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Sample records for albuminous seeds coffea

  1. Effectiveness of the fatty acid and sterol composition of seeds for the chemotaxonomy of Coffea subgenus Coffea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussert, Stéphane; Laffargue, Andréina; de Kochko, Alexandre; Joët, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The chemotaxonomic relationships between Coffea (subgenus Coffea) species have been poorly studied to date and the compounds tested so far - chlorogenic acids, diterpenoids and purine alkaloids - did not enable the establishment of phylogenetic relationships analogous to those revealed by chloroplast and nuclear DNA studies. In the present study, the relationships between African Coffea species were assessed on the basis of their seed lipid composition. Fatty acids and sterols were determined in 59 genotypes belonging to 17 distinct Coffea species/origins. Principal Component Analysis of fatty acid and sterol data enabled easy identification of the few species for which one or several compounds could serve as a quantitative signature. Hierarchical Clustering classified the Coffea species in seven groups with both fatty acids and sterols. However, while groupings based on seed fatty acid composition showed remarkable ecological and geographical coherence, no phylogeographic explanation was found for the clusters retrieved from sterol data. When compared with previous phylogenetic studies, the groups deduced from seed fatty acid composition were remarkably congruent with the clades inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequences.

  2. Tolerance of Coffea arabica L. seeds to sub zero temperatures

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    Stefania Vilas Boas Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preservation of the quality of coffee seeds is hindered by their intermediate behavior in storage. However, long-term storage at sub zero temperatures may be achieved by adjusting the water content of the seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of coffee seeds to freezing, in relation to physiological and enzymatic modifications. Coffee seeds were dried in two manners, rapid and slow, to water contents of interest, 0.67, 0.43, 0.25, 0.18, 0.11, and 0.05 g H2O g-¹ dw (dry basis. After drying, the seeds were stored at a temperature of -20 ºC and of 86 ºC for 24 hours and for 12 months, and then compared to seeds in cold storage at 10 ºC. The seeds were evaluated through calculation of percentage of normal seedlings, percentage of seedlings with expanded cotyledonary leaves, dry matter of roots and of hypocotyls, and viability of embryos in the tetrazolium test. Expression of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were evaluated by means of electrophoretic analysis. Only seeds dried more slowly to 0.18 g H2O g-1 dw present relative tolerance to storing at -20 °C for 12 months. Coffee seeds do not tolerate storage at a temperature of -86 ºC for 12 months. Water contents below 0.11g H2O g-¹ dw and above 0.43 g H2O g-¹ dw hurt the physiological quality of coffee seeds, regardless of the type of drying, temperature, and storage period. Coffee seed embryos are more tolerant to desiccation and to freezing compared to whole seeds, especially when the seeds are dried to 0.05 g H2O g-¹ dw. The catalase enzyme can be used as a biochemical marker to study tolerance to freezing in coffee seeds.

  3. Coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Coffee seeds display slow and variable germination which severely hampers the production of seedlings for planting in the following growth season. Little work has been done with the aim to understand the behavior of

  4. Heterogeneity in the seed globulin and albumin fractions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful fractionation of albumin, globulin and vicilin fractions from dry seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was achieved using established procedures for preparation of legume seed proteins. The resulting polypeptides were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing ...

  5. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  6. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  7. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 2S albumin seed protein from Lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Gaur, Vineet; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    A 2S albumin from L. culinaris was purified and crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were carried out. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a widely consumed high-protein-content leguminous crop. A 2S albumin protein (26.5 kDa) has been identified using NH 2 -terminal sequencing from a 90% ammonium sulfate saturation fraction of total L. culinaris seed protein extract. The NH 2 -terminal sequence shows very high homology to PA2, an allergy-related protein from Pisum sativum. The 2S albumin protein was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals of the 2S seed albumin obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and were indexed in space group P4 1 (or P4 3 ), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.6, c = 135.2 Å

  8. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 2S albumin seed protein from Lens culinaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Gaur, Vineet; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-08-01

    A 2S albumin from L. culinaris was purified and crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were carried out. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a widely consumed high-protein-content leguminous crop. A 2S albumin protein (26.5 kDa) has been identified using NH{sub 2}-terminal sequencing from a 90% ammonium sulfate saturation fraction of total L. culinaris seed protein extract. The NH{sub 2}-terminal sequence shows very high homology to PA2, an allergy-related protein from Pisum sativum. The 2S albumin protein was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals of the 2S seed albumin obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and were indexed in space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.6, c = 135.2 Å.

  9. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  10. Coffee (Coffea arabica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déchamp, Eveline; Breitler, Jean-Christophe; Leroy, Thierry; Etienne, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea sp.) is a perennial plant widely cultivated in many tropical countries. It is a cash crop for millions of small farmers in these areas. As for other tree species, coffee has long breeding cycles, which makes conventional breeding programs time-consuming. For that matter, genetic transformation can be an effective way to introduce a desired trait in elite varieties or for functional genomics. In this chapter, we describe two highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques developed for the C. arabica cultivated species: (1) A. tumefaciens to study and introduce genes conferring resistance/tolerance to biotic (coffee leaf rust, insects) and abiotic stress (drought, heat, seed desiccation) in fully transformed plants and (2) A. rhizogenes to study candidate gene expression for nematode resistance in transformed roots.

  11. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-scale production of functional human serum albumin from transgenic rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Ning, Tingting; Xie, Tingting; Qiu, Qingchuan; Zhang, Liping; Sun, Yunfang; Jiang, Daiming; Fu, Kai; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Wenjing; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianjun; Lin, Qishan; Sun, Yunxia; Li, Hongzhen; Zhu, Yingguo; Yang, Daichang

    2011-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely used in clinical and cell culture applications. Conventional production of HSA from human blood is limited by the availability of blood donation and the high risk of viral transmission from donors. Here, we report the production of Oryza sativa recombinant HSA (OsrHSA) from transgenic rice seeds. The level of OsrHSA reached 10.58% of the total soluble protein of the rice grain. Large-scale production of OsrHSA generated protein with a purity >99% and a productivity rate of 2.75 g/kg brown rice. Physical and biochemical characterization of OsrHSA revealed it to be equivalent to plasma-derived HSA (pHSA). The efficiency of OsrHSA in promoting cell growth and treating liver cirrhosis in rats was similar to that of pHSA. Furthermore, OsrHSA displays similar in vitro and in vivo immunogenicity as pHSA. Our results suggest that a rice seed bioreactor produces cost-effective recombinant HSA that is safe and can help to satisfy an increasing worldwide demand for human serum albumin. PMID:22042856

  13. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  14. An antifungal peptide from Coffea canephora seeds with sequence homology to glycine-rich proteins exerts membrane permeabilization and nuclear localization in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottich, Umberto; Da Cunha, Maura; Carvalho, André O; Dias, Germana B; Casarin, Nádia; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2013-06-01

    The superfamily of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs) corresponds to a large and complex group of plant proteins that may be involved in many developmental and physiological processes such as RNA biogenesis, stress tolerance, pollen hydration and plant-pathogen interactions, showing defensive activity against fungi, bacteria and viruses. In this study, the peptides from Coffea canephora seeds were extracted according to the methods of Egorov et al. (2005). The purified peptide was submitted for amino acid sequencing and antimicrobial activity measurement. The purified peptide with a molecular weight of 7kDa, named Cc-GRP, was observed to display homology to GRPs. The Cc-GRP-fungi interaction led to morphological changes and membrane permeability, including the formation of pseudohyphae, which were visualized with the aid of SYTOX green dye. Additionally, Cc-GRP also prevented colony formation by yeasts. Antifungal assays of Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, observed by light microscopy, showed that the two molds exhibited morphological changes after the growth assay. Cc-GRP coupled to FITC and its subsequent treatment with DAPI revealed the presence of the peptide in the cell wall, cell surface and nucleus of F. oxysporum. In this work we purified, characterized and evaluated the in vitro effect on fungi of a new peptide from coffee, named Cc-GRP, which is involved in the plant defense system against pathogens by acting through a membrane permeabilization mechanism and localized in the nuclei of fungal cells. We also showed, for the first time, the intracellular localization of Cc-GRP during antimicrobial assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, T I; Rogozhin, E A; Sklyar, I V; Musolyamov, A K; Kudryavtsev, A M; Pukhalsky, V A; Smirnov, A N; Grishin, E V; Egorov, T A

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we isolated and characterized novel antifungal proteins from seeds of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.). We showed that they are represented by five isoforms, each consisting of two disulphide-bonded large and small subunits. One of them, To-A1 was studied in detail, including N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits, and shown to display sequence homology with the sunflower 2S albumin. Using different assays we demonstrated that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concentrations with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity. Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions.

  16. Teste de condutividade elétrica individual na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. Individual electrical conductivity test for evaluation of the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Souza Cabral Costa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O teste de condutividade elétrica é usado para medir os exsudatos das sementes, que certamente refletem a integridade do sistema de membranas. O teste é rápido e de operação simples, mas a metodologia necessita ser testada para cada espécie individualmente para obter uma melhor precisão e exatidão dos resultados. Este trabalho foi conduzido visando determinar o ponto de partição na realização do teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de café. Dez lotes de sementes de Coffea arabica sem pergaminho, cultivar Acaiá foram usados nesse estudo. Para a avaliação do ponto de partição as sementes foram embebidas por 96 horas e submetidas ao teste de germinação, correlacionando os valores de condutividade observados com os valores obtidos no teste de germinação. O ponto de partição é de 120,5µS.cm-1, considerando 70% de germinação.The conductivity test is used to measure the leaches from the seeds, which certaintily reflect the membrane system integrity. The test is rapid and it is of simple operation, but the methodology needs to be tested for each individual species in order to reach a better precision and accuracy. This work was conducted to determinate the partition point for the realization of electrical conductivity test in coffee seeds. Ten seed lots of Coffea arabica, cultivar Acaiá, without parchment, were used in this study. For the evaluation of the partition point, seeds were imbibed for 96 hours and submitted to the germination test, with the correlation between the conductivity values and those obtained in the germination test being evaluated. The partition point is 120,5µS.cm-1, considering 70% of germination.

  17. Genética de Coffea: XII - Hereditariedade da côr amarela da semente

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    A. Carvalho

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The known species of Coffea can be grouped into two categories according to the color of their endosperm which is either green or yellow. The commercially cultivated varieties of Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner are well known for the green color of their seed while the less known varieties of Coffea liberica Hiern and Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur. have yellow Feed. In 1935, however, a yellow seeded type of C. arabica, was found in Brazil and has been described as Coffea arabica L. var. cera K.M.C. ; it is believed to have originated by mutation from Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer. In this paper the authors present the results of a genetic study of the yellow seeded mutant known as "cera". It has been found that in C. arabica, yellow endosperm is controlled by one pair of recessive factors cece. Hybrid seeds containing a Cece embryo were green (xenia, their endosperm being either Cecece or CeCece. Cera is a tetraploid variety and when it was crossed with diploid Coffea species having yellow endosperm, it was found to produce only yellow hybrid seeds. The cera, which is a yellow seeded mutant has been useful not only for definitely showing that the bulk of the coffee seed is true endosperm, but it has also proved useful is study of the biology of the coffee flower.

  18. Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Coffea arabica Seeds during Perisperm Tissue Development and Their Relationship to Coffee Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Leonardo Cardoso; Magalhães, Diogo Maciel De; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Sera, Tumoru; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-24

    Coffee is one of the most important crops for developing countries. Coffee classification for trading is related to several factors, including grain size. Larger grains have higher market value then smaller ones. Coffee grain size is determined by the development of the perisperm, a transient tissue with a highly active metabolism, which is replaced by the endosperm during seed development. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to identify differentially accumulated proteins during perisperm development in two genotypes with regular (IPR59) and large grain sizes (IPR59-Graudo) in three developmental stages. Twenty-four spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, corresponding to 15 proteins. We grouped them into categories as follows: storage (11S), methionine metabolism, cell division and elongation, metabolic processes (mainly redox), and energy. Our data enabled us to show that perisperm metabolism in IPR59 occurs at a higher rate than in IPR59-Graudo, which is supported by the accumulation of energy and detoxification-related proteins. We hypothesized that grain and fruit size divergences between the two coffee genotypes may be due to the comparatively earlier triggering of seed development processes in IPR59. We also demonstrated for the first time that the 11S protein is accumulated in the coffee perisperm.

  19. Phytochemical overview and medicinal importance of Coffea species from the past until now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Éva Brigitta; Bencsik, Tímea; Papp, Nóra

    2016-12-01

    Coffea (coffee) species are grown in almost all countries along the Equator. Many members of the genus have a large production history and an important role both in the global market and researches. Seeds (Coffeae semen) are successfully used in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries due to its caffeine and high polyphenol content. Nowadays, the three best-known coffee species are Arabic (Coffea arabica L.), Robusta (Coffea robusta L. Linden), and Liberian coffees (Coffea liberica Hiern.). Even though, many records are available on coffee in scientific literature, wild coffee species like Bengal coffee (Coffea benghalensis Roxb. Ex Schult.) could offer many new opportunities and challenges for phytochemical and medical studies. In this comprehensive summary, we focused on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and medical significance of coffee species up to the present. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.

  1. Relationship between proportion and composition of albumins, and in vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Joon; Kim, Tae Wan; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2010-08-15

    Peas provide an excellent plant protein resource for human diets, but their proteins are less readily digestible than animal proteins. To identify the relationship between composition and in vitro digestibility of pea protein, eight pea varieties with a wide range of protein content (157.3-272.7 g kg(-1)) were determined for the proportion of albumins and globulins, their compositions using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) before and after heat treatment using a multi-enzyme (trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase) method. The proportion of albumins based on total seed protein content decreased from 229 to 147 g kg(-1) as seed protein content increased from 157.3 to 272.7 g kg(-1), while the proportion of globulins increased from 483 to 590 g kg(-1). The IVPDs of eight raw pea seeds were 79.9-83.5%, with significant varietal variations, and those were improved to 85.9-86.8% by cooking. Albumins, including (pea albumins 2) PA2, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and lipoxygenase, were identified as proteolytic resistant proteins. Globulins were mostly digested by protease treatment after heating. The quantitative ratio of albumins and globulins, and the quantitative variations of albumin protein components, including lipoxygenase, PA2, lectins and trypsin inhibitors, appear to influence the protein digestibility of both raw and cooked pea seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Coffea canephora Pierre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The propagation and distribution of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre), clonal selections in. Uganda has been hampered by logistics. These clonal selections also exhibit a substantial degree of genotype-environmental interaction. Our objectives were to further elucidate the differences between these clones ...

  3. Caffeine inheritance in interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica x Coffea canephora (Gentianales, Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine inheritance was investigated in F2 and BC1F1 generations between Coffea arabica var. Bourbon Vermelho (BV and Coffea canephora var. Robusta 4x (R4x. The caffeine content of seeds and leaves was determined during 2004 and 2005. Microsatellite loci-markers were used to deduce the meiotic pattern of chromosome pairing of tetraploid interspecific hybrids. Genetic analysis indicated that caffeine content in seeds was quantitatively inherited and controlled by genes with additive effects. The estimates of broad-sense heritability of caffeine content in seeds were high for both generations. In coffee leaves, the caffeine content (BSH from the same populations showed transgressive segregants with enhanced levels and high BSH. Segregation of loci-markers in BC1F1 populations showed that the ratios of the gametes genotype did not differ significantly from those expected assuming random associations and tetrasomic inheritance. The results confirm the existence of distinct mechanisms controlling the caffeine content in seeds and leaves, the gene exchange between the C. arabica BV and C. canephora R4x genomes and favorable conditions for improving caffeine content in this coffee population.

  4. The Antifungal Inhibitory Concentration Effectiveness Test From Ethanol Seed Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) Extract Against The Growth Of Candida albicans Patient Isolate With In Vitro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria Rakatama, Adam; Pramono, Andri; Yulianti, Retno

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans are the most frequent cause of Vulvovaginalis Candidiasis infection. Its treatment using antifungal drugs, are oftenly caused side effects. The reduction of C.albicans growth and the reduction of antifungal drugs side effect, were our main purposed. Our study objective is determine the effectiveness of inhibitory power of arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. The type of this research is experimental research. Kirby-bauer method with the Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media was used in this experiment. Inhibitory zone was observed around the disc, to determine the inhibitory power. The results showed that the inhibitory zone was formed on arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration. Kruskal-Wallis test results (palbicans patient isolates were smaller compared with C.albicans ATCC 90028 as gold standard. This showed that the virulence of C.albicans from patients isolates were higher. We concluded that arabica coffee seed ethanol extract could inhibiting the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. Optimization of coffee seed ethanol extract to obtain maximum active ingredients still needs to be done. This knowledge is expected to be used for the beginning manufacturer antifungal drug from natural product.

  5. AMELIORATON GENETIQUE DE Coffea canephora Pierre PAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Mots clés : Café, descendance, robusta, C. canephora, congusta, Côte d'Ivoire. ABSTRACT. GENETIC BREEDING OF coffea canephoraPierre BY INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION : STUDY OF FIRST GENERATION. HYBRIDES OF coffea cannephoraPierre X coffea congensis Froenhner. Coffee represents one of the most ...

