangurde, Nilesh S; Sayyed, Riyaz Z; Kiran, Shashi; Gulati, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    During screening for poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing bacteria from distillery effluent sample, six out of 30 isolates comprising of three strains of Alcaligenes sp., two strains of Bacillus sp., and one strain of Pseudomonas sp. were found to accumulate varying levels of intracellular PHB. Amongst the various isolates, Alcaligenes sp. RZS4 was found as the potent PHB-producing organism, accumulating higher amounts of PHB. PHB productivity was further enhanced in the presence of oxygen, nitrogen-limiting conditions, and cloning of PHB synthesizing genes of Alcaligenes sp. RZS 4 into Escherichia coli. A twofold increase in PHB yield was obtained from recombinant E. coli vis-à-vis Alcaligenes sp.; the recombinant E. coli accumulated more PHB in NDMM, produced good amount of PHB in a single-stage cultivation process under both nutrient-rich and nutrient-deficient conditions. Extraction of PHB with acetone-alcohol (1:1) was found as suitable method for optimum extraction of PHB as this mixture selectively extracted PHB without affecting the non-PHB cell mass. PHB extract from recombinant E. coli showed the presence of C-H, =O stretching, =C-H deformation, =C-H, =CH, and =C-O functional groups characteristic of PHB.

  20. Processing and functional display of the 86 kDa heterodimeric penicillin G acylase on the surface of phage fd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaert, R.M D; van Duin, J; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    The large heterodimeric penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis was displayed on the surface of phage fd. We fused the coding sequence (alpha subunit-internal peptide-beta subunit) to the gene of a phage coat protein. A modified g3p signal sequence was used to direct the polypeptide to the pe

  1. Method for preventing and/or treating insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwdorp, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention describes use of Eubacterium hallii et rel. and/or Alcaligenes faecalis et rel., as well as pharmaceutical, food, or feed compositions comprising these bacteria, as a medicament, in particular for preventing and/or treating insulin resistance and/or insulin resistance-related c

  2. The intramolecular electron transfer between copper sites of nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Eady, R R; Abraham, Z H

    1998-01-01

    The intramolecular electron transfer (ET) between the type 1 Cu(I) and the type 2 Cu(II) sites of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans dissimilatory nitrite reductase (AxNiR) has been studied in order to compare it with the analogous process taking place in ascorbate oxidase (AO). This internal process...

  3. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Gardshodn, K.; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    in the composition of the flora, with Pseudomonas spp. and Alcaligenes spp. being the dominant gram- negative bacteria and Kurthia spp. and Bacillus spp. being the surviving gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria were very sensitive to fog sanitization, and yeasts accounted for almost half of the surviving flora...

  4. Three-dimensional model of stellacyanin and its implications for electron transfer reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wherland, S; Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1988-01-01

    . The structure also indicates that a carbonyl oxygen atom is near the copper, thus the site may have analogy to the Alcaligenes denitrificans azurin (Az) site, although the amino acid sequence is more homologous to that of Pc. The model indicates that aspartate 49, reductively labeled by Cr(III), is near...

  5. 接合子细胞强化对生物反应器降解2,4-D效应研究%Bioaugmentation of Bioreactors with a pJP4 Receiving Transconjugant to Enhance the Removal of 2,4-D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全向春; 汤华; 马景赟

    2011-01-01

    The paper first investigated horizontal transfer of a conjugative plasmid pJP4 to two pure strains of E. coli DH5α and Alcaligenes sp. , and a mixed culture of aerobic granular sludge, respectively. With a pJP4 receiving transconjugant Alcaligenes sp. : : pJP4 as the bioaugmented bacteria, bioaugmentation experiments were conducted in an aerobic granular sludge reactor and a biofilm reactor, respectively, to enhance the removal of a recalcitrant compound 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D). Results showed that pJP4 successfully transferred to E. coli DH5α, Alcaligenes sp. and the mixed culture of aerobic granules. For the aerobic granular sludge reactor operated in semi-continuous mode and fed with 2,4-D sole carbon source wastewater, bioaugmentation with Alcaligenes sp. ::pJP4 increased 2,4-D average removal rate significantly with an enhancement of 12%- 1 498%. For the biofilm reactor operated in sequence batch mode and fed with mixed carbon sources wastewater, supplementation of the transconjugant reduced system start-up time greatly from 16 d to 5 d. It is a feasible strategy to obtain special degradative transconjugants through gene augmentation and put them into bioreactor as bioaugmentation agent to enhance the removal of some specific pollutants.%研究了接合性质粒pJP4在2株纯菌E.coliDH5α、Alcaligenes sp.及好氧颗粒污泥混合菌群中的水平转移情况,并以获得pJP4质粒的接合子Alcaligenes sp.::pJP4为强化菌种,考察了接合子细胞强化对好氧颗粒反应器和生物膜反应器中难降解有机物2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)的去除效应.结果表明,pJP4质粒能在E.coli DH5α、Alcaligenes sp.及好氧颗粒污泥中发生水平转移.在2,4-D为唯一碳源及半连续流运行条件下,向好氧颗粒污泥反应器中投加接合子细胞A

  6. Comparison of Curved Root Canals Prepared with Various Chelating Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Endodontics Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services...Professional Development Center ~ Terry D. Webb, DDS, MS CAPT, DC, USN Chairman, Endodontics Dept. Glen M. Imamura, s: MS CAPT, DC, USN Ch&#34JiiL=h n...beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner. Kelli Swenson, DDS, MS Endodontics Department Naval Postgraduate Dental

  7. Characterization of the metabolically modified heavy metal-resistant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 generated for mercury bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Rojas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury-polluted environments are often contaminated with other heavy metals. Therefore, bacteria with resistance to several heavy metals may be useful for bioremediation. Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 is a model heavy metal-resistant bacterium, but possesses a low resistance to mercury compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve inorganic and organic mercury resistance of strain CH34, the IncP-1β plasmid pTP6 that provides novel merB, merG genes and additional other mer genes was introduced into the bacterium by biparental mating. The transconjugant Cupriavidus metallidurans strain MSR33 was genetically and biochemically characterized. Strain MSR33 maintained stably the plasmid pTP6 over 70 generations under non-selective conditions. The organomercurial lyase protein MerB and the mercuric reductase MerA of strain MSR33 were synthesized in presence of Hg(2+. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (mM for strain MSR33 were: Hg(2+, 0.12 and CH(3Hg(+, 0.08. The addition of Hg(2+ (0.04 mM at exponential phase had not an effect on the growth rate of strain MSR33. In contrast, after Hg(2+ addition at exponential phase the parental strain CH34 showed an immediate cessation of cell growth. During exposure to Hg(2+ no effects in the morphology of MSR33 cells were observed, whereas CH34 cells exposed to Hg(2+ showed a fuzzy outer membrane. Bioremediation with strain MSR33 of two mercury-contaminated aqueous solutions was evaluated. Hg(2+ (0.10 and 0.15 mM was completely volatilized by strain MSR33 from the polluted waters in presence of thioglycolate (5 mM after 2 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad-spectrum mercury-resistant strain MSR33 was generated by incorporation of plasmid pTP6 that was directly isolated from the environment into C. metallidurans CH34. Strain MSR33 is capable to remove mercury from polluted waters. This is the first study to use an IncP-1β plasmid directly isolated from the environment, to generate a novel

  8. 低能N+注入诱变选育威兰胶高产菌的研究%Breeding of welan gum-producing bacteria by low energy N+ ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭朝江; 乔红群; 李莎; 李会; 徐虹

    2007-01-01

    利用低能N+束对威兰胶生产菌进行了辐射诱变选育研究.能量为20keV,注入剂量为20×1014/cm-2时,筛选出一株高产菌株Alcaligenes sp.NX-3-1.结果表明,摇瓶发酵中诱变菌威兰胶产量比出发菌高27.5%;在7.5L发酵罐上,Alcaligenes sp.NX-3-1菌生长速度比出发菌快,生物量高,底物葡萄糖消耗量多,威兰胶产量较出发菌有明显提高,最高达26.4g·L-1.

  9. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  10. Study on the Biodegradation Process of Fenoxaprop-p -ethyl by HPLC-MS%利用HPLC-MS对精(口恶)唑禾草灵微生物降解途径的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立岩; 花日茂; 岳永德

    2005-01-01

    产碱菌属H(Alcaligenes sp.H)以及其紫外诱变菌Huv均可降解精噁唑禾草灵,液相色谱显示二者具有某一相同的精噁唑禾草灵微生物降解产物;利用高效液相色谱-质谱联用技术(HPLC-MS),对上述精噁唑禾草灵微生物降解产物进行鉴定.结果表明:精噁唑禾草灵水解是降解菌Alcaligenes sp.H与Huv降解精噁唑禾草灵的公共降解途径之一,其产物为(R)-2-[4-(6-氯-1,3-苯并噁唑-2-基氧)苯氧基]丙酸和乙醇.

  11. Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1989-01-01

    The Cu(II) sites of azurins, the blue single copper proteins, isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes spp. (Iwasaki) are reduced by CO2- radicals, produced by pulse radiolysis, in two distinct reaction steps: (i) a fast bimolecular phase, at the rates (5.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (P....... aeruginosa) and (6.0 +/- 1.0) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (Alcaligenes); (ii) a slow unimolecular phase with specific rates of 44 +/- 7 s-1 in the former and 8.5 +/- 1.5 s-1 for the latter (all at 298 K, 0.1 M ionic strength). Concomitant with the fast reduction of Cu(II), the single disulfide bridge linking cysteine-3...

  12. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by aerobic biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongdar, Shobhana [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India); Gunasekaran, G. [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)]. E-mail: gunanmrl@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Pradeep [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)

    2005-08-30

    Mild steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the corrosion rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of corrosion inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced corrosion/corrosion inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild steel surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes.

  13. Oxidation/Biodegradation of Solid Propellants Used in Legacy Chemical Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Bioreactor Sample Source Sample Number Similarity Index Genus Species ICB M28-1 Sample 1A 0.771 Kluyvera cryocrescenes 0.704 Enterobacter cloacae...0.678 Photorhabdus luminencent 0.676 Entrobacter aerogenes Sample 1B 0.901 Alcaligenes faecalis Sample 2 0.894 Pseudomonas stutzeri 0.807 Pseudomonas...et. al. 13 has also described the role of Enterobacter cloacae NADH in the degradation of nitro aromatic compounds. Paracoccus denitrificans, commonly

  14. Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Sarkar, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Similarly, CH07, S3 (Bacillus pumilus) and GP13 (Brevibacterium iodinium), were grown in the presence of Pb (maximum concentration of 100 ppm) and removal of Pb from the medium was estimated following standard method.... Results: Bacterial isolates: Seven of the thirteen (54%) of the MRB were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis, four (30%) were identified as Bacillus pumilus and there was one each of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Brevibacterium iodinium. The isolates...

  15. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Disease: H01081 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gative bacteria that belongs to the genus Alicaligenes. It can rarely cause keratitis in patients who had worn contact...Keratitis after Contact Lens Usage. Korean J Ophthalmol 26:49-53 (2012) PMID:21993586 Ahmed AA, Pineda R Alcaligenes xylosoxidans con...tact lens-related keratitis--a case report and literature review. Eye Contact Lens 37:386-9 (2011) ...

  17. Endometrium clear cell karsinomlu bir olguda achromobacter xylosoxidans'ın sebep olduğu ürosepsis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Amaç: Achromobacter xylosoxidans, diğer adıyla Alcaligenes xylosoxidans gram negatif, aerob, oksidaz pozitif, nonfermentatif, hareketli, çomak şeklinde bir bakteridir. Doğada, toprak ve suda bulunabilen bir mikroorganizma olup, immün sistemi baskılanmış kişilerde fırsatçı enfeksiyonlara neden olmaktadır.

  18. Modulation of the immune response of porcine neutrophils by different β-glucan preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2010-01-01

    -vivo whole blood stimulation assay. Whole blood samples were either treated with curdlan, a linear β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan from the non-pathogenic Alcaligenes faecalis, lichenan, a mixed linked β-(1 → 3),(1 → 4)-D-glucan from Islandic moss (Cetraria islandica) or zymosan, prepared from yeast cell walls and being...

  19. Antibacterial properties of Alkaloid rich fractions obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachi Singh,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid rich fraction obtained from various parts of Prosopis juliflora were assessed for their antibacterial property using disc diffusion method on several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains like E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Psuedomonas putida, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter andAlcaligen. Strong antibacterial effect was shown by leaf, pod and flower extract, with MIC value ranging between 25μg/ml-100μg/ml. The extracts of leaves showed highest activity among all the plant parts. Klebsiella was found to be the most susceptible bacteria, whereas Acinetobacter and Alcaligen were the least susceptible. A comparison of zone of inhibition created by alkaloid rich fractions with that of standard antibiotics, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, oflaxacin, refampin, streptomycin and sulfa drug showed a comparable zone of inhibition. Growth of Acinetobacter and Alcaligen which were not inhibited by antibiotics, showed inhibition by the alkaloidal extracts, similarly a known ampicillin resistant E.coli strain was found to be inhibited by the plant extracts. Alkaloids present in the extracts were analysed by DART-MS. DART-MS analysis of the alkaloid rich fractions showed the presence of piperidine alkaloids.

  20. Lead resistance in micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławiecka, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an element present in the environment that negatively affects all living organisms. To diminish its high toxicity, micro-organisms have developed several mechanisms that allow them to survive exposure to Pb(II). The main mechanisms of lead resistance involve adsorption by extracellular polysaccharides, cell exclusion, sequestration as insoluble phosphates, and ion efflux to the cell exterior. This review describes the various lead resistance mechanisms, and the regulation of their expression by lead binding regulatory proteins. Special attention is given to the Pbr system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, which involves a unique mechanism combining efflux and lead precipitation.

  1. Quantum Chemical Investigations of the Mechanism of Cationic Polymerization and Theoretical Prediction of Crystal Densities and Decomposition Pathways of Energetic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    0%C.Y %0’.o~ m Qr m ’. Ch &#34 co qtr %D LA.aj ’:r 0-4 CD ON qw n𔃺 en f-. cc eCc ’.0 In cc CD %v) 0 ~Cci0 -4 cc * 1 (D V)LU In (. In ~ L In c0 0% - en...the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital - orbital 3) and the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital - orbital 4) in NH4+ are of the totally

  2. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Updated Efficiency Analysis Utilizing a Highly Parallel Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    15] Luni-Solar Perturbations NASA JPL Planetary Ephemerides [16] Atmospheric Drag NRL-MSISE-00 model [17] Solar Radiation Pressure Debris...Nørsett, S.P.; Wanner, G. “Solving ordinary differential equations I: Non stiff problems.” New York 2008. 14. Acton, C.H. "Ancillary data services...of NASA’s Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility." Planetary and Space Science 44.1 (1996): 65-70. 15. Lemoine, F.G.; Smith, D.E.; Kunz

  3. Structures of intermediate transport states of ZneA, a Zn(II)/proton antiporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, John Edward; Ekendé, Elisabeth Ngonlong; Kifle, Efrem G.; O’Connell, Joseph Daniel; De Angelis, Fabien; Tessema, Meseret B.; Derfoufi, Kheiro-Mouna; Robles-Colmenares, Yaneth; Robbins, Rebecca A.; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Vandenbussche, Guy; Stroud, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Efflux pumps belonging to the ubiquitous resistance–nodulation–cell division (RND) superfamily transport substrates out of cells by coupling proton conduction across the membrane to a conformationally driven pumping cycle. The heavy metal-resistant bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 relies notably on as many as 12 heavy metal efflux pumps of the RND superfamily. Here we show that C. metallidurans CH34 ZneA is a proton driven efflux pump specific for Zn(II), and that transport of substrates through the transmembrane domain may be electrogenic. We report two X-ray crystal structures of ZneA in intermediate transport conformations, at 3.0 and 3.7 Å resolution. The trimeric ZneA structures capture protomer conformations that differ in the spatial arrangement and Zn(II) occupancies at a proximal and a distal substrate binding site. Structural comparison shows that transport of substrates through a tunnel that links the two binding sites, toward an exit portal, is mediated by the conformation of a short 14-aa loop. Taken together, the ZneA structures presented here provide mechanistic insights into the conformational changes required for substrate efflux by RND superfamily transporters. PMID:24173033

  4. Novel approach for the ammonium removal by simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification using a novel bacterial species co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angar, Yassmina; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Djelali, Nacer-Eddine; Khemili-Talbi, Souad

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural activities lead excessive emission of ammonia nitrogen in the environment and can profoundly interfere the equilibrium of the natural ecosystems leading to their contamination. Actually, the biological purification of wastewaters is the most adopted technique thanks to its several advantages such as high performance and low energy consumption. For this reason, two novel strains of Alcaligenes sp. S84S3 and Proteus sp. S19 genus were isolated from an activated sludge and applied in the treatment of ammonium and nitrite in aqueous solution. Under the optimum operating conditions of temperature (30 °C), pH (7), carbon substrate (2 g/L of glucose) and duration of incubation time (69 h), the strain Alcaligenes sp. S84S3 could oxidize 65% of the ammonium as high as 272.72 mg-NH4(+)/L. Moreover, during 48 h, the nitrate reduction rate performed by the strain Proteus S19 was about 99 % without production of nitrite intermediate (negligible concentration). Moreover, the coculture of the strains Alcaligenes sp. S84S3 and Proteus sp. S19 could eliminate 65.83% of the ammonium ions without production of toxic forms of nitrogen oxides during a short time of incubation (118 h) at the same operational conditions with providing the aeration in the first treatment phase. The coculture of our isolated strains is assumed to have a good potential for nitrification and denitrification reactions applied in the treatment of wastewater containing ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. As a result, we can consider that the mixed culture is a practical method in the treatment of high-strength ammonium wastewater with reducing of sludge production.

  5. Screening and identification of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria and biochemical characterization of their possible application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkharak, Kanokphorn; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria were isolated under various selective conditions such as pH, salt concentrations and types of heavy metal. Fifty strains of bacterial isolates were found to belong to Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes and Chromobacterium, based on phenotypical features and genotypic investigation. Only twenty five bacterial isolates were selected and observed for the production of PHAs. Interestingly, bacteria belonging to Firmucutes Bacillus sp. produced a high amount of PHAs. The maximum PHAs were accumulated by B. licheniformis PHA 007 at 68.80% of dry cell weight (DCW). Pseudomonas sp., Aeromonas sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Chromobacterium sp. were recorded to produce a moderate amount of PHAs, varying from 10.00-44.32% of DCW. The enzymatic activity was preliminarily analyzed by the ratio of the clear zone diameter to colony diameter. Bacillus gave the highest ratio of hydrolysis zone which corresponds to the highest hydrolytic enzyme activities. Bacillus licheniformis PHA 007 had the highest lipase and protease activity at 2.1 and 5.1, respectively. However, the highest amylase activity was observed in Bacillus sp. PHA 023 at 1.4. Determination of metabolic characteristics was also investigated to check for their ability to consume a wide range of substrates. Bacillus, Aeromonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp. had great ability to utilize a variety of substrates. To decrease high PHA cost, different sources of cheap substrates were tested for the production of PHAs. Bacillus cereus PHA 008 gave the maximal yield of PHA production (64.09% of DCW) when cultivated in anaerobically treated POME. In addition, the accumulation of PHA copolymers such as 3-hydroxyvalerate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate was also observed in Bacillus and Pseudomomas sp. strain 012 and 045, respectively. Eight of the nine isolates accumulated a significant amount of PHAs when inexpensive carbon sources were used as substrates. Here it varied from 1

  6. Seleksi dan Identifikasi Bakteri Alkalifilik Penghasil Xilanase dari Tanah Bukit Krakitan, Bayat, Klaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria are bacteria that can grow well in alkaline environment. They can produce xylanase that optimum at high pH to hydrolyze xylans to be xylooligosaccharides and xylose. The calcareous soil with pH more than 7,3 can be xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria nature habitat. The aims of this research were (1 to isolate xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from calcareous soil in limestone hill area Krakitan, Bayat, Klaten and (2 to determine the kind of xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria which has high xylanolytic activity. For isolation and selection of xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria, the alkaline medium pH 9-10 were used, and 0,5 % oat spelt xylan was added. The calcareous soil was taken from limestone hill area and then was filtered and inoculated on to alkaline medium. After that, they were incubated in shaker incubator for 3 days at 150 rpm in 30-37°C. Then, the enrichment sample was grown in the same medium, that 1,8% agar was added. The colonies that grew and produced clearing zone which had the highest xylanolytic activity were chosen then characterized and identified. The growth ability isolates were examined in xylan medium at pH 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 in order to decide bacteria of fakultative or obligate alkaliphilic. Xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria could be isolated from calcareous soil in limestone hill area Krakitan, Bayat, Klaten. The identified 10 xylanase producing alkaliphilic bacteria that had xylanolytic activity were Pseudomonas HT-1a, Pseudomonas HT-1b, Bacillus HT-2a, Bacillus HT-2d, Flavobacterium rigense HT-3c, Micrococcus luteus HT-3d, Paracoccus alcaliphilus HT-5c, Alcaligenes HT-4c, Alcaligenes HT-5a, and Alcaligenes HT-5b.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-11-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. Results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Leuconostoc cremoris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium sporogenes, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Escherichia coli, Beneckea natriegens, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and Brochothrix thermosphacata. The fungal species Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata exhibited significant sensitivity to the volatile oil.

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Colonization of Healthy US Military Personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    7 (7) 27 (35) 65 (99) 85 (188) Acinetobacter baumannii -calcoaceticus complex 0 1 (1) 0 0 1 (1) 4 (4) 2 (2) 8 (8) Acinetobacter lwoffii 0 1 (1) 0 1...0 1 0.50 Perirectal 2 9 0.03 All bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii -calcoaceticus complex 8 4 0.24 Acinetobacter lwoffii 8 13 0.24... baumannii - calcoaceticus complex 0 0 0 0 1 (1) 3 (3) 0 4 (4) Acinetobacter lwoffii 0 0 3 (3) 2 (2) 5 (5) 5 (5) 1 (1) 13 (16) Alcaligenes species 0 1

  9. Complicated intra-abdominal infection caused by extended drug-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Sing-On; Ou, Tsong-Yih; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lee, Wuan-Chan; Lin, Yi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2009-04-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans (formerly Alcaligenes xylosoxidans) is a rare but important nosocomial pathogen. Antibiotic resistance has been increasing during the past decade. A. xylosoxidans may be confused with Pseudomonas spp. but, unlike Pseudomonas spp., this organism has peritrichous flagella. Complicated intra-abdominal infection with A. xylosoxidans has rarely been reported in the literature. This report is of an immunocompetent patient with acute cholecystitis complicated by an intra-abdominal abscess after surgery. Culture of both blood and ascites yielded extended drug-resistant A. xylosoxidans, which was only sensitive to colistin. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of A. xylosoxidans are presented.

  10. Isolation of A Phenol- Degrading Strain and Its Degrading Potential%苯酚高效降解菌的筛选和降解特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林良才; 姜岩; 闻建平

    2005-01-01

    从天津市煤气厂的活性污泥中筛选、分离得到一株高效苯酚降解菌.经BIOLOG细菌自动鉴定系统及16S rDNA鉴定,该菌株为粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis).苯酚降解实验证实,该菌能在76 h内完全降解1600mg·L-1的苯酚,并且随着苯酚浓度的增加,底物抑制作用增强,细胞得率下降.

  11. Study on molecular interaction between NifA and NifL of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 by using the yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhihong; E. Claudine; LIN Min; YANG Yi; PING Shuzheng; CHEN Ming; ZHANG Wei; LU Wei; XU Yuquan; LIU Hongjuan; WANG Guoying

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 (formerly Alcaligenes faecalis A1501), which was isolated from rice paddies in South China in 1980, can colonize tightly on rhizoplane of the host plants or invade the roots of plants for growth and nitrogen fixation. But A1501 can fix nitrogen only under the micro-aerobic and nitrogen-free conditions. The oxygen concentration and the availability of fixed nitrogen are therefore important factors in the regulation of nitrogenase biosynthesis of associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In the model diazotrophs Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, nitrogen fixation is controlled at the transcriptional level by the regulatory proteins encoded by nifLA.

  12. 一株蝗虫病原菌的分离鉴定及其毒力测定%Isolation and Identification of a Pathogenic Strain of Locusts and Its Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀琼; 陶科; 刘世贵

    2007-01-01

    从"细菌灭蝗剂"中分离纯化到蝗虫病原菌hb,通过16SrDNA序列分析和DNA同源性分析,结合生理生化测定结果,将菌株hb鉴定为产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes sp.).通过口服感染测定了该菌对蝗虫的毒力,致死中浓度LC50为1.33×1011 cfu/L.

  13. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  14. Production of biopolymers from carbon dioxide. Tansan gas kara no bio polymer no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, A. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes biopolymers made from CO2 that contribute to global preservation. PHB that is generated in the processes of CO2 fermentation and protein production from microorganisms draws attention as a useful biopolymer. Biological synthesis requires energy to synthesize the composing materials therein. Organisms are divided into the independent type and the subordinate type depending on how the energy is acquired. The independent type organism is of CO2 self-reducing type, so to speak, and produces organic matters. When hydrogen oxidizing bacteria, A. eutrophus, is cultured under an independent nutrient condition, energy derived from the hydrogen oxidation proliferates the bacteria and produces PHB. However, this fermentation method has a substantially different difficulty. It requires a huge reactor with a large gas migration capacity coefficient, on which the PHB production depends entirely. Other CO2 biopolymer production methods under study include effective utilization of biomass during photosynthetic processes by using plants incorporated with PHB biosynthesized genes, and production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Rhizosphere bacterial diversity and heavy metal accumulation in Nymphaea pubescens in aid of phytoremediation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA KABEER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to characterize the bacterial diversity of the rhizosphere system of Nymphaea pubescens and the sediment system where it grows naturally. Heavy metal content in the sediment and Nymphea plant from the selected wetland system were also studied. Results of the current study showed that the concentration of copper, zinc and lead in the sediment ranged from 43 to 182 mg/Kg, from 331 to 1382 mg/Kg and from 121 to 1253 mg/Kg, respectively. Cadmium concentration in sediment samples was found to be zero and the order of abundance of heavy metals in the sediment samples was Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd. The abundance patterns of heavy metals in leaf, petiole and root were Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn. Microbial load in rhizosphere of Nymphea pubescens ranged from 93×102 to 69×103 and that of sediment was 62×102 to 125×103. Bacterial load in rhizosphere was higher than that of growing sediment. Four bacterial genera were identified from the rhizosphere of Nymphaea pubescens which include Acinetobacter, Alcaligens, Listeria and Staphylococcus. Acinetobacter, Alcaligens and Listeria are the three bacterial genera isolated from sediment samples. Copper resistance studies of the 14 bacterial isolates from rhizosphere and 7 strains from sediment samples revealed that most of them showed low resistance (<100 μg/ml and very few isolates showed high resistance of 400-500 μg/ml.

  16. Microbial degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures under aerobic and denitrifying conditions. Regulation and interaction in a mixed culture; Mikrobieller Abbau von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch unter aeroben und denitrifizierenden Bedingungen. Regulation und Interaktion in einer Mischkultur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollender, J.

    1994-12-31

    The mechanism and the regulation of the microbial aerobic degradation of chloro- and methylphenol mixtures were investigated by comparing the mixed culture enriched of these phenolic compounds with the isolated pure cultures. The degradation assays and the characterization of the central degrading enzymes involved show that the degradation potential of the mixed culture was essentially determined by the additive abilities of the three pure cultures Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies denitrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 and Comamonas testosteroni JH5. Degradation of some substrate mixtures and avoidance of enrichment of metabolites can only be explained by the interaction of the pure cultures or the participation of other organisms in the mixed culture which were not further investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei den Untersuchungen zum Mechanismus und der Regulation des aeroben Abbaus von Chlor- und Methylphenolen im Gemisch stand der Vergleich zwischen der auf diesen Phenolen angereicherten Mischkultur und den daraus isolierten Reinkulturen im Vordergrund. Die Abbauversuche und die Charakterisierung der am Metabolismus beteiligten zentralen Enzyme zeigen, dass fuer das Abbaupotential der Mischkultur im wesentlichen die additiven Abbauleistungen der drei Reinkulturen Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subspecies dentrificans JH1, Pseudomonas stutzeri JH3 und Comamonas testosteroni JH5 verantwortlich sind. Der Abbau einiger Substratmischungen und die Vermeidung einer Anreicherung von Metaboliten in der Mischkultur sind jedoch nur durch eine Interaktion der Reinkulturen oder durch eine Beteiligung anderer nicht naeher untersuchter Organismen in der Mischkultur zu erklaeren. (orig.)

  17. Isolation and Identification of a Bacterial Strain for Degrading Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl%精噁唑禾草灵高效降解菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立岩; 花日茂; 岳永德

    2005-01-01

    取精噁唑禾草灵废水处理系统进水口处污泥进行驯化培养,分离到8株有效菌株,通过高效液相色谱分析这8株菌株降解精噁唑禾草灵的残存量,确定其中降解精噁唑禾草灵最好的一株菌株为本实验菌株,通过传统的微生物鉴定方法,将其鉴定为产碱菌属(Alcaligenes sp.),标记为Alcaligenes sp.H.分离菌株H可以以精噁唑禾草灵为唯一碳源和能源生长;在纯培养条件下,分离菌株H对较高浓度的精噁唑禾草灵(50 mg·mL-1和100 mg·mL-1)均能较好地降解.

  18. Microbial Purification of Postfermentation Medium after 1,3-PD Production from Raw Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Szymanowska-Powałowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD is an important chemical product which can be used to produce polyesters, polyether, and polyurethanes. In the process of conversion of glycerol to 1,3-PD by Clostridium large number of byproducts (butyric, acetic and lactic acid are generated in the fermentation medium. The aim of this work was to isolate bacteria strains capable of the utilization of these byproducts. Screening of 30 bacterial strains was performed using organic acids as carbon source. Selected isolates were taxonomically characterized and identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and Bacillus licheniformis. The most active strains, Alcaligenes faecalis JP1 and Bacillus licheniformis JP19, were able to utilize organic acids almost totally. Finally, it was find out that by the use of coculture (C. butyricum DSP1 and A. faecalis JP1 increased volumetric productivity of 1,3-PD production (1.07 g/L/h and the yield equal to 0.53 g/g were obtained in bioreactor fermentation. Moreover, the only by-product present was butyric acid in a concentration below 1 g/L.

  19. 海湾扇贝(Argopecten irradians)附着基异养细菌区系初探%Study on Microflora of the Biofilm on the Adhesive Substrate of Larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筠; 生菊; 纪伟尚; 徐怀恕

    2001-01-01

    从海湾扇贝附着基上分离出61株异养细菌,对其进行80项生理生化特征测定,以数值分类法进行分析。鉴定结果表明,海湾扇贝附着基上异养菌属于假单胞菌(Pseudomonas)、气单胞菌(Aeromonas)、弧菌(Vibrio)、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)和产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes)。扇贝幼虫附着前附着的细菌主要为芽孢杆菌与假单胞菌,扇贝幼虫附着后气单胞菌成为优势,弧菌数量明显增加,与假单胞菌数量相当。%The heterotrophic bacteria flora on the adhe sive substrate ofArgopecten irradians was studied. Sixty-one strains of he terotrophic bacteria were isolated from Argopecten irradians attaching subst rate. They were identified by 80 characteristics and clustered by numerical taxo nomy. The isolates were clustered to Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Bacillus and Alcaligenes. The dominant taxa on the Argopecten irradians attaching substrate were Bacillus and Pseudomonas before larvae adhesion and then were Aeromonas after adhesion instead. Aeromonas and Vibrio beca me the second dominant.

  20. Cloning of NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-Con A reductase gene phbB and its expression in Escherichia coli%NADPH依赖的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB的克隆和在大肠杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁辉; 华子春

    2004-01-01

    目的:在大肠杆菌中克隆和表达NADPH依赖的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因.方法:通过PCR方法克隆来源于Alcaligenes eutrophus菌的NADPH依赖性的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因phbB,将其克隆在大肠杆菌表达质粒pET28a中,进行PCR和DNA序列测定验证,并通过IPTG诱导表达.结果:通过PCR和DNA核酸序列分析,证实获得的基因片段为phbB全编码序列,phbB被克隆在大肠杆菌表达质粒pET28a中,重组表达质粒在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中经IPTG诱导获得表达.结论:获得了Alcaligenes eutrophus菌的NADPH依赖的乙酰乙酰辅酶A还原酶基因, 将其克隆在pET28a中,经诱导获得PhbB的表达,为进一步研究PhbB的理化性质和酶动力学性质奠定了坚实的基础.

  1. Microbial evaluation and occurrence of antidrug multi-resistant organisms among the indigenous Clarias species in River Oluwa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ayandiran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish may harbor pathogens on or inside its body when in contaminated environment. Clarias gariepinus and Clarias buthopogon were analyzed to evaluate the likely impact of pollution on the antidrug resistance pattern of their microbial isolates. Different bacterial and fungal counts were observed on the fish organs (skin, muscles and gills. The highest bacterial count was 1,040,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 101 Cfu/mL. The highest fungal count obtained was 344,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 65 Cfu/mL. Bacterial isolates belonging to genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Enterobacter and Corynebacterium were obtained from the organs. Also, fungal isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Monila and Fusarium were isolated. The resistance of isolates from C. gariepinus to drugs was between 50% and 90% with Bacillus species showing the highest resistance. For isolates from C. buthopogon, 40–90% resistance was observed with Alcaligenes faecalis showing highest resistance. Five patterns of multiple drug resistance were observed among the bacterial isolates with antibiotics ranging from 4 to 9. Also, result of fungal isolates showed susceptibility to ketoconazole and resistant to fluconazole and griseofulvin. The public health implications of consuming these fishes are discussed.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14701-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plete geno... 53 4e-05 CP000614_2697( CP000614 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 c... 52 5e-05 CP000746_1433( CP000746 |pid...939126_126( AL939126 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) co... 45 0.008 EF531339_150( EF531339 |pid... strain AT complete ch... 34 0.002 18 ( AC117075 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome ...anoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus, complete g... 36 0.005 14 ( AC116960 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map co...me. 44 0.26 19 ( AY159040 ) Dictyostelium discoideum LvsD (lvsD) gene, partia... 32 0.27 6 ( AE017244 ) Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11308-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m... 38 1.3 CP000615_180( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnam...:none) Ralstonia metallidurans CH34, co... 38 1.7 CP001157_4781( CP001157 |pid:none) Azotobacter vinelandii...27 AL939113_251( AL939113 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) co... 40 0.27 CP000088_946( CP000088 |pid:none) Thermobifid... 509 e-139 1 ( BJ359760 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddc2k09, 5' e... 76 8e-16 2 ( FE262209 ) CAZO2477.fwd CAZO Nae...-01-01-1... 46 5.6 1 >( BJ438220 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddv36a24, 3' end, single read. Length = 758 Sco

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14188-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cytogenes str. 4b ... 91 2e-16 CP000614_2320( CP000614 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnam...:none) Ralstonia metallidurans CH34 meg... 156 2e-36 AL939128_105( AL939128 |pid:none) Streptomyces coelico...99 6e-19 CP000447_1616( CP000447 |pid:none) Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB ... 99 6e-19 X55034_4( X55034 |pid:none) E. coli 2 min............................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ435714 ) Dictyostelium discoid...5 2 >( BJ435714 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddv28b06, 3' end, single read. Length = 754 Score = 14

  5. Combustion Synthesis of Fe-Incorporated SnO2 Nanoparticles Using Organometallic Precursor Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Barkley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nanomaterials within flames has been demonstrated as a highly scalable and versatile approach for obtaining a variety of nanoparticles with respect to their chemistry, composition, size, morphology, and dimensionality. Its applicability can be amplified by exploring new material systems and providing further control over the particle characteristics. This study focused on iron-incorporated SnO2 nanoparticles generated using an inverse coflow diffusion flame burner that supported a near-stoichiometric methane-air combustion. A liquid organometallic precursor solution of Sn(CH34 and Fe(CO5 was used to produce 11–14 nm nanocrystalline particles. Synthesized particles were analyzed using TEM, XRD, and XEDS to characterize for size and composition. A flame temperature field was obtained to map particle evolution within the flame. A range of conditions and parameters were studied to specifically generate targeted particles. The study augments related research towards increasing the production potential of combustion synthesis.

  6. μ2-Iodido-bis{dimethyl[methylbis(quinolin-8-ylsilanyl-κ3N,Si,N′]platinum(IV} tetrakis(pentafluorophenylborate dichloromethane 0.66-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus I. Gibson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Pt2(CH34(C19H15N2Si2I][B(C6F54]·0.66CH2Cl2, resulted from an attempt to synthesize a stable five-coordinate platinum species via ligand abstraction of a six-coordinate platinum precursor. However, dimerization occurred after ligand abstraction, thereby yielding the compound described in this study. The cation is a dinuclear PtIV organometallic complex, in which the metal centers are bridged by an I− anion. Both metal centers display a coordination geometry close to octahedral, including cis-arranged quinoline ligands connected by Si atoms, which form Pt—Si bonds, two cis-methyl groups, and the bridging I− anion. In the crystal structure, voids between cations and anions are partially filled with an average of 0.66 molecules of dichloromethane solvent.

  7. Caesium tetramethylammonium dodecahydrido-closo-dodecaborate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the hydrated double salt, Cs+·[N(CH34]+·[B12H12]2−·H2O, the asymmetric unit contains one caesium and one tetramethylammonium cation, one dodecahydrido-closo-dodecaborate anion and one water molecule. The Cs+ cation is coordinated tetrahedrally by four [B12H12]2− clusters, with the water molecule completing the coordination sphere. The tetramethylammonium cation is surrounded distorted octahedrally by six [B12H12]2− anions. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of O—H...H—B and C—H...H—B dihydrogen bonds.

  8. Isolation and identification of cobalt- and caesium-resistant bacteria from a nuclear fuel storage pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda; Osborne, Thomas H; Santini, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    One of the issues facing the nuclear power industry is how to store spent nuclear fuel which is contaminated with radionuclides produced during nuclear fission, including caesium ((134)Cs(+), (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+)) and cobalt ((60)Co(2+)). In this study, we have isolated Co(2+)- and Cs(+)-resistant bacteria from water collected from a nuclear fuel storage pond. The most resistant Cs(+) and Co(2+) isolates grew in the presence of 500 mM CsCl and 3 mM CoCl2. Strain Cs67-2 is resistant to fourfold more Cs(+) than Cupriavidus metallidurans str. CH34 making it the most Cs(+)-resistant strain identified to date. The Cs(+)-resistant isolates were closely related to bacteria in the Serratia and Yersinia genera, while the Co(2+)-resistant isolates were closely related to the Curvibacter and Tardiphaga genera. These new isolates could be used for bioremediation.

  9. The synthesis, characterization and theoretical study of nano tetrabuthylammonium trichloroiodoaluminate (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahriar Ghammamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is provided a nano aluminate complex that has a quaternary ammonium cation. This nano system has an equal molar ratio of Al to N that has been prepared by reaction of an organic salt R+X- such as [(CH34NBr], and a Lewis acid such as AlCl3, compounds. The synthesized compound was characterized by IR, Mass, X-Ray diffraction measurements. In addition, the structure of synthesized compound was optimized at the theoretical level of the Moller-Plesser perturbations of the second order (MP2, with LanL2DZ basis set and molecular specifications such as band length and angle were extracted using Gaussian 98 program. Theoretical data show good agreement with the experimental result.

  10. Assessment of uranium and selenium speciation in human and bacterial biological models to probe changes in their structural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avoscan, L.; Milgram, S.; Untereiner, G.; Collins, R.; Khodja, H.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B. [Lab. Pierre Sue, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coves, J. [Inst. de Biologie Structurale - J.-P. Ebel, Lab. des Proteines Membranaires, Grenoble (France); Hazemann, J.L. [Lab. de Geophysique Interne et Tectonopbysique, UMR CNRS/Univ. Joseph Fourier, Saint-Martin-D' Heres (France)

    2009-07-01

    This study illustrates the potential of physicochemical techniques to speciate uranium (U) and selenium (Se) in biological samples. Speciation, defined he0re as the study of structural environment, of both toxic elements, was characterized at several levels in biological media and directly in human cells or bacteria once the metal(loid)s were internalized. External speciation that is extracellular speciation in culture media was predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium computer modelling using the JChess software and validated by spectroscopic measurements (XANES and EXAFS). Internal speciation that is intracellular speciation in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells was studied in vitro with a soil bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and ROS 17/2.8 osteoblasts, human cells responsible for bone formation. XANES, EXAFS, HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGE coupled to particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) permitted the identification and quantification of complexes formed with organic or inorganic molecules and/or larger proteins. (orig.)

  11. Incidence and function of sigma factors in Ralstonia metallidurans and other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Dietrich H

    2004-04-01

    Bacterial sigma factors are essential for directing the bacterial RNA polymerase to promoter regions during transcription initiation. Genomic sequencing of the highly heavy-metal-resistant beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia metallidurans strain CH34 revealed 17 candidate genes for sigma factors. This review compares the sigma factor machinery of R. metallidurans to that of other bacteria. The sigma factors of 105 bacterial genomes were assigned to sigma factor clusters and families formed around the factors from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and R. metallidurans. Genes for between 1 and 65 sigma-factor-related proteins were found in these genomes. Although prediction of sigma factor function from sequence comparisons can be misleading, organization of the R. metallidurans sigma factors into clusters and protein families, together with a discussion of the physiological function of members of these clusters, might yield insight into the cellular roles of bacterial sigma factors and the genes that depend on them for their expression.

  12. Chemical resistance of the gram-negative bacteria to different sanitizers in a water purification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Thereza CV

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purified water for pharmaceutical purposes must be free of microbial contamination and pyrogens. Even with the additional sanitary and disinfecting treatments applied to the system (sequential operational stages, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas picketti, Flavobacterium aureum, Acinetobacter lowffi and Pseudomonas diminuta were isolated and identified from a thirteen-stage purification system. To evaluate the efficacy of the chemical agents used in the disinfecting process along with those used to adjust chemical characteristics of the system, over the identified bacteria, the kinetic parameter of killing time (D-value necessary to inactivate 90% of the initial bioburden (decimal reduction time was experimentally determined. Methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas picketti, Flavobacterium aureum, Acinetobacter lowffi and Pseudomonas diminuta were called in house (wild bacteria. Pseudomonas diminuta ATCC 11568, Pseudomonas alcaligenes INCQS , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 3178, Pseudomonas picketti ATCC 5031, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 937 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as 'standard' bacteria to evaluate resistance at 25°C against either 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% hydrochloric acid, 70% ethanol, 0.5% sodium bisulfite, 0.4% sodium hydroxide, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, or a mixture of 2.2% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 0.45% peracetic acid. Results The efficacy of the sanitizers varied with concentration and contact time to reduce decimal logarithmic (log10 population (n cycles. To kill 90% of the initial population (or one log10 cycle, the necessary time (D-value was for P. aeruginosa into: (i 0.5% citric acid, D = 3.8 min; (ii 0.5% hydrochloric acid, D = 6.9 min; (iii 70% ethanol, D = 9.7 min; (iv 0.5% sodium bisulfite, D = 5.3 min; (v 0.4% sodium hydroxide, D = 14.2 min; (vi 0.5% sodium

  13. Identification of pectin-degrading strains isolated from tobacco strips and evaluation of its pectinase activity%片烟产果胶酶细菌的鉴定及酶活测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代同成; 范坚强; 郑湖南; 包可翔; 王永泽; 王金华

    2011-01-01

    以果胶为碳源,对津巴布韦片烟烟叶表面产果胶酶细菌进行分离,采用16S rDNA限制性酶切片段长度多态性分析(ARDRA)和测序方法,结合形态学、生理生化实验,对所分离产果胶酶菌株进行鉴定,同时研究培养时间、温度、起始pH、接种量对菌株产酶的影响。结果表明,从津巴布韦片烟烟叶表面分离得到的产果胶酶菌株主要为芽孢杆菌属的枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis和产碱菌属的粪产碱菌Alcaligenes faecalis。在所分离的菌株中,枯草芽孢杆菌T10酶活力最高,以6%的接种量,在温度为35℃、起始pH为7.5条件下培养48-56 h,其果胶酶酶活为571 U/mg,聚半乳糖醛酸裂解酶酶活为297 U/mg。%Bacterial strains with pectinase enzyme activity were isolated from Zimbabwe tobacco strips using pectin as carbon source. ARDRA patterns of 16S rDNA combined with 16S rDNA sequence analysis, physiological and biochemical experiments were used to identify the isolated strains. Different conditions including incubating time, growth temperature, initial pH and inoculation quantity for the enzyme production were also studied. The results indicated that bacteria isolated from Zimbabwe tobacco strips with high pectin-degrading ability mainly belong to Bacillus subtilis (genus Bacillus) and Alcaligenes faecalis (genus Alcaligenes). Among these strains, Bacillus subtilis strain T10 possessed the highest pectinase activity (571 U/mg) and polygalacturonate lyase activity (297 U/mg) under its opti-mum enzyme fermantation conditions, which use 6% (V/V) culture fluid as the inoculum for enyme production in the pH 7.5 fermentation medium at 35 ℃ for 48?56 h.

  14. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sızmaz, Selçuk; Bingöllü, Sibel; Erdem, Elif; Kibar, Filiz; Koltaş, Soner; Yağmur, Meltem; Ersöz, Reha

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology. PMID:27800266

  15. Ab initio single and multideterminant methods used in the determination of reduction potentials and magnetic properties of Rieske ferredoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Nathan Lee

    2008-10-01

    The [Fe2S2]2+/[Fe2S 2]+ electronic structure of seven Rieske protein active sites (bovine mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, spinach chloroplast cytochrome b6f complex, Rieske-type ferredoxin associated with biphenyl dioxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia, yeast cytochrome bcl complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rieske subunit of arsenite oxidase from Alcaligenes faecalis, respiratory-type Rieske protein from Thermus thermophilus, and Rieske protein II (soxF) from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius), which lie in a reduction potential range from -150 mV to 375 mV, have been studied by both single and multi-determinant quantum mechanical methods. Calculated reduction potentials and magnetic properties are found comparable to experimental values.

  16. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process.

  17. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater.

  18. Bacteriological and shelf-life characteristics of canned, pasteurized crab cake mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaharanu, P; Lopez, A

    1970-05-01

    The bacteriological spoilage characteristics of a canned, pasteurized crab cake mix product stored at various temperatures were investigated. A large number of bacteria, both mesophilic and psychrophilic, survived the pasteurization process. Bacillus and Micrococcus were found to predominate when the product was stored at 30 C (86 F) and 18 C (64 F), whereas Alcaligenes predominated at 2 C (36 F). The product was found to be free of Escherichia coli. Bacterial counts, trimethylamine nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and ammonia determinations were evaluated as indices of quality for the product. Close correlation was observed between bacterial counts, volatile reducing substance values, and organoleptic tests when the product was stored at 30 C (86 F). The shelf-life of the product was approximately 6 months at 2 C (36 F), 4 days at 18 C (64 F), and 27 hr at 30 C (86 F).

  19. Characterization of bacterial isolates from rubber dump site and their use in biodegradation of isoprene in batch and continuous bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from contaminated soil of a waste rubber dumping site were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular approaches. Isoprene degradation kinetics in batch mode (isoprene concentration: 100-1000 ppm) revealed the degradation efficiency of isolates as: Pseudomonas sp. (83%)>Alcaligenes sp. (70%)>Klebsiella sp. (68.5%). The most efficient isolate Pseudomonas sp. was finally inoculated in a specifically designed bioreactor system comprising a bioscrubber and a biofilter packed with polyurethane foam connected in series. The bioscrubber and biofilter units when operated in a series showed more than 90% removal efficiency up to the inlet loading rate (IL) of 371.1g/m(3)/h. Maximum elimination capacity (EC) of biofilter was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that for bioscrubber. Oxidative cleavage of the double bond of isoprene has been revealed through IR spectra of the leachate.

  20. Long-term Hg pollution-induced structural shifts of bacterial community in the terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, Ales; Zrimec, Alexis; Drobne, Damjana; Rupnik, Maja

    2010-10-01

    In previous studies we detected lower species richness and lower Hg sensitivity of the bacteria present in egested guts of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) from chronically Hg polluted than from unpolluted environment. Basis for such results were further investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of mercury-resistant (Hgr) isolates and clone libraries. We observed up to 385 times higher numbers of Hgr bacteria in guts of animals from polluted than from unpolluted environment. The majority of Hgr strains contained merA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones from egested guts of animals from Hg-polluted environments showed elevated number of bacteria from Pseudomonas, Listeria and Bacteroidetes relatives groups. In animals from pristine environment number of bacteria from Achromobacter relatives, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus, Ochrobactrum relatives, Rhizobium/Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Microbacterium groups were elevated. Such bacterial community shifts in guts of animals from Hg-polluted environment could significantly contribute to P. scaber Hg tolerance.

  1. Investigation of biological reactor designs for treatment of methanol and thiodiglycol waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sines, B.J.; Teather, E.W.; Weigand, W.A. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)); Harvey, S.P. (Army Edgewood, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States))

    Biological reactor designs for the degradation of the toxic compounds methanol and thiodiglycol are compared to determine the smallest volume. Both compounds exhibit substrate-inhibited cell growth behavior. Design equations were used to simulate a continuous stirred tanks in series, and an optimized repeated fed-batch reactor. Thiodiglycol is the primary hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard (2,2[prime]-dichlorodiethyl sulfide), commonly referred to as [open quotes]mustard gas[close quotes]. Experimental data for the growth of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans xylosoxidans (SH42) on thiodiglycol was fit by an Andrews type inhibition equation, while the data and model for the growth of methanol was taken from the literature. The simulation results indicate that the repeated fed-batch reactor leads to significant volume reduction compared to the other two reactor configurations. 11 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Dynamism of PGPR in bioremediation and plant growth promotion in heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S; Sayyed, R Z

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination, particularly of cultivable lands, is a matter of concern. Bioremediation helps in reversing such contamination to certain extent. Here, we report isolation, polyphasic identification and the role of siderophore producing rhizobacteria Alcaligenes feacalis RZS2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and plant growth promotion activity in such contaminated soil. Siderophore produced by A. feacalis RZS2 and P. aeruginosa RZS3 strains chelated various heavy metal ions like MnCl₂.4H₂O, NiCl₂.6H₂O, ZnCl₂, CuCl₂ and CoCl₂ other than FeCl₃.6H2O at batch scale. Their bioremediation potential was superior over the chemical ion chelators like EDTA and citric acid. These isolates also promoted growth of wheat and peanut seeds sown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Effective root colonizing ability of these isolates was observed in wheat and peanut plants.

  3. Reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxicity in refinery wastewater by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grazyna A; Jangid, Kamlesh; Lukasik, Krystyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Berry, Christopher J; Brigmon, Robin L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate petroleum waste remediation and toxicity reduction by five bacterial strains: Ralstonia picketti SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (I'-1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1), and Bacillus sp. (T'-1), previously isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbons were significantly degraded (91%) by the mixed bacterial cultures in 30 days (reaching up to 29% in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3-fold after 30 days. This work shows the influence of bacteria on hydrocarbon degradation and associated toxicity, and its dependence on the specific microorganisms present. The ability of these mixed cultures to degrade hydrocarbons and reduce toxicity makes them candidates for environmental restoration applications at other hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  4. Screening Of Marine Bacteria For Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vijayalakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The symbiotic and associated four marine bacteria BR1 Flavobacterium sp. isolated from Barnacle Balanus amphitriteEM13 Micrococus sp. from Seaweed Enteromorpha compressaPC4 Alcaligenes sp. from Ascidian Polyclinum constellatum and SW12 Bacillus sp. from seawater were cultured and extracted for pharmacological activities. The ethyl acetate extracts of these marine bacterial culture supernatants were screened for pharmacological activities such as Anti inflammatory Analgesic and CNS depressant activities using experimental animal model. In this studySW12 exhibited high activity for both Anti inflammatory and Analgesic. Especially which exhibited highest analgesic activity than standard drug pethidine. Another one PC4 showed highest analgesic activity similar to standard drug. Other two extracts EM13 and BR1 showed high activity in CNS depressant. Based on the result SW12 is a highly potent strain it may produce novel compound for pharmacological drug.

  5. Herramientas moleculares aplicadas al estudio de aguas para el consumo humano, comunidad El Cacao, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Paramo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la presencia de contaminantes microbianos en aguas de consumo humano de la comunidad El Cacao, Mosonte, Nueva Segovia. El análisis se realizó tanto por métodos microbiológicos como por vía molecular analizando su interrelación con las enfermedades que se observan en la comunidad. Se obtuvo la presencia de coliformes fecales, totales y Escherichia coli desde la captación hasta el tanque de almacenamiento. Los aislados identificados pertenecen a las bacterias del tipo Alcaligenes y Paenalcaligenes, además de Stenotrophomonas y Serratia. Las cuales son bacterias acuáticas y están asociadas a diversas enfermedades. Además se identificó lapresencia de Aspergillus que han sido bien reportados en diversas enfermedades humanas.

  6. Imipenem resistance in nonfermenters causing nosocomial urinary tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja N

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. These organisms show high level of resistance to b-lactam agents, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Imipenem is a carbapenem antibiotic, which can be very useful for treatment of infections caused by nonfermenters. Eighty-five nonfermenters causing nosocomial UTI were tested for MIC to imipenem by agar dilution method. Resistance to other antimicrobial agents was compared between imipenem sensitive (S and resistance (R groups. Overall 36.4% of nonfermenters were resistant to imipenem. Forty two percent of P. aeruginosa and 18.5% of Acinetobacter baumanii were imipenem resistant. Other nonfermenters showed variable resistance, resistance in Alcaligenes spp. being very high. More than 70% of the nonfermenters were resistant to ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Piperacillin and amikacin had the best in vitro susceptibility. No significant difference was found in the antibiotic susceptibility profile among imipenem sensitive (S or resistant (R strains.

  7. 甲胺磷降解细菌的分离鉴定及其降解效能的研究%Isolation and identification of methamidophos-degrading bacteria strains and their degradation efficiency determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖金英; 刘新; 赵士熙

    2007-01-01

    从土壤中分离筛选获得两株对甲胺磷农药有较强降解效能的细菌,经鉴定分别为头状葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus capi-tis)(称为D菌)和粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)(称为J菌).D菌和J菌在甲胺磷浓度为500 mg·L-1,30℃,180 r·min-1摇床上用基础培养基中培养72 h,对甲胺磷的降解率分别达到58.49%和65.80%.D菌和J菌混合培养可提高对甲胺磷的降解效能,对甲胺磷72 h的降解率达到72.93%.

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 4-acylaminobenzenethiosulfoacid S-esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Lubenets

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of esters of 4-acetyl, 4-trifluoroacetyl- and 4-(3-chloropropionylaminobenzenethiosulfoacids (twenty-four compounds were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and IR spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the novel candidates has been screened using the agar diffusion or serial dilution methods against representative Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mesentericus, Mycobacterium sp., Mycobacterium luteum, Gram-negative (Aeromonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans, Candida tenuis, Candida glabrata, Verticillium dahliae, Trichophyton gypseum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum. Particular potency has been discovered against all tested pathogenic bacteria and fungi by compounds 1l and 3l at nanomolar concentrations. Some appropriate effect of thiosulfoesters structure upon their antimicrobial activity was determined.

  9. Isolation of culturable endophytic bacteria from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and 16S rDNA diversity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed culturable endophytic bacteria from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis using traditional bacterial isolation and culture methods and then studied the colony characteristics and diversity with a 16S rDNA sequence analysis. We isolated 82 endophytic bacteria strains belonging to 47 species in 26 genera from the root, rhizome, stem and leaves of Moso bamboo species from populations on Wuyi Mountain, and in the Jiangle and Changting regions. There were significant differences in the composition of the culturable endophytic bacteria isolated from the different areas and from different tissues. The dominant bacteria strains from the Wuyi Mountain samples were Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Enterobacter, while the dominant bacteria from the Jiangle samples were Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Curtobacterium, and the dominant bacteria in the Changting samples were Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Our results demonstrate the abundant diversity of endophytic bacteria in Moso bamboo.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Gales

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83, Achromobacter spp. (25, Ralstonia pickettii (16, Alcaligenes spp. (12, and Cryseobacterium spp. (12. Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, 16 µg/ml; 18.8% susceptible and meropenem (MIC50, 8 µg/ml; 50% susceptible against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  11. 农用化学物质、有毒化学物质污染及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    X592 200502785 精恶唑禾草灵微生物降解的初步研究/宋立岩(安徽农业大学环境资源学院,农产品安全重点实验室)…∥环境化学/中科院生态环境研究中心.- 2005,24(2).-193-196 环图X-87 从精恶唑禾草灵生产废水排放口处污泥中分离的产碱菌属H(Alcaligenes sp.H)对精恶唑禾草灵有较好的降解,降解浓度分别为100mg·L-1, 50mg·L-1,25mg·L-1的精恶唑禾草灵120h的降解

  12. Immobilization of Thermostable Lipase QLM on Core-Shell Structured Polydopamine-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhui Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, core-shell structured polydopamine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were constructed to immobilize thermostable lipase QLM from Alcaligenes sp. Systematical characterization indicated that lipase QLM was successfully immobilized on the surface of nanoparticles with an enzyme loading of 21.4 ± 1.47 mg/g immobilized enzyme. Then, the immobilized enzyme was demonstrated to possess favorable catalytic activity and stability in the ester hydrolysis, using p-nitrophenyl caprylate as the substrate. Further, it was successfully employed in the kinetic resolution of (R, S-2-octanol, and satisfactory enantioselectivity and recyclability could be obtained with an enantiomeric ratio (E of 8–15 over 10 cycle reactions. Thus, core-shell structured polydopamine-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be potentially used as a carrier for enzyme immobilization to improve their activity, stability, and reusability, which is beneficial for constructing efficient catalysts for industrial biocatalysis.

  13. Screening and Improving the Recombinant Nitrilases and Application in Biotransformation of Iminodiacetonitrile to Iminodiacetic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, several nitrilase genes from phylogenetically distinct organisms were expressed and purified in E. coli in order to study their ability to mediate the biotransformation of nitriles. We identified three nitrilases: Acidovorax facilis nitrilase (AcN; Alcaligenes fecalis nitrilase (AkN; and Rhodococcus rhodochrous nitrilase (RkN, which catalyzed iminodiacetonitrile (IDAN to iminodiacetic acid (IDA. AcN demonstrated 8.8-fold higher activity for IDAN degradation as compared to AkN and RkN. Based on homology modeling and previously described 'hot spot' mutations, several AcN mutants were screened for improved activity. One mutant M3 (F168V/L201N/S192F was identified, which demonstrates a 41% enhancement in the conversion as well as a 2.4-fold higher catalytic efficiency towards IDAN as compared to wild-type AcN.

  14. Characterization of Pseudomonas Species Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Plants Grown in Serozem Soil, Semi-Arid Region of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Collections of native Pseudomonas spp. are kept at the NCAM of Uzbekistan. Some of those organisms were isolated from the rhizosphere of cotton, wheat, corn, melon, alfalfa, and tomato grown in field locations within a semi-arid region of Uzbekistan. Strains used for this study were Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. aurantiaca, P. aureofaciens, P. denitrificans, P. mendocina, P. rathonis, and P. stutzeri. Some of the pseudomonads have been characterized in this report. These strains produced enzymes, phytohormone auxin (IAA, and were antagonist against plant pathogenic fungi in in vitro experiments. Most of the strains were salt tolerant and temperature resistant. Some of the Pseudomonas spp. isolated in this study have been found to increase the growth of wheat, corn, and tomato in pot experiments.

  15. Effect of PGR producing bacterial strains isolated from vermisources on germination and growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharaj Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from vermisources andscreened for Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production among themonly nine strains produce IAA and they were identified asStreptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Alcaligenes spp., Erwinia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Among all other strains Bacillus sp. showed the higher IAA production hence selected for further molecular analysis and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The B. cereus was grown in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/ml of tryptophan for seven days at pH 7 and at 37ºC. Crude IAA was used for in vitro phytostimulatory studies using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The plant growth parameters were analyzed at different day intervals (5, 10 and 15 days. Supplementation of 5 ml crude IAA (2mg/ml of tryptophan dynamically enhances the plant growth parameters after 15 days.

  16. Strain selection of flocculant- producing microorganisms and identification%生物絮凝剂产生菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通; 卢文玉; 张冬艳; 张晨鼎

    2001-01-01

    通过多点采样,多次反复筛选,从旱田土壤中筛选出1株具有高絮凝活性的细菌.细菌生长过程均可产生具有絮凝作用的胞外分泌物,经实验对内蒙天然碱碱泥具有高絮凝作用.通过对菌株的个体形态特征、菌落形态特征、运动性进行观察;同时对其接触酶、氧化酶等生理生化指标进行了测试,最终确定为粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis).

  17. Lipases microbianas na produção de ésteres formadores de aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Macedo

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas cinco lipases microbianas produzidas no Laboratório de Bioquímica de Alimentos-FEA-UNICAMP, quanto à capacidade de catalisar a síntese de ésteres formadores de aroma por esterificação em meio isento de solvente orgânico. A natureza da enzima assim como o tamanho da cadeia dos ácidos afetaram as taxas de conversão obtidas.Os melhores resultados obtidos foram 88 % de conversão na síntese de laurato de isoamila e 72% para propionato de isoamila pela lipase de Rhizopus sp após 24 horas de incubação, seguido de 82% de conversão na síntese de acetato de isopropila por Alcaligenes sp após 24 horas de incubação.

  18. 青霉素G酰化酶的亚基重组%Cross-species heterodimers of penicillin G acylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 杨晟

    2008-01-01

    青霉素G酰化酶在半合成β-内酰胺类抗生素工业中催化关键反应.将来源于Esherichia coli的α亚基分别与Kluyvera citrophila,Providencia rettgeri,Alcaligenes faecalis的β亚基重组得到三种杂合酶,杂合酶表达量随野生型PGA同源性的减小而降低,E.coli和A.Iaecalis氨基酸序列的相同性低至41%,其杂合酶仍然具有水解3-苯乙酰胺-6-硝基苯甲酸的活力.

  19. 固定化优势菌种处理含氰废水的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青云; 刘幽燕; 童张法; 何勇强

    2007-01-01

    利用一株氰化物高效降解菌(Alcaligenes sp.)DN25进行生物强化处理氰的实验研究.结果表明用聚氨酯泡沫为载体固定菌株DN25,氰处理效果得到显著提高.与游离细胞相比,固定化细胞对温度、pH值变化的适应力增强.初步构建生物反应器处理含氰模拟废水,系统连续工作50天,氰的平均去除率为93%.

  20. 一种固定化酶对氰戊菊酯的降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞云龙; 盛国英; 等

    1999-01-01

    用海藻酸钙凝胶将Alcaligenes sp.YF11菌提取的降解酶制成固定化酶,测定了固定化酶对氰戊菊酯的降解特性,测得最适pH为8.0,最适温度为35℃,Km为55.0nmol/ml.25℃时,流速为4ml/min,固定化酶柱对3.1-200mg/L的氰戊菊酯的去除率为61.3-90%。

  1. 毛竹竹鞭内生细菌的特征及16S rDNA多样性分析%Characteristics of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Mosobamboo Rhizome and Their 16S rDNA Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宗胜; 刘芳; 张国防

    2014-01-01

    本研究利用传统的细菌分离方法,结合16S rDNA序列分析对毛竹竹鞭内生细菌的特征和多样性进行了分析.从福建省武夷山、将乐、长汀毛竹竹鞭中分离到34株内生细菌,初步归属于14属,20种.来源于不同地区的毛竹竹鞭内生细菌组成存在较大差异,其优势菌群为产碱杆菌属(Alcaligenes)和葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus).

  2. Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

    1992-01-01

    Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others. PMID:1599249

  3. A high-throughput screening strategy for nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes based on ferric hydroxamate spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Ma, Cui-Luan; Xu, Jian-He; Zhou, Li

    2011-02-01

    Nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes (nitrilase or nitrile hydratase/amidase) have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of carboxylic acids and their derivatives, and it is important to build a method for screening for nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes. In this paper, a simple, rapid, and high-throughput screening method based on the ferric hydroxamate spectrophotometry has been proposed. To validate the accuracy of this screening strategy, the nitrilases from Rhodococcus erythropolis CGMCC 1.2362 and Alcaligenes sp. ECU0401 were used for evaluating the method. As a result, the accuracy for assaying aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids was as high as the HPLC-based method. Therefore, the method may be potentially used in the selection of microorganisms or engineered proteins with nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes.

  4. Survey of Ability of Activated Sludge Isolated Bacteria in Removal of RB-B Dyestuff from Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Reactive dyestuff has potential of toxicity, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis for mammals and aquatic organisms. The current physical and chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation, precipitation, filtration and ... can been used for removing of dyestuff. Biological treatment which is effective and economic for decontamination of dyestuff wastewaters was preferred because of limitation and difficulty of physicochemical methods. In order to investigate the trend of pollution reduction of color compounds, ability of Remazol Black-B dyestuff removal from aqueous medium by bacterial consortium under anoxic conditions was studied."nMaterials and Methods: The mix culture of bacteria from textile industries activated sludge was enriched in luria broth medium containing RB-B dyestuff as a carbon source. Then biodegradation was assessed in 4 batch reactors. Microbial population of bacterial and decolorization quantities of samples were detected by MPN and UV-Vis spectrophotometer."nResults: Decolorization efficiency by the bacterial consortium was obtained more than 99% for 50 and 250 mg/L concentrations in 72 and 144 h (3 and 6 days respectively, while for the initial concentration of 500 mg/L was 98.1in 240 h (10 days of biodegradation period. Dyestuff reduction rate after completed removal was about 0.69, 1.74,2 mg/L/h for initial concentration of 50, 250, 500 mg/L respectively."nConclusion: Results showed that Alcaligenes denitrificans and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteria"nwhich were isolated from activated sludge have good potential of RB-B dyestuff removal and this removal is depending on primary concentration of dye. Removal efficiency increased as primary concentration went up.

  5. Identifying the bacterial community on the surface of Intralox belting in a meat boning room by culture-dependent and culture-independent 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Gale; Boerema, Jackie; Mills, John; Mowat, Eilidh; Pulford, David

    2006-05-25

    We examined the bacterial community present on an Intralox conveyor belt system in an operating lamb boning room by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria extracted in the presence or absence of cultivation. RFLP patterns for 16S rDNA clone library and cultures were generated using HaeIII and MspI restriction endonucleases. 16S rDNA amplicons produced 8 distinct RFLP pattern groups. RFLP groups I-IV were represented in the clone library and RFLP groups I and V-VIII were represented amongst the cultured isolates. Partial DNA sequences from each RFLP group revealed that all group I, II and VIII representatives were Pseudomonas spp., group III were Sphingomonas spp., group IV clones were most similar to an uncultured alpha proteobacterium, group V was similar to a Serratia spp., group VI with an Alcaligenes spp., and group VII with Microbacterium spp. Sphingomonads were numerically dominant in the culture-independent clone library and along with the group IV alpha proteobacterium were not represented amongst the cultured isolates. Serratia, Alcaligenes and Microbacterium spp. were only represented with cultured isolates. Pseudomonads were detected by both culture-dependent (84% of isolates) and culture-independent (12.5% of clones) methods and their presence at high frequency does pose the risk of product spoilage if transferred onto meat stored under aerobic conditions. The detection of sphingomonads in large numbers by the culture-independent method demands further analysis because sphingomonads may represent a new source of meat spoilage that has not been previously recognised in the meat processing environment. The 16S rDNA collections generated by both methods were important at representing the diversity of the bacterial population associated with an Intralox conveyor belt system.

  6. Screening and identification of bacterial strain against Staphyloccocus aureus%金黄色葡萄球菌拮抗菌株的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成海; 贠建民; 艾对元; 张紊玮; 颜东方

    2013-01-01

    An antagonistic bacterial strain against foodborne pathogen Staphyloccocus aureus was isolated and screened from the drought soil of Gansu central habitat.The minimum inhibitory concentration dilute gradient of the fermentation broth and antibacterial spectrum were determined. The species of the antagonistic bacteria was identified through morphological,physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA method.The results showed that the antagonistic bacterial strain against Staphyloccocus aureus also had antagonism against Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Stapyloccocush epidermidis. Its minimum inhibitory concentration dilute gradient against Staphyloccocus aureus was 10-6 and the antagonistic bacteria was Alcaligenes sp.%从甘肃中部干旱生境土壤中分离筛选到一株对食源性致病菌金黄色葡萄球菌具有抑制作用的拮抗菌,对其发酵液抑菌最低浓度稀释梯度及抑菌谱进行了测定,并通过形态学、生理生化及16S rDNA分子生物学方法鉴定了其种属.结果表明,该金黄色葡萄球菌拮抗菌株还对大肠杆菌、植物酸杆菌和表皮葡萄球菌具有抑制作用,其发酵液对金黄色葡萄球菌抑菌最低浓度稀释梯度为10-6,经鉴定,该拮抗菌为产碱杆菌属菌株Alcaligenes sp..

  7. Gasoline biodegradation in different soil microcosms Biodegradação de gasolina em diferentes microcosmos constituídos de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Duarte da Cunha

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gasoline biodegradation in batch soil microcosms. Microorganisms able to grow in the presence of gasoline were isolated from soil. Several treatment systems were performed using both isolated strains and Pseudomonas putida obtained from a culture collection. The treatment system using only autochthonous microflora (system 1 presented an average value of degradation of 50%. The association of Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and the native soil microflora (system 13 presented significant percentage of removal of n-undecane (88.7, n-dodecane (61.3 and n-tridecane (66.7. According to these results, systems 1 and 13 revealed considerable potential for application in bioremediation treatments.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a biodegradação de gasolina em microcosmos constituídos de solo. Os microrganismos capazes de crescer na presença de gasolina foram isolados do solo e vários sistemas de tratamento foram testados usando tanto as espécies isoladas quanto Pseudomonas putida obtida de coleção de cultura. O sistema de tratamento constituído somente da microflora autóctone (Sistema 1 apresentou valores médios de degradação de 50%. A associação de Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Burkholderia cepacia e a microflora indígena do solo (Sistema 13 mostrou um percentual significativo de remoção de n-undecano (88.7, n-dodecano (61.3 e n-tridecano (66.7. De acordo com estes resultados, os sistemas 1 e 13 revelaram potencial considerável para aplicação em tratamentos de biorremediação.

  8. Diversity of antagonistic bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of several cash crops%几种经济作物根际拮抗细菌的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹莹; 杜秉海; 姚良同; 靳奉理; 王翠翠; 王璇; 丁延芹

    2012-01-01

    By adopting antimicrobial spectrum test, BOXAIR-PCR, physiological and biochemical, and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis, this paper analyzed the diversity of 55 antagonistic bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of 10 cash crops. There was a high diversity of the antagonism of the strains. Based on BOXAIR-PCR, all the strains were clustered into 7 groups at the similarity level of 72. 1% , and divided into 25 groups at the similarity level of 85.0%. All the strains belonged to Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes, respectively. The antagonistic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere had high genetic diversity and high diversity in antagonistic activity.%采用抗菌谱测定以及BOXAIR-PCR、生理生化特征和16S rDNA序列分析等方法对分离自10种作物根际的55株拮抗细菌的多样性及主要拮抗菌类群进行了分析.结果表明:根际拮抗细菌的拮抗作用具有丰富的多样性;BOXAIR-PCR分析中供试菌在72.1%相似性水平上可以聚为7个群,85.0%相似性水平上聚为25个群;所有供试根际拮抗菌分别属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)、短芽孢杆菌属(Brevibacillus)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)和产碱菌属(Alcaligenes).作物根际拮抗菌具有丰富的遗传多样性和拮抗性能多样性.

  9. 利用JMP软件优化威兰胶发酵培养基%Optimization of Fermentation Media for Welan Gum Using JMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锏文; 李智斌; 陈柏铨

    2016-01-01

    The statistical analysis software JMP(its function includes Plackett-Burman design, Factorial design, Central compositon design ,Prediction Profiler et al.)was applied to optimize the fermentation medium of welan gum by Alcaligenes sp.Y5. The optimal composition of the medium was determined as glucose 52.9 g/L, beef extract 4.0 g/L,K2HPO4·7H2O 2.2g/L,MgSO4·7H2O 0.1 g/L,CaCO3 2.0g/L,Tween80 0.5 g/L by using the optimised medium, the welan gum production increased from 15.72 g/L to 26.58 g/L,with an increase of 69.08%.%利用统计分析软件JMP的试验设计(DOE)功能(包括Plackett-Burman设计、析因设计、中心组合设计,预测刻画等)对威兰胶发酵菌株Alcaligenes sp.Y5的发酵培养基进行了优化,得到一组最佳发酵培养基配方:葡萄糖52.9 g/L、牛肉膏4.0 g/L、K2HPO4·7H2O 2.2g/L、MgSO4·7H2O 0.1g/L,CaCO32.0 g/L,吐温800.5 g/L。优化后威兰胶产量由初始的15.72 g/L提高到26.58 g/L,提高了69.08%。

  10. Crystal structures of tetramethylammonium (2,2′-bipyridinetetracyanidoferrate(III trihydrate and poly[[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′di-μ2-cyanido-dicyanido(μ-ethylenediamine(ethylenediamine-κ2N,N′cadmium(IIiron(II] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songwuit Chanthee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of the building block tetramethylammonium (2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′tetracyanidoferrate(III trihydrate, [N(CH34][Fe(CN4(C10H8N2]·3H2O, (I, and a new two-dimensional cyanide-bridged bimetallic coordination polymer, poly[[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′di-μ2-cyanido-dicyanido(μ-ethylenediamine-κ2N:N′(ethylenediamine-κ2N,N′cadmium(IIiron(II] monohydrate], [CdFe(CN4(C10H8N2(C2H8N22]·H2O, (II, are reported. In the crystal of (I, pairs of [Fe(2,2′-bipy(CN4]− units (2,2′-bipy is 2,2′-bipyridine are linked together through π–π stacking between the pyridyl rings of the 2,2′-bipy ligands to form a graphite-like structure parallel to the ab plane. The three independent water molecules are hydrogen-bonded alternately with each other, forming a ladder chain structure with R44(8 and R66(12 graph-set ring motifs, while the disordered [N(CH34]+ cations lie above and below the water chains, and the packing is stabilized by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The water chains are further linked with adjacent sheets into a three-dimensional network via O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the lattice water molecules and the N atoms of terminal cyanide groups of the [Fe(2,2′-bipy(CN4]− building blocks, forming an R44(12 ring motif. Compound (II features a two-dimensional {[Fe(2,2′-bipy(CN4Cd(en2]}n layer structure (en is ethylenediamine extending parallel to (010 and constructed from {[Fe(2,2′-bipy(CN4Cd(en]}n chains interlinked by bridging en ligands at the Cd atoms. Classical O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the lattice water molecule and N atoms of terminal cyanide groups and the N—H groups of the en ligands are observed within the layers. The layers are further connected via π–π stacking interactions between adjacent pyridine rings of the 2,2′-bipy ligands, completing a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  11. Concentrated aqueous Si3N4 -Y2O3 -Al2O3 slips stabalized with tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain well dispersed concentrated aqueous Si3N4 slips for slip casting, the influence of pH and sintering aid powders (Y2O3 and Al2O3 on the viscosity and on the amount of tetramethylammonium ions adsorbed were determined. 35 vol% aqueous Si3N4 and Si3N4-6wt%Y2O3-4wt% Al2O3 slips were prepared in an attrition mill. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH values in a range of 9.7 to 12.3. The viscosity of Si3N4 slips and the amount of [(CH34N]+ ions in solution increased with increasing pH. These counterions contributed mainly to increase the ionic strength of the solution with increasing the slip viscosity. The sintering aid powders had a positive effect on the dispersion of the Si3N4 powder at pH 10.3-12.3 since low viscosity values could be obtained. This was attributed to the lower concentration of counterions in solution.