  6. Identification and characterisation of the IgE-binding proteins 2S albumin and conglutin gamma in almond (Prunus dulcis) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, P; Cappello, M S; Dohmae, N; Conti, A; Fortunato, D; Pastorello, E A; Ortolani, C; Zacheo, G

    2002-06-01

    Almond proteins can cause severe anaphylactic reactions in susceptible individuals. The aim of this study was the identification of IgE-binding proteins in almonds and the characterisation of these proteins by N-terminal sequencing. Five sera were selected from individuals with a positive reaction to food challenge. Sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were performed on almond seed proteins. Purified IgE-binding proteins were tested for immunoblot inhibition with sera pre-incubated with extracts of hazelnut and walnut. N-terminal sequences of the 12-, 30- and 45-kD proteins were obtained. The 45- and 30-kD proteins shared the same N terminus, with 60% homology to the conglutin gamma heavy chain from lupine seed (Lupinus albus) and to basic 7S globulin from soybean (Glycine max). The sequences of the N-terminal 12-kD protein and of an internal peptide obtained by endoproteinase digestion showed good homology to 2S albumin from English walnut (Jug r 1). Immunoblot inhibition experiments were performed and IgE binding to almond 2S albumin and conglutin gamma was detected in the presence of cross-reacting walnut or hazelnut antigens. Two IgE-binding almond proteins were N-terminally sequenced and identified as almond 2S albumin and conglutin gamma. Localisation and conservation of IgE binding in a 6-kD peptide obtained by endoproteinase digestion of 2S albumin was shown. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Study on the determination of coffea arabic radio sensibility curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robleda, D.; Velazquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    The radiosensitivity curve of Coffea Arabic submitted to gamma irradiation from a 60C o source at the MRX-1500 with a dose power of 105 Gy/min was determined. For that study,. coffee seeds were irradiated at doses of 10,40,80 and 120 Gy, with a 40% of relative humidity; percentage of germination, height decrease, number and size of leaves, number and length of modes. As result of this analysis, GR50 and GR20 doses for searching genetic variability related to plant size reduction

  8. Uma nova forma de Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Krug

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos extensos trabalhos de melhoramento do cafeeiro, há 18 anos em realização na Subdivisão de Genética do Instituto Agronômico, tem-se dedicado especial atenção à espécie C. arabica L., pelo fato de todos os nossos cafèzais pertencerem a esta espécie que, sem dúvida, fornece o produto de melhor qualidade. Nas regiões de terras extremamente cansadas, um dos principais fatôres levados em consideração no melhoramento é a rusticidade, caráter êsse, entretanto, encontrado de preferência em outras espécies, tais como o C. canephora e C. Dewevrei, cujos cafés são de má qualidade. A hibridação interespecífica, que poderia reunir em uma só planta caraterísticos de rusticidade e boa qualidade de bebida, tem o inconveniente de dar origem a plantas triplóides, que são estéreis. Daí se deduz que a obtenção artificial de formas que combinassem êsses caraterísticos constitui problema, cuja solução é extremamente demorada. No presente trabalho, apresentam-se os caracteres de uma nova forma de Coffea, encontrada em cafèzal da Fazenda Itaporã, em Terra Roxa, município de Viradouro, que, com algumas ressalvas, oferece a desejada combinação de caracteres. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de um híbrido espontâneo entre C. arabica e C. Dewevrei, com 2n = 44 cromosômios, extremamente rústico e produtivo, cujas sementes fornecem uma bebida que pode ser classificada como boa. Apenas apresenta, como principal defeito, uma auto-esterilidade quase completa. Os seus caraterísticos botânicos são descritos em detalhe. Devido ao seu porte elevado, ramos abundantes e folhas grandes e coriáceas, esse cafeeiro se assemelha ao C. Dewevrei. Os frutos são oval-elípticos, de um vermelho bem escuro quando maduros, e as sementes oblongas, constatan-do-se elevada percentagem do tipo "moca" e "chocha". Quanto à constituição citológica, as pesquisas conduziram à hipótese de este cafeeiro possuir 22 cromosômios de C. arabica e 22 (n

  9. Efeitos de tempos e temperaturas de condicionamento sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, L. sob condições ideais e de estresse térmico Effects of the times and temperatures of conditioning on the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L. under ideal conditions and under thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Mara Pacheco Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com a presente pesquisa estudar tempos e temperaturas mais adequadas para o condicionamento fisiológico e avaliar os efeitos desses tratamentos na germinação sob condições de estresse térmico, de sementes de cafeeiro armazenadas. O estudo foi conduzido nos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes e Técnicas Moleculares do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, utilizando-se sementes de café da cultivar Acaiá do cerrado. As sementes foram colhidas nos campos de produção da UFLA e armazenadas em condições de ambiente de agosto/2000 a janeiro/2001, quando foram submetidas ao condicionamento em água nas temperaturas de 15, 25 e 35ºC por 4, 8 12 dias de embebição. O condicionamento foi realizado em câmara tipo BOD, na presença de luz, e a aeração foi feita com compressores e bombas de aquário. Após cada tratamento, as sementes foram imediatamente submetidas à determinação do teor de água e avaliadas pelos testes de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação sob estresse térmico (20 e 35ºC e eletroforese de enzimas. Para comparação, foram utilizadas sementes sem tratamento de embebição. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que as sementes condicionadas em água a 15 e 25ºC apresentaram melhor desempenho da germinação em condições de estresse térmico; o condicionamento a 35ºC não foi apropriado; o condicionamento por 4 dias foi o menos eficiente em melhorar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e o condicionamento fisiológico em água mostrou-se eficaz ao revigoramento, principalmente a 25ºC por 12 dias.The goal of this work was the evaluation of the adequate times and temperatures for the physiological contitioning and effects of this techinique in the germination on stress conditions, of stored coffee seeds. The experiment was performed in the Seed and Molecular Techniques Laboratories of the UFLA's Agriculture Departament. The seeds used were from the cultivar Acai

  10. Volatile compounds profiles in unroasted Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora beans from different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel KNYSAK

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma is the most important factor in assessing the quality of coffee. The volatile compounds profile could be very important to confirm the authenticity of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out on two species of unroasted coffee beans: Coffea arabica from Colombia and Nepal and Coffea robusta from Uganda and Vietnam. Both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were imported to the country of analysis approximately 5 months prior to the research. Before the analysis, the coffee beans were kept in a sealed, dark container, at 21 °C. The tests were performed using an electronic nose. Its functioning is based on gas chromatography with two columns of different polarities in parallel and with 2 ultra sensitive Flame Ionization Detectors (FID. With multivariate statistics – Principal Components Analysis – it was possible to reduce the number of links and present them in two dimensions, which allowed for the unambiguous identification and assignment of samples to a particular species of coffee. By using an electronic nose, one can distinguish and group unroasted coffee beans’ flavours depending on the country of origin and species.

  11. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  12. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee ( Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee ( Coffea arabica L) blended with cloves or cardamom in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. ... Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant activity of Coffea Arabica L in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. ... Keywords: High-fat diet, Diabetes, Antioxidant, Arabian coffee, Cardamom, Cloves ...

  13. Analysis of Phosphorus Use Efficiency Traits in Coffea Genotypes Reveals Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora Have Contrasting Phosphorus Uptake and Utilization Efficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Ana P.; Favarin, Jos? L.; Hammond, John P.; Tezotto, Tiago; Couto, Hilton T. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Phosphate (Pi) is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P) uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availabili...

  14. Komunitas Nematoda pada Tanaman Kopi (Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Muda di Kabupaten Tanggamus Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE SWIBAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Community of Nematode in The Young Coffee ( Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Crops in Tanggamus District, Lampung. Tanggamus district is one of coffee production center in Lampung province. Since year of 2013, farmers in Tanggamus have been replaced the unproductive old coffee by coffee seed introduced from East Java. Introducing coffe seed from outside area at risk of carrying plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this research was to study community of nematode associated with young coffee crops in Tanggamus. Survey was conducted in coffee robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta fields belonging to farmer on September 2014. Soil samples were collected from three sites: Margo Mulyo, Sumber Rejo and Batu Bedil. Nematodes were extracted by sieving and centrifugation with sugar solution method. The results show that were 20 genera consisted of 9 genera of plant parasitic and 11 genera of free living nematodes associated with young coffee in Tanggamus. The nematode community was dominated by Pratylenchus and Radopholus. The population of Pratylenchus and Radopholus in Sumber Rejo site were 421 and 846 individual per 300 ml of soil respectively. It was needed to indentify up to species taxonomic level for Pratylenchus and Radopholus associated with young coffee in Tanggamus.

  15. Quantification of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta in roasted and ground coffee blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Laura Ruth; Pellegrino, Gloria; Giugno, Graziella; Consonni, Roberto

    2013-03-15

    This study reports direct quantification of arabica in roasted and ground coffee blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta. (1)H-NMR analysis of water extracts of coffee blends were combined with multivariate statistical analysis to obtain an OPLS model with high predictive capability. This approach allowed to evaluate the composition of coffee blends of unknown arabica and robusta content, on the basis of multiple chemical components. Differences in geographical origin of the analyzed samples did not affected the compositional determination of coffee blends. This approach represents a valid tool in authentication procedures of arabica and robusta blends of roasted and ground coffee. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Taxonomia de Coffea arabica L.: III - Coffea arabica L. var. anormalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Krug

    1950-01-01

    Campinas.The almost completely autogamous species Coffea arabica L. is polymorphic, twenty five varieties and four forms having already been described. The homozygous types for new genetic factors are considered new varieties, but recombinations of already known genes are not described as such. In 1938 a coffee plant was found at the Central Experiment Station coffee nursery, which showed abnormal leaves and irregular branching. As this variant appeared in a F2 population derived from a normal coffee plant, it is supposed to have originated by mutation. A study of the progeny of this mutant, obtained through artificial selfpollination, revealed that it is heterozygous for one pair of genes, which so far had not been encountered in C. arabica. Plants homozygous for this gene are described in the present paper as a new variety, anormalis. The branching habit of the anormalis variety is very abnormal, showing an excess of orthotropic branches arising at various nodes. The lateral branches are also abnormal. The leaves are extremely variable in shape and size ; sometimes they have two apices ; others are deeply incised often to the base of the petiole. The number of leaves at each node may vary from 1 to 4 ; the stipules, located between the insertion regions of the petioles, are large and irregularly shaped. The flowers show abnormalities in all their organs. The fruits are usually normal in shape and have a rather large disc. Abnormal seeds, of the "shell" (concha type, frequently occur. A similar abnormal coffee plant was also found in a field planting in the Avaré county. It seems probable that it also arose through mutation and that it possesses the same gene which determines the characters of the anormalis variety found in Campinas.

  17. Milieux propices au Coffea canephora en Martinique

    OpenAIRE

    Claude, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Pionnière pour la culture du café dans la Caraïbe dès 1720, connue pour son légendaire café Arabica, la Martinique n’a plus aucune filière caféière depuis le XIXe siècle. Afin de relancer la culture, un système d'information géographique (SIG) avait été élaboré pour effectuer un zonage pédoclimatique et retrouver les milieux propices au Coffea arabica. Le zonage a abouti à une impossibilité de production pour le futur d’un café Arabica d’excellence, les précipitations représentant un facteur ...

  18. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  19. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute. There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

  20. A Comparison Among Various Robusta Coffee ( Coffea canephora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The propagation and distribution of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre), clonal selections in Uganda has been hampered by logistics. ... the differences between individual clones and their corresponding seedling progenies and a farmer's elite entry and to define the nitrogen levels required for the optimal performance ...

  1. Genetic variation in Coffea canephora L. (Var. Robusta) accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Lashermes P, Cros J, Marmey P, Charrier A (1993). Use of random amplified DNA markers to analyse genetic variability and relationships of Coffea species. Genet. Res. Crop Evol. 40: 91-99. Masumbuko LI, Bryngelsson T (2006). Inter simple sequence repeat. (ISSR) analysis of diploid coffee species and ...

  2. Phenotypic Diversity in the Hararge Coffee ( Coffea arabica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed the presence of high genetic diversity among Hararge Coffee germplasm accessions and the possibility of developing improved varieties through selection and hybridization. Keywords: Cluster Analysis; Coffea arabica; Genetic Diversity; Germplasm; Hararge; Quantitative Traits East African Journal of ...

  3. Structural features of acelated galactomannans from green Coffea arabica Beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Coenen, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.C.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from green Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C, 1 h). Galactomannans were isolated from the water extract using preparative anion-exchange chromatography. Almost all of the galactomannans eluted in two neutral populations, while almost all of the arabinogalactans

  4. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Coffea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-04-25

    Apr 25, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: This study describes the status of mycorrhizal fungi in coffee (Coffea arabica) in the Yemeni ecosystems. Methodology and results: Soil samples were extracted from the rhizosphere of the coffee tree groves in several regions of Yemen. The frequency and the level of colonization of ...

  5. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Coffea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study describes the status of mycorrhizal fungi in coffee (Coffea arabica) in the Yemeni ecosystems. Methodology and results: Soil samples were extracted from the rhizosphere of the coffee tree groves in several regions of Yemen. The frequency and the level of colonization of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ...

  6. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The

  7. An investigation of carotenoid biosynthesis in Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Andrew J; Moreau, Helene; Kuntz, Marcel; Pagny, Gaëlle; Lin, Chenwei; Tanksley, Steve; McCarthy, James

    2008-07-07

    Carotenoids are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus in a wide range of organisms. They participate in the adaptation of plastids to changing environmental light conditions and prevent photo-oxidative damage of the photosynthetic apparatus by detoxifying reactive oxygen species. We identified eight cDNAs from the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway (PSY, PDS, ZDS, PTOX, LCY-E, CRTR-B, ZEP and VDE) and two cDNA encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase family members (NCED3 and CCD1) in Coffea canephora. We also obtained cDNA encoding several different fibrillin proteins involved in carotenoid sequestration (FIB). Expression of the coffee carotenoid genes was determined in leaf, branch and flower tissues using quantitative RT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes in leaf tissue from osmotically stressed plants was also carried out. These experiments showed that the transcript levels of PTOX, CRTR-B, NCED3, CCD1 and FIB1 increased under these stress conditions, while LCY-E decreased, indicating that the metabolic flux towards the xanthophyll cycle branch of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway may be favoured in leaves under drought conditions. Functional analysis of CcCRTR-B using an in vivo method employing Escherichia coli strains engineered to make carotenoids confirmed that the beta-carotene hydroxylase activity of CcCRTR-B generates beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin from beta-carotene. A similar approach was also used to show that CcCCD1 encoded a functional 9,10(9'10') carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, and thus that this enzyme is capable of forming one or more apocarotenoids in vivo. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of coffee leaves revealed the presence of alpha-carotene and suggests that Coffea arabica may have higher levels of alpha-carotene than C. canephora.

  8. An EST-based analysis identifies new genes and reveals distinctive gene expression features of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondego, J.M.C.; Vidal, R.O.; Carazzolle, M.F.; Tokuda, E.K.; Parizzi, L.P.; Costa, G.G.L.; Pereira, L.F.P.; Andrade, A.C.; Colombo, C.A.; Vieira, L.G.E.; Pereira, G.A.G.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the world’s most important crops; it is consumed worldwide and plays a significant role in the economy of producing countries. Coffea arabica and C. canephora are responsible for 70 and 30% of commercial production, respectively. C. arabica is an allotetraploid from a

  9. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the XMT and DXMT N-methyltransferases from Coffea canephora (robusta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Andrew A., E-mail: andrewmc@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Biget, Laurent [Nestlé Research and Development, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, Notre-Dame D’Oe, 37097 Tours (France); Lin, Chenwei [Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Petiard, Vincent [Nestlé Research and Development, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, Notre-Dame D’Oe, 37097 Tours (France); Tanksley, Steve D. [Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); McCarthy, James G. [Nestlé Research and Development, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, Notre-Dame D’Oe, 37097 Tours (France); European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2007-04-01

    The genes encoding XMT and DXMT, the enzymes from Coffea canephora (robusta) that catalyse the three independent N-methyl transfer reactions in the caffeine-biosynthesis pathway, have been cloned and the proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been crystallized in the presence of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosyl-l-cysteine (SAH) and substrate (xanthosine for XMT and theobromine for DXMT). Caffeine is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of plants including Coffea canephora (robusta) and there is growing evidence that caffeine is part of a chemical defence strategy protecting young leaves and seeds from potential predators. The genes encoding XMT and DXMT, the enzymes from Coffea canephora (robusta) that catalyse the three independent N-methyl transfer reactions in the caffeine-biosynthesis pathway, have been cloned and the proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been crystallized in the presence of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosyl-l-cysteine (SAH) and substrate (xanthosine for XMT and theobromine for DXMT). The crystals are orthorhombic, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} for XMT and C222{sub 1} for DXMT. X-ray diffraction to 2.8 Å for XMT and to 2.5 Å for DXMT have been collected on beamline ID23-1 at the ESRF.

  10. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the XMT and DXMT N-methyltransferases from Coffea canephora (robusta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Andrew A.; Biget, Laurent; Lin, Chenwei; Petiard, Vincent; Tanksley, Steve D.; McCarthy, James G.

    2007-01-01

    The genes encoding XMT and DXMT, the enzymes from Coffea canephora (robusta) that catalyse the three independent N-methyl transfer reactions in the caffeine-biosynthesis pathway, have been cloned and the proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been crystallized in the presence of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosyl-l-cysteine (SAH) and substrate (xanthosine for XMT and theobromine for DXMT). Caffeine is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of plants including Coffea canephora (robusta) and there is growing evidence that caffeine is part of a chemical defence strategy protecting young leaves and seeds from potential predators. The genes encoding XMT and DXMT, the enzymes from Coffea canephora (robusta) that catalyse the three independent N-methyl transfer reactions in the caffeine-biosynthesis pathway, have been cloned and the proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been crystallized in the presence of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosyl-l-cysteine (SAH) and substrate (xanthosine for XMT and theobromine for DXMT). The crystals are orthorhombic, with space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 for XMT and C222 1 for DXMT. X-ray diffraction to 2.8 Å for XMT and to 2.5 Å for DXMT have been collected on beamline ID23-1 at the ESRF

  11. Screening for 16-O-methylcafestol in roasted coffee by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection - Determination of Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Radovanovic, Jessica

    2017-11-24

    16-O-Methylcafestol (16-OMC), the characteristic diterpene exclusively present in Coffea canephora, is an excellent marker for Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica. Here we show a straightforward, selective and sensitive screening method for the determination of 16-OMC in roasted coffee by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). As internal standard, Sudan IV was used, and a direct saponification with 10% ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution was followed by solid supported liquid extraction with petroleum ether. 16-OMC was selectively derivatized with 2-naphthoyl chloride and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD on silica gel plates with cyclohexane/tert-butyl methyl ether/formic acid (86:14:2, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The enhanced fluorescence was scanned at UV 244/>320nm. Limits of detection and quantitation of 5 and 14mg 16-OMC/kg coffee allowed the determination of Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica below 1%. Recoveries for blends of Coffea arabica with Coffea canephora were close to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  13. Analysis of Phosphorus Use Efficiency Traits in Coffea Genotypes Reveals Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora Have Contrasting Phosphorus Uptake and Utilization Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ana P; Favarin, José L; Hammond, John P; Tezotto, Tiago; Couto, Hilton T Z

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P) uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availability. Plants of 21 cultivars of C. arabica and four cultivars of C. canephora were grown under contrasting soil Pi availabilities. Biomass accumulation, tissue P concentration and accumulation and efficiency indices for P use were measured. Coffee plant growth was significantly reduced under low Pi availability, and P concentration was higher in cultivars of C. canephora. The young leaves accumulated more P than any other tissue. The cultivars of C. canephora had a higher root/shoot ratio and were significantly more efficient in P uptake, while the cultivars of C. arabica were more efficient in P utilization. Agronomic P use efficiency varied among coffee cultivars and E16 Shoa, E22 Sidamo, Iêmen and Acaiá cultivars were classified as the most efficient and responsive to Pi supply. A positive correlation between P uptake efficiency and root to shoot ratio was observed across all cultivars at low Pi supply. These data identify Coffea genotypes better adapted to low soil Pi availabilities, and the traits that contribute to improved P uptake and use efficiency. These data could be used to select current genotypes with improved P uptake or utilization efficiencies for use on soils with low Pi availability and also provide potential breeding material and targets for breeding new cultivars better adapted to the low Pi status of Brazilian soils. This could ultimately reduce the use of Pi fertilizers in tropical soils, and contribute to more sustainable coffee production.