  12. Effect of Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide on Nucleation, Surface Modification and Growth of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela L. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4 were obtained by reacting ferric chloride with sodium sulphite, through the reduction-precipitation method. The effects of adding tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH during or after the precipitation of the iron oxide were studied in an attempt to obtain well-dispersed magnetite nanoparticles. Accordingly, the following experimental conditions were tested: (i precipitation in absence of TMAOH (sample Mt, (ii the same as (i after peptizing with TMAOH (Mt1, (iii TMAOH added to the reaction mixture during the precipitation of magnetite (Mt2. Analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, zeta potential, and magnetization measurements up to 2.5 T revealed that magnetite was normally formed also in the medium containing TMAOH. The degree of particles agglomeration was monitored with laser diffraction and technique and inspection of TEM images. The relative contributions of Néel and Brownian relaxations on the magnetic heat dissipation were studied by investigating the ability of suspensions of these magnetite nanoparticles to release heat in aqueous and in hydrogel media. Based on ATR-FTIR and zeta potential data, it is suggested that the surfaces of the synthesized magnetite particles treated with TMAOH become coated with (CH34N+ cations.

  13. Construction and General Characteristics of the plcR Mutation in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579%蜡样芽孢杆菌ATCC14579毒力基因plcR缺失株的构建及其一般特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 郑经成; 闫广谋; 王思洮; 盛相鹏; 胡丹; 张阳阳; 韩文瑜

    2010-01-01

    蜡样芽孢杆菌是土壤中的优势菌,具有作为益生菌的潜在能力,同时它也是条件致病菌,能引起食物中毒等.蜡样芽孢杆菌的多种毒力因子受到多效性调控子(pleiotropic regulator,plcR)的调控,在其条件致病性作用中起着重要作用.真养产碱杆菌JMP34(Alcaligelles eutrophus)质粒上的2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,2,4-D)单加氧酶(tfdA)基因可以降解2,4-D.本研究利用同源重组技术使tfdA基因置换掉蜡样芽孢杆菌的plcR基因,构建了蜡样芽孢杆菌ATCC14579突变株B.cereus ΔplcRΩtf-dA,并对其毒性、一般生理生化特性进行分析.研究结果表明,突变株B.cereus ΔplcRΩtfdA的毒性显著减弱;生理生化实验结果显示突变株与野生株并没有明显区别,且突变株并没有表现出tfdA酶活性.所有的结果表明plcR控制着蜡样芽孢杆菌ATCC14579的致病性,同时剔除plcR并不破坏其酶系统.本研究为今后构建蜡样芽孢杆菌工程菌提供了新的思路和依据.

  14. Identification and effect of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium in flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere%一株具有固氮功能的烟草根际微生物的鉴定及其初步效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑君; 王豹祥; 张朝辉; 席淑雅; 刘天翔; 曹育博; 邱立友

    2011-01-01

    The Azotobacter N05 isolated from flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere is identified as Alcaligenes sp, likely Alcaligenesfaecalis, by using the phylogenetic tree constructed from 16S rRNA gene sequences, its physiological indexes and biochemical reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on azotobacter Alcaligenes faecalis in flue-cured tobacco rhizosphere. Applying to transplanted flue-cured tobacco, the numbers of azotobaeter under the combination of N05 azotobaeter fertilizer (30 kg/ha) and 80% N dosage of the full fertilizer amount ( B + 80% N) are 3.6 times of those of the full N fertilizer (FN) treatment, while the numbers of actinomyces under the combination treatment are significantly deceased. In addition, compared to the FN, the soil available contents of P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in tobacco rhizosphere at the tobacco toping stage under the B + 80% N are increased by 2.51%-46.08%. The average contents of N in de-enzyme tobacco leaves at different growth stages under the B + 80% N are higher than those under the FN. These results indicate that the amount of azotobacter and availability of mineral elements are enhanced by using azotobacter fertilizer in flue-cured tobacco production when N dosage is reduced moderately .%应用16SrDNA序列分析构建系统发育树,结合生理指标、生化反应,对分离自烤烟根际的固氮菌菌株N05进行了分类鉴定,并通过小区试验探讨其对烤烟生产的效应。结果表明,自生固氮菌N05属于产碱菌属(Alcaligenes),粪产碱菌(Alcaligenes faecalis)。将固氮菌N05制成菌肥,烤烟移栽时施人(30kg/hm^2)同时施用80%的氮肥(B+80%N),与全量施用氮肥(FN)相比,B+80%N烤烟根际固氮菌的数量平均提高3.6倍,放线菌的数量显著降低;圆顶期烤烟根际土壤中除Mg元素的有效性略有降低外,P、K、Ca、Cu、Zn、Fe和Mn等元素的有效性均有不同程

  15. 污水处理活性污泥微生物群落多样性研究%Microbial Population Diversity of Activated Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 李柏林; 欧杰; 陈兰明

    2012-01-01

    为研究污水处理活性污泥微生物多样性,提取了活性污泥宏基因组DNA,并采用细菌通用引物27F和1492R扩增了上海污泥厂活性污泥细菌16S rDNA片段,构建了细菌16S rDNA克隆文库,并对该文库中的微生物群落进行了分析.共获得200条高质量序列并建立系统发育树,结果显示活性污泥主要的细菌类群为变形菌门(Proteobacteria)(91.9%)、厚壁菌门(Firmicures)(4.6%)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)(2%)、绿弯菌门(Chloroflexi)(0.5%)、硝化螺菌门(Nitrospirae)(1%).其中,明显的优势菌群为Alcaligenes feacalis(55%)、Pseudomonas aeruginosa(12.8%)和Stenotrophomonas(12.8%),优势菌的产酶能力在活性污泥中显示生态修复功能菌的作用.%In order to study the microbial diversity of activated sludge (AS) for wastewater treatment, the macro-ge-nomic DNA of the AS was extracted from a wastewater factory in Shanghai. The 16S rDNA of the AS bacteria was amplified using bacteria general primers 27F and 1492R to construct the bacterial 16S rDNA clone library, and analyzed the microbial population of the library. All together 200 bands of high quality sequences were obtained and established a phylogenetic tree. The results showed that the main bacterial population of the AS was the phyla of Proteobacteria (91.9% ) , Firmicutes (4.6% ) , Bacteroidetes (2% ) , Chloroflexi (0.5% ) , Nitrospirae (1% ). Among them Al-caligenes feacalis (55% ) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 12. 8% ) , and Stenolrophomonas ( 12. 8% ) were noticeably dominant bacterial population, enzyme production capacity of the dominant bacteria showed the ecological restoration function in the AS.

  16. Analysis On Bacteria Biodiversity in Flax and Jute Retting Pond%亚麻与黄麻沤麻池的细菌生物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴群; 原月梦; 孔德枝; 郁崇文; 金关荣; 傅佳佳; 丁若垚

    2015-01-01

    In this study, bacteria strains isolated from flax and jute retting pond were studied. Tra-ditional microbiology method and molecular biology method were used to analyze bacteria biodiversity. The results showed that 9 isolated strains of bacteria belong to members of 3 genuses that four strains are classified into Alcaligenes sp. , four strains are classified into Bacillus sp. and one strain are classified in-to Stenotrophomonas sp. . Phylogenetic analysis showed that all these strains are close to Stenotroph-omona s sp. , Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. which were recognized as degumming bacteria in genetic relationship.%本研究以亚麻与黄麻两用沤麻池中的沤麻液为研究对象,取样后富集培养分离得到9株脱胶细菌,通过传统微生物学研究手段与分子生物学系统发育分析相结合的方法进行生物多样性研究。研究结果表明:9种细菌分别聚类为产碱菌属( Alcaligenes sp.)4株,芽孢杆菌属( Bacillus sp.)4株,寡氧单胞菌属( Stenotrophomonas sp.)1株。系统发育分析发现9种细菌从亲缘关系上较为接近单胞菌属Stenotrophomonas sp.,假单胞菌属Pseudomonas sp.和芽孢杆菌属Bacillus sp.。这三类菌属也是目前已知细菌中较为常见的脱胶菌属。说明该9种细菌与脱胶菌属关系较近,具有进一步研究的可能。

  17. Isolation and characterization of a new glyphosate-resistant strain from extremely polluted environment%极端污染环境草甘膦抗性菌株的分离、鉴定及特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙纪莹; 林敏; 金丹; 陆伟; 张晓喻; 张超; 李亮; 马瑞强; 肖磊; 王一丁

    2008-01-01

    [目的]筛选高抗草甘膦菌株并对其进行鉴定和特性研究.[方法]从草甘膦极端污染土壤中分离高抗草甘膦菌株,并检测其草甘膦耐受能力,最适生长pH和抗生素抗性.通过生理生化特征和分子生物学特征的测定对该菌株进行鉴定.[结果]从草甘膦极端污染土壤中分离到一株高抗草甘膦的菌株SL06500,该菌株最高耐受草甘膦浓度为500 mmol/L,并且在200~500 mmol/L之间,菌株生长迅速,最适生长pH为4.0,具有氨苄青霉素、卡那霉素、四环素和氯霉素抗性.用16S rDNA的通用引物,经PCR扩增、测序得到SL06500的16S rDNA序列,该序列在GenBank的登录号为EU006066.将此序列经NCBI Blast进行核苷酸比对发现SL06500与无色杆菌属(Achromobacter)和产碱杆菌属(Alcaligenes)的Identity值均为99%.按照1994年版伯杰氏鉴定细菌学手册的命名规则,结合生理生化指标测定的结果,将菌株命名为木糖氧化产碱杆菌木糖氧化亚种SL06500 (Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp.xylosoxidans SL06500).[结论]该菌株的较高草甘膦抗性和嗜药性的特点值得我们进行进一步的研究.更重要的是,这是首次关于木糖氧化产碱杆菌木糖氧化亚种草甘膦抗性的报道.

  18. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two

  19. Tratamento de sementes com rizobactérias na produção de cebola Seed treatment with rhizobacteria the onion production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Emilio Ludtke Harthmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação de plantas com rizobactérias benéficas pode promover o crescimento vegetal e o biocontrole de doenças, reduzindo custos de produção e diminuindo o impacto dos agrotóxicos no meio ambiente. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de rizobactérias aplicadas às sementes de cebola 'Bola Precoce' no desenvolvimento de plantas e na produção de bulbos, foi conduzido um estudo na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Ituporanga, Santa Catarina, em 2007. Foram avaliadas as rizobactérias Pseudomonas spp. (W1, W2, W5, W6, Bacillus megaterium (W7, W19, Pseudomonas alcaligenes (W15, Paenibacillus polymyxa (W18, Bacillus cereus (UFV 040 e Pseudomonas putida (UFV 043, juntamente com uma testemunha não microbiolizada. Verificou-se que existe influência das rizobactérias testadas no desenvolvimento da cebola. Os isolados que apresentaram melhor rendimento de bulbos foram Pseudomonas spp. W6 e Bacillus cereus UFV40. Os aumentos de rendimento de bulbos em razão das rizobactérias variaram entre 3% e 48%. Essas bactérias promotoras de crescimento apresentam-se promissoras como bioinoculantes para serem utilizados na produção de cebola.Plant association with benefic rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and diseases biocontrol, reducing production costs and environment pesticides impact. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Station of the Epagri, Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil in 2007 to evaluate the effect of microbiolization with rhizobacteria on onion seed 'Bola Precoce' in plants development and bulb yield. The rhizobacteria Pseudomonas spp. (W1, W2, W5, W6, Bacillus megaterium (W7, W19, Pseudomonas alcaligenes (W15, Paenibacillus polymyxa (W18, Bacillus cereus (UFV 040, Pseudomonas putida (UFV 043, were used as inoculants and compared with non treated check. There was influence of rhizobacteria tested on the onion development. The treatment with Pseudomonas spp. (W6 and Bacillus cereus (UFV40 showed

  20. 质粒基因强化活性污泥系统对2,4-D的降解%Enhancing 2,4-D degradation in an activated sludge system through plasmid mediated gene-augmentation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤华; 全向春; 王然

    2009-01-01

    以携带质粒pJP4[含编码2,4-二氯苯氧基乙酸(2,4-D)降解功能的基因片段]的基因工程荫Pseudomonas putida SM1443∷gfp2x(pJP4∷dsRed)为供体菌,通过半连续流实验研究了质粒基因强化对活性污泥系统的2,4-D的降解效应及菌群结构的影响.结果表明,以初始浓度约为320mg/L的2,4-D为唯一碳源,向活性污泥系统投加携带pJP4质粒的基因工程菌P. putida,运行初期,降解促进作用不明显;随着半连续流反应的进行,促进作用显著增强.与对照系统相比,降解速率之差最高为6.7mg/(L·h).从基因强化系统中筛选到1株占有优势的接合子,经鉴定为Alcaligenes sp.∷pJP4. Alcaligenes sp. 本身不具备降解2,4-D的能力,获得质粒pJP4后,对2,4-D降解能力大幅度提高,与野生型2,4-D高效降解菌Bacillus sp.相当.PCR-DG-GE分析表明,在受到2,4-D冲击条件下基因强化的活性污泥系统较对照系统保持了相对更加稳定的菌群结构.

  1. Microbiology of airway disease in a cohort of patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carnovale Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports document an increasing incidence of new Gram-negative pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans isolated from patients with Cystic Fibrosis, along with an increase in common Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Furthermore, the increase in multidrug-resistance of such organisms makes the therapeutic management of these patients more problematic. Therefore, careful isolation and identification, and accurate studies of susceptibility to antibiotics are critical for predicting the spread of strains, improving therapeutic measures and facilitating our understanding of the epidemiology of emerging pathogens. The first aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the prevalence of colonization by Gram-negative organisms isolated from respiratory samples of Cystic Fibrosis patients in the Regional Referral Cystic Fibrosis Centre of Naples; the second was to evaluate the spectrum of multidrug-resistance of these organisms. Methods Patients (n = 300 attending the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Unit were enrolled in this study over 3 years. Sputum was processed for microscopic tests and culture. An automated system, Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, Maryland, USA, was used for phenotypic identification of all strains; the API 20 NE identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France was used when the identification with the Phoenix system was inaccurate. A PCR-RFLP method was used to characterize the organisms in the Burkholderia cepacia complex. A chemosusceptibility test on microbroth dilutions (Phoenix was used. Primary outcomes such as FEV1 were correlate with different pathogens. Results During the period of study, 40% of patients was infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% by Burkholderia cepacia complex, 11% by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 7% by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Of the strains isolated, 460 were multidrug

  2. ISOLASI DAN SKRINING BAKTERI NITRIFIKASI SERTA APLIKASINYA PADA BIOFILTRASI MEDIA PEMELIHARAAN LARVA UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Khasani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri nitrifikasi yang memiliki potensi mengoksidasi amonia dan nitrit pada media pemeliharaan larva udang galah. Bakteri diisolasi dari bak pengolahan air bekas pemeliharaan larva udang galah di Loka Riset Pemuliaan dan Teknologi Budidaya Perikanan Air Tawar, Sukamandi. Sebanyak 52 isolat bakteri berhasil diisolasi, yang terdiri atas 25 isolat tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-1 dan 27 isolat tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-2. Di antara isolat bakteri yang tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-1 hanya tiga isolat yang mampu mengoksidasi amonia, yaitu Acinetobacter ligniersii A10, Chromobacterium violaceum C2, dan Acinetobacter anitratus C1. Uji oksidasi amonia terhadap tiga isolat yang diperoleh dan satu strain kontrol, Pseudomonas stutzeri ASLT2, menunjukkan bahwa P. stutzeri mempunyai kemampuan oksidasi amonia lebih tinggi dibanding A. ligniersii A10, C. violaceum C2, dan A. anitratus. Uji kemampuan 27 isolat bakteri yang tumbuh pada medium nitrifikasi-2 menunjukkan bahwa semua isolat tersebut tidak dapat mengoksidasi nitrit. Inokulasi bakteri nitrifikasi (P. stutzeri dan bakteri denitrifikasi (Alcaligenes sp. pada bak filter tidak berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan kualitas air dan pertumbuhan larva udang galah. The aim of this study was to obtain nitrifying bacteria which have high potency to oxidize ammonium and nitrite and to know the effectiveness of application of bioremediation bacteria in giant freshwater larvae rearing. The bacteria were isolated from waste water treatment tank of freshwater prawn hatchery of Research Institute for Breeding and Freshwater Aquaculture, Sukamandi. Fifty two isolates, i.e. 25 isolates grew on nitrification-1 medium and 27 isolates grew on nitrification-2 medium. The ammonium oxidation test showed that only three of 25 isolates were capable to oxidize ammonium, i.e. Acinetobacter ligniersii A10, Chromobacterium violaceum C1, and Acinetobacter anitratus C2 and

  3. Contaminação de frascos de colírios de soro autólogo Autologous serum eyedropper contamination after topical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a contaminação bacteriana dos frascos de soro autólogo após o uso tópico. Métodos: Frascos de soro autólogo utilizados por pacientes portadores de várias doenças de superfície ocular foram submetidos à cultura após o seu uso tópico. Foram cultivados os resíduos de 127 frascos de colírios de soro autólogo usados por pacientes após a devolução do frasco vazio ao laboratório. Resultados: Os resultados das culturas realizadas demonstram que 76,03% dos frascos estavam contaminados. O total de 92 microrganismos foram encontrados: Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (35,86%, Alcaligenes sp (21,73%, Klebsiella sp (20,65% e Bacillus sp (9,78% e outras bactérias (11,94%. Conclusões: Verificamos que a contaminação dos frascos pode ocorrer tanto por microrganismos presentes na microbiota normal quanto por microrganismos da pele e meio ambiente. Estes resultados ressaltam a risco de contaminação dos frascos no momento da instilação. Futuras investigações serão feitas em busca de contaminação fúngica e relacionando a microbiota dos pacientes com os microrganismos isolados dos frascos.Purpose: To evaluate bacterial contamination of autologous serum eyedroppers after topical use. Methods: Autologous serum eyedroppers used for ocular surface diseases were submitted to culture after topical use. A total of 127 eyedroppers was cultivated after the patients had used the drops and returned them to the laboratory. Results: We found that 76.03% of the eyedroppers were contaminated. Nine-two microorganisms were found: coagulase-negative Staphy-lococcus (35.86%, Alcaligenes sp (21.73%, Klebsiella sp (20.65% and Bacillus sp (9.78%. Conclusion: The eye-dropper contamination can be caused by normal flora and by skin and environmental microorganisms. These results show the contamination risk at the moment of instillation. Further research will be done to evaluate fungal contamination and to correlate the patient's normal

  4. Adaptability of microbial inoculators and their contribution to degradation of mineral oil and PAHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five dominant bacteria strains(Acetobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Micrococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp.) and five fungi strains (Cephalosporium sp. I, Cephalosporium sp. Ⅱ, Aspergillus sp. Ⅰ, Aspergillus sp. Ⅱ and Fusarium sp.) isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil were used to assess the potential capability of mineral oil and PAH enhanced degradation separately and jointly using the batch liquid medium cultivation with diesel oil spiked at 1000 mg/L. The experiment was performed on a reciprocal shaker in the darkness at 25℃ to 30℃ for 100 d. The dynamic variation in the activity of microbial inoculators in each treatment and the degradation of the target pollutants during the period of experiment were monitored. Results showed a more rapid biodegradation of mineral oil and PAHs at the beginning of the experiment (about 20 d) by dominant bacteria, fungi and their mixture than that of the indigenous microorganisms, however, thereafter an opposite trend was exhibited that the removal ratio by indigenous microorganisms was superior to any other dominant treatments and the tendency lasted till the end of the experiment, indicating the limited competitive capability of dominant microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, and the natural selection of indigenous microorganisms for use in the removal of the contaminants. At the end of the experiment, the removal ratio of mineral oil ranged from 56.8 % to 79.2 % and PAHs ranged from 96.8 % to 99.1% in each treatment by microbial inoculators.

  5. Abilities and genes for PAH biodegradation of bacteria isolated from mangrove sediments from the central of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwongsee, Wanwasan; Chareanpat, Promchat; Pinyakong, Onruthai

    2013-09-15

    PAH-degrading bacteria, including Novosphingobium sp. PCY, Microbacterium sp. BPW, Ralstonia sp. BPH, Alcaligenes sp. SSK1B, and Achromobacter sp. SSK4, were isolated from mangrove sediments. These isolates degraded 50-76% of 100 mg/l phenanthrene within 2 weeks. Strains PCY and BPW also degraded pyrene at 98% and 71%, respectively. Furthermore, all of them probably produced biosurfactants in the presence of hydrocarbons. Interestingly, PCY has a versatility to degrade various PAHs. Molecular techniques and plasmid curing remarkably revealed the presence of the alpha subunit of pyrene dioxygenase gene (nidA), involving in its pyrene/phenanthrene degrading ability, located on megaplasmid of PCY which has never before been reported in sphingomonads. Moreover, genes encoding ferredoxin, reductase, extradiol dioxygenase (bphA3A4C) and exopolysaccharide biosynthetase, which may be involved in PAH degradation and biosurfactant production, were also found in PCY. Therefore, we conclude that these isolates, especially PCY, can be the candidates for use as inoculums in the bioremediation.

  6. 新疆棉花根际土壤铁载体产生菌的遗传多样性及系统发育研究%Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Siderophore Producing Bacteria Isolated from Cotton Rhizosphere in China's Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彭玲; 杜秉海; 丁延芹; 杜志兵; 于素芳; 陈强

    2009-01-01

    [目的]了解中国新疆地区铁载体产生菌的遗传多样性和系统发育,为筛选高效铁载体产生菌提供依据.[方法]采用BOXAIR-PCR、16S rRNA PCR-RFLP和16S rDNA全序列分析方法对分离自新疆地区棉花根际土壤的铁载体产生菌的遗传多样性进行分析.[结果]在BOXAIR-PCR分析中,68株供试菌分为11个遗传群;在16SrRNA PCR-RFLP分析中,68株供试菌分10个遗传群;代表菌株的16S rDNA全序列分析表明,供试菌分属于假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、肠杆菌属(Eaterobacter)、不动细菌属(Acinetobacter)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、产碱杆菌属(Alcaligenes)、短状杆菌属(Brachybacterium)和泛菌属(PalltPea).其中,假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)为优势属.[结论]分离自新疆地区棉花根际土壤铁载体菌存在极大的遗传多样性.

  7. Screening of bacterial strains producing maltotetraose-forming amylase and the conditions for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; She, X; Li, M; Zhang, S

    1992-01-01

    The authors isolated 1380 bacterial strains from 290 soil samples collected in China and 490 strains were received from other research teams in this institute. By screening 707 strains showed starch-hydrolyzing activity. By further screening and paper chromatographic test, three strains with maltotetraose as the major product were obtained. The maltotetraose was further confirmed by treatment with beta-amylase splitting to maltose and with glucoamylase to glucose. The most promising strain was 537.1, which produced maltotetraose about 90% (w/w) in the starch hydrolysate. While the other two strains produced maltose and maltotriose besides maltotetraose. Strain 537.1 was tentatively identified as Alcaligenes sp. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were as follows: medium composition: 1.5% maltose; 0.5% peptone with initial pH of 7.0-7.5; cultured at 27-28 degrees C for 48 hours on rotary shaker. The culture supernatant of the strain 537.1 can hydrolyze starch and different kinds of cereal flour with a high yield of maltotetraose in the hydrolysate.

  8. Isolation and characterization of resin acid degrading bacteria found in effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C A; Wyndham, R C

    1996-05-01

    Thirteen resin acid degrading bacteria enriched on abietic or dehydroabietic acids were isolated from waste water from the aerated stabilization basin of a bleached kraft pulp mill. Standard biochemical tests were used to characterize each isolate. Each isolate was tested for its ability to degrade six abietane- and pimarane-type resin acids. Resin acid concentrations were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and UV absorbance. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic characteristics identified two distinct clusters of degraders that differed in their ability to utilize carbohydrates as carbon sources. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis of representative isolates from each cluster identified A19-6a and D11-13 as Comamonas and Alcaligenes species, respectively. To determine genotypic relatedness, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences were used to amplify genomic DNA fragments from 10 isolates. These results supported the phenotypic analysis for all isolates tested except A19-5 and A19-6b. These two organisms were clustered closely together based on phenotype but had distinctly different banding patterns, suggesting that they are not related genotypically. All isolates degraded a subset of the six resin acid congeners. Isolates A19-3, A19-6a, A19-6b, and D11-37 were the most effective at degrading all six congeners.

  9. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology.

  10. Microbial production of poly-D-3-hydroxybutyrate from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, A; Tanaka, K; Taga, N

    2001-10-01

    This short review covers the biotechnological aspects of the production of poly-D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, P(3HB), from H2, O2 and CO2 by autotrophic culture of the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha. Considering the efficiency of utilization of a gas mixture as substrate, a practical fermentation process using R. eutropha for the mass production of P(3HB) from CO2 should be designed on the basis of a recycled-gas, closed-circuit culture system. Also, maintaining the O2 concentration in a gas phase lower than 6.9% (v/v) is essential to prevent the gas mixture from exploding. Our study, using an explosion-proof fermentation bench plant and a two-stage culture system with a newly designed air-lift fermenter, demonstrated that very high P(3HB) yield and productivity could be obtained while the O2 concentration was maintained below 6.9%. However, a study on the continuous production of P(3HB) from CO2 by chemostat culture of R. eutropha revealed that the productivity and content of P(3HB) in the cells was considerably lower than by fed-batch culture. It is deduced that the use of the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Alcaligenes latus, which accumulates P(3HB) even in the exponential growth phase, will be useful for the effective production of P(3HB) from CO2.

  11. Remediation of oil-based drill cuttings through a biosurfactant-based washing followed by a biodegradation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Lu, Mang; Guan, Yueming; Zhang, Weimu; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2011-11-01

    In this study, oil-based drill cuttings were washed by a rhamnolipid solution and then subjected to bioremediation in stainless steel boxes using sawdust as bulking agent. A mixed bacterial culture, mainly containing Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Agrobacterium, and Comamonas, was used as inoculums. Approximately 83% of organics were removed after washing under optimal conditions (liquid/solid ratio, 3:1; washing time, 20 min; stirring speed, 200 rpm; rhamnolipid concentration, 360 mg/L; temperature, 60 °C), and the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the cuttings dropped from 85,000 to 12,600 mg/kg. In the bioremediation stage, concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons decreased to 2140 and 1290 mg/kg, respectively, after 120 days. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds had undergone biodegradation. The results of this study indicate that this two-stage remedial system can reduce treatment time and increase treatment efficiency as compared with a single bioremediation or washing treatment.

  12. Microbial abundance and community composition influence production performance in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Peike; Wu, Yunqiang; Tian, Huimei; Dai, Xuecheng; Wang, Yansen; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongzuo; Pan, Xiaoxuan; Dong, Hanping; Ma, Ting

    2014-05-06

    Enhanced oil recovery using indigenous microorganisms has been successfully applied in the petroleum industry, but the role of microorganisms remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between microbial population dynamics and oil production performance during a water flooding process coupled with nutrient injection in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir. Samples were collected monthly over a two-year period. The microbial composition of samples was determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results indicated that the microbial community structure in each production well microhabitat was dramatically altered during flooding with eutrophic water. As well as an increase in the density of microorganisms, biosurfactant producers, such as Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, and Rhizobium, were detected in abundance. Furthermore, the density of these microorganisms was closely related to the incremental oil production. Oil emulsification and changes in the fluid-production profile were also observed. In addition, we found that microbial community structure was strongly correlated with environmental factors, such as water content and total nitrogen. These results suggest that injected nutrients increase the abundance of microorganisms, particularly biosurfactant producers. These bacteria and their metabolic products subsequently emulsify oil and alter fluid-production profiles to enhance oil recovery.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Heterotrophic Nitrifying Strain W1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永康; 王荀; 刘博凯; 刘玉香; 杨晓华

    2012-01-01

    In a high concentration substrate medium, a heterotrophic bacterium with high removal efficiency of ammonium, named W1, was isolated from activated sludge of coking wastewater treatment facility. The bacterium was Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and identified preliminarily as Alcaligenes sp. according to its morphological and physiological properties and its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the high concentration ammonium medium (400 mg·L 1 4 NH -N), the effects of C source, N source, C/N ratio and initial pH of medium on ammonium removal were investigated in order to determine the optimal condition for strain W1. The maximum ammonium removal was around 95% in 4 days in an improved medium. The production of N 2 gas was examined in a closed system that was full of pure oxygen at the beginning. N 2 gas was detected in the system after 4 days of cultivation, which further testified that strain W1 has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities simultaneously.

  14. Nitrilase-catalyzed conversion of (R,S)-mandelonitrile by immobilized recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring nitrilase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Ya-Ping; Xu, Ming; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-07-01

    (R)-(-)-Mandelic acid (R-MA) is widely used both as a versatile intermediate for pharmaceuticals and a resolving agent in chiral resolution processes. In the current study, to improve the stability of operation, recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis were immobilized for the enantioselective hydrolysis of (R,S)-mandelonitrile to R-MA. Different immobilization methods including entrapment matrices, entrapment matrices cross-linked by cross-linking and polymerization agents, and direct cross-linking cells using glutaraldehyde (GA) or bionic silicon were investigated. To facilitate industrial solid-liquid separation, the direct cross-linking recombinant E. coli cells using diatomite/GA/polyethyleneimine with 135.95% relative activity compared with free cells was chosen using water as the reaction medium. The operational stability of the immobilized cells was obviously superior to that of free cells, without significant activity loss after 28 cycles of batch reaction and the successive production of R-MA could reach 1.88 M. Moreover, the immobilized cells showed good storage stability with about 52% relative activity after storing for 30 days at 4 °C. Therefore, the immobilized biocatalyst is very promising for upscale production of optically pure R-MA with high performance and low cost.

  15. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

  16. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.

  17. Synthesis of sn-2 docosahexaenoyl monoacylglycerol by mild enzymatic transesterification of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and glycerol in a solvent-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Moreno-Perez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic transesterification of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA ethyl ester with glycerol was performed with several lipases in a solvent-free system and it involves the initial formation of sn-2 docosahexaenyl monoacylglyceride. This DHA derivative is highly relevant for improving the bioavailability of DHA and it has received increasing interest in the field of nutrition. Three commercial lipases, from Rhizomucor miehei (RML, Alcaligenes sp (QL, and Candida antarctica-fraction B (CALB were tested. In certain cases (CALB, using an excess of DHA ethyl ester and high temperatures the transesterification reaction continues to the formation of triacylglycerides, but in other cases, sn-2 monoacylglyceride (2-MG is the unique synthetic product even in the presence of high concentrations of DHA ethyl ester. At low temperatures (e.g. 37°C, RML derivatives synthesize only 2-MG in 15 min. These very mild conditions are very interesting for the thermal oxidative stability of the omega-3 fatty acid and for the thermal stability of the biocatalyst. Using Normal Phase HPLC-ELSD and accurate markers, the formation of the 2-MG was confirmed.

  18. Sapindus saponins' impact on hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria strains after short- and long-term contact with pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Łuczak, Marta; Krawczyk, Piotr; Jesionowski, Teofil; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of high toxicity petroleum contaminants to the natural environment causes damage to ecosystems and the aesthetics of the surroundings. Therefore it is critical to enhance microbial community performance to manage the degradation process. This paper analyses the effect of natural surfactants from the tree Sapindus mukorossi on biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Analysis of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential confirmed effective modifications of the cell surface parameters essential for the bioavailability of contaminants to microorganisms. Interestingly, favorable differences were observed only for microorganisms from non-contaminated soil. There was also recorded an increase in diesel oil biodegradation to 41% for Sphingomonas sp. and 56% for Pseudomonas alcaligenes on addition of 100mgL(-1) of Sapindus saponins. The addition of natural surfactants has no significant impact on bacterial strains isolated from long-term contaminated soil. This research demonstrates that the addition of Sapindus extract could be a useful tool to improve the effectiveness of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon pollutants by environmental strains in recently contaminated.

  19. Gas phase bio-filter for the removal of triethylamine (TEA) from air: microbial diversity analysis with reference to design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandu, Bharath; Sandhya, K; Gangagni Rao, A; Swamy, Y V

    2013-07-01

    Biotic (packed bio-filter; PBF) and abiotic (packed filter; PF) studies were carried out on two similar 2L gas phase filters for the removal of triethylamine (TEA) at inlet concentration in the range of 250-280 ppmV. Removal efficiency (RE) of PBF remained in the range of 90-99% during the stable period of operation (170 days) whereas RE of PF dropped gradually to 10% in a span of 90 days. Five different bacterial species viz; Aeromonas sp., Alcaligenes sp., Arthrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., and Pseudomonas sp., were identified in PBF. It was observed that diethyl amine, ethylamine and nitrate were formed as metabolites during the degradation pathway. Empty bed residence time of 20s, mass loading rate of 202.26 g/m(3)/h, space velocity of 178.82 m(3)/m(3)/h and elimination capacity of 201.52 g/m(3)/h were found to be optimum design parameters for PBF to get RE in the range of 90-99%.

  20. Nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of obligate methanol utilizing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercel, M

    1999-01-01

    In a screening program, a number of different bacterial strains with the ability to utilize methanol as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated and described. They are well known methanol utilizing genera Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Methylomonas or, on the contrary, the new, unknown genera and species of methylotrophic bacteria. In the last category, Acinetobacter and Alcaligenes are the new reported genera of organisms able to use methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. The present paper reports the very complex physiological and biochemical modifications when very versatile bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus are cultured on methanol and when the obligate methylotrophic state is compared with the facultative methylotrophic state of the same bacterial strain. Based on experiments and comparisons with literature data, it seems that Methylomonas methanica is the obligate methylotrophic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and that Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is the facultative methylotrophic state of Methylococcus capsulatus, an obligate methylotroph. The relationship of the obligate to the facultative and of the facultative to the obligate methylotrophy were established. These new methylotrophic genera and species, the profound physiological and biochemical modifications as well as the new data concerning nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of methanol utilizing bateria were reported for the first time in 1983.

  1. Synthesis and biochemical analysis of 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoro-N-hydroxy-octanediamides as inhibitors of human histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Leonhard M; Haus, Patricia; Jäger, Felix; Ludwig, Joachim; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-15

    Inhibition of human histone deacetylases (HDACs) has emerged as a novel concept in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Two chemical entities, SAHA (ZOLINZA, Merck) and romidepsin (Istodax, Celgene) have been recently approved by the FDA as first-in-class drugs against cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clinical use of these drugs revealed several side effects including gastro-intestinal symptoms, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis. Romidepsin is associated with an yet unresolved cardiotoxicity issue. A general hypothesis for the diminishment of unwanted adverse effects and an improved therapeutical window suggests the development of more isotype selective inhibitors. In this study the first time HDAC inhibitors with perfluorinated spacers between the zinc chelating moiety and the aromatic capping group were synthesized and tested against representatives of HDAC classes I, IIa and IIb. Competitive binding assays and a combined approach by using blind docking and molecular dynamics support binding of the perfluorinated analogs of SAHA to the active site of the HDAC-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes and presumably also to human HDACs. In contrast to the alkyl spacer of SAHA and derivatives, the perfluorinated alkyl spacer seems to contribute to or facilitate the induction of selectivity for class II, particularly class IIa, HDACs even though the overall potency of the perfluorinated SAHA analogs in this study against human HDACs remained still rather moderate in the micromolar range.

  2. EFFECTS OF FURAZOLIDONE ON BACTERIAL FLORA IN WATER AND THE BODY SURFACE MUCUS OF GRASS CARP(Ctenopharyngogon idellus)%呋喃唑酮对饲养水及草鱼体表粘液中菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝煊; 吴志新; 罗宇良; 高海章; 陈喜群

    1999-01-01

    对饲养水中泼洒不同浓度(0.2mg/L、0.5mg/L和1.0mg/L)的呋喃唑酮后,研究了饲养水及草鱼体表粘液中好氧与兼性厌氧细菌的数量及组成变化.结果表明:用药前,饲养水及粘液中的菌群主要有Aeromonas、Enterobacteriaceae、Vibrio、Flavobacterium、 Acinetobacter、Pseudomonas、Corynebacterium、Staphylococcus和Bacillus,此外,水体中还检测到Micrococcus和Alcaligenes. 水体及粘液中的细菌数量在用药后12h或24h时降至最低,在48h或96h时恢复到原来的水平.用药后,水体及粘液中的优势菌群未发生改变,但 Flavobacterium的比例显著增加,Aeromonas、Vibrio和Enterobacteriaceae明显减少,Pseudomonas和Acinetobacter则未能检测到, 其他各类群的比例也有一定的变化.菌群的变化速度与用药浓度有关.

  3. Anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus antifungal produced by marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to search for antifungal from biological origin, we performed a screening of marine microorganisms isolated from seawater, seaweed, sediment and marine invertebrates collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean. The antifungal activities of these isolates were investigated against the pathogenic yeasts involved in medical mycology. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antifungal activities using the method of agar diffusion against four yeasts. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 13 (38%) strains have antifungal activity against at least one out of four yeast species, 11 isolates have anti-Candida albicans CIP 48.72 activity, 12 isolates have anti-C. albicans CIP 884.65 activity, 13 isolates have anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity and only 6 isolates are actives against Candida tropicalis R2 resistant to nystatin and amphotericin B. Nine isolates showed strong fungicidal activity. Fourteen microorganisms were identified and assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea, and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms could produce more antimicrobials; therefore these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural products such as those we research: anti-Candida and anti-Cryptococcus fungicides.

  4. Zinc-substituted pseudoazurin solved by S/Zn-SAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Renate; Papadovasilaki, Maria; Drougkas, Evangelos; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2015-01-01

    The copper(II) centre of the blue copper protein pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis has been substituted by zinc(II) via denaturing the protein, chelation and removal of copper and refolding the apoprotein, followed by the addition of an aqueous solution of ZnCl2. Vapour-diffusion experiments produced colourless hexagonal crystals (space group P65), which when cryocooled had unit-cell parameters a=b=49.01, c=98.08 Å. Diffraction data collected at 100 K using a copper sealed tube were phased by the weak anomalous signal of five S atoms and one Zn atom. The structure was fitted manually and refined to 1.6 Å resolution. The zinc-substituted protein exhibits similar overall geometry to the native structure with copper. Zn2+ binds more strongly to its four ligand atoms (His40 Nδ1, Cys78 Sγ, His81 Nδ1 and Met86 Sδ) and retains the tetrahedral arrangement, although the structure is less distorted than the native copper protein.

  5. In situ stable isotope probing of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the hyphosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Ning; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Feng, Gu

    2016-03-01

    This study used a [(13)C]DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technique to elucidate a direct pathway for the translocation of (13)C-labeled photoassimilate from maize plants to extraradical mycelium-associated phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) that mediate the mineralization and turnover of soil organic phosphorus (P) in the hyphosphere. Inoculation with PSB alone did not provide any benefit to maize plants but utilized the added phytate-P to their own advantage, while inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis alone significantly promoted shoot biomass and P content compared with the control. However, compared with both sole inoculation treatments, combined inoculation with PSB and R. irregularis in the hyphosphere enhanced organic P mineralization and increased microbial biomass P in the soil. There was no extra benefit to plant P uptake but the hyphal growth of R. irregularis was reduced, suggesting that PSB benefited from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelium and competed for soil P with the fungus. The combination of T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis with a clone library revealed that one of the bacteria that actively assimilated carbon derived from pulse-labeled maize plants was Pseudomonas alcaligenes (Pseudomonadaceae) that was initially inoculated into the hyphosphere soil. These results provide the first in situ demonstration of the pathway underlying the carbon flux from plants to the AM mycelium-associated PSB, and the PSB assimilated the photosynthates exuded by the fungus and promoted mineralization and turnover of organic P in the soil.

  6. Modulation of pPS10 Host Range by Plasmid-Encoded RepA Initiator Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M.; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Fernández-Tresguerres, Elena

    2003-01-01

    We report here the isolation and analysis of novel repA host range mutants of pPS10, a plasmid originally found in Pseudomonas savastanoi. Upon hydroxylamine treatment, five plasmid mutants were selected for their establishment in Escherichia coli at 37°C, a temperature at which the wild-type form cannot be established. The mutations were located in different functional regions of the plasmid RepA initiation protein, and the mutants differ in their stable maintenance, copy number, and ability to interact with sequences of the basic replicon. Four of them have broadened their host range, and one of them, unable to replicate in Pseudomonas, has therefore changed its host range. Moreover, the mutants also have increased their replication efficiency in strains other than E. coli such as Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes faecalis. None of these mutations drastically changed the structure or thermal stability of the wild-type RepA protein, but in all cases an enhanced interaction with host-encoded DnaA protein was detected by gel filtration chromatography. The effects of the mutations on the functionality of RepA protein are discussed in the framework of a three-dimensional model of the protein. We propose possible explanations for the host range effect of the different repA mutants, including the enhancement of limiting interactions of RepA with specific host replication factors such as DnaA. PMID:12562807

  7. Biotransformation of arsenite and bacterial aox activity in drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses: Arsenic contamination in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-01

    The potential arsenite bioteansformation activity of arsenic was investigated by examining bacterial arsenic arsenite-oxidizing gene such as aoxS, aoxR, aoxA, aoxB, aoxC, and aoxD in high arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from the surface water of floating houses. There is a biogeochemical cycle of activity involving arsenite oxidase aox system and the ars (arsenic resistance system) gene operon and aoxR leader gene activity in Alcaligenes faecalis SRR-11 and aoxS leader gene activity in Achromobacter xylosoxidans TSL-66. Batch experiments showed that SRR-11 and TSL-66 completely oxidized 1 mM of As (III) to As (V) within 35-40 h. The leaders of aoxS and aoxR are important for gene activity, and their effects in arsenic bioremediation and mobility in natural water has a significant ecological role because it allows arsenite oxidase in bacteria to control the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses.

  8. Bacterial community in deep subseafloor sediments from the western Pacific "warm pool"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial community in deep subseafloor sediments at a depth of 230 cm from the western Pacific "warm pool" is studied by construction of 16S rDNA clone library and PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis. The results indicate that the bacterial community in these sediments is mainly composed of five groups: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, CFB group (Cytophaga / Flexi-bacteria / Bacteroides), Acidobacteria and gram positive bacteria, with a few genera detected in each group. The most abundant bacteria group is α-Proteobacteria, and the next is β-Proteobacteria. The dominant species in α-and β-Proteobacteria are Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Pseudomonas alca-ligenes respectively. The CFB group is simply composed of members belonging to Flavobacterium. The gram positive bacteria are rich, and mainly consists of the genus Geobacillus. The analysis of bacterial community indicates that organic matter is still abundant in the subseafloor sediments at the depth of 230 cm in the western Pacific "warm pool" . These bacteria in this deep biosphere may play an impor-tant role in the nitrogen cycle of deep sea sediments at "warm pool" .

  9. Biodegradation of Complex Bacteria on Phenolic Derivatives in River Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG-HUA LU; CHAO WANG; ZHE SUN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To isolate, incubate, and identify 4-chlorophenol-degrading complex bacteria, determine the tolerance of these bacteria to phenolic derivatives and study their synergetic metabolism as well as the aboriginal microbes and co-metabolic degradation of mixed chlorophenols in river water. Methods Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicants. Biodegradability of phenolic derivatives was determined by adding 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria in river water. Results The complex bacteria were identified as Mycopiana, Alcaligenes, Pseudvmonas, and Flavobacterium. The domesticated complex bacteria were more tolerant to phenolic derivatives than the aboriginal bacteria from Qinhuai River. The biodegradability of chlorophenols, dihydroxybenzenes and nitrophenols under various aquatic conditions was determined and compared. The complex bacteria exhibited a higher metabolic efficiency on chemicals than the aboriginal microbes, and the final removal rate of phenolic derivatives was increased at least by 55% when the complex bacteria were added into river water. The metabolic relationship between dominant mixed bacteria and river bacteria was studied. Conclusion The complex bacteria domesticated by 4-chlorophenol can grow and be metabolized to take other chlorophenols, dihydroxybenzenes and nitrophenols as the sole carbon and energy source. There is a synergetic metabolism of most compounds between the aboriginal microbes in river water and the domesticated complex bacteria. 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria can co-metabolize various chlorophenols in river water.

  10. Biodegradability of Chlorinated Anilines in Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO WANG; GUAN-GHUA LU; YAN-JIE ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the bacteria tolerating chlorinated anilines and to study the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline and its coexistent compounds. Methods Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicant. Biodegradability of chlorinated anilines was determined using domesticated complex bacteria as an inoculum by shaking-flask test. Results The complex bacteria were identified, consisting of Xanthomonas, Bacillus alcaligenes,Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetaceae nocardia. The obtained complex bacteria were more tolerant to o-chloroaniline than mixture bacteria in natural river waters. The effects of exposure concentration and inoculum size on the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline were analyzed, and the biodegradation characteristics of single o-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichloroaniline were compared with the coexistent compounds. Conclusion The biodegradation rates can be improved by decreasing concentration of compounds and increasing inoculum size of complex bacteria. When o-chloroaniline coexists with aniline, the latter is biodegraded prior to the former, and as a consequence the metabolic efficiency of o-chloroaniline is improved with the increase of aniline concentration. Meanwhile, when o-chloroaniline coexists with 2,4-dichloroaniline, the metabolic efficiency of 2,4-dichloroaniline is markedly improved.

  11. 固定化细胞生物反应器处理含氰废水%Treatment of Cyanide Containing Wastewater by Immobilized Cell Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢恒宇; 李青云; 刘幽燕

    2007-01-01

    将产碱杆菌Alcaligenes sp.DN25固定在聚氨酯泡沫载体上构成固定化细胞反应器,进行连续处理含氰废水研究.实验结果表明,反应器能够高效且稳定地处理含氰废水,有很好的氰负荷适应性,水力停留时间HRT和pH值对反应器氰去除率有一定影响,反应器运行前40 d降解率维持在90%;运行的40~60 d,系统中加入氨氮离子后,反应器对氰化物的降解率明显下降,仅85%左右,我们认为是氨氮连续加入和产物HCOOH的生成引起系统缓冲能力下降,使得pH显著降低而造成.

  12. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients.

  13. Proteasas extracelulares producidas por bacterias marinas aisladas de aguas contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 26 cepas de bacterias marinas con actividad proteolítica fueron aisladas de agua de mar contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros; las mismas que se evaluaron en base al crecimiento y formación de halos de actividad en Agar Marino suplementados con caseína al 1%, pH 8,0 e incubados a 25 ºC por 72 h. Cinco cepas, seleccionadas por presentar los mejores halos de actividad fueron evaluadas a su vez por su crecimiento y producción de proteasas a diferentes concentraciones de NaCl, rangos de temperatura y pH; siendo consideradas finalmente como bacterias halotolerantes, psicrotróficas y alcalófilas moderadas. Estas cepas también fueron evaluadas por su actividad proteolítica específica sobre la caseína, siendo la cepa CM48 (Pseudomonas sp. la que presentó la mejor actividad específica (17,38 U/mg a las 72 horas, y seguidas por las cepas CM45 (Alcaligenes sp. (12,09 U/mg y tres cepas de Aeromonas sp. (CM43, CM44 y CM46 con valores de 12,02; 10,07 y 10,10 U/mg respectivamente.

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals the key microorganisms involved in sludge alkaline fermentation for efficient short-chain fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Li, Xiang; Xiao, Naidong; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang

    2013-05-07

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been regarded as the excellent carbon source of wastewater biological nutrient removal, and sludge alkaline (pH 10) fermentation has been reported to achieve highly efficient SCFAs production. In this study, the underlying mechanisms for the improved SCFAs production at pH 10 were investigated by using 454 pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyze the microbial community structures in sludge fermentation reactors. It was found that sludge fermentation at pH 10 increased the abundances of Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp., which were able to excrete extracellular proteases and depolymerases, and thus enhanced the hydrolysis of insoluble sludge protein and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Meanwhile, the abundance of acid-producing bacteria (such as Clostridium sp.) in the reactor of pH 10 was also higher than that of uncontrolled pH, which benefited the acidification of soluble organic substrates. Further study indicated that sludge fermentation at pH 10 significantly decreased the number of methanogenic archaea, resulting in lower SCFAs consumption and lower methane production. Therefore, anaerobic sludge fermentation under alkaline conditions increased the abundances of bacteria involved in sludge hydrolysis and acidification, and decreased the abundance of methanogenic archaea, which favored the competition of bacteria over methanogens and resulted in the efficient production of SCFAs.

  15. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation.

  16. 生物酶法合成(S)-2-氨基-1-丁醇的研究%Enzymatic preparation of optically pure (S)-2-amino-1-butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程仕伟; 魏东芝; 孙爱友

    2011-01-01

    With the source of Alcaligenes faecoiis penicillin C acylase as catalyst, optically pure (S) -2-amino-1-butanol is obtained via enantioselective hydrolysis of N-phenylacetyl racemic 2-amino-1-butanol. The optimal conditions of catalytic process are as follows: 2 U/mL of enzyme, 100 mmoVL of substrate concentration, 40℃ of reaction temperature,9. 0 of pH. Under the optimal conditions,the higher optical punty ( ee > 99% ) can be obtained when the racemic substrate conversion rate of 40% is achieved.%以粪产碱杆菌来源的青霉素G酰化酶为催化剂,酶法拆分苯乙酰消旋底物转化生成(S)-2-氨基-1-丁醇.通过对催化过程中加酶量、底物浓度、反应温度、pH进行优化,确定最适酶催化条件是pH 9.0,40℃,底物浓度100 mmol/L,酶量2 U/mL,反应体积80 mL.在最适反应条件下,当消旋底物转化率达40%时终止反应可获得较高的产物光学纯度(ee>99%).

  17. [The degradation characteristics of degrading bacterium of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhen-wei; Xu, De-qiang; Zhang, Ya-lei; Xiao, Yi-ping; Zhao, Jian-fu

    2004-05-01

    A degrading bacterial strain F-3-4 for 2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) was isolated from biofilm in acrylic fiber wastewater treatment structures. By acclimation, its capacity for degradation of 2,6-DTBP was enhanced by 26%. It was identified as Alcaligenes sp. according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. By tests in shaking flasks, the effects of the conditions of growth was studied, and it was determined that the optimum conditions of growth for the strain was 37 degrees C, pH 7.0 and inoculum amount 0.1%. Under these conditions, the kinetics of degradation for 2,6-DTBP of initial concentration 100 mg/L was studied, and the result indicated that the removal rate of 2,6-DTBP within 11 days was 62.4%, and the degradation process followed Eckenfelder kinetics. The half life of 2,6-DTBP was 9.38 days. The effect of initial concentration on degradation ability of the strain also was investigated. The results showed that the optimum initial concentration was 200 mg/L. When the initial concentrations were below it, the growth of strain and removal of 2,6-DTBP increased with the increase of initial concentration, while when above the value, they were inhibited.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from aviation fuel spill site at Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R C; Essien, J P; Akpan, S B; Okpokwasili, G C

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from aviation fuel contaminated soil at Inua Eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria. PAH-degrading bacteria in the contaminated soil were isolated by enrichment culture technique. Isolates with high PAH degrading potential characterized by their extensive growth on PAH-supplemented minimal salt medium were screened for their naphthalene, phenanthrene and chrysene degradability. The screening medium which contained selected PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy showed that Micrococcus varians AFS-2, Pseudomonas putida AFS-3 and Alcaligenes faecalis AFS-5 exhibited a concentration-dependent growth in all the PAH-compounds tested. There were visible changes in the color of growth medium suggesting the production of different metabolites. Their acclimation to different PAH substrates was also evident as A. faecalis AFS-5 isolated from chrysene grew well on other less complex aromatic compounds. The isolate exhibited best growth (0.44 OD(600)) when exposed to 10 ppm of chrysene for 5 days and could utilize up to 90 ppm of chrysene. This isolate and others with strong PAH-degrading potentials are recommended for bioremediation of PAHs in aviation fuel-contaminated sites in the tropics.

  19. Characterization of microbial contamination in United States Air Force aviation fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Michelle E; Graef, Harold W; Rozenzhak, Sophie M; Jones, Sharon E; Bleckmann, Charles A; Kruger, Randell L; Naik, Rajesh R; Stone, Morley O

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi, isolated from United States Air Force (USAF) aviation fuel samples, were identified by gas chromatograph fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) profiling and 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirty-six samples from 11 geographically separated USAF bases were collected. At each base, an above-ground storage tank, a refueling truck, and an aircraft wing tank were sampled at the lowest sample point, or sump, to investigate microbial diversity and dispersion within the fuel distribution chain. Twelve genera, including four Bacillus species and two Staphylococcus species, were isolated and identified. Bacillus licheniformis, the most prevalent organism isolated, was found at seven of the 11 bases. Of the organisms identified, Bacillus sp., Micrococcus luteus, Sphinogmonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., and the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans have previously been isolated from aviation fuel samples. The bacteria Pantoea ananatis, Arthrobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Kocuria rhizophilia, Leucobacter komagatae, Dietza sp., and the fungus Discophaerina fagi have not been previously reported in USAF aviation fuel. Only at two bases were the same organisms isolated from all three sample points in the fuel supply distribution chain. Isolation of previously undocumented organisms suggests either, changes in aviation fuel microbial community in response to changes in aviation fuel composition, additives and biocide use, or simply, improvements in isolation and identification techniques.

  20. Potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "Marcha" of north eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-05-01

    A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5 h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200 µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400 AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry.

  1. Prevalence of Achromobacter xylosoxidans in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in different regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Patrick; Czapiewski, Piotr; Colak, Seba; Kosmidis, Perikles; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Boudova, Ludmila; Okoń, Krzysztof; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Du, Ming-Qing; Fend, Falko

    2014-03-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) comprises 7-8% of B-cell lymphomas and commonly originates from a background of long-standing chronic inflammation. An association with distinct bacteria species has been confirmed for several anatomical sites of MALT lymphoma. For pulmonary MALT lymphoma, however, a clear link with an infectious agent or autoimmune disorder has not yet been reported. Using a 16S rRNA gene-based approach, we have recently identified Achromobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans in eight of nine cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. A. xylosoxidans is a gram-negative betaproteobacterium with low virulence, but high resistance to antibiotic treatment. To further examine a potential association with A. xylosoxidans, 124 cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma and 82 control tissues from six European countries were analysed using a specific nested PCR. Although prevalence rates for A. xylosoxidans varied significantly from country to country, they were consistently higher for MALT lymphoma as compared to controls. Overall, 57/124 (46%) pulmonary MALT lymphomas and 15/82 (18%) control tissues were positive for A. xylosoxidans (P = 0·004). Whether the significant association of A. xylosoxidans with pulmonary MALT lymphoma demonstrated in our study points to a potential causal role in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma will require further studies.

  2. 碱性脂肪酶的研究开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 朱文婷; 刘锐; 陆爽; 江咏雪; 陈霞

    2016-01-01

    本项目以菜市场、乳品厂、油脂厂采集的土样为实验材料,分别进行菌种的初筛培养及Rodamine B筛选法富集培养,并利用摇瓶发酵培养扩增菌种.通过对菌种发酵所产酶的活力进行测定,优选出能高效产碱性脂肪酶的菌种.通过鉴定,获得的菌种为油脂厂采集分离得到的革兰氏阴性菌,产酶活力为60IU/mL,经检测此菌种为Alcaligenes sp.最后对该菌种所产酶添加至清洁剂中的比例进行优选,得出其比例为18%去污效果最佳.

  3. Heavy metal tolerant halophilic bacteria from Vembanad Lake as possible source for bioremediation of lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, M; Rejula, M P; Rejith, P G; Mohan, Mahesh; Karuppiah, Makesh; Hatha, A A Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Microorganisms which can resist high concentration of toxic heavy metals are often considered as effective tools of bioremediation from such pollutants. In the present study, sediment samples from Vembanad Lake were screened for the presence of halophilic bacteria that are tolerant to heavy metals. A total of 35 bacterial strains belonging to different genera such as Alcaligenes, Vibrio, Kurthia, Staphylococcus and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 21 sediment samples during February to April, 2008. The salt tolerance and optimum salt concentrations of the isolates revealed that most of them were moderate halophiles followed by halotolerant and extremely halotolerant groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against cadmium and lead for each isolate revealed that the isolates showed higher MIC against lead than cadmium. Based on the resistance limit concentration, most of them were more tolerant to lead than cadmium at all the three salt concentrations tested. Heavy metal removal efficiency of selected isolates showed a maximum reduction of 37 and 99% against cadmium and lead respectively. The study reveals the future prospects of halophilic microorganisms in the field of bioremediation.

  4. Fusion of binding domains to Thermobifida cellulosilytica cutinase to tune sorption characteristics and enhancing PET hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribitsch, Doris; Yebra, Antonio Orcal; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Wu, Jing; Nowitsch, Susanne; Steinkellner, Georg; Greimel, Katrin; Doliska, Ales; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Gruber, Christian C; Gruber, Karl; Schwab, Helmut; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-06-10

    A cutinase from Thermomyces cellullosylitica (Thc_Cut1), hydrolyzing the synthetic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET), was fused with two different binding modules to improve sorption and thereby hydrolysis. The binding modules were from cellobiohydrolase I from Hypocrea jecorina (CBM) and from a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis (PBM). Although both binding modules have a hydrophobic nature, it was possible to express the proteins in E. coli . Both fusion enzymes and the native one had comparable kcat values in the range of 311 to 342 s(-1) on pNP-butyrate, while the catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km decreased from 0.41 s(-1)/ μM (native enzyme) to 0.21 and 0.33 s(-1)/μM for Thc_Cut1+PBM and Thc_Cut1+CBM, respectively. The fusion enzymes were active both on the insoluble PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethyl) terephthalate (3PET) and on PET although the hydrolysis pattern was differed when compared to Thc_Cut1. Enhanced adsorption of the fusion enzymes was visible by chemiluminescence after incubation with a 6xHisTag specific horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled probe. Increased adsorption to PET by the fusion enzymes was confirmed with Quarz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) analysis and indeed resulted in enhanced hydrolysis activity (3.8× for Thc_Cut1+CBM) on PET, as quantified, based on released mono/oligomers.

  5. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  6. A reactor system combining reductive dechloirnation with cometabolic oxidation for complete degradation of tetrachloroentylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor system,which consisted of an anaerobic fixed film reactor and twoaerobic chemostats, was set up to degrade tetrachloroethylene (PCE)without accumulating highly toxic degradation intermediates. A soil(ca. 150 mg/liter) of PCE stoichiometrically intocis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), was attached to ceramic mediain the anaerobic fixed film reactor. A phenol degrading strain,Alcaligenes sp. R5, which can efficiently degrade cis-DCE byco-metabolic oxidation, was used as inoculum for the aerobicchemostats consisted of a transformation reactor and a growthreactor. The anaerobic fixed film bioreactor showed more than 99 %of PCE transformation into cis-DCE in the range of influent PCE48h. On the other hand, efficient degradation of the resultantcis-DCE by strain R5 in the following aerobic system could not beachieved due to oxygen limitation. However, 54% of the maximum(H2O2) was supplemented to the transformation reactor as anadditional oxygen source. Further studies are needed to achievemore efficient co-metabolic degradation of cis-DCE in the aerobic reactor.

  7. Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    Full Text Available Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction.

  8. Comparative impact of cadmium on two phenanthrene-degrading bacteria isolated from cadmium and phenanthrene co-contaminated soil in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Jiajun [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, 200240 (China); Guo Linjun; Wang Shipeng [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Lu Yitong, E-mail: ytlu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, 200240 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain J08 and Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 were isolated from soils co-contaminated by cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Northeast China. The two strains of bacteria were identified by phenotypic tests and 16S rDNA. Different Cd treatments (0.01 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.5 mM) showed no significant influence (p > 0.05) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene by A. faecalis strain J08. Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 also presented no significant differences in the biodegradation of phenanthrene in Cd treatments (0.01 mM, 0.1 mM). The growth of Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 was prohibited significantly (p < 0.05) by Cd in the concentration of 0.5 mM, but the biodegradation of phenanthrene in this group was not impaired. The specific biodegradation rate of Brevundimonas sp. strain X08 in the 0.5 mM Cd group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than rates in other Cd treatments (0 mM, 0.01 mM, 0.1 mM).

  9. Production of a Microbial Polysaccharides by Fermentation%微生物聚多糖PS-238合成条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎; 徐虹; 石宁宁

    2004-01-01

    一株产碱杆菌Alcaligenes sp.NX-3可分泌一种新型高分子多糖PS-238,该多糖具有耐高温、耐酸碱、耐盐等优良特性.碳源、氮源等培养基组分对该多糖产量有重要的影响.文中采用单因素的实验方法确定了发酵培养基的碳源、氮源分别为蔗糖和蛋白胨,然后采用中心复合设计法对培养基的主要成分进行了分析和优化.结果表明,碳源是极显著的因素, K2HPO4次之.最优发酵培养基配方为,蔗糖浓度49 g/L,蛋白胨浓度6.5 g/L,K2HPO4 2 g/L,MgSO4 0.3 g/L,根据预测的最优发酵水平的营养配比,产量由10.78 g/L提高至22.85 g/L.

  10. MICROBIOTA BACTERIANA COM POTENCIAL PATOGÊNICO EM PACAMÃ E PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDADE A ANTIMICROBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO GILVAN BEZERRA DOS SANTOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, infections caused by bacteria are factors that cause damage. The purpose of this study was to identify bacteria with pathogenic potential in pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri of São Francisco Valley. One hundred and fifteen animals were used for sampling from gills, kidneys, external lesions and eggs. The samples were streaked in Trypticase soy agar. The biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined. The bacterial species identified were A.hydrophila, A. salmonicida, A. media, Acinetobacter spp., P. alcaligenes, E. aerogenes, E. agglomerans, K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, P.shigelloides, V. parahaemo- lyticus, V. metschnikovii and S. sannei. The sensitivity to antimicrobial was 85% to norfloxacin, 79% to ceftri- axone, 78% to enrofloxacin, 68% to sulfazothrim, 60% to nitrofurantoin, 59% to tetracycline, 55% to nalidixic acid, 49% to streptomycin, 45% to erythromycin, 32% to neomycin, 7% to ampicillin and 3% to lincomycin. Multiple resistance was observed to all isolates analyzed. Considering the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in pacamã and its resistance to antimicrobial drugs, security measures should be adopted during antimicrobialther- apy, with the use of antibiotics that did not show resistance strains or trying natural products as an alternative to antibiotics, ensuring protection of human and animal health, as well as the environment.

  11. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer in an oil palm field.

  12. Development of microbial consortium for the biodegradation and biodecolorization of textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Ramasany

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study three bacterial species (Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Alcaligenes sp. and two fungal species (Aspergillus sp., and Penicillium sp. screened from 265 bacterial isolates and 35 fungal isolates respectively, were used in 23 different combinations for the biotreatment of textile waste water collected from Karur, Tiruppur and Coimbatore districts under aerated conditions. The chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS total dissolved solids (TDS & total suspended solids (TSS, hardness, and color intensity of the textile effluent was found to be very high than the permissible limits before treatment. After treatment one particular combination was capable of reducing the COD of the effluent sample by 75%. About five combinations of microbes efficiently reduced the color of the effluent by more than 50%. Another combination was found to be the most effective in the reduction of TS and TDS by 90% and 69%, respectively. Though there was no drastic change in the pH of the sample, it was not of great concern as the pH of the sample was well within the permissible limits for the discharge of the wastewater in to natural sources after treatment.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM FOR THE BIODEGRADATION AND BIODECOLORIZATION OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Ramasany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study three bacterial species (Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Alcaligenes sp. and two fungal species (Aspergillus sp., and Penicillium sp. screened from 265 bacterial isolates and 35 fungal isolates respectively, were used in 23 different combinations for the biotreatment of textile waste water collected from Karur, Tiruppur and Coimbatore districts under aerated conditions. The chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS total dissolved solids (TDS & total suspended solids (TSS, hardness, and color intensity of the textile effluent was found to be very high than the permissible limits before treatment. After treatment one particular combination was capable of reducing the COD of the effluent sample by 75%. About five combinations of microbes efficiently reduced the color of the effluent by more than 50%. Another combination was found to be the most effective in the reduction of TS and TDS by 90% and 69%, respectively. Though there was no drastic change in the pH of the sample, it was not of great concern as the pH of the sample was well within the permissible limits for the discharge of the wastewater in to natural sources after treatment.

  14. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  15. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  16. Conjunctival microbial flora of clinically normal persons who work in a hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade Rita de Cássia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to study the microbiota of the conjunctival secretion of health professionals. Samples were collected from the clinically normal eyes of 40 health professionals in four different sectors, Proctology, General Intensive Care Unit (ICU, Male Ward, and Oncology of Hospital das Clínicas Dr. Augusto Leite, Aracaju, SE, Brazil. Ten professionals from each sector were selected. The samples were inoculated into various culture media: blood agar, Chapman agar, EMB medium (Teague, and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The bacteria most frequently isolated from all the sectors were Staphylococcus epidermidis (45.0% and Bacillus sp (29.0%. The least frequent bacteria were Proteus sp (6.1%, Staphylococcus aureus (4.1%, Enterobacter sp (4.1%, Alcaligenes sp (4.1%, Citrobacter sp (2.1%, Moraxella sp (2.1%, and Proteus mirabilis (2.1%. Fungi were not isolated. These results confirm the continuous contamination of the conjunctival sac of these professionals by the external environment, while at the same time confirming that the mechanisms of local defence continue to be intact, preventing the fixation of invading microorganisms.

  17. Health risks associated with the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Moretton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal and disposal of waste from domestic activities is a major health problem in densely populated urban areas. In many areas of Greater Buenos Aires, greywater is disposed in open ditches and risk potential of this has not been adequately quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and its resistance profile present in raw greywater obtained from a channel located in the area of Ingeniero Budge Buenos Aires Province. Thus, the prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in greywater, their typing, and resistance to other antibiotics were determined. The prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Of all the antibiotics tested, the highest prevalence of resistant heterotrophic bacteria was detected with cephalothin (19% and ampicillin (8%. With regard to Gram-negative bacteria, the highest prevalence of resistance was given by coliforms ampicillin (34% and cephalothin (17%. A total of 38% of enterococci with low level resistance to vancomycin was detected. The multiresistant isolates were identified as Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes faecalis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These results indicate that greywater can be considered as a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, thus increasing their health risk.

  18. SELEKSI KANDIDAT PROBIOTIK ANTI AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT IKAN AIR TAWAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Secara dasar ada tiga model kerja probiotik yaitu menekan populasi mikroba melalui kompetisi dengan memproduksi senyawa anti-mikroba atau melalui kompetisi nutrisi dan tempat pelekatan di dinding usus, mengubah keseimbangan metabolisme mikroba dengan meningkatkan atau menurunkan aktivitas enzim dan menstimulasi imunitas dengan meningkatkan antibodi dan aktivitas makrofag. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memperoleh mikroba yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik untuk dapat diaplikasikan di dalam menekan atau menghambat bakteri patogen sebagai langkah pengendalian penyakit pada ikan air tawar. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap, tahap pertama adalah tahap seleksi yang dimulai dari koleksi dan isolasi bakteri kandidat probiotik dan tahap kedua adalah tahap pengujian bakteri kandidat probiotik secara in vitro menggunakan metode daya hambat dan menguji daya patogenisitas bakteri. Total isolat bakteri yang diperoleh adalah 72 isolat, dan hanya enam isolat terpilih sebagai kandidat probiotik anti Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik anti A. hydrophila adalah sebagai berikut: Chromobacterium lividum, Alcaligenes faecalis, Aeromonas caviae, Bacteriodes serpens, Bacillus firmus, Aeromonas caviae = A. hydrophila Sub sp. Anaerogenes.

  19. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on aerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by consortia of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde I. Temitope Eniola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated detergent bearing wastes discharged into the environment are sources of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS. Detergent wastes usually do not contain nitrogen or contain very low amounts. Biostimulation by introducing limiting nutrient element can be useful in biotreatment of such waste. The effect of inorganic and organic nitrogen supplements on aerobic degradation of LAS by LAS-utilizing bacteria was examined. Phosphate-buffered LAS mineral media were prepared and supplemented with different nitrogen sources: NPK fertilizer (inorganic and urea fertilizer (organic. Individual and various consortia of pure cultures of Alcaligenes odorans, Citrobacter diversus, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas putida, previously isolated from a detergent effluent polluted stream, were used. Biodegradation of LAS was monitored in terms of half-life (t½ of the surfactant. The rates of biodegradation by the consortia can be ranked as: 4-membered (t½=8-12 days >3-membered (t½=8-13 days >2-membered consortia (t½=10-15 days >individuals (t½=9-16 days. The inorganic nitrogen source enhanced utilization of the surfactant, while organic nitrogen supplementation generally slowed degradation of the surfactant. In undertaking biotreatment of detergent bearing effluent, inorganic nitrogen should be used as biostimulant.

  20. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  1. The Screening of the Marine Low Temperature Acid Protease Strainfrom Pseudomonas and Its Optimal Fermentation Mediun (Ⅰ)%海洋低温蛋白酶菌株选育及发酵培养基的研究(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟乃玉; 张庆芳; 王晓辉; 窦少华; 郑学仿

    2006-01-01

    以渤海和黄海分离出400多株在低温条件下生长良好的菌株为出发菌株,利用常规筛选方法选出2株低温蛋白酶产生菌(Pseudomonas alcaligenes).经UV、DES、NTG、EMS、LiCl单独及复合诱变,选育出一株(Pa040523)蛋白酶高产突变株.通过单因素实验,确定了Pa040523菌株蛋白酶发酵培养基为:玉米淀粉糖1.8%,尿素0.6%,磷酸氢二钾0.6%,磷酸二氢钾0.3%.该突变株低温蛋白酶产量为940.8 U/mg.

  2. Synthesis of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Azines Encompassing Naphtho[2,1-b]furan by a Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Veena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting material 3-nitro-2-acetylnaphtho[2,1-b]furan (2 was obtained by nitration of 2-acetylnaphtho[2,1-b] furan (1, under mild condition. The compound 1 was synthesized by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with chloroacetone, where in both condensation and cyclization took place in single step. The reaction of 3-nitro-2-acetylnaphtho[2,1-b]furan (2 with hydrazine hydrate produced corresponding hydrazone (3 in excellent yield, which on treatment with various aromatic aldehydes under different reaction conditions resulted in the formation of symmetrical azines (4a-e and unsymmetrical azines (5a-e. All the newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by analytical and spectral studies and were screened for antibacterial antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilus and Alcaligenes fecalies and antifungal activity against Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus terrus. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG efficiency of some of the synthesized compounds was measured by powder technique using Nd:YAG laser.

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Balakrishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4 showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424 and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A LIPOLYTIC AND PHYTASE PRODUCING PROBIOTIC FOR POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN POULTRY FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAZDAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study a total of 35 bacterial isolates from 17 food and fecal samples were examined. Five among those were earmarked as putative probiotic candidates. All the selected isolates survived the low pH conditions of 2.0, and resisted the presence of bile salts (0.02-0.25% and NaCl (2-14 %, indicating their ability to survive in the gastrointestinal (GI tract conditions and hence making them suitable candidates for probiotic applications. The selected probiotic isolates showed considerable levels of hydrophobicity indicating their potential adhering properties with the gut epithelium. In addition the five selected probiotic candidates depicted substantial antagonistic action against potent pathogens like Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. alcaligenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. The isolates CM-4 and KD-7 were most remarkable as they inhibited all the pathogens tested including S. aureus and Streptococcus sp. Extracellular enzymatic studies showed that all the five strains produced phytase whereas isolate CM-4 and KD-7 were the only lipase producers found. However no amylase protease activity was detected. Isolate CM-4 was found to be the best among all five as it showed all desirable probiotic features viz. bile salt, NaCl and pH tolerance, maximum hydrophobicity, antagonistic action against pathogens, phytase and lipase activity, therefore was identified by using 16S rDNA sequencing and MEGA BLAST.

  5. Degrading Characteristics of Two Petrolecm-degrading Strains%两株石油降解菌的降解性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁进; 杨谦; 陈中祥; 张向东

    2010-01-01

    为研究石油污染土壤的生物修复技术,利用正交试验法对假单胞菌Pseudomonas sp.ZL13和产碱菌Alcaligenes sp.ZL21两株原油生物降解菌株的降油影响因素和最优降解条件进行了研究.通过气质联用方法分析两株茵对原油不同组分的降解能力,结果表明:影响两株茵降解的重要因素是原油浓度和温度;在最优降解条件下,茵株ZL13和ZL21的7d原油降解率分别为72.68%和73.10%;茵株ZL13和ZL21对原油大多数组分都有较高的降解能力,ZL21的降解效果要略优于ZL13.

  6. Removal of Copper by Eichhornia crassipes and the Characterization of Associated Bacteria of the Rhizosphere System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Kabeer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess doses of trace element contamination make conventional water treatment methods less effective and more expensive, where in alternative biotechnological applications open up new opportunities with their reduced cost and lesser impacts to the environment. In the present investigation, effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of copper in laboratory conditions. Water samples were collected from macrophytes natural habitat and water tubs used for growing E. crassipes and analysed along with plant tissues for Cu content. The work also characterized the associated microbiota of the rhizosphere system of the E. crassipes as well as the wetland system of its occurrence. Copper concentration of the wetland water samples ranged from 0.009 to 0.03ppm. Six bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Kurthia, Listeria and Chromobacterium were represented in rhizosphere of E.crassipes and 4 bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Listeria and Chromobacterium were recorded in wetland water samples. Copper resistance studies of the bacterial isolates showed that out of 26 isolates from rhizosphere and 19 strains from water samples,12 of them showed low resistance (80% of copper during 15 days experiment. Copper accumulation was found to be high in the root followed by leaf and petiole. Results of the present study concluded that E. crassipes is an efficient plant for the removal of copper.