  14. Analysis of phosphorus use efficiency traits in Coffea genotypes reveals Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora have contrasting phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Phosphate (Pi is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availability.Methods: Plants of twenty-one cultivars of C. arabica and four cultivars of C. canephora were grown under contrasting soil Pi availabilities. Biomass accumulation, tissue P concentration and accumulation and efficiency indices for P use were measured. Key Results: Coffee plant growth was significantly reduced under low Pi availability, and P concentration was higher in cultivars of C. canephora. The young leaves accumulated more P than any other tissue. The cultivars of C. canephora had a higher root/shoot ratio and were significantly more efficient in P uptake, while the cultivars of C. arabica were more efficient in P utilization. Agronomic P use efficiency varied among coffee cultivars and E16 Shoa, E22 Sidamo, Iêmen and Acaiá cultivars were classified as the most efficient and responsive to Pi supply. A positive correlation between P uptake efficiency and root to shoot ratio was observed across all cultivars at low Pi supply. These data identify Coffea genotypes better adapted to low soil Pi availabilities, and the traits that contribute to improved P uptake and use efficiency. These data could be used to select current genotypes with improved P uptake or utilization efficiencies for use on soils with low Pi availability and also provide potential breeding material and targets for breeding new cultivars better adapted to the low Pi status of Brazilian soils. This could ultimately reduce the use of Pi fertilizers in tropical soils, and contribute to

  15. Metabolic Relations between Methylxanthines and Methyluric Acids in Coffea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, J B; Baumann, T W

    1983-12-01

    Metabolism of purine alkaloids in the leaves of Coffea dewevrei De Wild et Durand var excelsa Chev, Coffea liberica Bull ex Hiern and Coffea abeokutae Cramer was studied by analyzing leaf discs collected during vegetative development and by feeding the following radioactive tracers: [(14)C]theobromine, [(14)C]caffeine, and [(14)C]theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid). Their principal metabolites were quantitatively and qualitatively determined. All three species convert the precursors to the same radioactive products, and proceed through the same four maturity stages characterized by the alkaloid accumulation pattern and by a particular transformation potency: (stage 1) young plant accumulating caffeine, transforms theobromine to caffeine; (stage 2) caffeine is gradually replaced by theacrine, theobromine and caffeine are converted to theacrine; (stage 3) theacrine disappears whereas liberine (O(2), 1,9-thrimethyluric acid) accumulates, theacrine is metabolized to liberine; (stage 4) branched-out plant containing liberine but no theacrine, caffeine is converted rapidly to liberine via theacrine. Methylliberine (O(2),1,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), presumably the direct precursor of liberine, is occasionally found in low concentrations at stage 3 and 4.The collective term ;liberio-excelsoid' introduced by geneticists for the numerous races or species of Pachycoffea is in accordance with the phytochemical equality found in this work.

  16. An EST-based analysis identifies new genes and reveals distinctive gene expression features of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is one of the world's most important crops; it is consumed worldwide and plays a significant role in the economy of producing countries. Coffea arabica and C. canephora are responsible for 70 and 30% of commercial production, respectively. C. arabica is an allotetraploid from a recent hybridization of the diploid species, C. canephora and C. eugenioides. C. arabica has lower genetic diversity and results in a higher quality beverage than C. canephora. Research initiatives have been launched to produce genomic and transcriptomic data about Coffea spp. as a strategy to improve breeding efficiency. Results Assembling the expressed sequence tags (ESTs of C. arabica and C. canephora produced by the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project and the Nestlé-Cornell Consortium revealed 32,007 clusters of C. arabica and 16,665 clusters of C. canephora. We detected different GC3 profiles between these species that are related to their genome structure and mating system. BLAST analysis revealed similarities between coffee and grape (Vitis vinifera genes. Using KA/KS analysis, we identified coffee genes under purifying and positive selection. Protein domain and gene ontology analyses suggested differences between Coffea spp. data, mainly in relation to complex sugar synthases and nucleotide binding proteins. OrthoMCL was used to identify specific and prevalent coffee protein families when compared to five other plant species. Among the interesting families annotated are new cystatins, glycine-rich proteins and RALF-like peptides. Hierarchical clustering was used to independently group C. arabica and C. canephora expression clusters according to expression data extracted from EST libraries, resulting in the identification of differentially expressed genes. Based on these results, we emphasize gene annotation and discuss plant defenses, abiotic stress and cup quality-related functional categories. Conclusion We present the first comprehensive

  17. Quality of the surface of Coffea arabica wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo de Carvalho Braga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood of Coffea arabica L. is considered a a residue of the coffee industry and is widely used as a source of energy. Few studies have shown other destinations such as the manufacture of small objects and furniture with rustic design. The objective of this work was to find the best fit in cutting speed during machining planer trowel the wood of Coffea arabica, taking into consideration the quality of the machined surface. The wood from the Coffea arabica came from an 15 years planting, spacing 3 x 2 m, of the municipality of Machado / MG. The tree was pruned, unfolded and flattened, in order for getting cut-proof of 30 mm thick, with variables length and width. The machining tests were performed at the Laboratory of Wood Machining (DCF / UFLA, varying the cutting speed in plane trowel. The qualification of the machined surface was performed by the feed per tooth (fz, visual analysis (ASTM D 1666-87 and roughness Ra and Rz. It was used a completely randomized design with 30 repetitions. We conducted the analysis of variance test and the average of Scott-Knott, at 5% significance level. It was calculated the percentage of marks obtained for the feed per tooth. The results showed that the quality of machined surface with cutting speeds of 19 and 21 m∙s-1 and forward speed of 6 m∙min-1 were satisfactory with small surveys of fiber and low values of feed per tooth ( fz and roughness Ra and Rz.

  18. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  19. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  20. Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babova, Oxana; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2016-03-01

    Green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora accessions from different geographical origin (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam) were extracted and the extracts analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of chlorogenic acids and caffeine content. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to identify chemical patterns separating the different species and accessions based on their geographical origin. C. canephora showed always a higher caffeine content with respect to C. arabica, whereas the C. arabica accessions from Kenya showed a higher chlorogenic acids and a lower caffeine content. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee extracts was assayed by the reducing power and DPPH assays. The antioxidant capacity correlated with the chlorogenic acids content. The results show that the C. arabica from Kenya possesses the highest chlorogenic acids/caffeine ratio and, among the C. arabica accessions, the highest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the C. arabica from Kenya is the most suitable green coffee source for nutraceutical applications because of its high antioxidant capacity and low caffeine content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Greater Phenotypic Homeostasis of the Allopolyploid Coffea arabica Improved the Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of Both Diploid Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Benoît; Bardil, Amélie; Baraille, Hélène; Dussert, Stéphane; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Dubois, Emeric; Severac, Dany; Dereeper, Alexis; Etienne, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Polyploidy impacts the diversity of plant species, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification. In order to observe adaptive and evolutionary capacities of polyploids, we compared the growth, primary metabolism and transcriptomic expression level in the leaves of the newly formed allotetraploid Coffea arabica species compared with its two diploid parental species (Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora), exposed to four thermal regimes (TRs; 18-14, 23-19, 28-24 ...

  2. Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer Anatomy and ontogenetical development of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dedecca

    1957-01-01

    layer of hardened and lignified cells, with scattered stomata. Mesocarp is formed by several layers of polyhedric, large and lignified cells, the innermost of which are somewhat compressed and flattened. Amidst these cells are visible the vascular bundles showing a great amount of fibers. Endocarp is about 100 microns thick and constitutes in the ripe fruits the so-called "seed parchment". Studied in cross section the endocarp shows to be formed by 5-6 layers of intercrossing strong fibers, what gives this zone of tissue an extraordinary strength. Maceration allows the detailed examination of the individual fibers which measure 350-370 microns in length by 20-45 microns in transverse diameter. The cell walls are very thick and provided with ramiform pits; cell lumen is almost occluded. The coffee seeds or coffee beans are elliptical or egg-shaped, plane-convex, possessing a longitudinal furrow on the plane surface. Seed coat is represented by the so-called "silver skin", which ontogenetically originates from the primine, the single ovule integument. This seed coat is about 70 microns thick and anatomically shows to be constituted by an outer layer of fibers somewhat similar to the endocarp fibers; they are, however, shorter, measuring the longest ones 180-320 microns in length and 18-30 microns in transverse diameter. Their thick walls are provided with round, elliptical, or elongated simple pits. The size of these fibers, the thickness and number of pits on their walls are considered by Chevalier as important taxonomic characteristics for the differentiation of Coffea species. Completing the silver skin structure there are several layers of amorphic parenchyma tissue, and a layer of indistinct cells which originate from the innermost cell layer of the primine. On the other hand, the fibers had their origin from the outermost cell layer of the primine. Endosperm is foimed by polyhedric cells of very thick cellulosic walls, functioning the cellulose in this case as food

  3. Preparation of S-sulfo albumin film and its cell adhesive property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, large-scale production of the pharmaceutical grade recombinant human serum albumin was achieved, and several clinical trials have proved its safety and efficacy. Albumin is thought to be a candidate for a safe biopolymer sources for application to biomaterials. In this study, we treated albumin with sodium sulfite and sodium tetrathionate to give S-sulfo albumin, which was found to loose native albumin structure by CD spectra analysis and dye-binding assay. A water-insoluble S-sulfo albumin films were prepared by drying S-sulfo albumin solution and subsequent reformation of disulfide bonds by the oxidation with iodine. Ultimate strength, ultimate elongation and Young's modulus of S-sulfo albumin film prepared at room temperature were 3.3 ± 0.4 MPa, 30.8 ± 3.2% and 40.8 ± 3.3 MPa before oxidative treatment and changed to 13.8 ± 4.2 MPa, 5.6 ± 2.8% and 401.7 ± 15.3 MPa after oxidative treatment. When the film was prepared at 60 deg. C, similar tendency was observed. Thus, the disulfide bonds formation between albumin molecules by oxidative treatment converted the film stronger and stiffer. Cell adhesion and proliferation on the films were evaluated using mouse L929 fibroblast cells. Cell adhesion largely depended on the albumin structure; that is, cells did not attach to native albumin coated surfaces, while cell adhesion and proliferation occurred on the S-sulfo albumin films which lost their native albumin structure. Eighty percent of seeded cells were adhered on S-sulfo albumin films and proliferated well in a similar manner to those on the conventional culture dish. Our results indicate that S-sulfo albumin is a favorable cell culture substrate.

  4. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  5. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  6. Expression and trans-specific polymorphism of self-incompatibility RNases in coffea (Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Nowak

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is widespread in the angiosperms, but identifying the biochemical components of SI mechanisms has proven to be difficult in most lineages. Coffea (coffee; Rubiaceae is a genus of old-world tropical understory trees in which the vast majority of diploid species utilize a mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI. The S-RNase GSI system was one of the first SI mechanisms to be biochemically characterized, and likely represents the ancestral Eudicot condition as evidenced by its functional characterization in both asterid (Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and rosid (Rosaceae lineages. The S-RNase GSI mechanism employs the activity of class III RNase T2 proteins to terminate the growth of "self" pollen tubes. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Coffea GSI and specifically examine the potential for homology to S-RNase GSI by sequencing class III RNase T2 genes in populations of 14 African and Madagascan Coffea species and the closely related self-compatible species Psilanthus ebracteolatus. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences aligned to a diverse sample of plant RNase T2 genes show that the Coffea genome contains at least three class III RNase T2 genes. Patterns of tissue-specific gene expression identify one of these RNase T2 genes as the putative Coffea S-RNase gene. We show that populations of SI Coffea are remarkably polymorphic for putative S-RNase alleles, and exhibit a persistent pattern of trans-specific polymorphism characteristic of all S-RNase genes previously isolated from GSI Eudicot lineages. We thus conclude that Coffea GSI is most likely homologous to the classic Eudicot S-RNase system, which was retained since the divergence of the Rubiaceae lineage from an ancient SI Eudicot ancestor, nearly 90 million years ago.

  7. Partenogênese, partenocarpia e casos anormais de fertilização em Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie C. arabica L. é tetraplóide (2n = 44 ; em suas sementeiras, porém ocorrem ocasionalmente plantas di-haplóides (2n=22, hexaplóides (2n = 66 e octoplóides (2n=88. A origem das primeiras é atribuída à partenogênese ; as duas últimas devem-se formar pela união de gâmetos não reduzidos ou por processos de duplicação de cromossômios. A polinização dos tetraplóides pelos hexaplóides produziu somente plantas tetraplóides, sugerindo um processo partenogenético. Quando se cruzam as espécies C. arabica (2n = 44 e C. canephora (2n = 22 obtêm-se, além dos híbridos triplóides, indivíduos com o mesmo número de cromossômios que a planta mãe ; em vários casos essa ocorrência é atribuída à partenogênese. Dentro da espécie C. canephora verificou-se a ocorrência de partenocarpia e de partenogênese, quando se polinizou um indivíduo diplóide (2n = 22 com pólen de um tetraplóide (2n = 44. Assim, tanto em cruzamentos interespecíficos como intraespecíficos de Coffea, a diferença de número de cromossômios das plantas cruzadas determina, às vêzes, a partenocarpia e a partenogênese, observando-se ainda outros fenômenos como a união de gâmetas não reduzidos e a duplicação dos cromossômios de oosferas normalmente constituídas.The species C. arabica L. is tetraploid (2n=44 : among its progénie plants are found which are di-haploid (2n = 22, hexaploid (2n = 66 and octoploid (2n = 88. The origin of the first ones is attributed to parthenogenesis ; the last two must be formed by the the union of unreduced gametes or through processes of chromosome doubling. A parthenogenetic process is also attributed to the formation of tetraploids when the tetraploid plants are pollinated by the hexaploids. The cross C. arabica (2n=44 x C. canephora (2n = 22 gives besides the expected triploids, individuals with the same number of chromosomes as the seed parent; in various instances this occurrence is attributed to

  8. Thyroid albumin originates from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Veenboer, G. J.; van Dijk, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Iodoalbumin has been found in the goiter of Dutch goats with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect. Immunohistochemical studies showed that in the goiter the percentage of follicles containing albumin was higher than that in normal thyroid glands. In the albumin-containing follicles of normal and

  9. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  10. Allelopathic effects of two cover crops Commelina diffusa Burm. F. and Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz on Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Berroa Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effect of the cover crops Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz (cucaracha and Commelina diffusa Burm. F. (canutillo were evaluated on Coffea arabica Lin. seeds Caturra Rojo variety. Germination tests were carried out “in vitro” and it was evaluated the root longitude, percentage of total germination and period of germination, as well as the height of the plant and the emergency percentage for the incorporation tests to the soil. It was also carried out, to both over crops, the preliminary chemical qualitative characterization. The results showed that the extracts of T. zebrina and of C. diffusa stimulated the “in vitro” germination and growth of C. arabica at different concentration levels. The incorporation to the soil of the extracts of C. diffusa stimulated the development of the plants of C. arabica, in a significant way, that supposes a considerable advantage in that concerns to the employment of these cover crops, when not implying noxious effects beside all the benefits implied when using cover crops. These last ones go from the protection and improvement of the properties of the soil, to the control of the spontaneous flora in the coffee agroecosystems.

  11. O dimorfismo dos ramos em Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1950-06-01

    Full Text Available O dimorfismo dos ramos tem sido observado em vários gêneros de plantas, tais como Gossypium, Theobroma, Hedera, Musa, Araucária, Castilla, bem como em Coffea. Tal fenômeno se carateriza por uma diferenciação somática, que, na maioria dos casos, é permanente, podendo-se propagar as diferentes formas pela reprodução vegetativa. Como acontece nos representantes de Coffea, tal dimorfismo se carateriza por diferenças no hábito de crescimento, isto é, na direção dos ramos. Assim, a extremidade de um ramo ponteiro (ortotrópico reproduz, quando enxertada, uma planta normal, ao passo que a de um ramo lateral (plagiotrópico somente dará origem a ramos laterais. Em se tratando de um fenômeno tanto de interesse teórico como de importância prática (para a propagação vegetativa, resolveu-se fazer uma série de investigações em tôrno dêsse assunto, cujos primeiros resultados os autores relatam no presente trabalho. Apresentaram-se, em primeiro lugar, as observações feitas com referência à natureza das gemas existentes nas axilas das fôlhas de plantas novas, tanto na haste principal, como nos ramos laterais. Verificou-se que: a no eixo hipocotiledonar não há indícios da existência de gemas ; b na axila das fôlhas cotiledonares há um grupo de gemas dormentes, que são despertadas, dando origem a ramos ortotrópicos, quando o eixo epicotiledonar é cortado abaixo do primeiro par de fôlhas primárias; c o aparecimento de gemas, que dão ramos laterais (plagiotrópicos, só ocorre pela primeira vez, nas axilas do oitavo ao décimo primeiro par de folhas ; observou-se que certas estruturas genéticas impedem a formação de ramos plagiotrópicos mesmo até o trigésimo terceiro par de fôlhas ; d nas axilas da haste principal, possuidoras de gemas que dão origem a ramos plagiotrópicos, ocorrem também duas e, mais raramente, três outras, que produzem ramos ortotrópicos, e que se desenvolvem quando se suprime o eixo

  12. Influence of the genotype and density of inoculation on the differentiation of somatic embryos of Coffea arabica L. cv. Red Caturra and Coffea canephora cv. Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Barbón

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The conditions were established for the differentiation of somatic embryos from cell suspensions in the genotype Caturra rojo (Coffea arabica and Robusta (Coffea canephora. Cell suspensions with high embryogenic potentials and stable coefficients of multiplication were used. While studying the density of inoculation, for the phase of differentiation for both varieties, differences appeared in the embryogenic capacity among them, being reached a whole of 556 500 ES.l-1 for the variety Caturra rojo and 298 670 SE.l-1 for the variety Robusta. The biggest number of embryos in torpedo state, were obtained with a density of inoculation of 0.5 gFW.l-1 for the variety Caturra rojo and 5.0 gMF.l-1 for the variety Robusta. Key Words: cell suspensions, embryogenic potential, somatic Embryogenesis, embryogenic cells

  13. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) variation in forest coffee trees (Coffea arabica L.) populations from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aga, Esayas; Bekele, Endashaw; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    Genetic variation of forest coffee trees (Coffea arabica L.) from four regions of Ethiopia was investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 160 individuals representing 16 populations were sampled. Eleven ISSR primers amplified a total of 123 fragments of which 31 fragments (25%) were polymorphic. Estimate of total gene diversity (HT), and the coefficient of genetic differentiation (GsT) were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. This indicates that most of the variability is between populations than within populations. The partitioning of genetic variation into within and between populations based on Shannon's information index also revealed more differentiation between populations (0.80) than within populations (0.20). In the phenogram most of the coffee tree samples were clustered on the basis of their regions of origin but failed to cluster according to their respective populations, which could be attributed to the presence of substantial gene flow between adjacent populations in each region assisted by man in the process of transplantation or by wild animals such as monkeys, which eat the berries and defecate the seeds elsewhere. On the other hand, the inter-regional clustering of some coffee tree samples from Bale and Jimma regions could be due to the transport of coffee seeds across regions and their subsequent planting. Although ISSR markers detected lower polymorphic loci than previously reported results with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers on the same materials, it can be used as an alternative method for molecular characterization of C. arabica populations. The results may provide information to select sites for in situ conservation.

  14. Pengaruh Bionematisida Berbahan Aktif Jamur Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 terhadap Serangan Pratylenchus coffeae pada Kopi Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on the effect of P. lilacinus on the infestation of P. coffeae on robusta coffee was conducted in Sumber Asin Experimental Garden, Malang. The treatments were dosages of bionematicide i.e. : 0 (control, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 g; carbofuran (3 % active ingredient 50 g/plant and organic soil treatment (OST at 100 g/plant. Each treatment was replicated four times, and each replication consists of five coffee trees. The results in second year observation revealed that the population of P. coffeae in the roots on PL 251 treatments was not significantly different compared to the control, whereas in soil samples the population of both P. coffeae and Rotylenchulus reniformis inclined to be lower than the control, although they were not statistically significant. The lowest infestation was observed on PL 251 treatment at a dosage level of 4.00 g/tree. On nematode infestation, no significant difference on treatments of carbofuran and OST compared to the control. The yield of green coffee (market coffee was the highest on the treatment of PL 251 at a dosage of 4.00 g/tree and significantly higher than the control and carbofuran treatments, with increasing levels of 225.3 and 198.9%, respectively. Keywords: bionematicide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL 251, Pratylenchus coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis

  15. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large

  16. Isolation and characterization of a Coffea canephora ERF-like c-DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cDNA corresponding to an ERF gene has been isolated from a Coffea canephora fruit cDNA library. The cDNA was 1,317 nucleotides long and has an open reading frame of 987 bp. The predicted polypeptide showed a great similitude with equivalent proteins from others plant species. The binding domain shows 98.3% ...

  17. Genética de coffea VII: hereditariedade dos caracteres de coffea arabica L. var. maragogipe hort ex froehner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Krug

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available A variedade maragogipe do Coffea arabica L. foi encontrada pela primeira vez por Crisógono José Fernandes, em 1870, no município baiano de Maragogipe onde, provavelmente, se originou por mutação. Desde 1933 esta variedade vem sendo estudada pela Secção de Genética do Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo, em Campinas, com o fim de se determinar a sua constituição genética. Muitas autofecundações, cruzamentos e back-crosses foram, então, realizados. Grande parte das plantas obtidas só puderam ser classificadas após a colheita do ano de 1940. Todas foram examinadas quanto à forma e dimensões das folhas e um grande número ainda quanto à forma e dimensões das flores, frutos e sementes. Verificou-se que o caráter maragogipe mostra dominância quase completa em F1, não sendo possivel uma separação das ciasses maragogipe puro e híbrido. Em F2, e nos back-crosses com as formas normais, obtiveram-se, respectivamente, relações de 3:1 e 1:1 entre plantas maragogipe e plantas normais, relações essas que demonstram que os caracteres do maragogipe são controlados por um único par de fatores genéticos dominantes, para os quais se propõe o símbolo Mg-Mg, derivado do próprio nome desta variedade.In the present article the results of the genetical analysis of the characters of the maragogipe variety of Coffea arabica L are presented. This variety which originated as a mutation from C. arabica L. var. typica Cramer, in 1870, in the State of Baía in North Brazil, represents a gigas form of that variety, having larger leaves, flowers and fruits, its plants being also taller; it is also known for its low productivity. Since 1933 a genetical analysis of this variety was undertaken, many of its plants being selfed and crossed with other maragogipe plants and also with individuals of the typica and bourbon varieties of C. arabica; two generations have been studied, including F2's and several back-crosses. It was concluded

  18. Microsporogênese de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner com número duplicado de cromossomos Microsporogenesis in a tetraploid plant of Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone M. Sellito Boaventura

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo do comportamento meiótico de C. canephora tetraplóide com 2n =44 cromossomos por tratar-se de uma espécie considerada possível ancestral de C. arabica (2n = 44: constatou-se, em 92,0% das células-mães de pólen, em todas as fases da microsporogênese estudada, 2n = 44 cromossomos. Em diacinese os cromossomos se apresentaram na forma de mono-, bi-, tri- e tetravalentes. Em metáfase 1, somente 13,16% das células apresentaram 22II sendo a seguinte a fórmula média do pareamento: 3,61I; 15,21II 0,71III e 1,93IV. As irregularidades anafásicas resumiram-se praticamente na disjunção desigual dos cromossomos para os pólos de 21-23, 20-24 e 19-25. Somente 37,65% das células apresentaram segregação normal de 22 cromossomos para cada pólo. Em anáfase II, observaram-se sete tipos diferentes de distribuição cromatídica e, também, somente em 26,0% das células foi encontrada distribuição normal dos cromossomos. Após a citocinese, foram observadas tríades (1,6%, tétrades (77,0% e políades (21,4%. A inviabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi alta, 79,0%. Observações em cortes transversais medianos de frutos mostraram 43,4% do tipo normal, sendo 11,0% do tipo moca e 32,4% do chato. Em 56,6% dos frutos, não houve desenvolvimento de sementes, formando-se apenas perisperma.Cytological investigations in a tetraploid plant of Coffea canephora with 2n =44 chromosomes were performed, In every meiosis phase studied, 92.0% of lhe pollen mother cells were found as 2n =44 chromosomes. In dia kinesis, lhe chromosomes were found as univalents, bivalents, trivalents and quadrivalents-At first metaphase, only 13.16% were 22II The average chromosomic associations were 3.61I, 15.21II, 0.71III, and 1.93IV- Irregular chromosomic distribution to the poles included 21-23, 20-24 and 19-25, while only 37.65% of the cells exhibited normal segregations of 22 chromosomes to each pole at first anaphase. At second anaphase, seven different

  19. Site-Specific Insertion Polymorphism of the MITE Alex-1 in the Genus Coffea Suggests Interspecific Gene Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil-Tranchant, Christine; Guyot, Romain; Guellim, Amira; Duret, Caroline; de la Mare, Marion; Razafinarivo, Norosoa; Poncet, Valérie; Hamon, Serge; Hamon, Perla; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) are small nonautonomous class-II transposable elements distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes. We identified a novel family of MITEs (named Alex) in the Coffea canephora genome often associated with expressed sequences. The Alex-1 element is inserted in an intron of a gene at the CcEIN4 locus. Its mobility was demonstrated by sequencing the insertion site in C. canephora accessions and Coffea species. Analysis of the insertion polymorphism of Alex-1 at this locus in Coffea species and in C. canephora showed that there was no relationship between the geographical distribution of the species, their phylogenetic relationships, and insertion polymorphism. The intraspecific distribution of C. canephora revealed an original situation within the E diversity group. These results suggest possibly greater gene flow between species than previously thought. This MITE family will enable the study of the C. canephora genome evolution, phylogenetic relationships, and possible gene flows within the Coffea genus.

  20. Introdução ao estudo da auto-esterilidade no gênero Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available Após fazer a revisão de alguns dos principais trabalhos sôbre a auto-esterilidade no gênero Coffea efetuados em Java, foram relatados, de modo resumido, os resultados das pesquisas genéticas e citológicas que estão sendo feitas com os exemplares da espécie C. canephora no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Êstes estudos têm por finalidade conhecer o grau e as causas da auto-esterilidade dessas plantas. As autopolinizações realizadas indicaram que êsses cafeeiros são, realmente, auto-estéreis. Dos cruzamentos feitos, cerca de 50% se mostraram compatíveis. Tanto a formação do saco embrionário como a do pólen são normais. Em meio artificial conveniente, o pólen apresenta cêrca de 55% de germinação, o que foi considerado suficiente para promover a fertilização nos cruzamentos feitos. Foram realizadas observações sôbre o crescimento do tubo polínico em estilos de flores polinizadas com pólen estranho, compatível, e polinizadas com o próprio pólen. Nos cruzamentos compatíveis, o crescimento do tubo polínico é normal. No segundo oaso notou-se que, após a germinação, o tubo polínico tem o crescimento paralisado, não ultrapassando a região das papilas estigmáticas. Esta pode ser considerada a explicação da auto-esterilidade nos exemplares de C. canephora estudados. O mecanismo genético que controla o crescimento dos tubos polínicos ainda não pôde ser estabelecido. Entretanto, pesquisas estão em prosseguimento no sentido de se verificar se se trata de um mecanismo genético semelhante ao encontrado no gênero Nicotiana.This paper presents a review of pertinent literature related to studies of self-sterility in the genus Coffea and reports the results of cytological and genetic studies carried out on the species C. canephora at the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Brasil. The objetive of the study was to determine the degree and causes of self-sterility in the species C. canephora. In tests involving a

  1. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  2. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  3. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  4. Ploidy level and caffeine content in leaves of Coffea Ploidia e conteúdo de cafeína em folhas de Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Coffea and varieties of C. arabica differing in chromosome number had their caffeine content determined in the leaves. For Coffea arabica var. "Angustifolia", var. "Caturra" and var. "Icatu", it was observed caffeine decrease from the haploid (2n = 22 to tetraploid leaves (2n = 44. Caffeine in the tetraploid "Angustifolia" was decreased by 50% when compared to the haploid. Caffeine reduction was also observed in leaves of C. canephora var. "Kouilou" as chromosome number was increased (2n = 22 ® 2n = 44. In this case, caffeine in the leaves of the diploid genotype was close to 4 times higher than in the tetraploid. On the other hand it was observed an increase of the alkaloid when the chromosome number was doubled in the C. canephora var. "Robusta".Variedades e espécies de café (Coffea que diferem quanto ao número de cromossomos tiveram o conteúdo de cafeína determinado em suas folhas. Para as variedades "Angustifolia", "Caturra" e "Icatu" de Coffea arabica foi observada redução no teor de cafeína de folhas haplóides (2n = 22 em relação a tetraplóides (2n = 44. Cafeína na forma tetraplóide da var. "Angustifolia" foi reduzida em 50% quando comparada com a forma haplóide. Redução de cafeína também foi observada em folhas de C. canephora var. "Kouilou" quando o número de cromossomos aumentou (2n = 22 ® 2n = 44. Neste caso, a cafeína nas folhas do genótipo diplóide foi cerca de quatro vezes maior que no tetraplóide. Por outro lado, foi observado aumento desse alcalóide quando o número de cromossomos foi duplicado em C. canephora var. "Robusta".

  5. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  6. Albumin metabolism in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.E.; Saunders, S.J.; Brock, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies performed at the University of Cape Town on the metabolism of albumin have been reviewed. The control of albumin metabolism in protein energy malnutrition, in acute exposure to alcohol and after partial hepatectomy in the rat is discussed

  7. Metabolic Relations between Methylxanthines and Methyluric Acids in Coffea L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Joseph B.; Baumann, Thomas W.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolism of purine alkaloids in the leaves of Coffea dewevrei De Wild et Durand var excelsa Chev, Coffea liberica Bull ex Hiern and Coffea abeokutae Cramer was studied by analyzing leaf discs collected during vegetative development and by feeding the following radioactive tracers: [14C]theobromine, [14C]caffeine, and [14C]theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid). Their principal metabolites were quantitatively and qualitatively determined. All three species convert the precursors to the same radioactive products, and proceed through the same four maturity stages characterized by the alkaloid accumulation pattern and by a particular transformation potency: (stage 1) young plant accumulating caffeine, transforms theobromine to caffeine; (stage 2) caffeine is gradually replaced by theacrine, theobromine and caffeine are converted to theacrine; (stage 3) theacrine disappears whereas liberine (O(2), 1,9-thrimethyluric acid) accumulates, theacrine is metabolized to liberine; (stage 4) branched-out plant containing liberine but no theacrine, caffeine is converted rapidly to liberine via theacrine. Methylliberine (O(2),1,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), presumably the direct precursor of liberine, is occasionally found in low concentrations at stage 3 and 4. The collective term `liberio-excelsoid' introduced by geneticists for the numerous races or species of Pachycoffea is in accordance with the phytochemical equality found in this work. PMID:16663351

  8. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a) Proper...

  9. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XV - Microsporogênese em Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentadas as observações realizadas sôbre a microsporogênese nas variedades semperflorens e caturra, de Coffea arabica L. Notou-se que, no início da prófase, os cromossômios se colorem muito mal, não permitindo observações sôbre a sua morfologia; em paquitene, os cromossômios se apresentam com várias secções heteropicnóticas separadas por secções muito finas, que se colorem mal; o centrômero é bastante nítido e se acha ladeado de zonas bem heteropicnóticas; as extremidades dos braços dos cromossômios se colorem mal e se perdem no meio do citoplasma ; o nucléolo é bastante visível e a êle se acham ligados alguns cromossômios. É difícil determinar o número exato de cromossômios ligados ao nucléolo, tendo-se encontrado de 1 a 4. De paquitene a metáfase I, as fases se sucedem rapidamente. Em diplotene, os cromossômios são curtos, não mais se percebendo o centrômero. Em diaquinese os 22 pares de cromossômios se repelem pela sua parte mais colorida, onde se encontra o centrômero, e se unem pela parte clara, onde se notam os quiasmas ; o número de quiasmas, por célula, varia de 29 a 43 ; a média por bivalente é de 1,67, em semperjlorens, e 1,75, em caturra. Em metáfase I, o número médio de quiasmas, por bivalente,. é de 1,69, em semperjlorens, e 1,67, em caturra. Em anáfase I, os 22 pares de cromossômios se separam normalmente. Em telófase I, os cromossômios se colorem mal. Não há, praticamente, intercinese; os cromossômios contraem-se de novo e entram em anáfase II. A formação dos micrósporos é normal. Depois de soltos, ocorre a divisão nuclear, dando origem a dois núcleos com 22 cromossômios. Isto ocorre três a quatro dias antes da abertura das flores; o núcleo vegetativo é grande, esférico e homogêneo, colo-rindo-se mal; o núcleo reprodutivo é menor, reticulado, colore-se bem e se localiza na periferia da célula; ao seu redor se destaca uma por

  10. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  11. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  12. Genética de coffea VI: independência dos fatores xc xc (xanthocarpa e br br (bronze em coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Krug

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available Em artigos anteriores (1, 2 os autores demonstraram que a cor amarela dos frutos e a coloração bronzeada das folhas novas são, em Coffea arabica L, controladas, cada uma, por um único par de fatores genéticos (respectivamente xc xc e Br Br. Os híbridos F1 no primeiro caso com plantas de frutos vermelhos, e no segundo com plantas de folhas novas verdes, demonstraram tratar-se de casos em que há dominância incompleta nesta geração, os frutos híbridos possuindo uma coloração vermelho clara e as folhas novas se apresentando com uma tonalidade bronze clara. Como algumas das hibridações realizadas envolviam, ao mesmo tempo, os dois caracteres em questão, apresentou-se a oportunidade para constatar se havia ou não independência entre os dois pares de fatores que controlam estes caracteres. Neste artigo apresentam-se os resultados das observações realizadas, tanto em diversas populações de F2 como também em dois back-crosses. Os dados confirmam plenamente a hipótese estabelecida, isto é, da independência entre os dois pares de fatores em questão (xc xc e Br Br. Este fato era esperado à vista do número relativamente elevado de cromosômios nas variedades cruzadas (2n = 44.In two previous publications (1,2 the authors demonstrated that in Coffea arabica L. yellow fruit color and bronze color of young leaves are each controled by one pair of genes (respectively xc xc and Br Br. The F1 hybrids, in the first instance between plants with yellow and red fruits and in the second instance between plants with bronze and green colored young leaves, showed incomplete dominance of both characters, the F1 fruits being of a light red color and the F1 young leaves of a light bronze one. As some of the crosses involved both pairs of genes, it was possible to find out wether they are linked or independent. In the present article the authors are publishing the results obtained with several F2 populations and also with 2 types of back crosses

  13. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  14. Phytochemical Profile and in vitro Assessment of the Cytotoxicity of Green and Roasted Coffee Oils (Coffea arabica L. and their Polar Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lorenzen Voytena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Green Coffea arabica L. seed oil (GCO has been used as an active cosmetic ingredient in many skin care products, due to its composition and balance of fatty acids. On the other hand, while roasted coffee oil (RCO is mainly used for imparting aroma in the food industry, there is no data available to suggest its safety in cell-based model systems. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the chemical composition of GCO, RCO, and their correspondent polar fractions (PFs; and assess their cytotoxicity and antioxidant potential in vitro. RCO and RCO PF exhibited significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds, when compared to both GCO and GCO PF. In the DPPH assay, after 5 min of incubation, RCO inhibited about 80% of radicals, while GCO only achieved half of this activity. Similar results were also obtained for their PFs. Upon exposure to GCO, no cytotoxic effects were observed, in fact, there were slight increments in cell proliferation. Nevertheless, cell exposure to RCO led to significant decreases in cell viability. Increases in the concentration of coffee oil PFs were associated with correspondent relevant increased cytotoxicity. Upon hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, neither GCO nor RCO treatment were effective in protecting cells.