  7. 游离DHA酯化富集的脂酶催化工艺研究%93.39%.Lipase-catalyzed DHA enrichment by esterification from low concentration of free DHA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 乙引; 杨立昌; 宋庆发

    2010-01-01

    研究了脂酶催化游离DHA和甘油酯化的工艺.结果表明:以Rhizomucor miehei脂酶催化的一步法工艺的最适条件为FFA:甘油=1:3、脂酶量1%和水分5%,其酯化率、三酰甘油(TAG)含量和TAG中DHA富集量分别为71.6%、22.98%和47.53%;以Rhizomucor miehei脂酶催化的二步法工艺和以Rhizomucor miehei脂酶、Alcaligenes sp.脂酶共同催化的混合酶法工艺不能改变TAG中DHA的百分含量,但可显著提高反应的酯化率和TAG含量.其中,二步法工艺可将酯化率和TAG含量分别提高到84.66%和91.86%,而混合酶法工艺则可分别将其进一步增加到97.68%和93.39%.

  8. Pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in dairy herds in the south region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through microbiological examinations, the etiology of bovine mastitis in 628 milk samples coming from dairy farms from Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul along the year of 2007 were evaluated. Out of this total 1,382 microorganisms were isolated. By taking into account the total of isolations, the following microorganisms and their percentage, respectively were found: Staphylococcus spp. (30.53%, Escherichia coli (21.64%, Streptococcus bovis (17.08%, Streptococcus agalactiae (11.07%, Enterobacter spp. (7.53%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.12% and others (8.03%. The microorganisms grouped into the others are: Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., gram negative rods, Shigella spp., Alcaligenes spp., Klebsiella spp., Edwarsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Salmonella spp. e Corynebacterium spp. The environmental pathogens predominated among the isolated microorganisms; 33.13% of the cultures presented more than three pathogens, suggesting contamination of the samples; in the mounts of November and December, there was an increase of the samples sent.

  9. Assessment of Sanitation and Food Bacterial Identification in the Governor Official Canteen of Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Mallongi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food is one of the important parts to human health considering that diseases could be caused by food. Cases of foodborne illness (foodborne disease can be affected by processing, storage, and food serving that are not meet sanitary requirements. This research aimed to obtain an overview of the quality of food is based on the presence of bacteria and sanitary conditions in Canteen Office of the Governor of South Sulawesi Province. This type of research is descriptive observational. The population in this research is all the food that is in Canteen Office of the Governor of South Sulawesi province and obtained ten samples by using purposive sampling method. Data obtained from direct observation using observation sheet and results of laboratory tests on food samples taken from the Canteen Office of the Governor of South Sulawesi province. The data analysis was using descriptive analysis. The results showed that from ten food samples in Governor's Office Canteen, two samples are containing Escherichia coli bacteria, three food samples are containing Klebsiella sp bacteria, two samples are containing Proteus mirabilis bacteria, one sample is containing Proteus vulgaris bacteria, one sample is containing Enterobacter agglomerans, and one sample is containing Alcaligenes faecalis bacteria. Based on observational assessment for the sanitary conditions in the canteen Office of the Governor of South Sulawesi province in ten canteen, there are no qualified canteen which reach 70% of the total assessment.

  10. Characterization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in radioactive wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikilili, Phumza V. [Water Utilisation Division, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M., E-mail: Evans.Chirwa@up.ac.za [Water Utilisation Division, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biodegradation of recalcitrant toxic organics under radioactive conditions. {yields} Biodegradation of PAHs of varying size and complexity in mixed waste streams. {yields} Validation of radiation-tolerance and performance of the isolated organisms. - Abstract: PAH degrading Pseudomonad and Alcaligenes species were isolated from landfill soil and mine drainage in South Africa. The isolated organisms were mildly radiation tolerant and were able to degrade PAHs in simulated nuclear wastewater. The radiation in the simulated wastewater, at 0.677 Bq/{mu}L, was compatible to measured values in wastewater from a local radioisotope manufacturing facility, and was enough to inhibit metabolic activity of known PAH degraders from soil such as Pseudomonas putida GMP-1. The organic constituents in the original radioactive waste stream consisted of the full range of PAHs except fluoranthene. Among the observed PAHs in the nuclear wastewater from the radioisotope manufacturing facility, acenaphthene and chrysene predominated-measured at 25.1 and 14.2 mg/L, respectively. Up to sixteen U.S.EPA priority PAHs were detected at levels higher than allowable limits in drinking water. The biodegradation of the PAHs was limited by the solubility of the compounds. This contributed to the observed faster degradation rates in low molecular weight (LMW) compounds than in high molecular weight compounds.

  11. Technical note: concentration and composition of airborne aerobic bacteria inside an enclosed rabbit shed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been conducted to analyse bacterial aerosols in animal houses, which is beneficial for the control of animal diseases. However, little information on aerosols in enclosed rabbit sheds was available. An FA-1 sampler was employed to collect air samples in an enclosed rabbit house in the Qingdao region of China. Concentration, composition, and aerodynamics of bacterial aerosols inside the enclosed rabbit shed were systematically analysed. The concentration of airborne bacteria inside the rabbit shed was 2.11-6.36×104 colony forming unit/m3 (CFU/m3. Seventeen species of bacteria belonging to eight genera were identified. Among these, there were 11 species belonging to 4 genera of gram-positive bacteria, and 6 species belonging to 4 genera of gram-negative bacteria. The dominant species of bacteria were, in descending order, Micrococcus luteus (49.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (25.5%, and Alcaligenes odorans (10.2%. A total of about 76.3% of airborne bacteria was distributed in stages C-F of the FA-1 sampler (that ranges from A to F, with aerodynamic radii <3.3 μm in diameter. These particulates could enter lower respiratory tracks and even alveoli, posing a potential threat to the health of both animals and breeders.

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Non-Fermenters in Human Infections with Special Reference to Acinetobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital from North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Parandekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-fermenters are a group of aerobic non-spore forming gram negative bacilli that are either incapable of utilizingcarbohydrates as a source of energy or degrade them via oxidative rather than fermentative pathway. These are increasingly been reported from the cases of nosocomial infections. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken aiming to identify, characterize all nonfermenters and further study of Acinetobacterisolates. Materials and Methods: A total 116 non-fermenters isolated from various specimens obtained from the patients in tertiarycare hospital. Gram negative bacilli which failed to produce acid on Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI were identified by employing battery oftests. The Acinetobacter isolates were further speciated and antimicrobial susceptibility testing done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Non-fermenters isolated were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (69.8%, Acinetobacter species (18.9%,Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.3%, Burkholderia cepacia (3.4%, Alcaligenes fecalis (1.7% and Pseudomonas fluorescens (1.7%. Most of the isolates showed susceptibility to imipenem (86.3% whereasnone of the isolates were sensitive to cephalexin and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: This study highlights that, after Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species is the most common non-fermenter. Majority of the isolates of Acinetobacter Species were ofnosocomial origin and were multidrug resistant, which underlines the importance of proper vigilance of these infections in hospital setting.

  13. Bacterial community in deep subseafloor sediments from the western Pacific "warm pool"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; ZENG RunYing

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial community in deep subseafloor sediments at a depth of 230 cm from the western Pacific "warm pool" is studied by construction of 16S rDNA clone library and PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis. The results indicate that the bacterial community in these sediments is mainly composed of five groups: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, CFB group (Cytophaga / Flexibacteria / Bacteroides), Acidobacteria and gram positive bacteria, with a few genera detected in each group. The most abundant bacteria group is α-Proteobacteria, and the next is β-Proteobacteria. The dominant species in α-and β-Proteobacteria are Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Pseudomonas alcaligenes respectively. The CFB group is simply composed of members belonging to Flavobacterium. The gram positive bacteria are rich, and mainly consists of the genus Geobacillus. The analysis of bacterial community indicates that organic matter is still abundant in the subseafloor sediments at the depth of 230 cm in the western Pacific "warm pool". These bacteria in this deep biosphere may play an important role in the nitrogen cycle of deep sea sediments at "warm pool".

  14. Interactions among phosphate amendments, microbes and uranium mobility in contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)], E-mail: anna.knox@srnl.doe.gov; Brigmon, R.L.; Kaplan, D.I.; Paller, M.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of three types of phosphate (rock phosphate, biological phosphate, and calcium phytate) and two microbial amendments (Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida) on U mobility. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentrations more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31%, respectively. Uranium removal in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of the two microbes. Two sediments were evaluated in experiments on the effects of phosphate amendments on U mobility, one from a stream on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC and the other from the Hanford Site, a Department of Energy facility in Washington state. Increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to a reduction in phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U contaminated sediment was 437 {mu}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {mu}g/kg. The U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx} 0 {mu}g/kg in autoclaved amended sediment treated with autoclaved biological apatite. These results suggest that microbes may reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  15. Long-term Hg pollution-induced structural shifts of bacterial community in the terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) gut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, Ales, E-mail: ales@ifb.s [Institute of Physical Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zrimec, Alexis [Institute of Physical Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Maja [Institute of Public Health Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-10-15

    In previous studies we detected lower species richness and lower Hg sensitivity of the bacteria present in egested guts of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) from chronically Hg polluted than from unpolluted environment. Basis for such results were further investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of mercury-resistant (Hg{sup r}) isolates and clone libraries. We observed up to 385 times higher numbers of Hg{sup r} bacteria in guts of animals from polluted than from unpolluted environment. The majority of Hg{sup r} strains contained merA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones from egested guts of animals from Hg-polluted environments showed elevated number of bacteria from Pseudomonas, Listeria and Bacteroidetes relatives groups. In animals from pristine environment number of bacteria from Achromobacter relatives, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus, Ochrobactrum relatives, Rhizobium/Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Microbacterium groups were elevated. Such bacterial community shifts in guts of animals from Hg-polluted environment could significantly contribute to P. scaber Hg tolerance. - Chronic environmental mercury pollution induces bacterial community shifts and presence of elevated number as well as increased diversity of Hg-resistant bacteria in guts of isopods.

  16. 一株毒死蜱降解细菌的分离鉴定及其在土壤修复中的应用%Isolation and characterization of a chlorpyrifos degrading bacteria and its bioremediation application in the soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 赵宇华; 张炳欣; 张昕

    2005-01-01

    从蔬菜大棚土壤中分离到一株能以毒死蜱为唯一碳源和能源生长的菌株DSP3,该菌在含毒死蜱(100mg/L)的酵母膏和蛋白胨与同样毒死蜱含量而无酵母膏蛋白胨的无机盐培养基中,18d对毒死蜱的降解率分别为98.6%和76.2%;在土壤实验中20d对毒死蜱(100mg/kg)的降解率接近100%,加入DSP3菌在蔬菜大棚新鲜土壤中能有效促进毒死蜱在土壤中的降解.根据生理生化特征、16S rDNA序列分析、(G+C)mol%测定和DNA同源性分析,将菌株DSP3鉴定为粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis).

  17. Survey of bacterial contamination of environment of swimming pools in Yazd city, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infections are readily transmitted as a result of bacterial contamination of swimming pools. Therefore, hygiene and preventing the contamination of swimming pools is of particular importance. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of bacterial contamination in indoor pools of Yazd in 2013. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, all indoor swimming pools of Yazd (12 pools were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2013, in terms of bacterial contamination. In order to determine contamination, a sterile cotton swab was used for sampling. On average, 45 samples were taken from different surfaces in each pool (shower, dressing room, sitting places in sauna, platforms and around the pool. In total, about 540 samples from all pools were tested for bacterial contamination. Results: The results show that from 540 samples, bacterial contamination was observed in about 93 samples (17.22%; and was seen more in showers, edges of the pool and jacuzzis, and the slippers used in swimming pools. The most important isolated bacteria types were E. coli, Actinobacteria, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Conclusion: The results indicate the presence of bacterial contamination on the surface of these places. It is recommended that health authorities should pay more attention to cleaning and disinfecting surfaces around the pool, showers, dressing rooms etc, to prevent infectious disease transfer as a result of contact with contaminated swimming pool surfaces.

  18. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh [Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik and GZMB, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hildmann, Christian; Riester, Daniel; Wegener, Dennis; Schwienhorst, Andreas [Abteilung für Molekulare Genetik und Präparative Molekularbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Grisebachstrasse 8, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@gwdg.de [Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik and GZMB, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of HDAH FB188 in complex with a trifluoromethylketone at 2.2 Å resolution is reported and compared to a previously determined inhibitor complex. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as attractive targets in anticancer drug development. To date, a number of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of them are hydroxamic acid derivatives, typified by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Not surprisingly, structural information that can greatly enhance the design of novel HDAC inhibitors is so far only available for hydroxamic acids in complex with HDAC or HDAC-like enzymes. Here, the first structure of an enzyme complex with a nonhydroxamate HDAC inhibitor is presented. The structure of the trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitor 9,9,9-trifluoro-8-oxo-N-phenylnonanamide in complex with bacterial FB188 HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188) has been determined. HDAH reveals high sequential and functional homology to human class 2 HDACs and a high structural homology to human class 1 HDACs. Comparison with the structure of HDAH in complex with SAHA reveals that the two inhibitors superimpose well. However, significant differences in binding to the active site of HDAH were observed. In the presented structure the O atom of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety is within binding distance of the Zn atom of the enzyme and the F atoms participate in interactions with the enzyme, thereby involving more amino acids in enzyme–inhibitor binding.

  19. "Study on Nutrition Status and Urinary Tract Infection in Elderly People at Nursing Home"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nowroozi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common problem among nursing home residents and encompasses adverse outcomes. This study was conducted to determine malnutrition and urinary tract infections as well as antibiotic resistance of isolated bacteria at Kahrisak nursing home in Tehran city, capital of Iran. Nutritional status was determined by direct detection of kitchen, checking the menue of weekly foods, quality and quantity of each meal for each person. The mean age of patients in this descriptive study was 77.2 years old, (ranging from 60 to 103. Samples of midstream urine from these patients were collected and bacteria were identified by standard bacteriological methods. Then, antibiotic resistance of bacteria was determined. On the basis of nutritional status, the quality and quantity of food for each meal was good and enough. From 520 samples of urine, bacteria were grown only from 81 samples. E. coli was the most common bacteria and the other bacteria were Proteus, Klebsiella, Staphylococci aureus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia. All of bacteria were resistant at different rate to ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and co-trimoxazol, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Malnutrition in this study was less than 30%. This may be due to people helping, qualified foods, well nursing and suitable facility at Kahrizak nursing home.

  20. Implication of human handling on packaged sausage rolls during sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coolborn AKHARAIYI FRED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In other to identify the implication of human handling of packaged sausage rolls after production, a microbiological safety evaluation was carried out on sausage rolls sold on street and in shops. Among the sausage rolls, gala purchased from street vendors has the highest bacterial load of 2.82 × 104 CFU/g and 4.3 × 106 spore/g of fungal load, followed by meaty with bacterial load of 1.71 × 104 CFU/g and fungal load of 1.6 × 105 spore/g and was least in rite sausage roll with 1.46 × 104 CFU/g and 1 × 105 spore/g bacterial and fungal loads respectively. Seventeen bacteria species were isolated from both street vended and shop sold sausage rolls, the isolates identified including: Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ozaenae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Moraxella catarhalis, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas anaerogenes, Aerococcus viridans and Azomonas agilis. Five fungi species were isolated from street vended sausage rolls only. The fungal species are Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium italicum and Gliocephalis spp. From this study, street vended samples have higher microbial contamination than shop sold sausage rolls due to improper handling during sales.

  1. The missing link: Bordetella petrii is endowed with both the metabolic versatility of environmental bacteria and virulence traits of pathogenic Bordetellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneiker-Bekel Susanne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella petrii is the only environmental species hitherto found among the otherwise host-restricted and pathogenic members of the genus Bordetella. Phylogenetically, it connects the pathogenic Bordetellae and environmental bacteria of the genera Achromobacter and Alcaligenes, which are opportunistic pathogens. B. petrii strains have been isolated from very different environmental niches, including river sediment, polluted soil, marine sponges and a grass root. Recently, clinical isolates associated with bone degenerative disease or cystic fibrosis have also been described. Results In this manuscript we present the results of the analysis of the completely annotated genome sequence of the B. petrii strain DSMZ12804. B. petrii has a mosaic genome of 5,287,950 bp harboring numerous mobile genetic elements, including seven large genomic islands. Four of them are highly related to the clc element of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, which encodes genes involved in the degradation of aromatics. Though being an environmental isolate, the sequenced B. petrii strain also encodes proteins related to virulence factors of the pathogenic Bordetellae, including the filamentous hemagglutinin, which is a major colonization factor of B. pertussis, and the master virulence regulator BvgAS. However, it lacks all known toxins of the pathogenic Bordetellae. Conclusion The genomic analysis suggests that B. petrii represents an evolutionary link between free-living environmental bacteria and the host-restricted obligate pathogenic Bordetellae. Its remarkable metabolic versatility may enable B. petrii to thrive in very different ecological niches.

  2. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-11-15

    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  3. Biological Recovery of Platinum Complexes from Diluted Aqueous Streams by Axenic Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Synthia; Props, Ruben; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; De Smet, Rebecca; Vanhaecke, Frank; Boon, Nico; Hennebel, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of platinum in high-tech and catalytic applications has led to the production of diverse Pt loaded wastewaters. Effective recovery strategies are needed for the treatment of low concentrated waste streams to prevent pollution and to stimulate recovery of this precious resource. The biological recovery of five common environmental Pt-complexes was studied under acidic conditions; the chloro-complexes PtCl42- and PtCl62-, the amine-complex Pt(NH3)4Cl2 and the pharmaceutical complexes cisplatin and carboplatin. Five bacterial species were screened on their platinum recovery potential; the Gram-negative species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, Geobacter metallireducens, and Pseudomonas stutzeri, and the Gram-positive species Bacillus toyonensis. Overall, PtCl42- and PtCl62- were completely recovered by all bacterial species while only S. oneidensis and C. metallidurans were able to recover cisplatin quantitatively (99%), all in the presence of H2 as electron donor at pH 2. Carboplatin was only partly recovered (max. 25% at pH 7), whereas no recovery was observed in the case of the Pt-tetraamine complex. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of both intra- and extracellular platinum particles. Flow cytometry based microbial viability assessment demonstrated the decrease in number of intact bacterial cells during platinum reduction and indicated C. metallidurans to be the most resistant species. This study showed the effective and complete biological recovery of three common Pt-complexes, and estimated the fate and transport of the Pt-complexes in wastewater treatment plants and the natural environment. PMID:28046131

  4. Formation of asymmetrical structured silica controlled by a phase separation process and implication for biosilicification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH34 as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL and dodecylamine (DA were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, infrared spectra (IR, and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines, phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification.

  5. The complete multipartite genome sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a versatile pollutant degrader.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Lykidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium able to grow on a variety of aromatic and chloroaromatic compounds as its sole carbon and energy source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Its genome consists of four replicons (two chromosomes and two plasmids containing a total of 6631 protein coding genes. Comparative analysis identified 1910 core genes common to the four genomes compared (C. necator JMP134, C. necator H16, C. metallidurans CH34, R. solanacearum GMI1000. Although secondary chromosomes found in the Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia lineages are all derived from plasmids, analyses of the plasmid partition proteins located on those chromosomes indicate that different plasmids gave rise to the secondary chromosomes in each lineage. The C. necator JMP134 genome contains 300 genes putatively involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds and encodes most of the central ring-cleavage pathways. This strain also shows additional metabolic capabilities towards alicyclic compounds and the potential for catabolism of almost all proteinogenic amino acids. This remarkable catabolic potential seems to be sustained by a high degree of genetic redundancy, most probably enabling this catabolically versatile bacterium with different levels of metabolic responses and alternative regulation necessary to cope with a challenging environment. From the comparison of Cupriavidus genomes, it is possible to state that a broad metabolic capability is a general trait for Cupriavidus genus, however certain specialization towards a nutritional niche (xenobiotics degradation, chemolithoautotrophy or symbiotic nitrogen fixation seems to be shaped mostly by the acquisition of "specialized" plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The availability of the complete genome sequence for C. necator JMP134 provides the groundwork for further elucidation of the mechanisms and regulation of chloroaromatic compound biodegradation.

  6. Characterization of pbt genes conferring increased Pb2+ and Cd2+ tolerance upon Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložková, Kateřina; Suman, Jáchym; Strnad, Hynek; Ruml, Tomas; Paces, Vaclav; Kotrba, Pavel

    2013-12-01

    The cluster of pbtTFYRABC genes is carried by plasmid pA81. Its elimination from Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8 resulted in increased sensitivity towards Pb(2+) and Cd(2+). Predicted pbtTRABC products share strong similarities with Pb(2+) uptake transporter PbrT, transcriptional regulator PbrR, metal efflux P1-ATPases PbrA and CadA, undecaprenyl pyrophosphatase PbrB and its signal peptidase PbrC from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. Expression of pbtABC or pbtA in a metal-sensitive Escherichia coli GG48 rendered the strain Pb(2+)-, Cd(2+)- and Zn(2+)-tolerant and caused decreased accumulation of the metal ions. Accumulation of Pb(2+), but not of Cd(2+) or Zn(2+), was promoted in E. coli expressing pbtT. Additional genes of the pbt cluster are pbtF and pbtY, which encode the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF)-like transporter and a putative fatty acid hydroxylase of unknown function, respectively. Expression of pbtF did not confer increased metal tolerance upon E. coli GG48, although the protein showed measurable Pb(2+)-efflux activity. Unlike the pbtT promoter, promoters of pbtABC, pbtF and pbtY contain features characteristic of promoters controlled by metal-responsive transcriptional regulators of the MerR family. Upregulation of pbtABC, pbtF and pbtY upon Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) exposure was confirmed in wild-type Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8. Gel shift assays proved binding of purified PbtR to the respective promoters.

  7. Biodegradation of carbendazim by a highly effective combined bacterial culture%高效复合菌对多菌灵的生物降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤晓; 孔洁; 由焦化; 呼世斌; 秦宝福

    2011-01-01

    将多菌灵降解菌Alcaligenes sp.和Rhodococcua sp.(编号为A和R)按不同比例进行复配,并采用三波长校正法和HPLC法测定不同复配降解体系中多菌灵的残留量,比较了纯培养和复合菌群对多菌灵的降解效果,最后对高效复合菌的降解条件进行了优化.试验结果表明,得到的高效降解复合菌群AR5(A∶R复配比例1∶4),培养24 h后可完全降解100mg·L-1的多菌灵,对200mg·L-1多菌灵的降解率为74.25%,明显优于单一菌株的降解效果.同时,该复合菌群对高浓度多菌灵也具有较好的耐受和降解能力,72 h内可将初始浓度为600 mg·L-1的多菌灵降解至10mg·L-1左右.正交优化试验结果表明,该复合菌群的最优降解条件为温度30℃、pH=6.0、接种量7%,该条件下多菌灵的降解率可达75.76%.添加少量氮源(如尿素和酵母浸粉)可以促进复合菌对多菌灵的生物降解.%Two carbendazim-degrading strains, an Alcaligenes sp. designated A and a Rhodococcus sp. designated R, were mixed in different proportions to develop a highly effective bacterial consortium, whose degradation conditions were then optimized. During the test, a ternary wavelength spectrophotometric method and HPLC were used to determine the residual carbendazim in the culture medium, based on which the degradation rates of individual strains and the combined bacteria were calculated. The combined bacterial consortium AR5 showed optimal degradation capability and could completely degrade 100 mg· L - 1 carbondazim within 24 hours of cultivation, while the degrading rate for 200 mg· L - 1 carbendazim reached 74.25%,which was superior to that of either individual strain alone. Moreover, the mixed culture had excellent tolerance and degradation ability against carbendazim of high concentrations, as carbendazim at 600 mg· L-1 was degraded to about 10 mg· L-1 within 72 hours. The result of an orthogonal optimization experiment showed that the optimal

  8. Biodiversity of Mesophilic Microbial Community BYND-8 Capability of Lignocellulose Degradation and Its Effect on Biogas Production%复合菌系BYND-8的种群组成及其对沼气产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟东; 宋亚彬; 王彦杰; 高亚梅; 荆瑞勇; 崔宗均

    2011-01-01

    为了明确1组在中温下(30℃)高效分解木质纤维素的复合菌系的菌群组成.研究复合菌系预处理秸秆对沼气发酵的影响,利用平板分离法和变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)法研究了中温木质纤维素降解复合菌系BYND-8的菌种组成多样性,通过添加该复合系菌液到以牛粪为原料的沼气发酵体系,研究了添加秸秆降解液对沼气产量的影响.利用平板法分离得到了6株细菌,它们与Serratia sp.PSGB 13、Serratia marcescens strain UFLA-25LS、Serratia marcescens strain DAP33、Alcaligenes sp.YcX-20、Stenotrophomonas mahophilia strain c6和Bacillus cereus isolate BRL02-71的相似率分别达到了99%、100%、96%、100%、100%和99%.同时利用DGGE方法还检测到了1株利用平板分离法没有获得到的细菌,它的16S rDNA V3区的序列与Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1446具有100%的同源性.稻秆经复合菌系BYND-8预处理后应用于沼气发酵中,在发酵的前15d内,累积产气量达到13 167 mL,甲烷产量达到7 248 mL.比对照分别提高了44.5%和95.3%.复合菌系具有较高的菌种组成多样性,将复合菌系应用于沼气发酵的原料预处理过程中,可以将产气时间提前,并提高产气量.%The biodiversity of a mesophilic microbial community BYND-8 capable of degrading lignocellulose at 30℃ was detected using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE) and the isolation of pure cultures, and the effect of the liquid of rice straw degradation by BYND-8 on biogas production was measured. Six bacterial strains were isolated using peptone cellulose solution medium, and the highest similarities of their 16S rDNA gene sequences to Serratia sp. PSGB 13, S. marcescens strain UFLA-25LS, S. marcescens strain DAP33, Alcaligenes sp. YcX-20, Stenotrophomonus maltophilia strain C6, Bacillus cereus isolate BRL02-71 were 99% , 100% , 96% ,100% , 100% and 99% , respectively. In addition, one band was detected besides six bands of

  9. 郫县豆瓣中可培养细菌多样性分析及酶活性初筛%IsoIation of CuIturabIe Microorganisms in Pixian Bean Paste and Its PhyIogenetic Diversity AnaIysis and Enzyme Activity Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉平; 车振明; 关统伟; 董丹; 张怡; 张静; 李可; 郑萍; 陈健骁; 马力

    2015-01-01

    In order to study and improve the application of modern biological science and technology to the traditional food production,the method of culture-dependent method and the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence are used.Microorganisms isolated from Pixian bean paste are studied. Thirty-five typical strains are sequenced and analyzed diversity duplicate removal from 2 1 9 cultured strains.The research results show that,Pixian bean paste has a rich microbial diversity,which including eight genera,including Bacillus which is the dominant group,accounting for 59.8%,and 11.4% for Myroides,5.72% for Providencia,5.72% for Alcaligenes,2.86% for Massilia,2.86%for Virgibacillus,2.86% for Morganella,2.86% for Geobacillus,2.86% for Fictibacillus.The results of screening of amylase and protease show that the microbial from bean paste with high enzyme activity ,among which ,the positive strains produce protease accounting for 70.1%,the positive strains produce amylase accounting for 64.8%.This study provides theoretical basis and production materials for large-scale modernized production.%为了将现代生物科学技术应用于传统食品生产的研究和改良,应用纯培养方法和基于16 S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析,对郫县豆瓣中的细菌进行了研究,对所得的219株纯培养细菌经去重后的35株典型菌株进行了16 S rRNA 基因测序和多样性分析。研究结果表明,郫县豆瓣中细菌多样性丰富,包含8个属,其中Bacillus是优势类群,占所有菌株比例达59.8%;另外还含有 Myroides(11.4%), Providencia(5.72%),Alcaligenes (5.72%),Massilia (2.86%),Virgibacillus (2.86%),Morganella (2.86%),Geobacillus(2.86%),Fictibacillus(2.86%)。淀粉酶和蛋白酶筛选结果表明,豆瓣细菌具有良好的产酶活性,其中产蛋白酶的阳性菌株占70.1%,产淀粉酶阳性菌株占64.8%。该研究为

  10. Contagem, isolamento e caracterização de bactérias psicrotróficas contaminantes de leite cru refrigerado Counting, isolation and characterization of psychrotrophic bacteria from refrigerated raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Froeder Arcuri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de quantificar, isolar e caracterizar bactérias psicrotróficas contaminantes de leite cru refrigerado, produzido na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais e Sudeste do Rio de Janeiro, foram analisadas amostras de leite coletadas de 20 tanques coletivos e 23 tanques individuais. As contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas nas amostras de leite para os dois tipos de tanques de refrigeração variaram entre 10² e 10(7 Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFC ml-1, porém, um maior número de tanques coletivos apresentou contagens acima de 1 x 10(5 UFC ml-1. Foi verificada a predominância de bactérias psicrotróficas gram-negativas (81,2%, que foram identificadas pelos sistemas API 20E e API 20NE nos gêneros: Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Burkholderia,Chryseomonas, Enterobacter, Ewingella, Klebsiella, Hafnia, Methylobacterium, Moraxella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingomonas e Yersinia. As bactérias gram-positivas (18,8% foram identificadas com API 50 CH, API Coryne e API Staph, nos gêneros: Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Cellum/Microbacterium, Kurthia e Staphylococcus. Os sistemas API utilizados não identificaram todos os isolados bacterianos. Pseudomonas foi o gênero mais isolado e P. fluorescens foi a espécie predominante. A maioria dos isolados bacterianos apresentou atividade proteolítica e/ou lipolítica a temperaturas de refrigeração de 4°C, 7°C e 10°C, evidenciando seu alto potencial de deterioração do leite e dos produtos lácteos. Os resultados ressaltam que maior atenção deve ser dada aos procedimentos que impeçam a contaminação do leite por esses microrganismos.This study aimed to quantify, isolate and characterize psychrotrophic bacteria from refrigerated raw milk produced at the ‘Mata’ Region of Minas Gerais State and Southeast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Raw milk samples, were collected at the farms, from 20 collective refrigerated tanks and 23 individual refrigerated tanks

  11. POTENTIAL USE OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA TO CONTROL Pratylenchus brachyurus ON PATCHOULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is an important parasitic nematode which significantly decreases quality and quantity of patchouli oil. One potential measure for controlling the nematode is by using endophytic bacteria. These bacteria also induce plant growth. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endo-phytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus. The experiments were carried out in the Bacteriological Laboratory of the Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University, and the Laboratory and Greenhouse of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute from April to December 2007. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the roots of patchouli plants sampled from various locations in West Java. Antagonistic activity of the isolates were selected against P. brachyurus and their abilities to induce plant growth of patch-ouli plants. Isolates having ability to control P. brachyurus and promote plant growth were identified by molecular techniques using 16S rRNA universal primers. The results showed that a total of 257 isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained from patchouli roots and their population density varied from 2.3 x 102 to 6.0 x 105 cfu g-1 fresh root. As many as 60 isolates (23.34% were antagonistic against P. brachyurus causing 70-100% mortality of the namatode, 72 isolates (28.01% stimu-lated plant growth, 32 isolates (12.47% inhibited plant growth, and 93 isolates (36.18% were neutral. Based on their antago-nistic and plant growth enhancer characters, five isolates of the bacteria, namely Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK, and Bacillus subtilis NJ57 suppressed 74.0-81.6% nema-tode population and increased 46.97-86.79% plant growth. The study implies that the endophytic bacteria isolated from patchouly roots are good candidates for controlling P. brachyurus on patchouly plants. Bahasa IndonesiaPratylenchus brachyurus adalah nematoda parasit pada

  12. Microorganisms associated with post-harvest green olives deteriorations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid, M.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered green olive fruits harvested by the pole slender method were studied for the microorganisms involved in post-harvest alterations of the fruits before the fermentation process. The determinations included: standard plate count, Gram-negative bacteria (conforms and pseudomonads, bacillus, and yeasts. Results showed that the alterations are due first to yeasts and their interactions with pseudomonads and conforms. The most frequent yeasts were represented by the species: Debaryomyces hansenii, Rodothorula glutinis, Pichia membranefaciens, P. Anomala and Candida Bacarum. Gram-negative fermenting bacteria were represented by the species: Envinia carotovora, Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. Aerogenes and Serratia marcescens, S. liquefaciens and Shigella flexneri. The oxidase-positive bacteria were most abundant and mainly dominated by Pseudomonas species including P. aeruginosa, P. alcaligenes and P. Syringae. Most of the isolates of these microorganisms were cellulolytic and lipolytic. bacillus especies were also isolated and identified. The main species were Bacillus megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. olei. Bacillus species seem not involved in olive deteriorations

    Se estudiaron los microorganismos envueltos en las alteraciones postcosecha de aceitunas verdes alteradas recolectadas mediante el método de vareo y antes del proceso de fermentación. Las determinaciones incluyeron: recuento estándar en placa, bacterias gram-negativa (coliformes y pseudomonas, bacillus y levaduras. Los resultados mostraron que las alteraciones son debidas en primer lugar a las levaduras y a sus interaciones con pseudomonas y coliformes. Las levaduras más frecuentes estuvieron representadas por las especies: Debaryomyces hansenii, Rodothorula glutinis, Pichia membranefaciens, P. anómala y Candida bacarum. Las bacterias gram

  13. Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana em desinfetantes de uso domiciliar Evaluation of bacterial contamination in disinfectants for domestic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumie Miyagi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar desinfetantes de uso domiciliar, identificando a presença de bactérias contaminantes, e conhecer o nível de tolerância dessas bactérias ao cloreto de benzalcônio. MÉTODOS: Foram adquiridas aleatoriamente no comércio da região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, 52 amostras de desinfetantes de uso domiciliar para análise quanto à presença de bactérias contaminantes. O nível de tolerância dessas bactérias ao cloreto de benzalcônio foi determinado pelo método da macrodiluição em caldo. RESULTADOS: De 52 amostras, 16 (30,77% estavam contaminadas por bactérias Gram negativas, com contagens variando entre 10(4 e 10(6 UFC/ml. Esses contaminantes foram identificados como Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Burkholderia cepacia e Serratia marcescens. As Concentrações Inibitórias Mínimas (CIM: mg/ml do cloreto de benzalcônio para S. marcescens, A. xylosoxidans e B. cepacia foram: 2,48, 1,23 e 0,30, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES Os desinfetantes de uso domiciliar à base de compostos de amônio quaternário são passíveis de contaminação por bactérias. As CIM do cloreto de benzalcônio para as bactérias contaminantes estavam abaixo das concentrações do princípio ativo presente nos desinfetantes, indicando que a tolerância ao biocida não é estável, podendo ser perdida com o cultivo das bactérias em meios de cultura sem o biocida.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate disinfectants for domestic use for the presence of bacteria, identify them, and determine their tolerance level to benzalkonium chloride. METHODS: Fifty-two samples of commercially available disinfectants for domestic use were acquired at random in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed to detect the presence of bacterial contaminants. The isolated organisms were identified and their tolerance level to benzalkonium chloride was determined by broth macrodilution method. RESULTS: Sixteen (30.77% of fifty-two disinfectants sampled were

  14. Avaliação da microbiota ocular em pacientes com disfunção do filme lacrimal Evaluation of conjunctival flora in patients with tear film dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Megumi Tomimatsu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a microbiota conjuntival em olhos com disfunção do filme lacrimal, e a modificação desta microbiota após a colocação de plug de silicone no canalículo inferior. MÉTODOS: Série de casos intervencionais não comparativos para avaliar 68 olhos de 41 pacientes com disfunção do filme lacrimal, durante o período de 2002 a 2007, na Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à colheita de amostras de raspado conjuntival de fundo-de-saco inferior para cultivo em Brain heart infusion broth. Os vinte e dois pacientes submetidos à colocação de plug de silicone repetiram a colheita de raspado conjuntival um mês após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: Dos 68 olhos avaliados, 47 apresentaram crescimento bacteriano nas amostras colhidas. Nove diferentes espécies de bactérias foram identificadas: Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em 66,66%, Staphylococcus aureus em 13,72%, Corynebacterium sp em 5,86%, Enterobacter aerogenes em 3,92%, Streptococcus hemolítico do grupo viridans em 1,96%, Serratia sp em 1,96%, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans spp em 1,96%, Corynebacterium xerosis em 1,96%, e Proteus mirabilis em 1,96%. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais frequentemente isolado tanto antes quanto após o plug de silicone. A sensibilidade do SCN à Oxacilina antes da colocação do plug era de 87,50%, e, após, de 73,68%. CONCLUSÃO: A microbiota em olhos com disfunção do filme lacrimal é bastante semelhante à encontrada em olhos normais. A resistência de SCN à Oxacilina foi um pouco maior após o implante do plug de silicone.PURPOSE: To evaluate conjunctival microbiota in eyes with tear film dysfunction and its modification after punctal occlusion with silicone plug. METHODS: Non comparative interventional case series study to evaluate 68 eyes of 41 patients with tear film dysfunction, from 2002 to 2007, followed in Federal University of Sao Paulo. Samples for culture were all

  15. Bacterial community structure in treated sewage sludge with mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborova, Hana; Wolfram, Jan; Demnerova, Katerina; Macek, Tomas; Uhlik, Ondrej

    2015-11-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge is applied to agricultural fields and farmland due to its high organic matter content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of sludge stabilization, mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), on bacterial communities in sludge, including the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial community structure and phylogenetic diversity were analyzed in four sewage sludge samples from the Czech Republic. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes showed that investigated sludge samples harbor diverse bacterial populations with only a few taxa present across all samples. Bacterial diversity was higher in sludge samples after MAD versus TAD treatment, and communities in MAD-treated sludge shared the highest genetic similarities. In all samples, the bacterial community was dominated by reads affiliated with Proteobacteria. The sludge after TAD treatment had considerably higher number of reads of thermotolerant/thermophilic taxa, such as the phyla Deinococcus-Thermus and Thermotogae or the genus Coprothermobacter. Only one operational taxonomic unit (OTU), which clustered with Rhodanobacter, was detected in all communities at a relative abundance >1 %. All of the communities were screened for the presence of 16S rRNA gene sequences of pathogenic bacteria using a database of 122 pathogenic species and ≥98 % identity threshold. The abundance of such sequences ranged between 0.23 and 1.57 % of the total community, with lower numbers present after the TAD treatment, indicating its higher hygienization efficiency. Sequences clustering with nontuberculous mycobacteria were present in all samples. Other detected sequences of pathogenic bacteria included Streptomyces somaliensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Gordonia spp., Legionella anisa, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Enterobacter aerogenes, Brucella melitensis, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C(15)-C(27)) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C(0)- to C(2)- naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C(28)-C(40)) and to 55-80% for the C(3) derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C(3)-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs.