  15. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XVII - O saco embrionário em Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes

    1950-04-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made of the embryo sac in self-sterile Coffea canephora flowers of different ages. The process was observed to be normal and included the formation of two synergides and one egg cell in the micropilar region, three antipodals at the chalazal region and two polar nuclei lying in the middle of the sac. It is known that in the species C. arabica the embryo sac formation is complete at the time the flowers open. Embryo sac formation in C. canephora is slightly delayed and it is not complete until the day following opening of the flowers. It was also determined that in C. canephora shedding of pollen begins shortly after the flowers open and the pollen was functional at least for two days. Thus the results of the present study indicate that the self-sterility of C. canephora flowers is not due to the delay in formation or abnormal development of the embryo sac.

  16. Flower development in Coffea arabica L.: new insights into MADS-box genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raphael Ricon; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2014-06-01

    Coffea arabica L. shows peculiar characteristics during reproductive development, such as flowering asynchrony, periods of floral bud dormancy, mucilage secretion and epipetalous stamens. The MADS-box transcription factors are known to control several developmental processes in plants, including flower and fruit development. Significant differences are found among plant species regarding reproductive development and little is known about the role of MADS-box genes in Coffea reproductive development. Thus, we used anatomical and comparative molecular analyses to explore the flowering process in coffee. The main morphological changes during flower development in coffee were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Flowering asynchrony seems to be related to two independent processes: the asynchronous development of distinct buds before the reproductive induction and the asynchronous development of floral meristems within each bud after the reproductive induction. A total of 23 C. arabica MADS-box genes were characterized by sequence comparison with putative Arabidopsis orthologs and their expression profiles were analyzed by RT-PCR in different tissues. The expression of the ABC model orthologs in Coffea during floral development was determined by in situ hybridization. The APETALA1 (AP1) ortholog is expressed only late in the perianth, which is also observed for the APETALA3 and TM6 orthologs. Conversely, the PISTILLATA ortholog is widely expressed in early stages, but restrict to stamens and carpels in later stages of flower development, while the expression of the AGAMOUS ortholog is always restricted to fertile organs. The AP1 and PISTILLATA orthologs are also expressed at specific floral organs, such as bracts and colleters, respectively, suggesting a potential role in the development of such structures. Altogether, the results from our comprehensive expression analyses showed significant differences between the spatiotemporal expression profiles of

  17. Transcriptional activity, chromosomal distribution and expression effects of transposable elements in Coffea genomes.

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    Fabrício R Lopes

    Full Text Available Plant genomes are massively invaded by transposable elements (TEs, many of which are located near host genes and can thus impact gene expression. In flowering plants, TE expression can be activated (de-repressed under certain stressful conditions, both biotic and abiotic, as well as by genome stress caused by hybridization. In this study, we examined the effects of these stress agents on TE expression in two diploid species of coffee, Coffea canephora and C. eugenioides, and their allotetraploid hybrid C. arabica. We also explored the relationship of TE repression mechanisms to host gene regulation via the effects of exonized TE sequences. Similar to what has been seen for other plants, overall TE expression levels are low in Coffea plant cultivars, consistent with the existence of effective TE repression mechanisms. TE expression patterns are highly dynamic across the species and conditions assayed here are unrelated to their classification at the level of TE class or family. In contrast to previous results, cell culture conditions per se do not lead to the de-repression of TE expression in C. arabica. Results obtained here indicate that differing plant drought stress levels relate strongly to TE repression mechanisms. TEs tend to be expressed at significantly higher levels in non-irrigated samples for the drought tolerant cultivars but in drought sensitive cultivars the opposite pattern was shown with irrigated samples showing significantly higher TE expression. Thus, TE genome repression mechanisms may be finely tuned to the ideal growth and/or regulatory conditions of the specific plant cultivars in which they are active. Analysis of TE expression levels in cell culture conditions underscored the importance of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD pathways in the repression of Coffea TEs. These same NMD mechanisms can also regulate plant host gene expression via the repression of genes that bear exonized TE sequences.

  18. Transcriptional activity, chromosomal distribution and expression effects of transposable elements in Coffea genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fabrício R; Jjingo, Daudi; da Silva, Carlos R M; Andrade, Alan C; Marraccini, Pierre; Teixeira, João B; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Pereira, Luiz Filipe P; Vanzela, André L L; Wang, Lu; Jordan, I King; Carareto, Claudia M A

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes are massively invaded by transposable elements (TEs), many of which are located near host genes and can thus impact gene expression. In flowering plants, TE expression can be activated (de-repressed) under certain stressful conditions, both biotic and abiotic, as well as by genome stress caused by hybridization. In this study, we examined the effects of these stress agents on TE expression in two diploid species of coffee, Coffea canephora and C. eugenioides, and their allotetraploid hybrid C. arabica. We also explored the relationship of TE repression mechanisms to host gene regulation via the effects of exonized TE sequences. Similar to what has been seen for other plants, overall TE expression levels are low in Coffea plant cultivars, consistent with the existence of effective TE repression mechanisms. TE expression patterns are highly dynamic across the species and conditions assayed here are unrelated to their classification at the level of TE class or family. In contrast to previous results, cell culture conditions per se do not lead to the de-repression of TE expression in C. arabica. Results obtained here indicate that differing plant drought stress levels relate strongly to TE repression mechanisms. TEs tend to be expressed at significantly higher levels in non-irrigated samples for the drought tolerant cultivars but in drought sensitive cultivars the opposite pattern was shown with irrigated samples showing significantly higher TE expression. Thus, TE genome repression mechanisms may be finely tuned to the ideal growth and/or regulatory conditions of the specific plant cultivars in which they are active. Analysis of TE expression levels in cell culture conditions underscored the importance of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathways in the repression of Coffea TEs. These same NMD mechanisms can also regulate plant host gene expression via the repression of genes that bear exonized TE sequences.

  19. Lipid transfer proteins in coffee: isolation of Coffea orthologs, Coffea arabica homeologs, expression during coffee fruit development and promoter analysis in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Michelle G; Barros, Leila M G; de Almeida, Juliana D; de Lamotte, Fréderic; Barbosa, Eder A; Vieira, Natalia G; Alves, Gabriel S C; Vinecky, Felipe; Andrade, Alan C; Marraccini, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a genomic analysis of non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) in coffee. Several nsLTPs-encoding cDNA and gene sequences were cloned from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species. In this work, their analyses revealed that coffee nsLTPs belong to Type II LTP characterized under their mature forms by a molecular weight of around 7.3 kDa, a basic isoelectric points of 8.5 and the presence of typical CXC pattern, with X being an hydrophobic residue facing towards the hydrophobic cavity. Even if several single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in these nsLTP-coding sequences, 3D predictions showed that they do not have a significant impact on protein functions. Northern blot and RT-qPCR experiments revealed specific expression of Type II nsLTPs-encoding genes in coffee fruits, mainly during the early development of endosperm of both C. arabica and C. canephora. As part of our search for tissue-specific promoters in coffee, an nsLTP promoter region of around 1.2 kb was isolated. It contained several DNA repeats including boxes identified as essential for grain specific expression in other plants. The whole fragment, and a series of 5' deletions, were fused to the reporter gene β-glucuronidase (uidA) and analyzed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants. Histochemical and fluorimetric GUS assays showed that the shorter (345 bp) and medium (827 bp) fragments of nsLTP promoter function as grain-specific promoters in transgenic tobacco plants.

  20. Trocas gasosas e metabolismo antioxidativo em Coffea canephora em resposta ao sombreamento promovido por Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Caten, ângela Ten

    2007-01-01

    Apesar de ter evoluído em ambientes sombreados, o café conilon (Coffea canephora) vem sendo cultivado tradicionalmente a pleno sol. Atualmente, há um interesse crescente em cultivar-se o café em sistemas arborizados e, portanto, sob algum grau de sombreamento. Neste trabalho, procurou-se contrastar dois clones de café conilon, o 109A (relativamente sensível ao estresse oxidativo) e o 120 (relativamente tolerante ao estresse oxidativo) para explorarem-se suas respostas fisiológicas à disponibi...

  1. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  2. Steam pressure treatment of defective Coffea canephora beans improves the volatile profile and sensory acceptance of roasted coffee blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalschne, Daneysa Lahis; Viegas, Marcelo Caldeira; De Conti, Antonio José; Corso, Marinês Paula; Benassi, Marta de Toledo

    2018-03-01

    Between 15 and 20% of Brazilian coffee production corresponds to defective beans (PVA), which decreases the quality of the coffee brew. Steam treatment has been reported as an alternative to improve the volatile profile and cup quality of coffee. The aim of this study was to propose a steam treatment of defective Coffea canephora beans to improve the volatile profile of the roasted coffee. The sensory impacts of adding steamed coffee (SC) in Coffea arabica blends were evaluated. The steam treatments studied modified the volatile profile of roasted SCs, increasing the contents of acetoin, benzyl alcohol, maltol, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-furfurylthiol, and 5-methylfurfural and decreasing the contents of 4-ethylguaiacol, isovaleric acid, methional, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine. Among the evaluated parameters, the best condition to maximized the content of the volatiles with a potential positive impact and minimize those with a potential negative impact was 5bar/16min (SC 5). The thresholds of consumer rejection and of detection indicate that up to 30% SC 5 can be added to a high cup quality Coffea arabica coffee without perception or rejection of the coffee brew. A blend of 30% of SC 5 and 70% of Coffea arabica was well accepted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of leaf age and heat stress duration on photosynthetic gas exchange and foliar nonstructural carbohydrates in Coffea arabica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielle E. Marias; Frederick C. Meinzer; Christopher Still

    2017-01-01

    Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica...

  4. Evaluation of Coffea arabica L. wood quality as a source of bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rubens da Silva Leite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate, through principal component analysis, the quality of Coffea arabica L. wood obtained from different growth systems and varieties as a source of bioenergy. Wood from three different growth systems (natural, conventional and organic and two different varieties (Mundo Novo and Catuaí were used, totalizing six treatments. The contents of elementary components (C, H, N, S and O, ash, lignin, total extractives and holocellulose, basic density, the higher heating value, the lower heating value, as well as the lower and higher volumetric heating values of the analyzed woods were quantified. Principal components multivariate statistical analyses were conducted. The scores of the principal components of interest were determined as a way to divide the woods into groups. Group I was composed by the wood from the organic coffee "Mundo Novo" and natural "Mundo Novo"; Group II by the organic "Catuaí", and Group III by the wood from convencional "Mundo Novo", natural "Catuaí" and convencional "Catuaí". Wood residues from the species Coffea arabica L. showed great potential for energetic use, especially the woods from the conventional systems and the "Catuaí" Variety. Woods from Group III stood out, due to the high volumetric heating values, basic density, lignin content and higher heating value. However, the woods of this group showed high nitrogen content.

  5. Identification and chromosomal distribution of copia-like retrotransposon sequences in the coffee (Coffea L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copia-like transposable elements in seven coffee (Coffea sp. species, including the cultivated Coffea arabica, was investigated. The highly conserved domains of the reverse transcriptase (RT present in the copia retrotransposons were amplified by PCR using degenerated primers. Fragments of roughly 300 bp were obtained and the nucleotide sequence was determined for 36 clones, 19 of which showed good quality. The deduced amino acid sequences were compared by multiple alignment analysis. The data suggested two distinct coffee RT groups, designated as CRTG1 and CRTG2. The sequence identities among the groups ranged from 52 to 60% for CRTG1 and 74 to 85% for CRTG2. The multiple alignment analysis revealed that some of the clones in CRTG1 were closely related to the representative elements present in other plant species such as Brassica napus, Populus ciliata and Picea abis. Furthermore, the chromosomal localization of the RT domains in C. arabica and their putative ancestors was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. FISH signals were observed throughout the chromosomes following a similar dispersed pattern with some localized regions exhibiting higher concentrations of those elements, providing new evidence of their relative conservation and stability in the coffee genome

  6. Study on fungous contaminants in the formation of callus starting from leaf explants of Coffea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther González

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee is a crop of economic importance for several developing countries and the application of the biotechnology offers advantages in its propagation. Nevertheless, the microbial contamination continues being one of the problems that affects the in vitro cultuture. This paper had as objectives to identify fungal contaminants during the phase of callogenesis of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora, as well as to evaluate the effect of the RIZOBAC in the control of the same ones. Samplings to obtained callus of leaf explants were carried out, discarded by microbial contamination and they were isolated and identified fungal contaminants, considering cultural and morphological characteristic. The antagonistic effect of RIZOBAC against the strains of fungal contaminants was determined, being inoculated 100 μl of RIZOBAC in badges with medium Potato Dextrose Agar on those that suspensions of spores of the isolated strains were placed. The incubation was carried out at 28 °C for 7 days. The diameter of the colonies of the fungi was measured and the inhibition percentage was determined. The percentages of fungous contamination in the explantes oscillated between 51.2 and 73.7 %. The filamentous fungi of more appearance frequency were Fusarium and Cladosporium. The antagonistic effect of the RIZOBAC was demonstrated, obtaining between 71.5 and 43.3 % inhibition of the fungi growth, respectively, constituting a viable alternative the use of this product in order to diminish the indexes of fungous contamination in the in vitro culture. Key words: coffee, microbial contamination, fungi, RIZOBAC

  7. Genetic polymorphism among 14 elite Coffea arabica L. cultivars using RAPD markers associated with restriction digestion

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    Sera Tumoru

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic variability among genotypes is important for the transfer of useful genes and to maximize the use of available germplasm resources. This study was carried out to assess the genetic variability of 14 elite Coffea arabica cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD associated with a prior digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases. The accessions were obtained from the Coffea collection maintained at the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR, located in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Twenty-four informative RAPD primers, used in association with restriction enzymes, yielded 330 reproducible and scorable DNA bands, of which 224 (68% were polymorphic. The amplified products were used to estimate the genetic variability using Dice's similarity coefficient. The data matrix was converted to a dendrogram and a three-dimensional plot using principal coordinate analysis. The accessions studied were separated into clusters in a manner that was consistent with the known pedigree. The associations obtained in the dendrogram and in the principal coordinate analysis plot suggest the probable origin of the Kattimor cultivar. The RAPD technique associated with restriction digestion was proved to be a useful tool for genetic characterization of C. arabica genotypes making an important contribution to the application of molecular markers to coffee breeding.

  8. Anatomical and chemical properties and density of Coffea arabica L. wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Minas Gerais is the largest producer of coffee in Brazil and the amount of residue in crops seems adequate to support production of solid wood products of Coffea arabica L., which is currently used for energy purposes or remains in the area. This activity adds insignificant value the coffee products and release CO2, which has harmful effects to the environment. This study was conducted with the aim of characterizing technologically Coffea arabica L. wood to enhance its use in furniture, to characterize its anatomical, chemical and wood basic density. The density showed an average of 0.608g.cm-3. The anatomical analysis showed distinct growth layers, semiporosos vessels with simple perforation plates. The axial parenchyma is apotracheal and diffuse in the aggregate with heterogeneous rays, not laminated and fiber libriformes not septate with bordered pits distinct. The chemical content of extract in hot and cold water were respectively 6.1% and 9.6%. The ash content was found to be 0.68%. Data were comparable to those of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and Piptadenia peregrina Benth, (angico-vermelho used for the production of furniture.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  10. Reappraising the role of albumin for resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfer, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Fluid resuscitation is a common intervention in acute medical practice. The optimum fluid for resuscitation remains hotly debated and it is likely to vary from one clinical situation to another. Human albumin solutions have been available since the 1940s, but their use varies greatly around the world. This review examines the current evidence for and against the use of albumin as a resuscitation fluid. Fluid resuscitation with albumin has been compared to resuscitation with saline in large high-quality trials in adult ICU patients and in African children. Within overall equivalent effects, albumin may offer a slight mortality benefit in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis whilst increasing mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury. There are no recent high-quality trials comparing albumin to synthetic colloid solutions. In African children with febrile illness and compensated shock, the effects of bolus resuscitation with albumin and saline are similar, but both increase mortality compared to treatment that avoids fluid boluses. Fluid resuscitation with albumin is well tolerated and produces similar results to resuscitation with saline. Albumin should be avoided in patients with traumatic brain injury; possible benefits in adults with severe sepsis remain to be confirmed.

  11. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  12. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  13. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...... per albumin molecule, and binding of the first sulfamethizole molecule is possibly reduced as well. Diazepam binds with equal affinity to the fetal and adult proteins. Among the two main albumin drug-binding functions, for warfarin and diazepam, the former is thus compromised in the newborn infant...

  14. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  15. Auto-incompatibilidade em Coffea Dewevrei de wild. et th. dur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas pesquisas foram realizadas com a finalidade de esclarecer as causas da improdutividade de Coffea Dewevrei, da qual possuímos em coleção as seguintes variedades: Abeokutae, Dybowskii, Bxcelsa e Dewevrei. Um grande número de auto-polinizações e cruzamentos foi realizado dentro e entre variedades. Com êsse trabalho ficou comprovado que as auto-polinizações são absolutamente improdutivas e que só são produtivas as combinações entre certos clones. Das observações citológicas realizadas sôbre a formação e desenvolvimento do saco embrionário e sôbre o pólen concluiu-se não existir qualquer anormalidade capaz de impedir a fertilização. Chegou-se à conclusão de que também nesta espécie diplóide existe o fenômeno da incompatibilidade genética, cujo mecanismo ainda não foi estudado. São apresentados alguns dados sôbre a porcentagem de lojas vazias que ocorrem nos frutos desta espécie.Pollination studies in Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur. showed that this species is self-sterile. Several varieties of the group are now under investigation to explain such sterility. Only crosses between certain plants are fertile. Cytological investigation on the pollen and embryo sac development indicated that there is no abnormality that could prevent fertilization. Pollen behaves differently when it is placed on the stigmas of compatible and incompatible plants. Only in the first case does germination occur. All these facts led to the conclusion that self-sterility in Coffea Dewevrei is also of genetic origin, perhaps expressed in the same way as in C. canephora Pierre ex Fröhner. The exact mechanism of this incompatibility is not known yet. The occurrence of empty locules have been recorded in case of several plants of the varieties Abeokutae, Dybowskii, Excelsa, and Dewevrei. These results are presented in this paper.