  17. Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana em desinfetantes de uso domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyagi Fumie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar desinfetantes de uso domiciliar, identificando a presença de bactérias contaminantes, e conhecer o nível de tolerância dessas bactérias ao cloreto de benzalcônio. MÉTODOS: Foram adquiridas aleatoriamente no comércio da região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, 52 amostras de desinfetantes de uso domiciliar para análise quanto à presença de bactérias contaminantes. O nível de tolerância dessas bactérias ao cloreto de benzalcônio foi determinado pelo método da macrodiluição em caldo. RESULTADOS: De 52 amostras, 16 (30,77% estavam contaminadas por bactérias Gram negativas, com contagens variando entre 10(4 e 10(6 UFC/ml. Esses contaminantes foram identificados como Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Burkholderia cepacia e Serratia marcescens. As Concentrações Inibitórias Mínimas (CIM: mg/ml do cloreto de benzalcônio para S. marcescens, A. xylosoxidans e B. cepacia foram: 2,48, 1,23 e 0,30, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES Os desinfetantes de uso domiciliar à base de compostos de amônio quaternário são passíveis de contaminação por bactérias. As CIM do cloreto de benzalcônio para as bactérias contaminantes estavam abaixo das concentrações do princípio ativo presente nos desinfetantes, indicando que a tolerância ao biocida não é estável, podendo ser perdida com o cultivo das bactérias em meios de cultura sem o biocida.

  18. Screening of marine bacteria with bacteriocin-like activities and probiotic potential for ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Duy; Pham, Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Hai Thanh; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Hoj, Lone

    2014-09-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, which have been found in diverse bacterial species of terrestrial origins and some from the sea. New bacteriocins with new characteristics, new origins and new applications are likely still awaiting discovery. The present study screened bacteria isolated from marine animals of interest to the aquaculture industry for antimicrobial and bacteriocin-like activities in order to uncover biodiversity of bacteriocin producers, and explore the potential application in aquaculture. In total, 24 of 100 screened isolates showed antimicrobial activities and 7 of these exerted bacteriocin-like activities. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes identified the isolates as members of the six genera Proteus, Providencia, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Enterococcus. In some cases, further analysis of housekeeping genes, rpoB for Proteus and recA for Klebsiella, as well as biochemical tests was necessary for identification to species level, and some of the Proteus isolates may represent novel species. The seven bacteriocinogenic isolates showed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against foodborne and animal pathogens, which opens the way to their potential use as marine drugs and probiotics in food, aquaculture, livestock and clinical settings. As a case study, the protective effect of shortlisted bacteriocinogenic isolates were tested in aquaculture-raised spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles. A single-strain (Bacillus pumilus B3.10.2B) and a three-strain (B. pumilus B3.10.2B, Bacillus cereus D9, Lactobacillus plantarum T13) probiotic preparation were added to the feed of Panulirus ornatus juveniles, which were subsequently challenged with the pathogen Vibrio owensii DY05. Juveniles in the probiotic treatments displayed increased growth and reduced feed conversion rates after 60 days, and increased survival rate after pathogen challenge relative to the control. This study represents the first evidence of bacteriocin

  19. Primary identification of nitrogen fixation bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of 4 species of grasses in Xilingol Grassland of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古锡林郭勒天然草原禾本科牧草根际18株固氮细菌的初步分类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红丽; 庞保平; 靳润岁; 樊明寿

    2011-01-01

    采用16SrDNA测序方法对从内蒙古锡林郭勒天然草原四种主要禾本科牧草根际分离获得的18个固氮菌株进行属水平的鉴定,结果表明:其中7株属于土壤杆菌属(Agrobacterium)、3株属于产碱菌属(Alcali-genes)、1株属于固氮菌属(Azotobacter)、1株属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、3株属于假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、2株属于鞘氨醇单胞菌属(Sphingomonas),1株经16SrDNA序列分析和Biolog试验尚未找到与之相匹配的菌株,可能是一个新种。%Eighteen strains of N Fixation bacteria were identified by using 16sDNA sequence analysis at species level,which were isolated from rhizosphere of 4 species of gramineous grasses in Xilingol Grassland of Inner Mongolia.The results showed that 7strains of them belong to Agrobacterium,and there were 3 strains in Alcaligenes,3 strains in Pseudomonas,2 strains in Sphingomonas,1 strain each in Azotobacter and stran in Bacillus.One strain of N fixation bacterium was not identified because there was not similiar16sDNA sequence in 16sDNA bank which could fit it.Futher biolog analysis for the strain suggested it might be new species which need to test by using whole DNA sequence.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of 81.723 hfu, a new pleuromutilin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, J; Georgopoulos, A; Laber, G; Schütze, E; Unger, J

    1975-05-01

    The new pleuromutilin derivative 81.723 hfu is extremely active against gram-positive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci, and against mycoplasmas. A number of Shigella, Klebsiella, and Escherichia coli strains were also found to be quite susceptible to this new agent, whereas other gram-negative organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Alcaligenes faecalis proved to be naturally resistant to 81.723 hfu. The new compound acts bacteriostatically. Bactericidal effects have been observed only at concentrations which are 100-fold higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The new antibiotic is well tolerated in all animal species tested so far and has been successfully used in the treatment of experimental infections with gram-positive organisms and with mycoplasmas in mice and rats. Resistance against this new compound arose gradually in all microorganisms investigated. It is noteworthy that the rate at which resistance against 81.723 hfu emerged in mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma hyorhinis) was significantly slower than the corresponding rate at which resistance against tylosin tartrate appeared. Mycoplasma strains which became insensitive to 81.723 hfu were also resistant to tylosin tartrate, whereas mycoplasmas which developed resistance against tylosin tartrate, although less sensitive to 81.723 hfu than wild-type strains, were still eliminated by this drug. In a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, complete cross-resistance was observed between the pleuromutilin derivative on one hand and lincomycin and erythromycin on the other. Modest degrees of cross-resistance were also observed with chloramphenicol. However, it appears unlikely that the latter phenomenon is sufficiently pronounced to affect treatment with either antibiotic.

  1. Optimization of technological conditions for one-pot synthesis of (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl acetate in organic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ting-zhou; YANG Li-rong; ZHU Zi-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Optically active form of α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (CPB) alcohol, building block of pyrethroid insecticides, was synthesized as its acetate by the combination of anion-exchange resin (D301)-catalyzed transcyanation between m-phenoxybenzaldehyde (m-PBA) and acetone cyanohydrin (AC), and lipase (from Alcaligenes sp.)-catalyzed enantioselective transesterification of the resulting cyanohydrin with vinyl acetate. Through optimizing technological conditions, the catalyzing efficiency was improved considerably compared to methods previously reported. Concentrations of CPB acetate were determined by gas chromatograph. The enantio excess (e.e.) values of CPB acetate were measured by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) method. Effects of solvents and temperatures on this reaction were studied. Cyclohexane was shown to be the best solvent among the three tested solvents. 55 ℃ was the optimal temperature for higher degree of conversion. External diffusion limitation was excluded by raising the rotational speed to 220 r/min. However, internal diffusion could not be ignored, since the catalyst (lipase) was an immobilized enzyme and its particle dimension was not made small enough. The reaction rate was substantially accelerated when the reactant (m-PBA) concentration was as high as 249 mmol/L, but decreased when the initial concentration of m-PBA reached to 277 mmol/L. It was also found that the catalyzing capability of recovered lipase was high enough to use several batches. Study of the mole ratio of AC to m-PBA showed that 2:1 was the best choice. The strategy of adding base catalyst D301 was found to be an important factor in improving the degree of conversion of the reaction from 20% to 80%. The highest degree of conversion of the reaction has reached up to 80%.

  2. On-line optical and X-ray spectroscopies with crystallography: an integrated approach for determining metalloprotein structures in functionally well defined states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark J; Buffey, Steven G; Hough, Michael A; Hasnain, S Samar

    2008-09-01

    X-ray-induced redox changes can lead to incorrect assignments of the functional states of metals in metalloprotein crystals. The need for on-line monitoring of the status of metal ions (and other chromophores) during protein crystallography experiments is of growing importance with the use of intense synchrotron X-ray beams. Significant efforts are therefore being made worldwide to combine different spectroscopies in parallel with X-ray crystallographic data collection. Here the implementation and utilization of optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopies on the modern macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline 10, at the SRS, Daresbury Laboratory, is described. This beamline is equipped with a dedicated monolithic energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence detector, allowing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements to be made in situ on the same crystal used to record the diffraction data. In addition, an optical microspectrophotometer has been incorporated on the beamline, thus facilitating combined MX, XAS and optical spectroscopic measurements. By uniting these techniques it is also possible to monitor the status of optically active and optically silent metal centres present in a crystal at the same time. This unique capability has been applied to observe the results of crystallographic data collection on crystals of nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, which contains both type-1 and type-2 Cu centres. It is found that the type-1 Cu centre photoreduces quickly, resulting in the loss of the 595 nm peak in the optical spectrum, while the type-2 Cu centre remains in the oxidized state over a much longer time period, for which independent confirmation is provided by XAS data as this centre has an optical spectrum which is barely detectable using microspectrophotometry. This example clearly demonstrates the importance of using two on-line methods, spectroscopy and XAS, for identifying well defined redox states of metalloproteins during

  3. Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

    2011-10-15

    The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

  4. In-situ sanitation of hydrocarbon polluted soils. Vol. 2. Subordinate project: Microbial studies on hydrocarbon degradation. Final report; In-Situ-Sanierung kohlenwasserstoffbelasteter Boeden. Bd. 2. Teilprojekt: Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zum Kohlenwasserstoffabbau. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommeranz, S.; Boldrin, B.; Tiehm, A.; Zipperle, J.; Fritzsche, C.; Zumft, W.

    1993-09-01

    Reinkulturen isoliert. Dies zeigte, dass sich die autochthonen Populationen an den Schadensfall angepasst haben und PAK-verwertende Mikroorganismen im Boden vorhanden waren (bis zu 70% aller Isolate einer Probe). Die PAK-verwertenden Bakterien gehoerten zu verschiedenen Gattungen: viele wurden als Pseudomonas sp. identifiziert, aber auch Alcaligenes sp., Acinetobacter sp. und Mycobacterium sp. wurden nachgewiesen. (orig./EF)

  5. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Edna Donizetti Rossi; Germini, Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Lobo, Patrícia dos Santos; Fraga, Valéria Daltibari; Conceição, Luciana Moran; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Rossit, Andréa Regina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens. PMID:25651323

  6. Biodegradation of the major color containing compounds in distillery wastewater by an aerobic bacterial culture and characterization of their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Chandra, Ram

    2010-09-01

    This study deals the biodegradation of the major color containing compounds extracted from distillery wastewater (DWW) by an aerobic bacterial consortium comprising Bacillus licheniformis (DQ79010), Bacillus sp. (DQ779011) and Alcaligenes sp. (DQ779012) and characterization of metabolic products. The degradation of color containing compounds by bacteria was studied by using the different carbon and nitrogen sources at different environmental conditions. Results revealed that the bacterial consortium was efficient for 70% color removal in presence of glucose (1.0%) and peptone (0.1%) at pH 7.0 and temperature 37 degrees C. The HPLC analysis of control and bacterial degraded samples has shown the reduction in peak area as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the bacterial degradation as well as transformation of color containing compounds from DWW. The comparative LC-MS-MS and other spectrophotometric analysis has shown the presence of dihydroxyconiferyl alcohol, 2, 2'-bifuran-5-carboxylic acid, 2-nitroacetophenone, p-chloroanisol, 2, 3-dimethyl-pyrazine, 2-methylhexane, methylbenzene, 2, 3-dihydro-5-methylfuran, 3-pyrroline, and acetic acid in control samples that were biodegraded and biotransformed into 2-nitroacetophenone, p-chloroanisol, 2, 2'-bifuran, indole, 2-methylhexane, and 2, 3-dihydro-5-methylfuran by bacterial consortium. In this study, it was observed that most of the compounds detected in control samples were diminished from the bacterial degraded samples and compounds 2, 2'-bifuran and indole with molecular weight 134 and 117 were produced as new metabolites during the bacterial degradation of color containing compounds from DWW.

  7. Imidase catalyzing desymmetric imide hydrolysis forming optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Masutoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shizawa, Hiroaki; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Yasohara, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The recent use of optically active 3-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs in human therapeutics has identified a need for an efficient, stereoselective method of their synthesis. Here, bacterial strains were screened for enzymes capable of stereospecific hydrolysis of 3-substituted glutarimides to generate (R)-3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides. The bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis NBRC13111 and Burkholderia phytofirmans DSM17436 were discovered to hydrolyze 3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutarimide (CGI) to (R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutaric acid monoamide (CGM) with 98.1% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) and 97.5% e.e., respectively. B. phytofirmans DSM17436 could also hydrolyze 3-isobutyl glutarimide (IBI) to produce (R)-3-isobutyl glutaric acid monoamide (IBM) with 94.9% e.e. BpIH, an imidase, was purified from B. phytofirmans DSM17436 and found to generate (R)-CGM from CGI with specific activity of 0.95 U/mg. The amino acid sequence of BpIH had a 75% sequence identity to that of allantoinase from A. faecalis NBRC13111 (AfIH). The purified recombinant BpIH and AfIH catalyzed (R)-selective hydrolysis of CGI and IBI. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the enzymatic properties of BpIH and AfIH revealed that both enzymes were stable in the range of pH 6-10, with an optimal pH of 9.0, stable at temperatures below 40 °C, and were not metalloproteins. These results indicate that the use of this class of hydrolase to generate optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamide could simplify the production of specific chiral GABA analogs for drug therapeutics.

  8. 西太平洋"暖池"海床深部沉积物中的细菌类群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 曾润颖

    2008-01-01

    通过16s rDNA克隆文库构建、PCR-RFLP分析等方法,对西太平洋"暖池"区海床以下230 cm深度的沉积物中的细菌类群组成进行了分析.结果表明该海区深部沉积物中的细菌类群主要包括α-变形菌(Proteobacteria),β-变形菌、CFB类群(CytophagaIFlexibacteria/Bacteroides)、酸杆菌(Acidobacteira)和革兰氏阳性菌等,各个类群的菌属组成均较为简单.其中α-变形菌为最优势菌群,β-变形菌为次优势菌群,它们的优势菌种分别为少动鞘氨醇单胞菌(Sphingomonas paucimobilis)和产碱假单胞菌(Pseudomonas alcaligenes).CFB类群中的细菌种类较为单一,主要为黄杆菌属(Flavobacterium).革兰氏阳性菌在该深度沉积物中的数量也较多,主要为地芽孢杆菌属(Geobacillus).对细菌类群的分析表明西太平洋"暖池"区该深度的沉积物中仍然存在较为丰富的有机物质,而这些深部生物圈中的细菌在"暖池"区海底沉积物环境的氮循环中可能起着重要的作用.

  9. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Jusak; Marpaung, Ferdy R; Tam, Frankie C H; Lim, Pak Leong

    2012-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP) to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days) and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days) were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured), TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored]) i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days), costs and manpower.

  10. [Culture and differentiation of obligatory aerobic gram-negative rods from human material; a scheme for application in routine diagnosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Graevenitz, A; Grehn, M

    1976-12-01

    The diagnosis of obligately aerobic Gram-negative rods in the clinical laboratory may encounter difficulties since media used for Enterobacteriacae are only partially usable for the diagnosis of this group of bacteria (Psuedomonas, Xanthomonas, Alcaligenes, Achromobacter, Brucella, Bordetella, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Acinetobacter, and some still unnamed taxa). We have developed a diagnostic scheme, based on recent publications in the field and representing an extension of earlier tables from this and other laboratories, which attempts to classify a maximal number of obligately aerobic Gram-negative rods with a minimal number of tests. The scheme, employed on 4051 strains, used blood agar and MacConkey Agar as isolation media. Growth characteristics on these media and microscopic morphology may be of help, but only the type of growth on Triple Sugar Iron (or Kligler's) Agar is characteristic for the group as a whole (no growth in the butt, alkalinization or no pH change on the slant). A primary identification series employs tests for oxidase (Kovacs), oxidation of glucose and xylose (in OF medium), deoxyribonuclease and indole (in DNase Test Agar with Methyl Green), nitrate reduction (in Indole Nitrite Medium), motility (hanging drop), and fluorescein production (on Flo Agar). Results of Kirby-Bauer antimicrobial sensitivity testing serve as additional (colistin) or confirmatory criteria. Incubation is at 30 degrees C for 24-48 hrs. If a diagnosis is not possible than, a secondary series, including tests for lysine decarboxylase (tablets), 4 hr urease, esculin hydrolysis, growth at 42 C and on SS Agar, gelatin liquefaction, and flagellar staining may have to be used, and read after 4-24 hrs at 30 degrees C. Five tables, drawn up according to oxidase, glucose, and xylose reactions, serve to identify the species or taxa. Biotypes cannot be differentiated. The scheme will need updating as more knowledge of these bacteria will become available.

  11. Identification of nif genes in N2-fixing bacterial strains isolated from rice fields along the Yangtze River Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang Hui; Cui, Zongjun; Yu, Jun; Yan, Jing; Hai, Weili; Steinberger, Yosef

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify nifH and nifHDKYE ' genes in twenty strains of N2-fixing heterotrophic bacteria isolated from rice fields in the Yangtze River Plain. Southern hybridization of the total DNA from each strain was performed with the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifHDKYE ' gene probe (6.2 kb Eco RI fragment from pSA30) and the Azospirillum brasilense nifH gene probe (0.6 kb Eco RI-Hin dIII fragment from pHU8). We found that Eco RI fragments of total DNA from Aeromonas hydrophila HY2, Bacillus azotoformans FD, Bacillus licheniformis NCH1, NCH5, WH4, Bacillus brevis NC2, Bacillus pumilus NC12, Bacillus cereus NCH2, Citrobacter freundii HY5, HY9, Derxia gummosa HZ5, Pseudomonas mendocina HZ1 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes WH3 were positively hybridized with both of the probes. Agrobacterium radiobacter HY17, Corynebacterium sp. HY12, YZ and Pseudomonas sp. HY11 had Eco RI fragments hybridized with the K. pneumoniae nifHDKYE ' gene probe. An Eco RI fragment of total DNA from Bacillus megaterium YY4 was positively hybridized to the A. brasilense nifH gene probe. No hybridization sign was found in the total DNA fragments from Alcaligenes cupidus YY6 and Corynebacterium sp. NC11 hybridized with either of the gene probes. The data provide the number and size of EcoRI fragments of the total DNA hybridized with the nif gene probes for these strains of rarely studied species, suggesting additional evidence for N2 fixing and nif gene diversity of N2-fixing bacteria in rice fields along the Yangtze River Plain.

  12. Comparative analysis of tertiary alcohol esterase activity in bacterial strains isolated from enrichment cultures and from screening strain libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Susanne; Nguyen, Giang-Son; Thompson, Mark L; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Schauer, Frieder; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Kourist, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The preparation of enantiopure tertiary alcohols is of great contemporary interest due to the application of these versatile building blocks in organic synthesis and as precursors towards high value pharmaceutical compounds. Herein, we describe two approaches taken towards the discovery of novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of these valuable compounds. The first approach was initiated with screening of 47 bacterial strains for hydrolytic activity towards the simple tertiary alcohol ester tert-butyl acetate. In conjunction, a second method focussed on the isolation of strains competent for growth on tert-butyl acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. From functional screening, 10 Gram-positive Actinomycetes showed hydrolytic activity, whilst enrichment selection resulted in the identification of 14 active strains, of which five belong to the Gram-negative cell-wall type. Bacterial strains obtained from both approaches were viable for enantioselective hydrolysis of pyridine substituted tertiary alcohol esters in addition to bulky aliphatic and keto-derived substrates from the same class. Activity towards each of the test substrates was uncovered, with promising enantioselectivities of up to E = 71 in the hydrolysis of a para-substituted pyridine tertiary alcohol ester using a strain of Rhodococcus ruber. Interestingly strains of Microbacterium and Alcaligenes sp. gave opposite enantiopreference in the hydrolysis of a meta-substituted pyridine tertiary alcohol ester with E values of 17 and 54. These approaches show that via both possibilities, screening established strain collections and performing enrichment selection, it is possible to identify novel species which show activity towards sterically challenging substrates.

  13. Biofuel Cells Select for Microbial Consortia That Self-Mediate Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaey, Korneel; Boon, Nico; Siciliano, Steven D.; Verhaege, Marc; Verstraete, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells hold great promise as a sustainable biotechnological solution to future energy needs. Current efforts to improve the efficiency of such fuel cells are limited by the lack of knowledge about the microbial ecology of these systems. The purposes of this study were (i) to elucidate whether a bacterial community, either suspended or attached to an electrode, can evolve in a microbial fuel cell to bring about higher power output, and (ii) to identify species responsible for the electricity generation. Enrichment by repeated transfer of a bacterial consortium harvested from the anode compartment of a biofuel cell in which glucose was used increased the output from an initial level of 0.6 W m−2 of electrode surface to a maximal level of 4.31 W m−2 (664 mV, 30.9 mA) when plain graphite electrodes were used. This result was obtained with an average loading rate of 1 g of glucose liter−1 day−1 and corresponded to 81% efficiency for electron transfer from glucose to electricity. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the enhanced microbial consortium had either membrane-bound or excreted redox components that were not initially detected in the community. Dominant species of the enhanced culture were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and culturing. The community consisted mainly of facultative anaerobic bacteria, such as Alcaligenes faecalis and Enterococcus gallinarum, which are capable of hydrogen production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas species were also isolated. For several isolates, electrochemical activity was mainly due to excreted redox mediators, and one of these mediators, pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa, could be characterized. Overall, the enrichment procedure, irrespective of whether only attached or suspended bacteria were examined, selected for organisms capable of mediating the electron transfer either by direct bacterial transfer or by excretion of redox components. PMID:15345423

  14. Isolation and growth kinetics of a novel phenol-degrading bacterium Microbacterium oxydans from the sediment of Taihu Lake (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linqiong; Li, Yi; Niu, Lihua; Dai, Yu; Wu, Yue; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Seven phylogenetically diverse phenol-degrading bacterial strains designated as P1 to P7 were isolated from the industry-effluent dump sites of an industrial area near Taihu Lake, China. Through the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these strains were widely distributed among five different genera: Rhodococcus (P1), Pseudomonas (P2-P4), Acinetobacter (P5), Alcaligenes (P6), and Microbacterium (P7). All seven isolates were capable of growing with phenol as the sole carbon source. Strain P7 was found to be a novel phenol-degrading strain by detailed morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristic analysis as well as the 16S rDNA sequence analyses, and was named Microbacterium oxydans LY1 (M. oxydans LY1 in its short form). Degradation experiments of phenol at various initial concentrations (20-1,000 mg/L) revealed that phenol is an inhibitory substrate to M. oxydans LY1. In a batch culture experiment, more than 95% of the phenol (500 mg/L) was degraded by M. oxydans LY1 at 30°C, pH 7.0 and 120 rpm within 88 h. Phenol concentration higher than 200 mg/L was found to inhibit the bacterial growth. The growth kinetics correlated well with the Haldane model with μmax (maximum specific cell growth rate) = 0.243 h(-1), Ks (saturation constant) = 25.7 mg/L, and Ki (self-inhibition constant) = 156.3 mg/L. This is the first report of the ability of M. oxydans to degrade phenol, and the results could provide important information for bioremediation of phenol-contaminated environments.

  15. Structure of azurin from Achromobacter xylosoxidans NCIB11015 at 2.5 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Shibata, N; Nakanishi, H; Koyama, S; Ishii, H; Kai, Y; Harada, S; Kasai, N; Ohshiro, Y; Suzuki, S

    1994-12-01

    The crystal structure of azurin from a denitrifying bacterium, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NCIB11015, has been refined at 2.5 A resolution using diffraction data obtained by means of synchrotron radiation at KEK. Crystals suitable for X-ray experiment were obtained by the macro-seeding method and an intensity data were obtained on imaging plates mounted on a Weissenberg camera (Rmerge = 0.09). The initial model was obtained by the molecular replacement method using the structure of azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans NCTC8582 as a starting model. The structure was refined by molecular dynamics optimization and the restrained least-squares method to a crystallographic R-value of 0.205. However, the current model gave an electron-density of the side-chain regions of several residues close to the N-terminus quite different from those expected from the amino acid sequences reported. Very recently, two kinds of azurins (Az-I and Az-II) were isolated from this bacterium by a slightly modified purification method and have been characterized and found to have different CD spectra. On analysis of amino acid sequences around the N-terminus, the second azurin (Az-II) was proved to be a new type of azurin in this bacterium. It was consequently revealed that the current model corresponds to a new type of azurin because of the complete agreement between the electron-density and the amino acid sequence of the newly determined 20 residues from the N-terminus. Determination of the whole amino acid sequence of this azurin and further refinement are in progress.

  16. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h. PMID:26904539

  17. 利用常规鉴定方法和Biolog快速鉴定方法鉴定产脂肪酶菌株%Identification of Microbe with Lipase Activity by Conventional Identification Methods and Biolog Microstation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶姜瑜; 窦建军

    2012-01-01

    Three microbe with lipase activity, isolated tional identification methods and Biolog Microstation Sy by ste our laboratory, were identified by conven- m. The results from conventional identifica- tion showed that microbe CDCH110, CDCH111 all belonged to Acinetobacter sp. , and CDCH112 be- longed to Pseudomonas sp.. It indicated that CDCHll0 was Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, CDCHll 1 was Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and CDCH111 was Pseudomonas alcaligenes with Biolog Microstation Sy of stem. The results from two methods showed a well consistency. However, it could only get the genus microbe by the way of conventional identification methods, and the Biolog system could get the spe- cies. In addition, Biolog Microstation System has high accuracy%用常规鉴定和Biolog快速鉴定2种方法对分离得到的3株产脂肪酶菌株进行了分类鉴定。根据其菌落、菌体及生理生化特征,3株产脂肪酶菌株中CDCH110、CDCH111属于不动杆菌属,CDCH112属于假单胞菌属。Biolog快速鉴定结果显示:CDCH110为溶血不动杆菌;CDCH111为醋酸不动杆菌;CDCH112为产碱假单胞菌。通过对比分析,结果表明:2种方法得到的结果一致,但常规方法只能鉴定到属,Biolog快速鉴定可以鉴定到种;Biolog快速鉴定法具有快速、准确等优点。

  18. Plasmid-encoded asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle catalyzed by an aspartate-alanine exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keietsu; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yagi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Tasuku; Higuchi, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Machida, Masayuki; Sarker, Rafiquel I; Maloney, Peter C

    2002-06-01

    Tetragenococcus halophila D10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of L-alanine and CO(2). This trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pD1. We found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspD and aspT, encoding an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (AspT), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. The sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon in pD1 were in the following order: promoter --> aspD --> aspT. The deduced amino acid sequence of AspD showed similarity to the sequences of two known L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylases from Pseudomonas dacunhae and Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydropathy analyses suggested that the aspT gene product encodes a hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning regions. The operon was subcloned into the Escherichia coli expression vector pTrc99A, and the two genes were cotranscribed in the resulting plasmid, pTrcAsp. Expression of the asp operon in E. coli coincided with appearance of the capacity to catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate to alanine. Histidine-tagged AspD (AspDHis) was also expressed in E. coli and purified from cell extracts. The purified AspDHis clearly exhibited activity of L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase. Recombinant AspT was solubilized from E. coli membranes and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The reconstituted AspT catalyzed self-exchange of aspartate and electrogenic heterologous exchange of aspartate with alanine. Thus, the asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle consisting of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter and the aspartate decarboxylase, which keeps intracellular levels of alanine, the countersubstrate for aspartate, high.

  19. 戊二醛交联壳聚糖固定化青霉素G酰化酶及其性质研究%Immibilization of Penicillin G Acylase with Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan and the Enzymatic Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程仕伟; 贾彦荣; 缪静; 屈慧鸽

    2011-01-01

    以戊二醛为交联剂,壳聚糖为载体固定化粪产碱杆菌来源的青霉素G酰化酶.通过单因素和正交试验优化确定固定化最佳条件:0.1 g载体,2.5%戊二醛,酶量160 U,0.6mol/L NaCl,0.2 mol/L磷酸缓冲液9.5 mL,37℃,pH 8.0,固定化38 h.固定化酶最高比活为48.7 U/g湿载体.固定化酶性质研究表明其最适反应温度为55℃,最适pH 9.5;具有较好的批次反应稳定性.%Penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis is immobilized with glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan. By the optimization of the immobilized conditions using single factor and orthogonal experiment, the optimum conditions for the enzyme immobilization obtained are as follows; 0. 1 g carrier, 160 U of enzyme, the final concentration of glutaraldehyde is 2. 5% (g/v) , phosphate buffer (pH 8. 0, 0. 2 mol/L) 9. 5 mL, 0. 6 mol/L NaCl, temperature 37 ℃ , and the immobilized time is 38 h. The highest activity of the immobilized enzyme is 48. 7 U/g wet carriers, and the optimum temperature and pH value of the immobilized enzyme are 55 ℃ and 9. 5, respectively. Furthermore, the batch cycle numbers show the stable property of the immibilized enzyme in the conversion of penicillin G to 6-aminopenicillanic acid.

  20. 土壤中砷氧化菌的生理生化及转化砷特性研究%Arsenite Transformation Characteristics and Molecular Identification of Arsenic-oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫锋; 罗丽丽; 林梓河; 严明; 邓琪; 莫于婷

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过外加砷源驯化肇庆市鼎湖山自然保护区土壤中细菌,研究砷氧化菌的生理生化及转化砷特性.[方法]采用富集、稀释平板、硝酸盐漫过、生理生化指标的测定等.[结果]从中分离、鉴定出具有氧化砷功能的产碱杆菌和土壤杆菌2种菌株.[结论]这2种菌株最适氧化砷温度为30℃,最适氧化砷pH为9.培养基中乳酸钠浓度对菌株氧化砷有一定的影响.%[ Objective ] Through domesticated bacteria from the applied arsenic source soil in Dinghushan Nature Reserve of Zhaoqing City,physiological,biochemical and transformation characteristics of arsenic oxide bacteria were studied. [ Method]The methods of concentration,plates serial dilution, silver nitrate overflowed, physiological characteristic were adopted. [ Result ] They were identified as alcaligenes castellani and agrobacterium conn respectively, which were able to oxidize arsenite ( As (Ⅲ) ) into arsenate ( As (Ⅴ) ). [ Conclusion ] The optimal temperature and pH were 30 ℃ and 9 respectively for two bacterial strains. In addition,sodium Lactate medium concentration had a certain impact to arsenicoxidizing.

  1. 2,6-二叔丁基酚降解菌的降解特性研究%The Degradation Characteristics of Degrading Bacterium of 2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方振炜; 徐德强; 张亚雷; 肖义平; 赵建夫

    2004-01-01

    从腈纶废水处理构筑物的生物膜中分离、筛选得到1株能降解2,6-二叔丁基酚的菌株,经驯化,其对2,6-二叔丁基酚的降解率提高了26%,具有了较高降解能力.经形态和生理生化鉴定,该菌株属于产碱菌属(Alcaligenes sp.).通过摇瓶试验考察了生长条件对菌株的生长和底物降解的影响,得出该菌株的最适生长条件为温度37℃,初始pH为7.0,接种量为0.1%.在该条件下,对初始底物浓度为100mg/L的降解过程进行了考察,结果表明其11d的降解率达62.4%,而且降解过程符合Eckenfelder动力学模型,半衰期为9.38d.还对不同初始底物浓度对菌株降解性能的影响进行了研究,结果表明最佳初始底物浓度为200mg/L,当小于该值时,初始底物浓度的增加促进该菌株的生长和底物的降解,而当大于这个值时,则起抑制作用.

  2. Degradation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by an isolated high-efficiency bacterium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-lei; Fang, Zhen-wei; Xu, De-qiang; Xiao, Yi-ping; Zhao, Jian-fu; Qiang, Zhi-min

    2005-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium strain, F-3-4, capable of effectively degrading 2, 6-ditert-butylphenol (2, 6-DTBP), was isolated and screened out from an acrylic fiber wastewater and the biofilm in the wastewater treatment facilities. This strain was identified as Alcaligenes sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical examinations. After cultivation, the strain was enhanced by 26.3% in its degradation capacity for 2,6-DTBP. Results indicated that the strain was able to utilize 2,6-DTBP, lysine, lactamine, citrate, n-utenedioic acid and malic acid as the sole carbon and energy source, alkalinize acetamide, asparagine, L-histidine, acetate, citrate and propionate, but failed to utilize glucose, D-fructose, D-seminose, D-xylose, serine and phenylalanine as the sole carbon and energy source. The optimal growth conditions were determined to be: temperature 37 degrees C, pH 7.0, inoculum size 0.1% and shaker rotary speed 250 r/min. Under the optimal conditions, the degradation kinetics of 2,6-DTBP with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was studied. Results indicated that 62.4% of 2,6-DTBP was removed after 11 d. The degradation kinetics could be expressed by Eckenfelder equation with a half life of 9.38 d. In addition, the initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP played an important role on the degradation ability of the strain. The maximum initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP was determined to be 200 mg/L. Above this level, the strain was overloaded and exhibited significant inhibition.

  3. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  4. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Castro, Sarah L; Garcia, Veronica M; Molina, Thomas C; Briggler, Jeffrey T; Pitt, Amber L; Tavano, Joseph J; Byram, J Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A

    2011-01-01

    Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a

  5. Cloning, expression and characterization of D-aminoacylase from Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans ATCC 15173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xi, Huange; Bi, Qirui; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Ni, Mengxiang

    2013-07-19

    D-Aminoacylase catalyzes the conversion of N-acyl-D-amino acids to d-amino acids and fatty acids. The aim of this study was to identify the D-aminoacylase gene from Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans ATCC 15173 and investigate the biochemical characterization of the enzyme. A previously uncharacterized D-aminoacylase gene (ADdan) from this organism was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame (ORF) of ADdan was 1467 bp in size encoding a 488-amino acid polypeptide. ADdan, with a high amino acid similarity to N-acyl-D-aspartate amidohydrolase from Alcaligenes A6, showed relatively low sequence similarities to other characterized D-aminoacylases. The recombinant ADdan protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-28a with a T7 promoter. The enzyme was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The molecular mass of the expressed protein, calculated by SDS-PAGE, was about 52 kDa. The purified ADdan showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 50°C, and was stable at pH 6.0-8.0 and up to 45°C. Its activity was inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Hg(2+), whereas Mg(2+) had no significant influence on this recombinant D-aminoacylase. This is the first report on the characterization of D-aminoacylase with activity towards both N-acyl derivatives of neutral D-amino acids and N-acyl-D-aspartate. The characteristics of ADdan could prove to be of interest in industrial production of D-amino acids.

  6. The treatment of gaseous benzene by two-phase partitioning bioreactors: a high performance alternative to the use of biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.T.; Daugulis, A.J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A 2-1 (1-1 working volume) two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) was used as an integrated scrubber/bioreactor in which the removal and destruction of benzene from a gas stream was achieved by the reactor's organic/aqueous liquid contents. The organic solvent used to trap benzene was n-hexadecane, and degradation of benzene was achieved in the aqueous phase using the bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Y234. A gas stream with a benzene concentration of 340 mg l{sup -1} at a flow rate of 0.414 l h{sup -1} was delivered to the system at a loading capacity of 140 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, and an elimination capacity of 133 g m{sup -3} h{sup -1} was achieved (the volume in this term is the total liquid volume of the TPPB). This elimination capacity is between 3 and 13 times greater than any benzene elimination achieved by biofiltration, a competing biological air treatment strategy. It was also determined that the evaluation of TPPB performance in terms of elimination capacity should include the cell mass present in the system, as this is a readily controllable quantity. A specific benzene utilization rate of 0.57 g benzene (g cells){sup -1} h{sup -1} was experimentally determined in a bioreactor with a cell concentration that varied dynamically between 0.2 and 1 g l{sup -1}. If it assumed that this specific benzene utilization rate (0.57 g g{sup -1} h{sup -1}) is independent of cell concentration, then a TPPB operated at high cell concentrations could potentially achieve elimination capacities several hundred times greater than those obtained with biofilters. (orig.)

  7. 原代鸡胚成纤维细胞中的污染微生物分析%Microbial contamination analysis in primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春华; 黄伟荣; 丁玉江

    2016-01-01

    目的 检测鸡胚细胞中微生物污染情况,初步分析污染源头并提出相应的防污染措施.方法 利用API系统分别对分离自原代鸡胚成纤维细胞中的3种常见的微生物菌株进行鉴定.结果 经鉴定3株污染菌株分别为木糖氧化产碱菌(Alcaligenes xylosoxidans)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus.结论 从鉴定的结果分析,产生微生物污染的因素是多方面的,但其中工作人员没有严格执行操作规范,自身携带的微生物是导致微生物污染的主要因素,其次是洁净室环境、设施及日常清洁消毒工作不到位.因此,严格执行各项规章制度,规范人员操作,彻底消毒洁净室通风系统和相关设施并做好日常清洁消毒工作对于防止原代细胞污染至关重要.

  8. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and/or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Han, Gab Jin [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacteria six strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Strains KL3362 and KL3397 were identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum, strain KL3303, 3334, and 3341 show the broad range, KL3362 and KL3397 the narrow range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strains KL3341 and KL3362 were selected as the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) KL3341 producing-antifungal substances were consisted of five different kinds of low molecular weight polypeptides (3) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal substances were analyzed under various environmental conditions. Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal substance production yields were not different, however. Product of antifungal substances according t phosphate is proportional to the concentration. And productivity of antifungal substances was generally high in the range 30 {approx} 37 deg. C at pH 7. In case of adding vitamin B1 or lysine to medium, the antifungal activity was enhanced. (4) Mutants with enhanced antifungal activities were constructed by radiation of {gamma}-ray. (5) AF strains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. 35 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  9. Identification of bacteria in drinking and purified water during the monitoring of a typical water purification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzola Priscila

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A typical purification system that provides purified water which meets ionic and organic chemical standards, must be protected from microbial proliferation to minimize cross-contamination for use in cleaning and preparations in pharmaceutical industries and in health environments. Methodology Samples of water were taken directly from the public distribution water tank at twelve different stages of a typical purification system were analyzed for the identification of isolated bacteria. Two miniature kits were used: (i identification system (api 20 NE, Bio-Mérieux for non-enteric and non-fermenting gram-negative rods; and (ii identification system (BBL crystal, Becton and Dickson for enteric and non-fermenting gram-negative rods. The efficiency of the chemical sanitizers used in the stages of the system, over the isolated and identified bacteria in the sampling water, was evaluated by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method. Results The 78 isolated colonies were identified as the following bacteria genera: Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter. According to the miniature kits used in the identification, there was a prevalence of isolation of P. aeruginosa 32.05%, P. picketti (Ralstonia picketti 23.08%, P. vesiculares 12.82%,P. diminuta 11.54%, F. aureum 6.42%, P. fluorescens 5.13%, A. lwoffi 2.56%, P. putida 2.56%, P. alcaligenes 1.28%, P. paucimobilis 1.28%, and F. multivorum 1.28%. Conclusions We found that research was required for the identification of gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria, which were isolated from drinking water and water purification systems, since Pseudomonas genera represents opportunistic pathogens which disperse and adhere easily to surfaces, forming a biofilm which interferes with the cleaning and disinfection procedures in hospital and industrial environments.

  10. Bacterial community dynamics during in-situ bioremediation of petroleum waste sludge in landfarming sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsivela, E; Moore, E R B; Maroukli, D; Strömpl, C; Pieper, D; Kalogerakis, N

    2005-03-01

    In-situ bioremediation of petroleum waste sludge in landfarming sites of Motor Oil Hellas (petroleum refinery) was studied by monitoring the changes of the petroleum composition of the waste sludge, as well as the changes in the structure of the microbial community, for a time period of 14 months. The analyses indicated an enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the landfarming areas. A depletion of n-alkanes of approximately 75-100% was obtained. Marked changes of the microbial communities of the landfarms occurred concomitantly with the degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. The results obtained from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that bacteria originating from the refinery waste sludge and newly selected bacteria dominated the soil bacterial community during the period of the highest degradation activity. However, the diversity of the microbial community was decreased with increased degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons contained in the landfarms. T-RFLP fingerprints of bacteria of the genera Enterobacter and Ochrobactrum were detected in the landfarmed soil over the entire treatment period of 14 months. In contrast, the genus Alcaligenes appeared in significant numbers only within the 10 month old landfarmed soil. Genes encoding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (subfamily I.2.A) were detected only in DNA of the untreated refinery waste sludge. However, none of the genes known to encode the enzymes alkane hydroxylase AlkB, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (subfamily I.2.A) and naphthalene dioxygenase nahAc could be detected in DNA of the landfarmed soils.

  11. Pro-sequence and Ca2+-binding: implications for folding and maturation of Ntn-hydrolase penicillin amidase from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Zoya; Wischnewski, Frank; Notbohm, Holger; Kasche, Volker

    2005-05-13

    Penicillin amidase (PA) is a bacterial periplasmic enzyme synthesized as a pre-pro-PA precursor. The pre-sequence mediates membrane translocation. The intramolecular pro-sequence is expressed along with the A and B chains but is rapidly removed in an autocatalytic manner. In extensive studies we show here that the pro-peptide is required for the correct folding of PA. Pro-PA and PA unfold via a biphasic transition that is more pronounced in the case of PA. According to size-exclusion chromatography and limited proteolysis experiments, the inflection observed in the equilibrium unfolding curves corresponds to an intermediate in which the N-terminal domain (A-chain) still possesses native-like topology, whereas the B-chain is unfolded to a large extent. In a series of in vitro experiments with a slow processing mutant pro-PA, we show that the pro-sequence in cis functions as a folding catalyst and accelerates the folding rate by seven orders of magnitude. In the absence of the pro-domain the PA refolds to a stable inactive molten globule intermediate that has native-like secondary but little tertiary structure. The pro-sequence of the homologous Alcaligenes faecalis PA can facilitate the folding of the hydrolase domain of Escherichia coli PA when added in trans (as a separate polypeptide chain). The isolated pro-sequence has a random structure in solution. However, difference circular dichroism spectra of native PA and native PA with pro-peptide added in trans suggest that the pro-sequence adopts an alpha-helical conformation in the context of the mature PA molecule. Furthermore, our results establish that Ca2+, found in the crystal structure, is not directly involved in the folding process. The cation shifts the equilibrium towards the native state and facilitates the autocatalytic processing of the pro-peptide.

  12. 高效脱色菌的特性及其在染化废水厌氧处理中的生物强化作用%The Characteristics of High-efficient Decoloring Strains and Their Bioaugmentation in Anaerobic Treatment of Dyestuff Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向阳; 张明洲; 俞秀娥

    2001-01-01

    从活性污泥等微生物源中分离、筛选获得10株高效脱色菌,经鉴定其属于Pseudomonas,Bacillus,Xanthomonas,Erwinia,Alealigenes,Plesiomonas。对艳红染料生产废水脱色试验表明:最适温度30℃,pH 6.6~8.0,湿细胞浓度20~30!g*L-1;静置培养(兼氧)脱色率高于振荡培养;外加NADH、NADPH、易降解有机物和有机废水可强化脱色菌的脱色性能。为实现脱色菌的资源化应用,试验将Pseudomonas D18 , Erwinia D17, Alcaligenes D19 and Plesiomonas D12 4株脱色菌制成混合培养物和固定化细胞,分别投加于处理染化废水的厌氧反应器,结果发现:在相同COD负荷、水力负荷条件下,投加固定化细胞的反应器,其脱色率可提高5!%~10!%,出水苯胺浓度提高40!%~65!%。电镜观察发现脱色菌在胶团内外持留、增殖。厌氧反应器性能的改善主要通过功能性微生物生物量和相关基因库量的增加而实现。

  13. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  14. Solvent-free lipase catalysed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVazquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short and medium chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its re-synthesis in the enterocyte and its metabolism and absorption by the enterocyte are limited in comparison with the TAG, reducing chylomicron formation. In this work these two effects were combined to synthesize short and medium chain 1,3 diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase catalysed transesterification reactions were performed between short and medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the conversion intopercentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica, other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei with 52% and 60.7% of DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8% and 20.9%, respectively and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp. (35.9% and 19.3%, respectively. By adding 1% (w/w of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7% to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  15. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusak Nugraha

    Full Text Available Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured, TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored] i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days, costs and manpower.

  16. Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrero Marcela A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies.

  17. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available One design concept for the long-term management of the UK's intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF. Under the alkaline (10.013.0 anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA, which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0.

  18. Microbial Community Dynamics and Activity Link to Indigo Production from Indole in Bioaugmented Activated Sludge Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Qu

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of the popular dyestuff indigo from indole has been comprehensively studied using pure cultures, but less has been done to characterize the indigo production by microbial communities. In our previous studies, a wild strain Comamonas sp. MQ was isolated from activated sludge and the recombinant Escherichia coli nagAc carrying the naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nag from strain MQ was constructed, both of which were capable of producing indigo from indole. Herein, three activated sludge systems, G1 (non-augmented control, G2 (augmented with Comamonas sp. MQ, and G3 (augmented with recombinant E. coli nagAc, were constructed to investigate indigo production. After 132-day operation, G3 produced the highest yields of indigo (99.5 ± 3.0 mg/l, followed by G2 (27.3 ± 1.3 mg/l and G1 (19.2 ± 1.2 mg/l. The microbial community dynamics and activities associated with indigo production were analyzed by Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The inoculated strain MQ survived for at least 30 days, whereas E. coli nagAc was undetectable shortly after inoculation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis suggested the abundance of naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nagAc from both inoculated strains was strongly correlated with indigo yields in early stages (0-30 days (P 0.10 of operation. Based on detrended correspondence analysis (DCA and dissimilarity test results, the communities underwent a noticeable shift during the operation. Among the four major genera (> 1% on average, the commonly reported indigo-producing populations Comamonas and Pseudomonas showed no positive relationship with indigo yields (P > 0.05 based on Pearson correlation test, while Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium, rarely reported for indigo production, were positively correlated with indigo yields (P < 0.05. This study should provide new insights into our understanding of indigo bio-production by microbial communities.

  19. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Donizetti Rossi Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.

  20. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity in a constructed wetland system treating acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicorarat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Dopson, M.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (USA)

    2008-02-15

    Microorganisms in acid mine drainage are typically acidophiles that mediate the oxidation of reduced compounds of iron and sulfur. However, microbial populations in wetland systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage are not well characterized. This study was to analyze bacterial diversity, using cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, in a constructed wetland that received acid drainage from an abandoned underground coal mine. DNA was purified from Fe(III)-precipitates from the oxidized surface zone of wetland sediments and 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and cloned. A total of 200 clones were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 77 unique RFLP patterns were obtained with four restriction enzymes. Of these patterns, 30 most dominant unique clones were selected for sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. Half of these 30 clones could be matched with autotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiohacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans). Several clones also formed a clade with heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria (TRA2-10, TRA3-20, and TRA5-3) and heterotrophic bacteria (Stenotrophomas maltophilia, Bordetella spp., Alcalgenes sp., Alcaligenesfaecalis, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans). Approximately 40% and 35% of the analyzed RFLP restriction patterns were consistent with A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, respectively. The relatively high frequency of acidithiobacilli is consistent with the chemical and physical characteristics of this site i.e., continuous, abundant supply of reduced iron and sulfur compounds, pH 3-4, ambient temperature, and limited organics originating from the coal seam and from vegetation or soil surrounding the inlet channel to the wetland.

  1. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Nickerson

    Full Text Available Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia

  2. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Nuria [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Vinas, Marc [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Guiu-Aragones, Celia; Solanas, Anna M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Bayona, Josep M.; Albaiges, Joan [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 27}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C{sub 0-} to C{sub 2-} naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 28}-C{sub 40}) and to 55-80% for the C{sub 3} derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C{sub 3}-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to {alpha}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs. (orig.)

  3. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  4. Characterization of Co(III) EDTA-Reducing Bacteria in Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin [Arizona State University; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a potential to be a field site for evaluating the effectiveness of various bioremediation approaches and strategies. The site has been well studied in terms of its geological and geochemical properties over the past decade. However, despite the importance of microorganisms in bioremediation processes, the microbiological populations at the WAG5 site and their potential in bioremediation have not been similarly evaluated. In this study, we initiated research to characterize the microbial populations in WAG5 groundwater. Approximately 100 isolates from WAG5 groundwater were isolated and selected based on colony morphology. Fifty-five unique isolates were identified by BOX-PCR and subjected to further characterization. 16S rRNA sequences indicated that these isolates belong to seventeen bacterial genera including Alcaligenes (1 isolate), Aquamonas (1), Aquaspirillum (1), Bacillus (10), Brevundimonas (5), Caulobacter (7), Dechloromonas (2), Janibacter (1), Janthinobacterium (2), Lactobacillus (1), Paenibacillus (4), Pseudomonas (9), Rhodoferax (1), Sphingomonas (1), Stenotrophomonas (6), Variovorax (2), and Zoogloea (1). Metal respiration assays identified several isolates, which phylogenically belong or are close to Caulobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, capable of reducing Co(III)EDTA- to Co(II)EDTA{sup 2-} using the defined M1 medium under anaerobic conditions. In addition, using WAG5 groundwater directly as the inoculants, we found that organisms associated with WAG5 groundwater can reduce both Fe(III) and Co(III) under anaerobic conditions. Further assays were then performed to determine the optimal conditions for Co(III) reduction. These assays indicated that addition of various electron donors including ethanol, lactate, methanol, pyruvate, and acetate resulted in metal reduction. These experiments will provide useful background information for future

  5. Efficacy of intraoperative vancomycin in irrigating solutions on aqueous contamination during phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Renuka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficacy of adding vancomycin in irrigating solutions, in comparison to topical antibiotic given preoperatively for a day, during phacoemulsification, in reducing the anterior chamber (AC contamination. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, interventional, hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: This was a study involving 400 eyes of 400 paitens, undergoing routine phacoemulsification between January 2004 and June 2006. The patients were non-randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 included 180 patients, who received topical ciprofloxacin eye-drops (four-hourly for a day preoperatively and Group 2 included 220 patients, who underwent phacoemulsification with vancomycin (20 µg/ml in the irrigating solution. Anterior chamber aspirate obtained at the end of the surgery was sent for microbial workup. The number of positive cultures in both the groups was determined. Statistical analysis: This was performed using Chi-square test. Results: Aqueous samples showed microbial growth in 38 (21.1% out of 180 eyes in Group 1 and in 17 (7.7% out of 220 eyes in Group 2 ( P = 0.001. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the most common organism in both the groups. Aqueous samples from four eyes in group 1 showed multiple organisms, while none of the sample from group 2 showed more than one organism. None of the eyes in either group showed fungal contamination. One patient in Group 1 developed endophthalmitis, and the causative organism was Alcaligenes faecalis. All patients were followed up for a minimum of six months (range: 6 to 14 months and mean: 9.3 months. Conclusion: Addition of vancomycin in irrigating solutions is more efficacious in reducing AC contamination in comparison to topical antibiotic administered a day preoperatively.

  6. Assessment of the microbial community in a constructed wetland that receives acid coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2006-01-15

    Constructed wetlands are used to treat acid drainage from surface or underground coal mines. However, little is known about the microbial communities in the receiving wetland cells. The purpose of this work was to characterize the microbial population present in a wetland that was receiving acid coal mine drainage (AMD). Samples were collected from the oxic sediment zone of a constructed wetland cell in southeastern Ohio that was treating acid drainage from an underground coal mine seep. Samples comprised Fe(Ill) precipitates and were pretreated with ammonium oxalate to remove interfering iron, and the DNA was extracted and purified by agarose gel electrophoresis prior to amplification of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Amplified products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA from seven distinct bands was excised from the gel and sequenced. The sequences were matched to sequences in the GenBank bacterial 16S rDNA database. The DNA in two of the bands yielded matches with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and the DNA in each of the remaining five bands was consistent with one of the following microorganisms: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, strain TRA3-20 (a eubacterium), strain BEN-4 (an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium), an Alcaligenes sp., and a Bordetella sp. Low bacterial diversity in these samples reflects the highly inorganic nature of the oxic sediment layer where high abundance of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria would be expected. The results we obtained by molecular methods supported our findings, obtained using culture methods, that the dominant microbial species in an acid receiving, oxic wetland are A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans.

  7. Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana em desinfetantes de uso domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumie Miyagi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar desinfetantes de uso domiciliar, identificando a presença de bactérias contaminantes, e conhecer o nível de tolerância dessas bactérias ao cloreto de benzalcônio. MÉTODOS: Foram adquiridas aleatoriamente no comércio da região metropolitana de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, 52 amostras de desinfetantes de uso domiciliar para análise quanto à presença de bactérias contaminantes. O nível de tolerância dessas bactérias ao cloreto de benzalcônio foi determinado pelo método da macrodiluição em caldo. RESULTADOS: De 52 amostras, 16 (30,77% estavam contaminadas por bactérias Gram negativas, com contagens variando entre 10(4 e 10(6 UFC/ml. Esses contaminantes foram identificados como Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Burkholderia cepacia e Serratia marcescens. As Concentrações Inibitórias Mínimas (CIM: mg/ml do cloreto de benzalcônio para S. marcescens, A. xylosoxidans e B. cepacia foram: 2,48, 1,23 e 0,30, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES Os desinfetantes de uso domiciliar à base de compostos de amônio quaternário são passíveis de contaminação por bactérias. As CIM do cloreto de benzalcônio para as bactérias contaminantes estavam abaixo das concentrações do princípio ativo presente nos desinfetantes, indicando que a tolerância ao biocida não é estável, podendo ser perdida com o cultivo das bactérias em meios de cultura sem o biocida.

  8. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  9. 大黄鱼冷藏过程中品质变化及腐败菌的分析及抑菌研究%Research on Quality Change and Spoilage Bacteria of Chilling Cultured Pseudosciaena crocea and Antimicrobial Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉婷; 邵秀芝; 冀国强

    2010-01-01

    对大黄鱼4℃冷藏过程中品质变化特征及货架期终点时的优势腐败菌相进行了分析.新鲜大黄鱼菌落总数(TVC)为2.4×103cfu/g,挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)为24.01mg/100g.4℃贮藏6天时,达到了货架期终点,菌落总数为7.1×107cfu/g,挥发性盐基氮为24.92mg/100g.腐败菌主要包括:腐败希瓦氏菌(Shewanella putrefacens spp.)54.0%,假单胞菌(Pseudomonas spp.)21.0%,黄色杆菌属(flavobacteriumspp.)7.1%,产碱杆菌属(Alcaligenes spp.)5.6%.腐败希瓦氏菌是优势腐败菌.研究了聚赖氨酸、茶多酚、柠檬酸、双乙酸钠最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最佳抑菌浓度,通过正交实验设计得出了防腐剂最佳配此,结果为:聚赖氨酸0.4g/L,茶多酚5g/L,柠檬酸4g/L.

  10. Isolation, Identification and Growth Characteristics of Four Tribenuron-methyl Degrading Bacterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Shuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four bacterias named B1, B2, B3 and B4 which were able to degrade tribenuron-methyl, were isolated from the soil of long term applied with tribenuron-methyl by enrichment culture. Based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence anal-ysis, the strain B1 was identified preliminarily as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the strain B2 was identified preliminarily as Delftia sp., the strain B3 was identified preliminarily as Microbacterium sp., and the strain B4 was identified preliminarily as Alcaligenes sp.The effect of tempera-ture, initial pH, inoculation amount, initial concentration of tribenuron-methyl, medium volume, nitrogen source, carbon source and Mg 2+concentration on growth efficiencies was studied. The results showed that B1 optimal temperature was 35 ℃, the rest were 30 ℃. B3 optimal initial pH was 8.0, the others were 7.0. B1 and B3 optimal inoculation amount were 15%, B2 and B4 optimal inoculation amount were 10%.B3 optimal initial concentration of tribenuron-methyl was 100 mg· L-1, the other three were 200 mg· L -1. The four bacterias optimal medium volume all were 75 mL, optimal nitrogen source were ammonium nitrate and optimal carbon source were glucose. B2 optimal Mg 2+ concentra-tion was 100 mg·L -1, the others were 200 mg·L v. B1 and B4 optimal sodium chloride concentration were 20 g· L -1 while B2 could grow well from 5 g·L -1 to 30 g·L-1, B3 optimal sodium chloride concentration was 50 g·L -1. The results provide theoretical basis for using bacterias in situ bioremediation of soil pollution of tribenuron-methyl.

  11. DNA-fingerprinting di stipiti di Chryseobacterium spp isolati da pazienti con Fibrosi Cistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Lambiase

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pulmonary infections by Gram-negative bacteria, as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, are the major cause of morbidity in Cystic Fibrosis patients. In the past decade, several pathogens as Alcaligenes spp and no tuberculosis mycobacteria have been recovered in these patients. Bacteria of genus Chryseobacterium are widespread Gram-negative microrganisms and involved in human infections. Aims of this study were to value the isolation frequency of Chryseobacterium strains in a cohort of Cystic Fibrosis patients, to investigate their antimicrobial sensibility and to establish possible clonal likeness between strains. Methods:A retrospective study was undertaken between January 2003 and December 2005 on 300 patients receiving care at the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Centre of Naples University “Federico II”. Sputum samples were checked: for bacterial identification, selective media and commercial identification systems were used.The activity of antimicrobial agents was determined using diffusion and microdiluthion methods. For DNA-fingerprinting, a genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field electrophoresis was carried out. Results:A total of 26 strains from 17 patients were isolated (7 C. meningosepticum, 14 C. indologenes, 5 C. gleum. Strains were resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems; some were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Macrorestriction analysis showed substantial heterogeneity among strains. Conclusions: Actually, the prognostic role of Chryseobacterium in Cystic Fibrosis is unclear and although the small number of isolations, it is need to be on the look out regard such microorganisms. The considerable resistance implies difficulties on therapeutic approach. Results of DNA-fingerprinting indicate no evidence of clonal likeness and then of patient-to-patient spread.

  12. A Tn5051-like mer-containing transposon identified in a heavy metal tolerant strain Achromobacter sp. AO22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhave Mrinal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achromobacter sp. AO22 (formerly Alcaligenes sp. AO22, a bacterial strain isolated from a lead-contaminated industrial site in Australia, was previously found to be resistant to moderate to high levels of mercury, copper and other heavy metals. However, the nature and location of the genetic basis for mercuric ion resistance in this strain, had not been previously identified. Findings Achromobacter sp. AO22 contains a functional mer operon with all four essential genes (merRTPA and shows >99% DNA sequence identity to that of Tn501. The mer operon was present on a transposon, designated TnAO22, captured by introducing a broad-host-range IncP plasmid into Achromobacter sp. AO22 and subsequently transferring it to E. coli recipients. The transposition frequency of TnAO22 was 10-2 to 10-3 per target plasmid transferred. Analysis of TnAO22 sequence revealed it belonged to the Tn21 subgroup of the Tn3 superfamily of transposons, with the transposition module having >99% identity with Tn5051 of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a water sample in New York. Conclusion TnAO22 is thus a new variant of Tn5051 of the Tn3 superfamily and the transposon and its associated mercury resistance system are among the few such systems reported in a soil bacterium. Achromobacter sp. AO22 can thus be exploited for applications such as in situ mercury bioremediation of contaminated sites, or the mobile unit and mer operon could be mobilized to other bacteria for similar purposes.

  13. Stable Copper-Nitrosyl Formation By Nitrite Reductase in Either Oxidation State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocheva, E.I.; Rosell, F.I.; Mauk, A.G.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-04

    Nitrite reductase (NiR) is an enzyme that uses type 1 and type 2 copper sites to reduce nitrite to nitric oxide during bacterial denitrification. A copper-nitrosyl intermediate is a proposed, yet poorly characterized feature of the NiR catalytic cycle. This intermediate is formally described as Cu(I)-NO{sup +} and is proposed to be formed at the type 2 copper site after nitrite binding and electron transfer from the type 1 copper site. In this study, copper-nitrosyl complexes were formed by prolonged exposure of exogenous NO to crystals of wild-type and two variant forms of NiR from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfNiR), and the structures were determined to 1.8 {angstrom} or better resolution. Exposing oxidized wild-type crystals to NO results in the reverse reaction and formation of nitrite that remains bound at the active site. In a type 1 copper site mutant (H145A) that is incapable of electron transfer to the type 2 site, the reverse reaction is not observed. Instead, in both oxidized and reduced H145A crystals, NO is observed bound in a side-on manner to the type 2 copper. In AfNiR, Asp98 forms hydrogen bonds to both substrate and product bound to the type 2 Cu. In the D98N variant, NO is bound side-on but is more disordered when observed for the wild-type enzyme. The solution EPR spectra of the crystallographically characterized NiR-NO complexes indicate the presence of an oxidized type 2 copper site and thus are interpreted as resulting from stable copper-nitrosyls and formally assigned as Cu(II)-NO{sup -}. A reaction scheme in which a second NO molecule is oxidized to nitrite can account for the formation of a CuD-NO{sup -} species after exposure of the oxidized H145A variant to NO gas.

  14. Associations of Europium(III) with gram-negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, T. [Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739- 8526 (Japan); Francis, A.J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Migration of radionuclides in the environment is greatly affected by bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and can preferentially bind radionuclides because of the presence of the cell envelop consisting of two membrane bilayers with an intervening thin peptidoglycan layer, where carboxyl and phosphate functional groups are mainly involved in metal cation adsorption. In this study, we investigated the association of Eu(III) with four Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Europium(III) is a good analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III). The association of Eu(III) with the bacteria were determined by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The kinetics study showed that the Eu(III) adsorption on the bacteria proceeded rapidly. The Eu(III) adsorption on P. fluorescens at pH 3, A. faecalis and P. denitrificans at pHs 3, 4, and 5, and S. putrefaciens at pHs 4 and 5 reached a maximum within 5 minutes after contact. For P. denitrificans, the percent adsorption of Eu(III) decreased after the maximum percent adsorption was attained, which suggests the existence of exudates with an affinity with Eu(III). TRLFS showed that the coordination of Eu(III) on these bacteria is multi-dentate through an inner-spherical process. The ligand field of Eu(III) on P. denitrificans was as strong as the ones observed for halo-philic microorganisms, while that of P. fluorescens, A. faecalis, and S. putrefaciens was the typical one observed for non-halo-philic microorganisms. The coordination environment of Eu(III) on the bacteria differed from each other, though they are categorized as Gram-negative bacteria with the similar cell wall components. (authors)

  15. Degradation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by an isolated high-efficiency bacterium strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-lei; FANG Zhen-wei; XU De-qiang; XIAO Yi-ping; ZHAO Jian-fu; QIANG Zhi-min

    2005-01-01

    An aerobic bacterium strain, F-3-4, capable of effectively degrading 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2, 6-DTBP), was isolated and screened out from an acrylic fiber wastewater and the biofilm in the wastewater treatment facilities. This strain was identified as Alcaligenes sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical examinations. After cultivation, the strain was enhanced by 26.3% in its degradation capacity for 2,6-DTBP. Results indicated that the strain was able to utilize 2,6-DTBP, lysine, lactamine, citrate, n-utenedioic acid and maiic acid as the sole carbon and energy source, alkalinize acetamide, asparagine, L-histidine, acetate, citrate and propionate,but failed to utilize glucose, D-fructose, D-seminose, D-xylose, serine and phenylalanine as the sole carbon and energy source. The optimal growth conditions were determined to be: temperature 37 ℃, pH 7.0, inoculum size 0.1% and shaker rotary speed 250 r/min.Under the optimal conditions, the degradation kinetics of 2,6-DTBP with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was studied. Results indicated that 62.4% of 2,6-DTBP was removed after 11 d. The degradation kinetics could be expressed by Eckenfelder equation with a half life of 9.38 d. In addition, the initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP played an important role on the degradation ability of the strain. The maximum initial concentration of 2,6-DTBP was determined to be 200 mg/L. Above this level, the strain was overloaded and exhibited significant inhibition.

  16. Precipitation of Phosphate Minerals by Microorganisms Isolated from a Fixed-Biofilm Reactor Used for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Rivadeneyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria isolated from a fixed-film bioreactor to precipitate phosphate crystals for the treatment of domestic wastewater in both artificial and natural media was studied. When this was demonstrated in artificial solid media for crystal formation, precipitation took place rapidly, and crystal formation began 3 days after inoculation. The percentage of phosphate-forming bacteria was slightly higher than 75%. Twelve major colonies with phosphate precipitation capacity were the dominant heterotrophic platable bacteria growing aerobically in artificial media. According to their taxonomic affiliations (based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, the 12 strains belonged to the following genera of Gram-negative bacteria: Rhodobacter, Pseudoxanthobacter, Escherichia, Alcaligenes, Roseobacter, Ochrobactrum, Agromyce, Sphingomonas and Paracoccus. The phylogenetic tree shows that most of the identified populations were evolutionarily related to the Alphaproteobacteria (91.66% of sequences. The minerals formed were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX. All of these strains formed phosphate crystals and precipitated struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O, bobierrite [Mg3(PO42·8H2O] and baricite [(MgFe3(PO42·8H2O]. The results obtained in this study show that struvite and spherulite crystals did not show any cell marks. Moreover, phosphate precipitation was observed in the bacterial mass but also near the colonies. Our results suggest that the microbial population contributed to phosphate precipitation by changing the media as a consequence of their metabolic activity. Moreover, the results of this research suggest that bacteria play an active role in the mineral precipitation of soluble phosphate from urban wastewater in submerged fixed-film bioreactors.

  17. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola, Kehinde I T; Olayemi, Albert B

    2008-12-01

    The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alklcylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r = 0.9124) was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0) and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g) in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB: 2.9 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g) and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a direct relationship (r = 0.9500). An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r(VHB/LAS) = -0.9303 and r(LTB/LAS) = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcusfaecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v). The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste.

  18. 十溴联苯醚降解菌群的降解特性与组成分析%Characteristics and composition of the microbial consortium for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂兰; 陈杏娟; 郭俊; 孙国萍; 陆祖军; 麦碧娴; 许玫英

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] A microbial consortium Cf3, which was obtained and enriched from an e-waste contaminated river sediment, was applied to study the characteristics for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) degradation in order to pave a way for the bioremediation of PBDEs contaminant in sediment. And the composition of the microbial consortium was also studied. [Methods] Congeners of BDE-209 after the biodegradation were analyzed by GC-MS and the degradation rates were calculated. The composition of the microbial consortium was analyzed by DGGE. [Results] High BDE-209 degradation rates were obtained by consortium Cf3. After 120 days incubation, 80.03% BDE-209 was transformed by consortium Cf3 when the initial amount of BDE-209 was 2.6 μmol. Meanwhile, the biomass was obtained and the OD600 value increased from 0.01 to 0.21. The pH also changed from 6.93 to 8.50 during the degradation process. Ten cultivable strains were isolated from this consortium, six of which associated with Citrobacter spp. and four with Alcaligenes spp. based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results showed that other four major genera Wolinella spp., Acidaminococcus spp., Acetobacterium spp. and Desulfovibrio spp. were presented besides Citrobacter spp. and Alcaligenes spp.. However, the bands for Acetobacterium spp. and Desulfovibrio spp. disappeared with prolonging the incubation time. [Conclusion] A microbial consortium with high PBDEs degradation rate was obtained. The data obtained in the study about the characteristics of the degradation of BDE-209 by the microbial consortium and the composition of the consortium could provides some useful information and precious strains resources for the anaerobic bioremediation of polybrominated di-phenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the persistent organic polluted environment.%[目的]针对水体沉积物中日益严重的多溴联苯醚污染问题,以电子垃圾污染河床沉积物为种源

  19. Construction and Properties of a Microbial Whole-cell Sensor CB10 for the Bioavailability Detection of Cr6+%Cr6+生物可利用度检测的微生物全细胞传感器CB10的构建及其响应特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯启会; 马安周; 庄绪亮; 庄国强

    2013-01-01

    为实现重金属污染环境中 Cr6-的生物可利用度评价,进而为Cr6的污染治理提供可靠依据,本研究采用分子生物技术,以重金属广谱抗性菌株Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34的pMOL28质粒上铬抗性调控系统的启动子和调控蛋白基因为传感器调控元件,以北美萤火虫Photinus pyralis的萤火虫荧光素酶基因luc为报告基因构建了一种可对Cr6+生物可利用度进行检测的微生物全细胞传感器CB10,并探究了其在不同检测条下的响应特征.结果表明,微生物全细胞传感器CB10在30 min内即可响应一定浓度的Cr6+;其对Cr6的检测最低限LOD为2μmol· L-1;当Cr6的浓度为20 ~ 200 μmol·L-1时,CB10的响应能力与Cr6+浓度线性相关,进而传感器CB10可对该范围内的Cr6+生物可利用度进行定量分析(R2=0.980 55);当重金属诱导浓度为10~ 50 μmol·L-1时,CB10对Cr6+具有较强的响应特异性;本研究也发现,较高浓度的pb2+、Mn2+和Sb2+也可以产生对CB10的诱导能力;诱导温度为30℃,pH为7时,CB10的响应效率最高;诱导温度为15 ~ 30℃,pH为4~7时,CB10响应能力表现稳定.CB10具备较强的响应速率、灵敏度、特异性和稳定性,具备对水体重金属进行快速检测和土壤重金属的生物可利用进行评价的潜力.%A microbial whole-cell biosensor CB10 for the bioavailability assessing of Cr6+ was constructed by molecular biotechnology. The regulatory gene and promoter of CB10 was from the chromium resistance system of plasmid pMOL28 from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, and the reporter gene of CB10 was luc which was derived from Photinus pyralis. Finally, its response characteristic was discussed under different incubation conditions e. g. pH and temperature. The results showed that a microbial whole-cell biosensor CB10 had been successfully constructed which could respond to Cr6+ within 30 min , with a LOD for Cr6+ of 2 μmol·L-1. When the incubation concentration of

  20. Comparative effect of methioninyl adenylate on the growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enouf, J; Laurence, F; Farrugia, G; Blanchard, P; Robert-Gero, M

    1976-10-11

    The bacteriostatic effect of methioninyl adenylate(MAMP)--a specific inhibitor of the enzyme methionyl-tRNA synthetase--was investigated on Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 0.1 mM of this molecule added to the culture, inhibits the growth of S. typhimurium. The inhibition is specifically reversible by 0.1 mM L-methionine. In the same conditions even 1-2 mM MAMP has a very slight effect on the growth rate of P. aeruginosa and only during the first two generations. The same observation was made with the two other members of the fluorescens group P.fluorescens and P.putida. The growth rate of P. testosteroni with 1 mM MAMP in the medium is similar to the growth rate of P. aeruginosa but the other member of the acidovorans group P. acidovorans is much more affected by the smae concentration of the inhibitor. --P. multivorans is inhibited by MAMP like P. acidovorans but with a somewhat higher yield at the end of the culture. --MAMP has no effect on P. alcaligenes. The possible reasons for the weak bacteriostatic effect of MAMP on P. aeruginosa were investigated. It was established that the inhibitor enters the cells and is not used as a carbon and energy source. The intracellular methionine concentration in S. typhimurium and in P. aeruginosa is about the same and does not increase when bacteria are cultivated with MAMP. The MTS of the two microorganisms is inhibited by MAMP in vitro to about the same extent. Furthermore the tRNAmet from P. aeruginosa are fully acylated after 3 to 4 generations with this compound. Nevertheless MAMP elicits higher MTS activity in P. aeruginosa and in P. acidovorans after 1 h of incubation. The most striking difference between S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa is that the intra and extracellular level of 5'phosphodiesterase which degrades MAMP is 10-20 fold higher in the second than in the first species.

  1. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria from Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shailesh K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Severe diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) patients visiting Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, were selected for this study. Bacteria were isolated from swab and deep tissue of 42 patients, for examining their prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity. DFUs of majority of the patients were found infected with Enterococcus spp. (47.61%), Escherichia coli (35.71%), Staphylococcus spp. (33.33%), Alcaligenes spp. (30.95%), Pseudomonas spp. (30.95%), and Stenotrophomonas spp. (30.95%). Antibiotic susceptibility assay of 142 bacteria with 16 antibiotics belonging to eight classes showed the presence of 38 (26.76%) isolates with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. MDR character appeared to be governed by integrons as class 1 integrons were detected in 26 (68.42%) isolates. Altogether six different arrays of genes (aadA1, aadB, aadAV, dhfrV, dhfrXII, and dhfrXVII) were found within class 1 integron. Gene cassette dhfrAXVII-aadAV (1.6 kb) was present in 12 (3 Gram positive and 9 Gram negative) isolates and was conserved across all the isolates as evident from RFLP analysis. In addition to the presence of class 1 integron, six β-lactamase resistance encoding genes namely bla TEM, bla SHV, bla OXA, bla CTX-M-gp1, bla CTX-M-gp2, and bla CTX-M-gp9 and two methicillin resistance genes namely mecA and femA and vancomycin resistance encoding genes (vanA and vanB) were identified in different isolates. Majority of the MDR isolates were positive for bla TEM (89.47%), bla OXA (52.63%), and bla CTX-M-gp1 (34.21%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from DFUs from North India. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that class-1 integrons and β-lactamase genes contributed to the MDR in above bacteria.