  16. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  17. The impact of cold on photosynthesis in genotypes of Coffea spp.--photosystem sensitivity, photoprotective mechanisms and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Santos, P; Lidon, F C; Fortunato, A; Leitão, A E; Lopes, E; Partelli, F; Ribeiro, A I; Ramalho, J C

    2011-05-15

    Environmental constraints disturb plant metabolism and are often associated with photosynthetic impairments and yield reductions. Among them, low positive temperatures are of up most importance in tropical plant species, namely in Coffea spp. in which some acclimation ability has been reported. To further explain cold tolerance, the impacts on photosynthetic functioning and the expression of photosynthetic-related genes were analyzed. The experiments were carried out along a period of slow cold imposition (to allow acclimation), after chilling (4°C) exposure and in the following rewarming period, using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of 5 genotypes with different cold sensitivity: Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí, Coffea dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabica×C. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevrei×C. arabica). All genotypes suffered a significant leaf area loss only after chilling exposure, with Icatu showing the lowest impact, a first indication of a higher cold tolerance, contrasting with Apoatã and C. dewevrei. During cold exposure, net photosynthesis and Chl a fluorescence parameters were strongly affected in all genotypes, but stomatal limitations were not detected. However, the extent of mesophyll limitation, reflecting regulatory mechanisms and/or damage, was genotype dependent. Overnight retention of zeaxanthin was common to Coffea genotypes, but the accumulation of photoprotective pigments was highest in Icatu. That down-regulated photochemical events but efficiently protected the photosynthetic structures, as shown, e.g., by the lowest impacts on A(max) and PSI activity and the strongest reinforcement of PSII activity, the latter possibly reflecting the presence of a photoprotective cycle around PSII in Icatu (and Catuaí). Concomitant to these protection mechanisms, Icatu was the sole genotype to present simultaneous upregulation of caCP22, caPI and caCytf, related to, respectively, PSII, PSI and to the complex Cytb(6)/f

  18. Green coffee seed residue: A sustainable source of antioxidant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A C C M; Oda, F B; Almeida-Cincotto, M G J; Davanço, M G; Chiari-Andréo, B G; Cicarelli, R M B; Peccinini, R G; Zocolo, G J; Ribeiro, P R V; Corrêa, M A; Isaac, V L B; Santos, A G

    2018-04-25

    Oil extraction from green coffee seeds generates residual mass that is discarded by agribusiness and has not been previously studied. Bioactive secondary metabolites in coffee include antioxidant phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acids. Coffee seeds also contain caffeine, a pharmaceutically important methylxanthine. Here, we report the chemical profile, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity of hydroethanolic extracts of green Coffea arabica L. seed residue. The extracts of the green seeds and the residue have similar chemical profiles, containing the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Five monoacyl and three diacyl esters of trans-cinnamic acids and quinic acid were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry. The residue extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH, ABTS, and pyranine assays and low cytotoxicity. Thus, coffee oil residue has great potential for use as a raw material in dietary supplements, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, or as a source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  20. Projected Shifts in Coffea arabica Suitability among Major Global Producing Regions Due to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Rivera, Oriana; Läderach, Peter; Bunn, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Schroth, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee. PMID:25875230

  1. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Maria E.M. Pinto e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Saude Publica. Dept. de Nutricao

    2013-07-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  2. Effect of leaf Water potential on cold tolerance of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caramori Lázara Pereira Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Young coffee plants from cultivar Mundo Novo of Coffea arabica were grown without irrigation for 32 consecutive days, to evaluate the effect of leaf water potential on damage caused by low temperatures, under controlled conditions. A wide range of leaf water potentials were evaluated, from - 0.45MPa (wet soil at the beginning of the experimental period, to - 4.8MPa (severe leaf wilting at the end. Results showed that under moderate water stress, there was a higher frequency of undamaged plants and lower frequency of severely damaged plants. These results help explain part of the regional variability observed after a frost and stress the importance of new studies associating cold and drought tolerance in coffee.

  3. Constituintes químicos e teor de extrato aquoso de cafés arábica (coffea arabica l. e conilon (coffea canephora pierre torrados Chemical Evaluation and Aqueous extract of roasting coffes (Coffea arabica L. and conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Miranda Fernandes

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de quantificar e caracterizar a composição química de cafés arábica e robusta de safras diferentes e seus efeitos na qualidade do café torrado. Utilizaram-se grãos de café arábica (Coffea arabica L. da safra 88/89 e safra 2000, proveniente da região sul de Minas gerais, e o café conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre safra 2000, proveniente do Estado do Espírito Santo. Preparou-se um "blend" na proporção 70% arábica e 30% conilon. Os cafés foram torrados (torração média comercial, moídos e submetidos às análises físico-químicas de umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína bruta, fenólicos totais, acidez titulável total, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, extrato aquoso, açúcares totais e açúcares não-redutores. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que a acidez titulável total e o pH não se apresentaram com diferenças significativas, o que indica homogeneidade entre os cafés avaliados. O café arábica safra 88/89 apresentou maiores teores de extrato etéreo, indicando uma maior degradação desse café, devido provavelmente ao maior período de armazenamento. Os teores de açúcares totais e extrato aquoso não apresentaram diferenças entre os cafés estudados, quanto aos açúcares não-redutores, o café arábica de safra 88/89 mostrou-se com os menores teores e diferiu dos demais cafés.ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to quantify and to characterize the chemical composition of arabic and robust coffees of diferent crops and its effects in the quality of the toasted coffee. Arabic grains of coffee (Coffea arabic L. of the crops 88/89 and 2000 coming from the south region of Minas Gerais state and the coffee conilon (Coffea canephora Pierre crop 2000, coming from Espírito Santo state were used. It was prepared a blend in the proportion of 70% arabic and 30% of conilon. The coffees were toasted (medium commercial, milled and submitted to physiochemical analyses of moisture ethereal

  4. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Silva, Maria E.M. Pinto e

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  5. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Rivera, Oriana; Läderach, Peter; Bunn, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Schroth, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee.

  6. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera

    Full Text Available Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee.

  7. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score 13 C-leucine and serial measurements of 13 C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs

  8. Albumin-stabilized fluorescent silver nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Tomash; Polyanichko, Alexander; Kononov, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    Ligand-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (NCs) possess many attractive features including high fluorescence quantum yield, large absorption cross-section, good photostability, large Stokes shift and two-photon absorption cross sections. While plenty of fluorescent clusters have been synthesized on various polymer templates, only a few studies have been reported on the fluorescent Ag clusters on peptides and proteins. We study silver NCs synthesized on different protein matrices, including bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, egg albumin, equine serum albumin, and lysozyme. Our results show that red-emitting Ag NCs can effectively be stabilized by the disulfide bonds in proteins and that the looser structure of the denatured protein favors formation of the clusters.

  9. Sustained photosynthetic performance of Coffea spp. under long-term enhanced [CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, José C; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Pais, Isabel P; Martins, Lima D; Simões-Costa, Maria C; Leitão, António E; Fortunato, Ana S; Batista-Santos, Paula; Palos, Isabel M; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), RH (75%) and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L(-1) for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49%) when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L(-1). This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory) components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down-regulation was found, our

  10. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form

  11. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, sub-optimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered: This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion: The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored.

  12. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  13. Produção de matéria seca, crescimento radicular e absorção de cálcio, fósforo e alumínio por coffea canephora e coffea arabica sob influência da atividade do alumínio em solução Dry matter production, root growth and calcium, phosphorus and aluminum absorption by coffea canephora and coffea arabica under influence of aluminum activity in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, o crescimento radicular e a absorção e distribuição do Ca, P e Al nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes de dois clones de café conilon (Coffea canephora (Mtl 25 e Mtl 27 e de uma variedade de café Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica, cultivados em solução nutritiva com atividade crescente de Al3+. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade para 5 L, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon, modificada. Após oito dias de adaptação, as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de Al de 0, 500, 1.000 e 2.000 µmol L-1, que corresponderam a atividades de Al3+ em solução, estimadas pelo software GEOCHEM, de 20,68, 50,59, 132,9 e 330,4 µmol L-1, respectivamente. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Al e P na planta. O sistema radicular foi separado, para determinação da área e do comprimento. A variedade Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica apresentou-se menos sensível ao Al3+, quando comparada aos clones de conilon (Coffea canephora. O clone de conilon Mtl 25 foi menos sensível ao Al3+ em relação ao Mtl 27. O aumento da atividade de Al3+ promoveu redução nos teores de P e Ca nas folhas e raízes do cafeeiro, especialmente nos clones Mtl 25 e Mtl 27. O acúmulo de Al no sistema radicular e a restrição do transporte para a parte aérea são importantes fatores na tolerância de plantas ao Al3+.This study had the objective of evaluating the dry matter production, root growth, and the absorption and distribution of Ca, P and Al in the leaves, stem and roots of two Conilon (Coffea canephora coffee clones (Mtl 25 and Mtl 27 and the coffee variety Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica grown in nutrient solution with increasing Al3+ activity. The plants were cultivated in 5 L pots, containing modified Hoagland & Arnold nutrient solution. After eight days of adaptation, the plants were subjected to Al concentrations of 0, 500, 1.000 and 2.000 mol L-1, which

  14. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L) AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

    OpenAIRE

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale; Luiz Vicente Gentil; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez; Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2007-01-01

    Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L) husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaefor...

  15. Effect of Soil Moisture Deficit Stress on Biomass Accumulation of Four Coffee (Coffea arabica) Varieties in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Chemura; Caleb Mahoya; Pardon Chidoko; Dumisani Kutywayo

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four common coffee (Coffea arabica) varieties in Zimbabwe for drought tolerance and ability to recover. The plants were subjected to drought stress for 21 and 28 days with evaluation of recovery done 14 days after interruptive irrigation. Coffee varieties were not significantly different in initial fresh and dry biomass before stressing (P>0.05). CR95 had significantly accumulated more (P

  16. Improving the quality of African robustas: QTLs for yield- and quality-related traits in Coffea canephora.

    OpenAIRE

    LEROY, T.; DE BELLIS, F.; LEGNATE, H.; KANANURA, E.; GONZALES, G.; PEREIRA, L. F. P.; ANDRADE, A. C.; CHARMETANT, P.; MONTAGNON, C.; CUBRY, P.; MARRACCINI, P.; POT, D.; KOCHKO, A. de.

    2011-01-01

    Coffea canephora breeding requires combining sustainable productivity with improved technological and cup quality characteristics. Beverage quality is a complex and subjective trait, and breeding for this trait is time consuming and depends on knowledge of the genetics of its components. A highly variable C. canephora progeny resulting from an intraspecific cross was assessed for 63 traits over 5 years. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling agronomic, technological, and quali...

  17. The impact of change in albumin assay on reference intervals, prevalence of 'hypoalbuminaemia' and albumin prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley-Grant, Deon; Herbert, Mike; Cornes, Michael P; Barlow, Ian M; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2016-01-01

    We studied the impact on reference intervals, classification of patients with hypoalbuminaemia and albumin infusion prescriptions on changing from a bromocresol green (BCG) to a bromocresol purple (BCP) serum albumin assay. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare Abbott BCP and Roche BCG methods. Linear regression analysis was used to compare in-house and an external laboratory Abbott BCP serum albumin results. Reference intervals for Abbott BCP serum albumin were derived in two different laboratories using pathology data from adult patients in primary care. Prescriptions for 20% albumin infusions were compared one year before and one year after changing the albumin method. Abbott BCP assay had a negative bias of approximately 6 g/L compared with Roche BCG method.There was good agreement (y = 1.04 x - 1.03; R(2 )= 0.9933) between in-house and external laboratory Abbott BCP results. Reference intervals for the serum albumin Abbott BCP assay were 31-45 g/L, different to those recommended by Pathology Harmony and the manufacturers (35-50 g/L). Following the change in method there was a large increase in the number of patients classified as hypoalbuminaemic using Pathology Harmony references intervals (32%) but not when retrospectively compared to locally derived reference intervals (16%) compared with the previous year (12%). The method change was associated with a 44.6% increase in albumin prescriptions. This equated to an annual increase in expenditure of £35,234. We suggest that serum albumin reference intervals be method specific to prevent misclassification of albumin status in patients. Change in albumin methodology may have significant impact on hospital resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E.

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC 50 ), mean lethal time (LT 50 ), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC 50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10 7 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT 50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  19. Velocidade de penetração do tubo polínico em Coffea arabica L. Speed of pollen tube penetration in Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Coffea arabica a côr amarela do endosperma é determinada por um fator genético recessivo cera (ce ce. Endospermas que tragam uma ou duas doses do dominante Ce são de côr verde. Êsse fenômeno de xenia foi utilizado para determinar a velocidade de penetração do tubo polínico através do estilo. O método adotado foi o da polinização simultânea ou com Uoras de intervalo, dos mesmos estigmas com pólen Ce e pólen cc. Em seguida, de espaços a espaços de tempo eram eliminados os estilos. Verificou-se que sem a introdução do tubo polínico no interior do ovário não se produz o estímulo para a frutificação. O pólen estranho emite tubos po-linicos mais velozes nos estilos da varietlade cêra do que o próprio pólen. No primeiro caso, os tubos polínicos levam 24 a 48 horas para se introduzir na cavidade ovariana; na autofecundação êsse tempo se eleva para 48 a 68 horas. Comparando tais resultados com os obtidos anteriormente nas variedades typica, semperflorens e no café Mundo Novo, conclui-se que a velocidade do tubo polinico varia também de acôrdo com a variedade ou com as condições ambientes na ocasião da polinização.Yellow endosperm in Coffea arabica is determined by recessive gene (ce ce ; single, double and triple doses of the dominante Ce determine the normal green color. Such a xenia mechanism has been used in this investigation to determine the; speed of pollen tube penetration through the style. The stigmata of protected flowers were pollinated simultaneously, or at intervals of hours with both Ce and ce pollen. The styles were eliminated after a certain time had elapad. It has been found that, even though seedless fruits are formed in coffee, fruit development is not stimulated it the pollen tube does.nospenetrate into the ovary. Pollen tubes from foreign pollen grew faster through the cera styles than proper cera pollen tubes. In the first case, 24 to 48 hours elapsed between pollination and pollen tube

  20. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  1. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging : A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    Background: New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in

  2. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  3. Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Quantify Organic Acids from Plant Tissue: A Test Case Examining Coffea arabica Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Chanon, Ann; Blakeslee, Joshua J

    2016-11-12

    Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more terminal carboxyl (COOH) functional groups. Short chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs; carboxylic acids containing three to six carbons), such as malate and citrate, are critical to the proper functioning of many biological systems, where they function in cellular respiration and can serve as indicators of cell health. In foods, organic acid content can have significant impact on taste, with increased SCCA levels resulting in a sour or "acid" taste. Because of this, methods for the rapid analysis of organic acid levels are of particular interest to the food and beverage industries. Unfortunately, however, most methods used for SCCA quantification are dependent on time-consuming protocols requiring the derivatization of samples with hazardous reagents, followed by costly chromatographic and/or mass spectrometric analyses. This method details an alternate method for the detection and quantification of organic acids from plant material and food samples using free zonal capillary electrophoresis (CZE), sometimes simply referred to as capillary electrophoresis (CE). CZE provides a cost-effective method for measuring SCCAs with a low limit of detection (0.005 mg/ml). This article details the extraction and quantification of SCCAs from plant samples. While the method provided focuses on measurement of SCCAs from coffee beans, the method provided can be applied to multiple plant-based food materials.

  4. Characterization of the interaction between 3-Oxotabersonine and two serum albumins by using spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qing; Yan, Jin; He, Jiawei; Bai, Keke; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    3-Oxotabersonine (OTAB) is a component of Voacanga africana, which is a type of traditional drug in Africa widely used for treating diseases. This study examines the interaction of OTAB with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions. The interaction between OTAB and BSA/HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular modeling under simulated physiological conditions. The experimental results confirm that the quenching mechanism is a static quenching process. The binding site number (n) and the apparent binding constant (K) were measured at various temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, namely, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS), were calculated. Furthermore, the structural changes in the serum albumin that affected the OTAB binding were determined using FT-IR. The binding site was assumed to be located in site I of the BSA/HSA (subdomain IIA). -- Highlights: ► Make use of the 3-Oxotabersonine firstly extracted from seeds of Voacanga africana Stapf to study the drug–protein system. ► Use two kinds of similar structure serum albumins to do a comparative study. ► FT-IR was used to study the conformational change of BSA and HSA. ► Use the BSA and HSA structure obtained from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank for molecular docking

  5. Pesquisas citológicas e genéticas em três espécies de Coffea: auto-incompatibilidade em Coffea canephora pierre ex froehner Cyto-genetical investigations on three species of coffea: self incompatibility in Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Helena T. M. Conagin

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas realizadas com três espécies de Coffea (canephora, congensis e dewevrei durante o período de 1943 a 1950 são aqui relatadas com a finalidade principal de apresentar os dados colhidos para uma futura continuação do trabalho. Parte dêsses dados acha-se publicada parceladamente. Essas três espécies são auto-estéreis, isto é, não produzem frutos quando suas flôres são autopolinizadas. No entanto, o desenvolvimento do saco embrionário e a microsporogênese são normais; além disso nenhum outro fator mecânico ou físico impede a polinização. Os grãos de pólen mostram uma grande variabilidade em tamanho, não havendo diferença estatística que separe as três espécies. Em C. congensis de Uganda, a germinação do pólen foi anormal, formando expansões disformes do ciloplasma em vez de tubos polínicos. O pólen conservado em laboratório perdeu o poder germinativo ao fim de sete dias. As auto-polinizações efetuadas durante os anos de 1943 e 1944 não produziram frutos. No período de 1944 a 1950 foram realizados cruzamentos intra-específicos entre clones de cada espécie, procurando combinações compatíveis. Na espécie C. canephora foram feitas outras observações além dessas, tais como sôbre a queda dos frutinhos e a vitalidade das sementes. As pesquisas realizadas levaram à conclusão de que nas espécies C. canephora, C. congensis e C. dewevrei existe o fenômeno da auto-incompatibilidade genética. Observações mais detalhadas na espécie C congensis mostraram que, além da auto-incompatibilidade, existe, nesta espécie, a estérilidade masculina. Tendo-se analisado um grande número de cruzamentos de C. canephora foi possível estabelecer o mecanismo genético da auto-incompatibilidade; êste mecanismo é o mesmo descrito para o gênero Nicotiana por East e Maugelsdorf, segundo o qual uma série de fatôres alelomórfos S controlam as relações entre tubo polínico e estigma. Os dados apresentados