  2. Rapid identification of LT+ E. coli by means of PCR and its test comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xia Cui; Hai Feng Shao; Yu Hua Yang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To select a test method for specifical, sensitive and rapid identification of LT+ E. coli.METHODS Stool samples inoculated into LB solution were cultured for 4 hours at 35℃. 10 μ boiled culturesolution was taken to template. Two oligonucleotide primers were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)procedure to amplify a highly conserved DNA sequence of the A subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin.Detection of the 110 bp amplified product can be done by agarose gel electrophoresis. Thirty strains ofknown bacteria (LT+ E. coli (EC-129), ST+ E. coli (EC-130)and LT+ ST+ E. coli (EC-142), Salmonellatyphimurium , Salmonella typhi , Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella group C, Shigella sonnei , Enterobacteraerogenes, Alcaligenes sp, Providencia rettgeri, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Pseudomouasaeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter cloacae, 12strains of E. coli isolated from bile samples ) and 108 diarrhea samples were detected. A total of 108 diarrheasamples were compared with LT probe hybridization, modified Eleck (M-Eleck) and ELISA simultaneously.RESULTS By PCR, of the 30 strains of bacteria, only LT+ E. coli and LT+ ST+ E. coli were positive; in40 of the 108 diarrhea samples, 20 were positive and in the other 68 samples from infants, only five werefound to be positive. Of the 25 positive samples by PCR, 23 were also found to be positive in the other 3tests; 1 was found to be positive by M-Eleck and ELISA. Of the 83 negative samples by PCR, the samenegative results were found by M-EIeck and ELISA, but 2 were found to be positive by LT probehybridization. The overall coincidence rate was about 95%. Analysis of correlation showed a significantdifference between PCR and other three tests (P0.05) between them. In the detection of LT+ E. coli by means of PCR, the minimumnumber of target bacteria required was 50 CFU. The whole test was finished in 7 hours.CONCLUSION Detection of LT+ E. coli by PCR showed

  3. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  4. Molecular Identification of Lipase Production Microorganisms by Analyzing rDNA Sequences%基于核糖体基因序列快速鉴定产脂肪酶微生物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉; 杨江科; 刘云; 闫云君

    2009-01-01

    利用含罗丹明B的橄榄油检测平板从中国各省市油污土壤中分离、筛选产脂肪酶微生物菌株,扩增细菌的核糖体基因16S rDNA序列和真菌的ITS2序列,分析核糖体基因簇DNA,并结合形态学特征从而对产脂肪酶菌株进行分子生物学鉴定.核糖体基因16S rDNA序列分析及系统发育分析表明,分离得到的产脂肪酶细菌分别属于枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、产碱假单胞菌(Pseudomonas alcaligenes)、洋葱伯克霍尔德氏(Burkholderia cepacia)、琼氏不动杆菌(Acinetobater jurii)、嗜麦芽窄食单孢菌(Stenotrophomonas maltophilia)和荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas sp.);真菌核糖体基因转录间隔区(ITS2)序列及同源性分析表明产脂肪酶真菌分别属于黑曲酶(Aspergillus niger)、白地酶(Galactomyces geotrichum)、解脂耶氏酵母(Yarrowia lipolytica)、丝孢酵母(Trichosporon guehoae)和假丝酵母(Candida sp.).研究结果表明,核糖体基因簇的DNA分析技术为从自然界分离、鉴定产脂肪酶菌种提供了一种快速有效的手段,为产脂肪酶微生物资源开发利用奠定了技术基础.

  5. 两种氧疗方式氧疗器具细菌污染的调查分析%Investigation of bacterial contamination of oxygen therapy apparatus by two HBO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖; 艾彪; 朱丽莎

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To strengthen the monitoring of disinfection of ward oxygen inhalation therapy apparatus so as to avoid the hospital-acquired respiratory tract infections. METHODS The sampling of the oxygen humidifier bottles and wet fluid were performed in 32 clinical departments, the bacterial colony counts and the species were detected, the oxygen therapy apparatuses were divided into two groups according to approaches, the long-term oxygen therapy group and the intermittent oxygen therapy group, the correlation between the bacterial contamination of oxygen therapy devices and oxygen therapy approach was analyzed. RESULTS There were totally . 748 samples including 386 samples with long-term oxygen therapy with the qualified' rate of 90. 67% and 362 samples of intermittent oxygen therapy with the qualified rate of 61. 88%; gram-negative bacteria were the predominant pathogens, followed by the coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas al-caligenes. CONCLUSION It is of great significance to focus on the standardized management of oxygen inhalation therapy apparatus and strengthen the monitoring of disinfection of oxygen inhalation therapy apparatus.%目的 加强病房氧气吸入治疗器具的消毒监测管理,避免医院获得性呼吸道感染.方法 对医院32个临床科室正在使用的氧气湿化瓶及湿化液进行采样,检测细菌菌落数及菌种,将氧疗器具依使用方式不同分为两组,即长期给氧组及间断给氧组,分析氧疗装置的细菌污染情况与氧疗方式的关系.结果 共采样748份,其中长期给氧组386份,合格率为90.67%,间断给氧组362份,合格率为61.88%;病原菌以革兰阴性菌为主,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌吸类产碱假单胞菌较多.结论 重视病房氧气吸入治疗器具的规范化管理,加强氧气吸入治疗器具的消毒监测,对预防控制医院获得性呼吸道感染至关重要.

  6. The Respiratory Arsenite Oxidase: Structure and the Role of Residues Surrounding the Rieske Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warelow, Thomas P.; Oke, Muse; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Dahl, Jan U.; Bruselat, Nicole; Sivalingam, Ganesh N.; Leimkühler, Silke; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Kappler, Ulrike; Naismith, James H.; Santini, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    The arsenite oxidase (Aio) from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA) with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB) which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively). A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26) for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a −20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter. PMID:24023621

  7. 唐山市农村小学生肠道致病原感染情况调查%Investigation of the rate of intestinal pathogen infection in primary school students in rural areas of the City of Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍伟; 孟梦; 赵赛; 张冰; 熊瑞媛; 刘春燕; 任波; 何泽亮; 张娜; 王桂菊; 胡雪; 蒋开玲; 田喜凤; 张淑杰; 霍晓清; 李冀; 向鸿鹄; 杨秋菊; 王姗姗; 黎宗云; 蒋招娣; 刘永昌; 白文娟

    2011-01-01

    采用随机方法:确定唐山市农村小学生肠道致病原感染调查的调查学校和调查对象,采集粪样.用生理盐水涂片法、碘液涂片法、饱和盐水浮聚法检查肠道寄生虫,同时检查肠道致病菌.调查对象共433人,433份粪样中仅检出3例粪类圆线虫和2例结肠内阿米巴;肠道致病菌阳性101份,阳性率为22.75%,其中产碱杆菌阳性5例.乙型副伤寒杆菌阳性78例,伤寒杆菌阳性6例,痢疾杆菌阳性7例,其他5例.唐山市农村小学生肠道寄生虫感染率较低,但是肠道致病菌的感染率较高.%To determine the pathogens for intestinal infections, rural and more urban primary school students in Tangshan were randomly tested. Fecal samples were collected and intestinal parasites and intestinal bacteria were detected using the saline smear method, iodine smear, and saturated salt water flotation method. In 433 fecal samples from 433 subjects,Strongyloides stercoralis infection was detected in 3 samples and Entamoeba coli infection was detected in 2 samples. Of the samples, 101 were infected with intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Samples tested positive for infection at a rate of 22.75 % ; 5 samples were positive for Alcaligenes, 78 were positive for Bacillus paratyphi B, 6 were positive for Salmonella typhi, 7 were positive for Shigella, and 5 were positive for other pathogens. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was lower in rural primary school students, but the prevalence of intestinal bacteria was higher in the City of Tangshan.

  8. 交联青霉素G酰化酶聚集体制备及其催化特性研究%Preparation of Cross-linked Penicillin G Acylase Aggregates and Its Catalytic Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程仕伟; 王玉芳; 步长平; 张桂春

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察交联青霉素G酰化酶聚集体催化特性,探讨其应用潜力.方法 以硫酸铵为沉淀剂获得青霉素G酰化酶蛋白沉淀,戊二醛交联沉淀的蛋白质制备交联酶聚集体,在此基础上研究交联酶聚集体的催化特性.结果 交联粪产碱杆菌来源青霉素G酰化酶聚集体的最适反应温度55℃,最适pH 9.0,其酸碱和热稳定性均优于游离酶,重复使用13批次几乎无酶活性丢失,反应20批次后仍有50.9%的活性.结论 交联酶聚集体的稳定性较游离酶好,具有一定的工业应用前景.%Objective Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) have more advantages than carrier-bound immobilized enzymes. And this paper explored the potential application of cross-linked aggregates of penicillin G acylase by investigating its catalytic property. Methods The preparation of cross-linked aggregates about penicillin G acylase from Alcaligenes faecalis was as follows: the enzyme was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and then was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Furthermore, its catalytic property was studied. Results The optimum reaction temperature and pH of the cross-linked penicillin G acylase aggregates were 55 ℃ and pH9.0. In addition, they had better thermal and pH stability than the free enzyme. The activity hardly lost after 13 cycles, and there was even 50.9% of the enzyme activity after 20 cycles. Conclusion The cross-linked penicillin G acylase aggregates have good operation stability and potential application as an industrial biocatalyst.

  9. Hand hygiene and hand-washing compliance of medical staff:current status and administration strategies%医务人员手卫生与洗手依从性现状及管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文; 黄娥; 段六生; 雷鸿斌; 易光明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解医务人员手卫生的现状,研究手卫生与医院感染的关系,从而制定手卫生管理对策.方法随机抽查8个临床科室部分医务人员手污染现状,研究医务人员手携带病原菌的种类及性质,分析其污染因素.结果医务人员工作过程中手细菌携带率为100.0%,洗手后细菌携带率为30.4%;携带的主要细菌为:大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、铜绿假单胞菌、产碱假单胞菌、变形菌属、金黄色葡萄球菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌和肠球菌属等.结论医务人员手部污染是医院交叉感染的重要危险因素,必须强化医务人员医院感染理念教育,重视手卫生的监督管理,提高对洗手的认知性和依从性,才能有效预防与控制由手传播的医院内交叉感染.%OBJECTIVE To understand the status of hand hygiene of medical staff and investigate the relation between hand hygiene and nosocomial infections to institute the administration strategy of hand hygiene.METHODS The random inspection of hand hygiene was performed for parts of medical staff in 8 clinical departments. The species of carrying pathogens were investigated. The reasons for contamination were analyzed.RESULTS The carrying rate of pathogenic bacteria before hand-washing was 100. 0% while which after hand-washing was 30.4 %. The common pathogenic were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumouia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas alcaligenes , Bacillus proteus, Staphylococcus aureus , Coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Enterococci, and so on. CONCLUSION The hand contamination is the important risk factor of hospital cross infection. The hospital infections idea of medical staff should be strengthened, the supervision of hand hygiene and the enhancement of the recognition and compliance of hand-washing should be attached importance to effectively prevent and control the hospital cross infection communicated through hands.

  10. Current status of hand-washing compliance of medical staffs in grass-root hospitals and administration strategies%基层医院医护人员洗手依从性现状及管理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔双红

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查医院医护人员手卫生及洗手依从性现状,探讨手卫生与医院感染的相关性,制定手卫生管理对策.方法 随机抽查临床科室部分医护人员手污染的现状、了解医护人员手携带细菌的种类及性质,分析手污染的原因.结果 医护人员在常规医疗活动中,手部细菌携带率为100.0%,洗手后细菌携带率为29.6%;携带的细菌主要是:大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、铜绿假单胞菌、产碱假单胞菌、变形菌属、产气肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌和肠球菌属等.结论 医护人员手部污染是医院感染的重要危险因素,必须强化医护人员预防医院感染的理念,提高对洗手的认知性和依从性,优化手卫生措施,有效预防与控制经手传播的医院感染.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the status of hand hygiene and hand-washing compliance of medical staffs and approach the correlation between hand hygiene and nosocomial infections to institute the administration strategy of hand hygiene.METHODS The random inspection of hand hygiene was performed for random selected medical staffs in clinical departments.The species of carrying pathogens were determined, and the reasons for contamination were analyzed.RESULTS The carrying rate of pathogenic bacteria before hand-washing was 100.0% while that after hand-washing was 29.6%.The carrying pathogenic bacteria mostly comprised of Esche-richiacoli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , P.alcaligenes, Proteus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Enterococci and so on.CONCLUSION The hand contamination is an important risk factor for nosocomial infections.We should strengthen hospital infections awareness of medical staffs, enhance the recognition and compliance of hand-washing and optimize hand hygiene measures to prevent and effectively control the nosocomial infections communicated through hands.

  11. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOBIA AND PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF RICE SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is a relatively safer, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach as an alternative to reduce chemical fertilizer usage. The selection of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics are important to maximize the effectiveness on the host plant. Due to aforementioned interest, several Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterial (PGPR and rhizobial strains were isolated from rice and legume roots, respectively, at four locations in Malaysia namely Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM, Serdang, Selangor; Besut, Terengganu; Tunjung, Kelantan and Sik, Kedah. Bacterial isolations were undertaken to select the best isolates which exhibit multiple beneficial effects to the rice plant and a total of 205 bacterial strains were isolated and categorized as follows; 94 rhizospheric and 107 endophytic bacteria from rice roots, one rhizobial strain from soybean and three from Mimosa pudica. These isolates were screened for their abilities to fix N2 and solubilize phosphate; 52 were positive for both tests. The selected isolates were then tested for IAA production and other biochemical tests such as potassium solubilization, hydrolyzing enzymes (cellulase and pectinase and iron siderophore productions. Four isolates, namely UPMB19 (rhizospheric PGPR from Tunjung, Kelantan, UPMB20 (endophytic PGPR from Besut, Terengganu, UPMR30 (rhizobia from soybean and UPMR31 (rhizobia from Mimosa were selected for subsequent plant inoculation tests with UPMB10, a PGPR isolated from oil palm root, as the reference strain. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing, these bacterial strains were identified under several genera: Lysinibacillus, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Bacillus, respectively. Results of plant inoculation test indicated that UPMB19 significantly enhanced the seedling height at the early growth stage (7 days after transplanting, DAT which could be attributed to the higher N2

  12. Isolation and genetic analysis of multidrug resistant bacteria from diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Shahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs patients visiting Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, were selected for this study. Bacteria were isolated from swab and deep tissue of 42 patients, for examining their prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity. DFUs of majority of the patients were found infected with Enterococcus spp. (47.61%, Escherichia coli (35.71%, Staphylococcus spp. (33.33%, Alcaligenes spp. (30.95%, Pseudomonas spp. (30.95% and Stenotrophomonas spp. (30.95%. Antibiotic susceptibility assay of 142 bacteria with 16 antibiotics belonging to eight classes showed the presence of 38 (26.76% isolates with multidrug resistance (MDR phenotypes. MDR character appeared to be governed by integrons as class 1 integrons were detected in 26 (68.42% isolates. Altogether six different arrays of genes (aadA1, aadB, aadAV, dhfrV, dhfrXII and dhfrXVII were found within class 1 integron. Gene cassette dhfrAXVII-aadAV (1.6 kb was present in 12 (3 Gram positive and 9 Gram negative isolates and was conserved across all the isolates as evident from RFLP analysis. In addition to the presence of class 1 integron, six β-lactamase resistance encoding genes namely blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M-gp1, blaCTX-M-gp2 and blaCTX-M-gp9 and two methicillin resistance genes namely mecA and femA and vancomycin resistance encoding genes (vanA and vanB were identified in different isolates. Majority of the MDR isolates were positive for blaTEM (89.47%, blaOXA (52.63% and blaCTX-M-gp1 (34.21%. To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from DFUs from North India. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that class-1 integrons and β-lactamase genes contributed to the MDR in above bacteria.

  13. Characterization of two diesel fuel degrading microbial consortia enriched from a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varese Giovanna C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. Results In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms on Diesel (G1 and HiQ Diesel (G2, respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30°C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20°C for several months. Conclusions ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia

  14. A novel triculture system (CC3 for simultaneous enzyme production and hydrolysis of common grasses through submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Vineeth Leo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perennial grasses are considered as a rich source of lignocellulosic biomass, making it a second generation alternative energy source and can diminish the use of fossil fuels. In this work, four perennial grasses Saccharum arundinaceum, Panicum antidotale, Thysanolaena latifolia and Neyraudia reynaudiana were selected to verify their potential as a substrate to produce hydrolytic enzymes and to evaluate them as second generation energy biomass. Here, cellulase and hemi-cellulase producing three endophytic bacteria (Burkholderia cepacia BPS-GB3, Alcaligenes faecalis BPS-GB5 and Enterobacter hormaechei BPS-GB8 recovered from N. reynaudiana and S. arundinaceum were selected to develop a triculture (CC3 consortium. During 12 days of submerged cultivation, a 55-70% loss in dry weight was observed and the maximum activity of β-glucosidase (5.36 to 12.34 IU and Xylanase (4.33 to 10.91 IU were observed on 2nd and 6th day respectively, whereas FPase (0.26 to 0.53 IU and CMCase (2.31 to 4.65 IU showed maximum activity on 4th day. Around 15-30% more enzyme activity was produced in CC3 as compared to monoculture (CC1 and coculture (CC2 treatments, suggested synergetic interaction among the selected three bacterial strains. Further, the biomass was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The FTIR analysis provides important insights into the reduction of cellulose and hemicellulose moieties in CC3 treated biomass and SEM studies shed light into the disruption of surface structure leading to access of cellulose or hemicelluloses microtubules. The hydrolytic potential of the CC3 system was further enhanced due to reduction in lignin as evidenced by 1-4% lignin reduction in biomass compositional analysis. Additionally, laccase gene was detected from A. faecalis and E. hormaechei which further shows the laccase production potential of the isolates. To our knowledge, first time we develop an

  15. The respiratory arsenite oxidase: structure and the role of residues surrounding the rieske cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Warelow

    Full Text Available The arsenite oxidase (Aio from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26 for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a -20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc 1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc 1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter.

  16. Effect of bacterial protein meal grown on natural gas on growth performance and carcass traits of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Skrede

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial protein meal (BPM, a new protein feedstuff produced by bacteria (Methylococcus capsulatus, Alcaligenes acidovorans,Bacillus brevis and Bacillus firmus grown on natural gas, was evaluated as a protein source for pigs. Twogrowth trials were conducted, one with growing-finishing pigs and one with pigs from weaning until slaughter. In Exp. 1,18 pigs fed restrictively (26.0 and 109.4 kg initial and final weight were used to determine the effect of dietary inclusionof BPM (0, 60, or 120 g kg-1, replacing protein from soybean meal on growth performance and carcass traits. Adding60 and 120 g kg-1 BPM to diets reduced (P on growth performance during the finishing or overall periods. Both levels of BPM improved amino acid and lysine utilization(P contrast, both levels of BPM tended to increase carcass meatiness. In Exp. 2, 48 pigs (11.4 and 107.2 kg initial andfinal weight were used to evaluate increasing levels of BPM (0, 50, 100, or 150 g kg –1 on growth performance and carcasstraits from weaning at 34.5 days of age until slaughter. Bacterial protein meal reduced ADG (linear P the period from weaning until five weeks post weaning and during the period from weaning until slaughter. Increasinglevels of BPM tended to increase overall feed/gain. Also, BPM increased backfat firmness (linear P percent carcass lean (linear P fat area in cutlet (linear P with the control. In conclusion, up to 120 g kg –1 BPM in diets for pigs from 26 kg live weight until slaughter hadno adverse effect on overall growth performance or carcass lean or fat content. Up to 150 g kg –1 BPM to diets for pigsfrom weaning until slaughter reduced growth rates during the piglet period and increased carcass fat content due tomarginal dietary lysine levels. Bacterial protein meal gave a dose dependent improvement in the utilization of total aminoacids and lysine and the quality of back fat determined as fat firmness and fat color.

  17. Conserved Active Site Residues Limit Inhibition of a Copper-Containing Nitrite By Small Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocheva, E.I.; Eltis, L.D.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-05-26

    The interaction of copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 ( AfNiR) with each of five small molecules was studied using crystallography and steady-state kinetics. Structural studies revealed that each small molecule interacted with the oxidized catalytic type 2 copper of AfNiR. Three small molecules (formate, acetate and nitrate) mimic the substrate by having at least two oxygen atoms for bidentate coordination to the type 2 copper atom. These three anions bound to the copper ion in the same asymmetric, bidentate manner as nitrite. Consistent with their weak inhibition of the enzyme ( K i >50 mM), the Cu-O distances in these AfNiR-inhibitor complexes were approximately 0.15 A longer than that observed in the AfNiR-nitrite complex. The binding mode of each inhibitor is determined in part by steric interactions with the side chain of active site residue Ile257. Moreover, the side chain of Asp98, a conserved residue that hydrogen bonds to type 2 copper-bound nitrite and nitric oxide, was either disordered or pointed away from the inhibitors. Acetate and formate inhibited AfNiR in a mixed fashion, consistent with the occurrence of second acetate binding site in the AfNiR-acetate complex that occludes access to the type 2 copper. A fourth small molecule, nitrous oxide, bound to the oxidized metal in a side-on fashion reminiscent of nitric oxide to the reduced copper. Nevertheless, nitrous oxide bound at a farther distance from the metal. The fifth small molecule, azide, inhibited the reduction of nitrite by AfNiR most strongly ( K ic = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mM). This ligand bound to the type 2 copper center end-on with a Cu-N c distance of approximately 2 A, and was the only inhibitor to form a hydrogen bond with Asp98. Overall, the data substantiate the roles of Asp98 and Ile257 in discriminating substrate from other small anions.

  18. Effects of Microbial and Phosphate Amendments on the Bioavailability of Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, Robin; Wilson, Christina; Knox, Anna; Seaman, John; Smith, Garriet

    2005-06-16

    Heavy metals including lead (Pb) are released continually into the environment as a result of industrial, recreational, and military activities. Lead ranked number two on the CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances and was identified as a major hazardous chemical found on 47% of USEPA's National Priorities List sites (Hettiarachchi and Pierzynski 2004). In-situ remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils may be accomplished by changing the soil chemistry and structure with the application of microbial and phosphate amendments. Soil contaminated with lead bullets was collected from the surface of the berm at Savannah River Site (SRS) Small Arms Training Academy (SATA) in Aiken, SC. While uncontaminated soils typically have Pb levels ranging from 2 to 200 mg/kg (Berti et al. 1998), previous analysis show Pb levels of the SATA berm to reach 8,673 mg/kg. Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds naturally produced by soil bacteria that can bind metals. Biosurfactants have a wide variety of chemical structures that reduce interfacial surface tensions (Jennings and Tanner 2000) and have demonstrated efficient metal complexion (Lin 1996). Biosurfactants also have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (Strong-Gunderson 1995). Two types of bacteria, Alcaligenes piechaudii and Pseudomonas putida, were employed as amendments based on their ability to produce biosurfactants and survive in metal-contaminated soils. Apatites (calcium phosphate compounds) are important in the formation of Pb phosphates. Pb phosphates form rapidly when phosphate is available and are the most stable environmental form of lead in soil (Ruby et al.1998). Pyromorphites in particular remain insoluble under a wide range of environmental conditions (Zhang et al. 1998). The three apatites evaluated in the current study were North Carolina apatite (NCA), Florida apatite (FA), and biological apatite (BA). BA is ground fish bone that has few impurities such as As, Cr

  19. Carbon Catabolic Characteristics About the Soil Dominant Bacteria from 'Hanfu' Apple Orchard with Herbage-mulching Management%生草覆盖‘寒富’苹果园土壤优势细菌的碳代谢特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灵芝; 吕德国; 秦嗣军; 马怀宇; 杜国栋; 刘国成

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of land management on the carbon catabolic characteristics of soil microorganisms, the carbon catabolic characters and community structure of soil bacteria in different periods about 'Hanfu' apple orchard with the herbage-mulching management was investigated in this study. The results showed that the amount and ability for soil bacteria to use carbon sources in June and July were significantly higher than that in April, May, August and September. Compared to clean tillage treatment, the herbage-mulching treatment decreased 1 strain of dominant bacteria in April, increased 1 strain in September, and showed no differences from May to August. In general, dominant bacterial strains isolated from the herbage-mulching treatment obviously enhanced the ability to utilize carbohydrates (such as sucrose, glucose and starch), ethonhol inols (such as sorbitol and lnOSltol), and amino acids (such as aspartic acid and leucine) in the different periods except for April. The analysis of 16S rDNA sequence showed that 53.8% of the dominant bacteria belonged to Bacillus, which existed in most of the tested soils. Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Firmicutes would also become the dominant genera in different tested soils because of the influences of different seasons and different management measures. Compared to the soil sampled in April, May, August and September, in the soil sampled in June and July two dominant genera including Alcaligenes and Firmicutes were increased; And compared to the clean tillage, the herbage-mulching treatment increased Firmicutes and some uncultured soil bacteria in July.%为了解土壤管理制度对果园土壤微生物碳代谢特征的影响,研究了生草覆盖‘寒富’苹果园不同时期土壤优势细菌碳代谢功能及种群组成。结果表明,6月、7月土壤中优势细菌数量及碳代谢能力明显高于4月、5月、8月和9月。生草覆盖处理4月分离到的优

  20. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    breakdown of DDE by the extracellular lignolytic enzymes produced by white rot fungi. The addition of adjutants such as sodium ion, surfactants, and cellulose increased the rate of DDT aerobic or anaerobic degradation but did little to enhance the rate of DDE disappearance under anaerobic conditions. Only in the past decade has it been demonstrated that DDE can undergo reductive dechlorination under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions to form the degradation product DDMU, 1-chloro-2,2'-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane. The only pure culture reported to degrade DDE under anaerobic conditions was the denitrifier Alcaligens denitrificans. The degradation of DDE by this bacterium was enhanced by glucose, whereas biphenyl fumes had no effect. Abiotic remediation by DDE volatilization was enhanced by flooding and irrigation and deepplowing inhibited the volatilization. The use of zero-valent iron and surfactants in flooded soils enhanced DDT degradation but did not significantly alter the rate of DDE removal. Other catalysts (palladized magnesium, palladium on carbon, and nickel/aluminum alloys) degraded DDT and its metabolites, including DDE. However, these systems are often biphasic or involve explosive gases or both. Safer abiotic alternatives use UV light with titanium oxide or visible light with methylene green to degrade DDT, DDD, and DDE in aqueous or mixed solvent systems. Remediation and degradation of DDE in soil and water by phytoextraction, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, or abiotic methods can be accomplished. However, success has been limited, and great care must be taken that the method does not transfer the contaminants to another locale (by volatilization, deep plowing, erosion, or runoff) or to another species (by ingestion of accumulating plants or contaminated water). Although the remediation of DDT-, DDD-, and DDE-contaminated soil and water is beset with myriad problems, there remain many open avenues of research.

  1. 祁连山天然气水合物赋存区钻孔细菌多样性%Bacterial diversity in bore holes of gas hydrate-rich deposit districts in Qilian Mountains of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武淑娇; 韩路; 吕杰; 董建英; 祝有海

    2012-01-01

    分析了青海省祁连山冻土区天然气水合物赋存区DK-6钻孔的4个样品,对岩心样品进行处理提取微生物总基因组,采用PCR构建了细菌16S rDNA基因文库,4个文库包括44个OTU,其中有厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)、变形杆菌门(Proteobacteria)(包括α-、β-和y-变形杆菌亚群)、放线菌纲(Actinobacteria)和异常球菌-栖热菌门(Deinococcus-Thermus)5类,煤、泥岩、粉砂岩等不同岩性的微生物群落之间显示出较大的组成差异,优势菌不同.细菌菌群多样性随采集点地质环境不同而有较明显的变化,天然气水合物含量、水含量、有机质含量等环境因素对冻土区天然气水合物赋存区中细菌菌群有一定的影响.4个样品中存在的微生物大部分可以代谢有机烃类,在天然气水合物环境的特殊条件下,外界环境因素制约了微生物的种类.%In this study, four core samples were collected from the DK-6 bore holes of gas hy-drate-rich deposit districts in the permafrost zone of Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province of North-west China, with the total bacterial genome in the samples analyzed. Four 16S rDNA gene librar-ies were created by PCR. There were 44 OTUs, including five categories, i. e. , Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria (α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria) , Actinobacteria, and Deinococ-cus-Thermus, in the four gene libraries. The microbial communities of different lithology showed a relatively large composition difference, and had different dominant species. Lithology played a certain decisive role to the growth of bacteria. Bore holes DK6-12 (117.5 m) and DK6-17 (161.9 m) were of mudstone, in which, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans was the dominant bacterium. K6-23 (194.6 m) was of fine sandstone, in which, a large number of Spirosoma panaciterrae was found in cloning sequences. DK6-25 (213 m) was of coal, with the highest abundance of Pantoea ananatis. Most of the microbes presented in the four

  2. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive.

  3. Further development and application of the process-oriented model PnET-N-DNDC for the estimation of the NO and N{sub 2}O emissions from European forest soils; Weiterentwicklung und Anwendung des prozessorientierten Modells PnET-N-DNDC zur Abschaetzung der NO- und N{sub 2}O-Emissionen aus Waldboeden Europas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesik, M.

    2006-11-15

    Countries, that ratified the Kyoto protocol, commit to reduce their emissions until 2012 by 5.2% compared to the year 1990. Therefore, an estimation of the source- and sink-strength of the greenhouse gases is necessary. Forest soils are significant sources for the greenhouse gases N2O and NO. The target of this work is to quantify the N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils and to locate the regional source of the N2O and NO emissions. Due to the heterogeneity of soil and vegetation properties or meteorological conditions N trace gas emissions show a high temporal and spatial variability. To overcome these problems a process-oriented model, the PnET-N-DNDC model, which simulates the N trace gas exchange on the basis of the processes involved in production, consumption and emission of N trace gases, was further developed and applied in order to simulate reliable N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils. For this further development of the PnET-N-DNDC model the dependency of N2O and NO on pH, temperature and substrate quality was studied in chemostat cultures under steady-state conditions using the heterotrophic nitrifiers Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis and Paracoccus pantotrophus. The results of the chemostat culture studies were partially implemented into the PnET-N-DNDC and the model was calibrated against the results in order to allow an improved description of the pH and temperature dependency of N trace gas production by microbes and/or chemo-denitrification in the PnET-N-DNDC model. The results indicate that heterotrophic nitrifiers are suitable model organisms to study the influence of environmental factors on microbial N trace gas production. The PnET-N-DNDC model was validated against field observations of N trace gas fluxes from 19 sites and shows to perform well for N2O (r2 = 0.68; slope = 0.76) and NO (r2 = 0.78; slope = 0.73). For the calculation of a European-wide emission inventory the PnET-N-DNDC model was linked to a

  4. Taze alabalık filetolarının gümüş antimikrobiyal yenilebilir film kaplanarak bozulmaya neden olan bakterilerin tanımlanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Kılınç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada taze alabalık filetoları kolloidal gümüş içerikli antimikrobiyal film ile kaplanarak depolama esnasında bozulmaya neden olan bakteriler tanımlanmıştır. Antimikrobiyal yenilebilir film üretiminde; biyopolimer malzemesi ksantan gam, plastikleştirici olarak gliserol, antimikrobiyal madde olarak ise gümüş kullanılmıştır. Alabalık filetoları (kontrol grup ve gümüş içerikli yenilebilir filmle kaplanmış grup olarak çalışılmıştır; kolloidal gümüş içeriği 0.5 gr / 100 ml film çözeltisi [% 0,5 (w / v] olacak şekilde ilave edilmiş, 15 dakika boyunca karıştırılarak antimikrobiyal içerikli ksantan gam yenilebilir film elde edilmiştir. Filetoları daldırma öncesinde solüsyonu 15 dakika oda sıcaklığında bekletilerek soğutmaya bırakılmıştır. Alabalık filetoları kaplama işlemi sırasında 30 saniye balığın bir yüzeyi 30 saniye diğer bir yüzeyini bekletmek koşuluyla toplamda 1 dakika boyunca hidrokolloit kaplama çözeltisi içine daldırılmıştır. Yenilebilir film kaplama ardından filetolar 1 dk bekletilerek filmin kuruması ve süzdürülmesi sağlanmıştır. Yenilebilir film kaplanmış alabalık filetoları strofar tabaklara konularak streç filmle kaplanarak paketlenmiştir. Yenilebilir film uygulanmış alabalık filetolarındaki değişimler mikrobiyolojik (mezofilik aerobik bakteri sayısı, psikrotrof bakteri sayısı, Enterobactericeae sayısı, Staphylococcus spp. sayısı, küf-maya sayısı, laktik asit bakteri sayısı, duyusal (çiğ ve pişmiş alabalık filetoları kabuledilebilirlik testleri, pH analizleri ve bakteri tanımlamaları yapılmıştır. API test kitleriyle yapılan mikroorganizma tanımlama sonuçlarına göre alabalık filetolarında depolama esnasında bozulmaya neden olan baskın bakteriler % 99,9 Pseudomonas fluorescens, %76 Alcaligenes spp., %76 Moraxella spp., %99,9 Lactobacillus salivarius, %99,6 Lactobacillus brevis ve %81

  5. Screening and Identification of a Bacterial Strain Produced by Curdlan and Research on Its Culture Conditions%可得然多糖生产菌株的筛选、鉴定及其培养条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕继涛; 崔建东

    2013-01-01

    可得然多糖是一种可溶性多糖,是由葡萄糖残基以β-1,3糖苷键连接组成的直链无分支葡聚糖.这种多糖被广泛应用在食品行业中.聚合度的不同导致这种多糖具有不同的理化性质.因此发现具有合成可得然多糖的不同微生物资源是非常重要的,但到目前为止,只报道了粪产碱杆菌和农杆菌具有合成这种多糖的能力.研究从土壤中筛选到一株能合成可得然多糖的细菌,通过16S rDNA扩增、序列比对,发现该菌株(Cu-4)是革兰氏阳性的假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.).通过对影响该菌株合成可得然多糖的因素研究,发现葡萄糖是最适碳源,酵母粉是最适氮源,培养基初始最适pH为7.0.文章首次报道了Pseudomonas sp.也能合成可得然多糖.%Curdlan is a soluble polysaccharide,composed of β-1,3-linked glucose residues.Curdlan and its derivatives have potential application value in food industries.Hence,polymer has different physicochemical properties with different degrees of polymerization.It is important to find different microbial resources which can synthetize curdlan polysaccharide.However,so far only Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium species have been reported to produce curdlan.In this study,a bacterium which can produce extracellular curdlan is isolated from soil samples on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing.The strain Cur-4 is a gram-positive Pseudomonas sp.In addition,the factors affecting the systhesis of curdlan ar investigated.It is observed that glucose is the most suitable carbon source for curdlan production by Cur-4 strain.The maximum curdlan production is achieved when yeast extract is used as nitrogen source.Furthermore,it is also found that maximum curdlan production is obtained when initial pH is at 7.0.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first report on curdlan production by Pseudomonas sp..

  6. Microbiological analyses of water from hemodialysis services in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil Análises microbiológicas da água dos serviços de hemodiálise em São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Ribamar Oliveira Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous control of water quality in hemodialysis services is extremely important in order to guarantee a better quality of life of the patients submitted to this treatment. The lack of adequate water monitoring has caused the death of various patients in the past. The objective of the present study was to determine the physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of water used by hemodialysis services in hospitals of the city of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. Bacteriological analyses included the membrane filter method for the determination of total coliform bacteria, the Cult-Dipcombi-TTC-agar method for heterotrophic bacteria and the limulus amebocyte lysate method for the determination of endotoxins. Eighteen water samples obtained from three hospital units, six samples per hemodialysis service, collected directly at the pre- and post-treatment points, were analyzed. Microorganisms were detected in the water used by the hemodialysis services in two of the three hospital units (B and C studied. No contamination with heterotrophic bacteria was observed in pretreatment samples, while endotoxin production was detected in 100% of the samples. In post-treatment samples, heterotrophic bacteria were detected in 66.6% of the samples and endotoxins in 33.3%. The microorganisms identified in unit B were Burkholderia cepacia, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia In unit C Flavimonas oryzihabitans,Ralstonia pickettii and Burkholderia cepacia were identified. A significant correlation was observed between the presence of endotoxins and the physicochemical characteristics of water such as turbidity and conductivity. These data indicate that two of the three hospital units studied should revise the control of their hemodialysis water system.A necessidade de um controle rigoroso no serviço de hemodiálise tornou-se algo de extrema importância para garantir uma melhor qualidade de vida aos pacientes

  7. Toward Open Science at the European Scale: Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for Integrated Environmental Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; Caudullo, Giovanni; McInerney, Daniel; Di Leo, Margherita; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    -European Framework for Integrated Soil Water Erosion Assessment. Vol. 359 of IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer Boston, Berlin, Heidelberg, Ch. 34, pp. 310-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_34 San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Schulte, E., Schmuck, G., Camia, A., Strobl, P., Liberta, G., Giovando, C., Boca, R., Sedano, F., Kempeneers, P., McInerney, D., Withmore, C., de Oliveira, S. S., Rodrigues, M., Durrant, T., Corti, P., Oehler, F., Vilar, L., Amatulli, G., Mar. 2012. Comprehensive monitoring of wildfires in Europe: The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). In: Tiefenbacher, J. (Ed.), Approaches to Managing Disaster - Assessing Hazards, Emergencies and Disaster Impacts. InTech, Ch. 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/28441 de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Stancanelli, G., 2012. Mapping European forest tree species distribution to support pest risk assessment. In: Baker, R., Koch, F., Kriticos, D., Rafoss, T., Venette, R., van der Werf, W. (Eds.), Advancing risk assessment models for invasive alien species in the food chain: contending with climate change, economics and uncertainty. Bioforsk FOKUS 7. OECD Co-operative Research Programme on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems; Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research. http://www.pestrisk.org/2012/BioforskFOKUS7-10_IPRMW-VI.pdf Estreguil, C., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., Whitmore, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2012. Reporting on European forest fragmentation: Standardized indices and web map services. IEEE Earthzine. http://www.earthzine.org/2012/07/05/reporting-on-european-forest-fragmentation-standardized-indices-and-web-map-services/ Estreguil, C., de Rigo, D. and Caudullo, G. (exp. 2013). Towards an integrated and reproducible characterisation of habitat pattern. Submitted to Environmental Modelling & Software Amatulli, G., Camia, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2009. Projecting future burnt area in the EU