  6. Desenvolvimento de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. enxertados submetidos a diferentes níveis de reposição de água Coffea plant (Coffea arabica L. growth with and without grafting and irrigation levels at transplanting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrino Lopes de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de diferentes cultivares de cafeeiro, enxertadas ou não, quando submetidas a diferentes níveis de reposição de água na fase de implantação da lavoura, na ausência de nematóides. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Setor de Cafeicultura do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, no período de março de 2002 a setembro de 2002. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 x 5, envolvendo quatro cultivares: Acaiá Cerrado MG1474, Icatu Amarelo IAC-3282, IAPAR-59 e Rubi MG-1192, dois tipos de mudas (pé franco e enxertadas e cinco níveis de reposição de água (40%, 60%, 80%, 100% e 120% da evapotranspiração, com intervalos entre as irrigações de dois dias. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições com 3 plantas por parcela, perfazendo um total de 40 tratamentos, 120 parcelas e 360 plantas no experimento. As características avaliadas foram: diâmetro de caule (mm, altura de plantas (cm, número de pares de folhas no ramo ortotrópico, número de ramos plagiotrópicos, massa seca das raízes (g e massa seca da parte aérea (g. Concluiu-se que plantas oriundas de mudas, das cultivares estudadas, enxertadas sobre Apoatã IAC-2258, desenvolvem-se menos que as oriundas de pé franco na fase de implantação da lavoura, em solos isentos de nematóides; o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da Apoatã IAC-2258 (porta-enxerto não é alterado pelo uso de diferentes enxertos de porte alto ou baixo; quando não há limitação hídrica pronunciada, as plantas oriundas de mudas em pé franco desenvolvem-se mais que as plantas provenientes de mudas enxertadas; porém, em condições de déficit pronunciado, ambas têm seu desenvolvimento igualmente prejudicado no período de implantação da lavoura, em solos isentos de nematóides.This work had the objective of evaluating Coffea cultivars

  7. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  8. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. 125 I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom

  9. Sustained photosynthetic performance of Coffea spp. under long-term enhanced [CO2].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Ramalho

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the world's most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m(-2 s(-1, RH (75% and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L(-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49% when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L(-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down

  10. Sustained Photosynthetic Performance of Coffea spp. under Long-Term Enhanced [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, José C.; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Semedo, José N.; Pais, Isabel P.; Martins, Lima D.; Simões-Costa, Maria C.; Leitão, António E.; Fortunato, Ana S.; Batista-Santos, Paula; Palos, Isabel M.; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the world’s most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m-2 s-1), RH (75%) and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49%) when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory) components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down-regulation was found, our data

  11. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  12. Resistência de plantas de coffea arabica, coffea canephora e híbridos interespecíficos à cercosporiose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patricio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a resistência de plantas de Coffea arabica, C. canephora e de híbridos interespecíficos, à cercosporiose (Cercospora coffeicola, importante doença da cultura do cafeeiro. Foram realizados dois experimentos em 2003, em Campinas (SP, com mudas das cultivares de C. arabica, Mundo Novo IAC 388-17-1, Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, Bourbon Amarelo, Bourbon Vermelho, Obatã IAC 1669-20, Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144, Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62, Icatu Precoce IAC 3282, Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, Ouro Verde IAC H5010-5 e Tupi IAC 1669-33; de C. canephora, Robusta IAC 1653-7 e Apoatã IAC 2258, além de dois híbridos interespecíficos Piatã IAC 387 e Híbrido de Timor IAC 1559-13. As mudas foram submetidas à inoculação com uma suspensão de conídios preparada com cinco isolados coletados em diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Os materiais mais suscetíveis foram Robusta IAC 1653-7, Apoatã IAC 2258, Híbrido de Timor IAC 1559-13, Bourbon Vermelho e Bourbon Amarelo com incidência entre 63,1% e 81,6% no primeiro experimento e entre 70% e 93,3% no segundo e severidade (notas 1-6 entre 2,92 e 3,42 no primeiro experimento e entre 3,64 e 2,79 no segundo. Os materiais mais resistentes foram Piatã IAC 387, Ouro Verde IAC H5010-5 e Tupi IAC 1669-33, com incidência entre 28,4% e 35,5% no primeiro experimento e 21,1% e 55,6% no segundo, e severidade entre 1,44 e 1,73 e entre 1,28 e 1,88, respectivamente, no primeiro e segundo experimentos.

  13. Climate change does not impacts on Coffea arabica yield in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Williams Pinto Marques; Ribeiro Júnior, José Ivo; de Fátima Souza, Cecília

    2017-06-05

    Brazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world. Studies on climate change estimate large impacts on production of Coffea arabica (C. arabica). In this context, it is necessary to know the quantitative production values to provide evidence for policy makers to target the prompt answer. Using data from 18 municipalities located in five Brazilian States that produce more coffee in Brazil, in an unprecedented way, in this work it is shown that although the minimum temperature is the most important climatic variable for the production, its effect, although positive, and its degree of explanation, were technically too small to explain the volume of production in Brazilian conditions. According to the model of non-stationary time series ARIMA (1, 1, 0) the coffee production in the future may reach almost four million tons, and the productivity almost 2,500 kg ha -1 on average, being the advancement of technology the main factor that should promote the simultaneous increases in production and productivity. However, despite the natural climate variations, which make it the most responsible for the variability of annual coffee production, the producer must increase the use of the technologies to support the Brazilian coffee agribusiness. The results of this study reveal that the coffee production in Brazil is much more due to productivity than to the minimum ambient temperature change over the long term, despite this climate variable be considered the most influential on the production and productivity of coffee. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Galactinol synthase transcriptional profile in two genotypes of Coffea canephora with contrasting tolerance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tiago Benedito Dos; de Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Nagashima, Getúlio Takashi; Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia de Oliveira; Carpentieri-Pípolo, Valéria; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Increased synthesis of galactinol and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) has been reported in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. In this work, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of a Coffea canephora galactinol synthase gene (CcGolS1) in two clones that differed in tolerance to water deficit in order to assess the contribution of this gene to drought tolerance. The expression of CcGolS1 in leaves was differentially regulated by water deficit, depending on the intensity of stress and the genotype. In clone 109A (drought-susceptible), the abundance of CcGolS1 transcripts decreased upon exposure to drought, reaching minimum values during recovery from severe water deficit and stress. In contrast, CcGolS1 gene expression in clone 14 (drought-tolerant) was stimulated by water deficit. Changes in galactinol and RFO content did not correlate with variation in the steady-state transcript level. However, the magnitude of increase in RFO accumulation was higher in the tolerant cultivar, mainly under severe water deficit. The finding that the drought-tolerant coffee clone showed enhanced accumulation of CcGolS1 transcripts and RFOs under water deficit suggests the possibility of using this gene to improve drought tolerance in this important crop.

  15. Galactinol synthase transcriptional profile in two genotypes of Coffea canephora with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Benedito Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased synthesis of galactinol and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs has been reported in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. In this work, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of a Coffea canephora galactinol synthase gene (CcGolS1 in two clones that differed in tolerance to water deficit in order to assess the contribution of this gene to drought tolerance. The expression of CcGolS1 in leaves was differentially regulated by water deficit, depending on the intensity of stress and the genotype. In clone 109A (drought-susceptible, the abundance of CcGolS1 transcripts decreased upon exposure to drought, reaching minimum values during recovery from severe water deficit and stress. In contrast, CcGolS1 gene expression in clone 14 (drought-tolerant was stimulated by water deficit. Changes in galactinol and RFO content did not correlate with variation in the steady-state transcript level. However, the magnitude of increase in RFO accumulation was higher in the tolerant cultivar, mainly under severe water deficit. The finding that the drought-tolerant coffee clone showed enhanced accumulation of CcGolS1 transcripts and RFOs under water deficit suggests the possibility of using this gene to improve drought tolerance in this important crop.

  16. Effectiveness of Endophytic Bacterial Consortium of Coffee Plant on Mortality of Pratylenchus Coffeae in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dwi halimah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria live in wild in form of a consortium. Use of microbial consortium tends to give better results than single isolate, because the action of enzyme of each type of microbe can complement each other in order to survive. This study aimed to study the effectiveness of bacterial endophytic consortium from coffee plant on plant growth and mortality of parasitic nematodes in coffee. Isolation of bacteria is conducted  by growing the crushed roots, stems and leaves of coffee on 20% TSA media, then testing their hemolysis and hypersensitivity reaction. Selected isolates were tested on their effect on the growth of seedling and Pratylenchus coffeae mortality, as well as their chitinolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic, HCN production, dissolution of phosphate (P and fixation of nitrogen (N2 abilities. The results showed that from 27 isolates of the consortium, 23 isolates showed negative reaction to hypersensitive test and 9 isolates to hemolysis test. The highest mortality rate was shown by K6 isolate (65.8%. The highest growth was shown by K15 and K 21 isolates while the highest root length by K21 isolate. Further analisys showed that 100% of the isolates could hydrolyze proteases, lipid, and produce HCN, while chitinolytic activity was shown by 78% isolates which could fix N2 and 11% of isolates could dissolve phosphate.

  17. Influence of the fungi population on the physicochemical and chemical composition of coffee (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Auxiliadora Avelar Pereira Pasin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fungi associated with coffee fruits was verified regarding the chemical and physicochemical composition of Coffea arabica L. raw grains. The fruits were harvested at EPAMIG Experimental farm in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais - making up the different samples here analyzed. After processing and drying, the grains were incubated in wet chamber for fungal exteriorization through the blotter test method and submitted to the following analyses: polyphenoloxidase, total reducing and non-reducing sugars, clorogenic acid, titrable acidity, potassium leaching, electric conductivity and caffeine. The occurrence of the P. variable, P. rugulosum, P. funiculosum, F. equiseti, F. semitectum, A.alutaceus, A. niger and C. cladosporioides fungi in the different samples was detected. From the analysis of the results obtained, it was observed that the presence of the Aspergillus alutaceus fungus reduces the activity of the enzyme polyphenoloxidase and increases the values of potassium leaching, electric conductivity and chlorogenic acid. The incidence of the Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus influenced the average values of potassium leaching and electric conductivity.

  18. Genetic diversity among 16 genotypes of Coffea arabica in the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, C M S; Pimentel, N S; Golynsk, A; Ferreira, A; Vieira, H D; Partelli, F L

    2017-09-21

    For the selection of coffee plants that have favorable characteristics, it is necessary to evaluate variables related to production. Knowledge of the genetic divergence of arabica coffee is of extreme importance, as this knowledge can be associated with plant breeding programs in order to combine genetic divergence with good productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among 16 genotypes of Coffea arabica with the purpose of identifying the most dissimilar genotypes for the establishment of breeding programs and adaptation to the Brazilian cerrado. The genetic divergence was evaluated using multivariate procedures, the analysis of the average grouping unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and main components in 2013 and 2014. Eight characters were evaluated in an experiment conducted in Morrinhos, Goiás. The presence of genetic divergence among the 16 C. arabica genotypes under cerrado conditions was recorded. The formation of UPGMA groups for the evaluated characteristics was pertinent due to the number of genotypes. The first three major components accounted for 81.77% of the total variance. The genotype H-419-3-4-4-13(C-241) of low size was the most divergent, followed by Catucaí 2 SL and Catiguá MG2, according to the main components.

  19. Leaf anatomy characterization of Coffea arabica plants at different seasonal periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the hindering factors for coffee plant growth and yield. This study aimed to analyze the anatomy of leaves grown during the rainy and dry seasons in nine Coffea arabica L. plants, previously described as tolerant or sensitive to water deicit, in order to identify structural features of drought tolerance. We measured the size and density of stomata and epidermal cells, the thickness of epidermis and mesophyll, the diameter of petiole and midrib, the thickness of phloem and xylem in the midrib and petiole, and the diameter and frequency of elements of xylem vessels. Differences observed between the leaf structure of coffee plants evaluated and the leaf growth conditions (rainy and dry seasons indicated that there is a favorable anatomical plasticity regarding drought conditions. Thicker palisade parenchyma and total limbo, larger radii of phloem and xylem in the petiole and midrib were considered as favorable structural features to cope with water scarcity and they could be used as criteria to select drought-resistant cultivars. The following coffee plants were considered as more adapted to drought: Geisha, Semperlorens, BA 10, IAC H 8105-7, IAC H 8421-2, and the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81.

  20. Vegetation classification of Coffea on Hawaii Island using WorldView-2 satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Julie; Genovese, Vanessa Brooks; Potter, Christopher; Sewake, Kelvin; Manoukis, Nicholas C.

    2017-10-01

    Coffee is an important crop in tropical regions of the world; about 125 million people depend on coffee agriculture for their livelihoods. Understanding the spatial extent of coffee fields is useful for management and control of coffee pests such as Hypothenemus hampei and other pests that use coffee fruit as a host for immature stages such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, for economic planning, and for following changes in coffee agroecosystems over time. We present two methods for detecting Coffea arabica fields using remote sensing and geospatial technologies on WorldView-2 high-resolution spectral data of the Kona region of Hawaii Island. The first method, a pixel-based method using a maximum likelihood algorithm, attained 72% producer accuracy and 69% user accuracy (68% overall accuracy) based on analysis of 104 ground truth testing polygons. The second method, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) method, considered both spectral and textural information and improved accuracy, resulting in 76% producer accuracy and 94% user accuracy (81% overall accuracy) for the same testing areas. We conclude that the OBIA method is useful for detecting coffee fields grown in the open and use it to estimate the distribution of about 1050 hectares under coffee agriculture in the Kona region in 2012.

  1. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  2. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  4. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    biological samples, including protein solutions. It is based on the assumption that proteins adsorbs as a monolayer on surfaces and that proteins do not adsorb on top of each other. By labelling albumin and fibrinogen with two different radioactive iodine isotopes that emit gamma radiation with different...

  6. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin.......The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...... a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium...

  7. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  8. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  9. Varietal identification of coffee seeds by RAPD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Crochemore

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the identification of cultivars and/or lines of Coffea arabica of commercial interest, using PCR-RAPD markers. The DNA of ground seeds lots of 12 cultivars and/or lines were evaluated with five primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16, and OPX 09 were obtained from a selection of 56 primers. The electrophoretic profiles allowed distinction among eight cultivars and/or lines as well as heterogeneity between and within lots of IAPAR59.Classicamente, a identificação de cultivares do cafeeiro utiliza descritores morfológicos da semente e da planta em crescimento. O uso de marcadores moleculares, além de permitir uma identificação genética precisa, possibilita a caracterização dos genótipos com menor custo de mão-de-obra e de tempo, pois a descrição é realizada com pequenas quantidades de DNA genômico, extraído em qualquer etapa de crescimento da planta. Este estudo visou a identificação de cultivares/linhagens de Coffea arabica, de interesse comercial para o IAPAR, utilizando-se marcadores do tipo PCR-RAPD. O DNA de sementes moídas de 12 lotes de cultivares e/ou linhagens foi avaliado com cinco primers (Operon OPA 01, OPA 04, OPG 11, OPY 16 e OPX 09 obtidos de uma pré-seleção de 56 primers. Os perfis eletroforéticos mostraram diferenças entre oito cultivares/linhagens e uma baixa heterogeneidade foi detectada dentro de um lote de IAPAR59 e entre dois lotes deste mesmo cultivar.

  10. Ana o 3, an important cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) allergen of the 2S albumin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Jason M; Wang, Fang; Seamon, Vanessa; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Sampson, Hugh A; Beyer, Kirsten; Seavy, Margaret; Roux, Kenneth H

    2005-06-01

    Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. We have previously cloned and characterized major cashew allergens belonging to the vicilin and legumin families of seed storage proteins. Here we set out to describe a third major cashew allergen, a 2S albumin. The recombinant cashew 2S albumin was amplified from a cDNA library by means of PCR, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native cashew nut proteins. The mass of affinity-purified native allergen was determined by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Patients' sera were used to probe solid-phase 2S albumin peptides to identify linear epitopes. The cloned allergen, designated Ana o 3, was identified as 2S albumin. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy of native Ana o 3 yielded a molecular mass of 12,598 d. Immunoblot analysis showed 21 (81%) of 26 sera from patients with cashew allergy were reactive. Three native Ana o 3 large-subunit isoforms with molecular weights ranging from approximately 6 to 10 kd were identified. Probing of overlapping synthetic Ana o 3 peptides with patients' sera identified 16 reactive peptides, 4 of which gave strong signals and one of which positionally overlaps linear epitopes in mustard and walnut allergenic 2S albumins. The overlapping cashew and walnut epitopes also share considerable homology. We conclude that this 2S albumin protein is a major allergen in cashew nut and demonstrates a possible basis for cross-reactivity with walnut 2S albumin.

  11. Seed lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, I A

    1966-12-02

    Many of the newly discovered seedoil acids have reactive or unusual functional groups or other facets of molecular structure that permit their ready differentiation from oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and the other most prevalent saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The recognition and availability of the new acids, coupled with methods that make detection and determination easy, will help studies of lipid biosynthesis in the plant and of lipid metabolism and utilization in animals, and will stimulate more studies in depth on the fine points of seedlipid structure. Correlations of structural patterns in seed lipids of particular groups of plants with classical taxonomic categories will permit clarifications, raise needed questions concerning classifications, and accelerate research in chemotaxonomy and phylogenetics. Seed lipids are particularly well suited for establishing relationships among plants because of their great variety in structure compared to the more limited structural types of amino acids, sugars, purines, and many other plant substances. The newly characterized seed oils are potentially important industrial raw materials whenever they come from agronomically promising plant species. The molecular structures of seed triglycerides have major influence on their physical properties and therefore advances in knowledge in that sphere have practical implications. For example, the unusual characteristics of cocoa butter that make it so valuable for food and confectionery use are attributed to the specific arrangement of fatty acids it its triglycerides. The glycerides are almost all 2-oleic-1,3-disaturated acid triglycerides. The physical characteristics of lard are advantageously changed by catalytically rearranging fatty acyl groups among the glycerides initially in the fat to achieve a more nearly random distribution, followed sometimes by further fractionation to remove more saturated glycerides. Through this change of glyceride structures a

  12. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  13. Composition comprising radioactive labeled-fibrinogen and albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Gravett, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of fibrinogen is improved by mixing it with albumin, preferably at least 5 parts by weight of albumin per part by weight of fibrinogen. By this invention, iodinated ( 125 I) human fibrinogen can be stabilized with human serum albumin for use in the diagnosis of thrombi

  14. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobin......, etc. Binding to serum albumin appears to be non-saturable. Udgivelsesdato: 1984-Feb...

  15. The Greater Phenotypic Homeostasis of the Allopolyploid Coffea arabica Improved the Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of Both Diploid Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Bardil, Amélie; Baraille, Hélène; Dussert, Stéphane; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Dubois, Emeric; Severac, Dany; Dereeper, Alexis; Etienne, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    Polyploidy impacts the diversity of plant species, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification. In order to observe adaptive and evolutionary capacities of polyploids, we compared the growth, primary metabolism and transcriptomic expression level in the leaves of the newly formed allotetraploid Coffea arabica species compared with its two diploid parental species (Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora), exposed to four thermal regimes (TRs; 18-14, 23-19, 28-24 and 33-29°C). The growth rate of the allopolyploid C. arabica was similar to that of C. canephora under the hottest TR and that of C. eugenioides under the coldest TR. For metabolite contents measured at the hottest TR, the allopolyploid showed similar behavior to C. canephora, the parent which tolerates higher growth temperatures in the natural environment. However, at the coldest TR, the allopolyploid displayed higher sucrose, raffinose and ABA contents than those of its two parents and similar linolenic acid leaf composition and Chl content to those of C. eugenioides. At the gene expression level, few differences between the allopolyploid and its parents were observed for studied genes linked to photosynthesis, respiration and the circadian clock, whereas genes linked to redox activity showed a greater capacity of the allopolyploid for homeostasis. Finally, we found that the overall transcriptional response to TRs of the allopolyploid was more homeostatic compared with its parents. This better transcriptional homeostasis of the allopolyploid C. arabica afforded a greater phenotypic homeostasis when faced with environments that are unsuited to the diploid parental species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  17. Consequences of Stoichiometric Error on Nuclear DNA Content Evaluation in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using DAPI and Propidium Iodide

    OpenAIRE

    NOIROT, MICHEL; BARRE, PHILIPPE; LOUARN, JACQUES; DUPERRAY, CHRISTOPHE; HAMON, SERGE

    2002-01-01

    The genome size of coffee trees (Coffea sp.) was assessed using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA was stained with two dyes [4′,6‐diamino‐2‐phenylindole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. Fluorescence in coffee tree nuclei (C‐PI or C‐DAPI) was compared with that of the standard, petunia (P‐PI or P‐DAPI). If there is no stoichiometric error, then the ratio between fluorescence of the target nuclei and that of the standard nuclei (R‐PI or R‐DAPI) is expected to be proportional...

  18. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP...... could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work...

  19. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b, a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Royer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus, the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications; it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure–function relationships.

  20. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... mass at the end of the dialysis (54 +/- 19 mumol, P peritoneal...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...

  1. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  2. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  3. Modifications on leaf anatomy of Coffea arabica caused by shade of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Modifications on leaf anatomy in Coffea arabica shaded with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, compared to cultivation under full sun, were assessed. The leaves fully exposed to sunlight presented thicker cuticles and cellular walls, narrower epidermis cells, palisade parenchyma with longer cells, thicker lacunar parenchyma, fewer intercellular spaces and a larger stomata number. Leaves under dense shade presented a narrower cuticle and cellular wall; a mesophyll with smaller volume, but with larger intercellular spaces; and epidermis with thicker cells and a smaller stomata amount, surrounded by subsidiary cells of smaller dimensions. Plants grown under full sunlight presented higher values of net photosynthesis. The results evidenced that the species C. arabica has a wide range of phenotypic adaptation to changes in the radiation intensity.Adaptações de plantas da mesma espécie aos diferentes habitats, constituem a base da diferenciação entre folhas a pleno sol e folhas sob sombra e estão associadas a características anatômicas distintas. Para caracterizar tais mudanças em cafeeiros cultivados sob sombra de guandu (Cajanus cajan e a pleno sol, em Londrina, PR, foram realizadas avaliações de modificações ocorridas na anatomia foliar. As estruturas internas avaliadas foram: parede celular e cutícula; epiderme; mesofilo (parênquima paliçádico, parênquima lacunoso e espaços intercelulares e estômatos. Para todas as variáveis avaliadas observaram-se diferenças anatômicas entre folhas expostas ao sol e à sombra. As folhas expostas ao sol apresentaram cutículas e paredes celulares mais espessas, células da epiderme mais estreitas, parênquima paliçádico com células mais alongadas, parênquima lacunoso espesso e com poucos espaços intercelulares e maior número de estômatos. Folhas sob condições de denso sombreamento apresentam menor espessamento da cutícula e da parede celular; mesofilos com menores volumes, porém com

  4. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  5. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  6. Application of thermography for monitoring stomatal conductance of Coffea arabica under different shading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, A C W; Steppe, K; Van Asten, P J A; Läderach, P; Jassogne, L T P; Grab, S W

    2017-12-31

    Stomatal regulation is a key process in the physiology of Coffea arabica (C. arabica). Intrinsically linked to photosynthesis and water relations, it provides insights into the plant's adaptive capacity, survival and growth. The ability to rapidly quantify this parameter for C. arabica under different agroecological systems would be an indispensable tool. Using a Flir E6 MIR Camera, an index that is equivalent to stomatal conductance (I g ) was compared with stomatal conductance measurements (g s ) in a mature coffee plantation. In order to account for varying meteorological conditions between days, the methods were also compared under stable meteorological conditions in a laboratory and I g was also converted to absolute stomatal conductance values (g 1 ). In contrast to typical plant-thermography methods which measure indices once per day over an extended time period, we used high resolution hourly measurements over daily time series with 9 sun and 9 shade replicates. Eight daily time series showed a strong correlation between methods, while the remaining 10 were not significant. Including several other meteorological parameters in the calculation of g 1 did not contribute to any stronger correlation between methods. Total pooled data (combined daily series) resulted in a correlation of ρ=0.66 (P≤2.2e-16), indicating that our approach is particularly useful for situations where absolute values of stomatal conductance are not required, such as for comparative purposes, screening or trend analysis. We use the findings to advance the protocol for a more accurate methodology which may assist in quantifying advantageous microenvironment designs for coffee, considering the current and future climates of coffee growing regions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  8. Aquaporins in Coffea arabica L.: Identification, expression, and impacts on plant water relations and hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniussi, Matilda; Del Terra, Lorenzo; Savi, Tadeja; Pallavicini, Alberto; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in the transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes, and thus play major roles in the regulation of plant water balance, as well as in growth regulation and response to abiotic stress factors. Limited information is currently available about the presence and role of AQPs in Coffea arabica L., despite the economic importance of the species and its vulnerability to drought stress. We identified candidate AQP genes by screening a proprietary C. arabica transcriptome database, resulting in the identification of nine putative aquaporins. A phylogenetic analysis based on previously characterized AQPs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum tuberosum allowed to assign the putative coffee AQP sequences to the Tonoplast (TIP) and Plasma membrane (PIP) subfamilies. The possible functional role of coffee AQPs was explored by measuring hydraulic conductance and aquaporin gene expression on leaf and root tissues of two-year-old plants (C. arabica cv. Pacamara) subjected to different experimental conditions. In a first experiment, we tested plants for root and leaf hydraulic conductance both before dawn and at mid-day, to check the eventual impact of light on AQP activity and plant hydraulics. In a second experiment, we measured plant hydraulic responses to different water stress levels as eventually affected by changes in AQPs expression levels. Our results shed light on the possible roles of AQPs in the regulation of C. arabica hydraulics and water balance, opening promising research lines to improve the sustainability of coffee cultivation under global climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of coffee (Coffea arabica pulp for the production of briquettes and pellets for heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cubero-Abarca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing generates high amount of residues that are sources of environmental pollution. Therefore, an appropriate solution is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of coffee pulp to produce briquettes and pellets. The study included pulp drying (using air, solar and hot air methods; the production of briquettes and pellets; the evaluation of their energy, physical and mechanical properties; and the evaluation of pellet quality using X-ray densitometry. The results showed that the pulp presented an initial moisture content of 90%, resulting in drying times of 699, 308 and 55 hours for air, solar and hot air drying, respectively, and the calorific values of the pellets and briquettes were 12,501 kJ kg-1 and 11,591 kJ kg-1, respectively. The ash content was 8.68% for the briquettes and 6.74% for the pellets. The density of the briquettes was 1,110 kg m-3, compared with 1,300 kg m-3 for the pellets. The apparent densities were 1,000 kg m-3 and 600 kg m-3 for the briquettes and pellets, respectively, and the water absorptions by the briquettes were 7.90% and 8.10% by the pellets. The maximum horizontal compression effort was 26.86 kg cm-2, measured in the pellets, compared with 4.52 kg cm-2 in the briquettes. The maximum horizontal load was 93.24 kg, measured in the briquettes, compared with 33.50 kg in the pellets. The value of the pellet durability test was 75.54%. X-ray densitometry showed that the pellet was uniform and a few cracks were observed on the pellet surface.

  10. Genetic molecular analysis of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae hybrids using SRAP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Mishra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Coffea arabica (arabica coffee, the phenotypic as well as genetic variability has been found low because of the narrow genetic basis and self fertile nature of the species. Because of high similarity in phenotypic appearance among the majority of arabica collections, selection of parental lines for inter-varietals hybridization and identification of resultant hybrids at an early stage of plant growth is difficult. DNA markers are known to be reliable in identifying closely related cultivars and hybrids. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP is a new molecular marker technology developed based on PCR. In this paper, sixty arabica-hybrid progenies belonging to six crosses were analyzed using 31 highly polymorphic SRAP markers. The analysis revealed seven types of SRAP marker profiles which are useful in discriminating the parents and hybrids. The number of bands amplified per primer pair ranges from 6.13 to 8.58 with average number of seven bands. Among six hybrid combinations, percentage of bands shared between hybrids and their parents ranged from 66.29% to 85.71% with polymorphic bands varied from 27.64% to 60.0%. Percentage of hybrid specific fragments obtained in various hybrid combinations ranged from 0.71% to 10.86% and ascribed to the consequence of meiotic recombination. Based on the similarity index calculation, it was observed that F1 hybrids share maximum number of bands with the female parent compared to male parent. The results obtained in the present study revealed the effectiveness of SRAP technique in cultivar identification and hybrid analysis in this coffee species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 607-617. Epub 2011 June 01.

  11. Biomass production by Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner in two productives cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Maritza I.; Pérez Díaz, Alberto; Viñals, Rolando; Martín Alonso, Gloria M.; Rivera, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    In areas of the Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao located in La Mandarina, Tercer Frente municipality, Santiago de Cuba province, and La Alcarraza, municipality Sagua de Tánamo, Holguín province, the biomass production of Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. Robusta was assessed from planting until the fourth year in both locations and after pruning until the fourth year in Alcarraza. The coffee trees were planted at 3 x 1,5 m in Cambisol under Samanea saman Jerr shade in the first town and Leucaena leucocephala Lam de Wit in the second. The biomass was separated into: leaves, branches, stems, fruits and roots. From 24 months and one year after pruning, leaflitter was collected monthly. For the study of the root system soil blocks of 25 x 25 x 25 cm were extracted, in an area formed by 1,5 m (distance to the street) and 0,75 m (between plants), centered relative to the coffee plant and up to a meter deep. The extracted soil represented ¼ of the volume occupied by the plant. The dry mass of each organ was determined. Dry matter production reached values of 25 t dry mass ha-1 regardless of the stage of the plantation. Until the fourth year the root system dominated the biomass, followed by the leaves and then the stems. The participation of the fruits in the biomass increased in the crop stage and when concluding the experiment the coffees had dedicated for its formation among the 16-20 % of the total dry mass, independently of the development cycle. (author)

  12. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis in Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ebadur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is the most appalling complication of acute or chronic liver disease with 90% mortality rate. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD can be considered as a noble liver support technique in HRS. Here, we present a case of a young healthy patient who developed hyperacute fulminant liver failure that progressed to HRS. The patient was offered SPAD as a bridge to liver transplantation, however, it resulted in an excellent recovery.

  13. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  14. On the structural formation of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2017-09-01

    A microstructural analysis of the human serum albumin (HSA) samples dehydrated on a glass substrate from solutions with different concentrations of protein has been performed. The structuring effect of salt (NaCl) on the variations in the morphology of HSA interfaces has been shown experimentally. The substantiation of some structural effects has been given by taking into consideration the supramolecular organization and the polyelectrolyte nature of the protein molecule.

  15. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of 13 C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXXVIII. Observações sobre progênies do cultivar Mundo-Novo de Coffea arabica na estação experimental de Mococa Coffee breeding: XXXVIII-observation on progenies of the Mundo-Novo cultivars of Coffea arabica in the Mococa experimental station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio R. Rocha

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Os dados analisados no experimento localizado em Mococa sobre a produtividade de 112 progênies dos cultivares Mundo-Novo S1 e S2, Bourbon-Amarelo, BourbonVermelho e Caturra-Vermelho de Coffea arabica no período de 1955 a 1971, indicaram que as de Mundo-Novo S1, de prefixos MP 474, MP 502, MP 469, MP 492 e MP 475, revelaram-se como as mais produtivas, assemelhando-se a algumas progênies 'Mundo--Novo' S2. Dentre estas, destacou-se a de prefixo MP 388-6, que atingiu o nível mais elevado de produção do experimento. As progênies de 'Mundo-Novo', em conjunto, produziram 44% a mais do que as de Bourbon-Amarelo e, estas, 60% a mais do que as de Bourbon-Vermelho e Caturra-Vermelho. A altura e o diâmetro da copa atingiram valores médios mais elevados para as progênies de 'Mundo-Novo'. Verificaram-se correlações positivas e altamente significativas entre altura média da planta e diâmetro médio da copa com a produção das progênies. As progênies mais produtivas revelaram rendimento (relação entre peso de café maduro e beneficiado de aproximadamente 6,0 e porcentagem de sementes normais, do tipo chato, acima de 80. Quanto ao tamanho das sementes do tipo chato, duas progênies 'Mundo-Novo' S1, MP 474 e MP 452, apresentaram peneira média maior, permi-tindo seleção de plantas com essa característica e com elevada produção.Coffee progenies of the Mundo-Novo cultivars of Coffea arabica were studied in an experiment located at the Mococa Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico in comparison with Bourbon-Amarelo, Bourbon-Vermelho and Caturra-Vermelho cultivars of the same species. During a period of 17 consecutive cropping years (1955-1971, Mundo-Novo yielded approximately 44% more than Bourbon-Amarelo and this cultivars yielded 60% more than Bourbon-Vermelho and Caturra-Vermelho. Among the 89 S1 'Mundo-Novo' progenies, MP 474, MP 502, MP 469, MP 492 and MP 475 yielded as much as the two best 'Mundo-Novo' S2 progenies. Greater

  17. Selection of Superior Genotypes of Coffea Canephora Pierre on ControlledHybrid Population Using Cluster Analysis Method

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    Ucu Sumirat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior genotypes of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora to improve its important agronomic characters should be conducted continuously to get better planting productivity. The aim of this research was to select superior genotypes of Robusta coffee for high yield and high proportion of large bean. Selection was conducted on controlled hybrid populations, developed from three crossing parental clones, i.e. BP 961 x Q 121 (A, BP 409 x Q 121 (B and BP 961 x BP 409 (C. Selection was done by applying cluster analysis with complete linkage and Euclidean distance as the clustering method. The result of the research showed that the selection was successful to identify superior genotypes of Robusta coffee for high yield and high proportion of large bean. The parameters used (cherries weight/tree, bean weight/tree, bean size percentage > 6.5 mm and 100 cherries weight were effective in clustering the superior genotypes, indicated by increased minimum and average value of population. Yield potential and percentage of bean size > 6.5 mm of those genotypes were having better performance than the control genotype and its parent. The selection code A 95, B 28, B 62, B 66, B 74 and C 38 were considered  as promising superior genotypes of Robusta coffee, respectively. Key words: Coffea canephora, selection, bean size, yield, cluster analysis

  18. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181....... It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation....

  19. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  20. Anion exchange fractionation of serum proteins versus albumin elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahab, Ziad J; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2007-09-01

    Elimination of albumin, constituting more than 50% of total serum proteins, allows increased protein loads on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels and better visualization of low-abundance proteins; however, it may result in the loss of albumin-bound low-abundance proteins. In this study, we report the prefractionation of serum proteins by batch anion exchange chromatography into three fractions: one containing proteins with isoelectric points (pI values) higher than the pI of albumin, a second fraction containing proteins with pI values in the same range as the pI of albumin, and a third fraction containing proteins with pI values lower than the pI of albumin. This procedure uses common instrumentation, is carried out under denaturing conditions, and takes less than 30min. We also report the loss of a clinically established prostate cancer serum biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), after albumin is eliminated using two commercially available albumin elimination kits: one that uses Cibacron Blue F3GA, which achieves albumin depletion through dye-ligand binding, and one that uses specific albumin antibody. The loss of PSA secondary to albumin elimination exceeded that after batch anion exchange serum sample prefractionation.

  1. Observações Citológicas em coffea: VI — Desenvolvimento do embrião e do endosferma em Coffea Arabica l.

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    A. J. T. Mendes

    1942-04-01

    Full Text Available The ovule of C. arabica L. consists õf a single integument and a small nucellús which disappears as the ovule matures. Three of the four macrospores resulting from the'division of the macrosporocyte, degenerate. The remaining chalazal cell gives rise to a "normal'' embryo sac, which is ready for fertilization at the time of the flower opening. Double fertilization occurs, as a rule, the day the flower opens. The embryo sac then increases in volume and compresses the inner integument cells. The outer cells of the integument, however, multiply actively, giving rise to the "perisperm". After degeneration of the synergids and antipodals, the zygote stays near the micro-pyle in a resting stage, while the primary endosperm nucleus divides. This first division of the endosperm occurs from 21 to 27 days after flower opening. The cytoplasm condenses around the newly formed nuclei, permitting the adjacent tissues to sink into the embryo sac. Since the separating walls were not seen at the binueleate stage and were present at the four-nucleate stage, it seems that the endosperm belongs to the' "nuclear type". As the number of endosperm cells increases, the "perisperm" cells are again compressed and give more and more room to the new tissue. The first division in the zygote occurs from sixty to seventy days after flower opening, when the endosperm is already multinucleate. A differentiated embryo develops, with a hypocotyl and two small cotyledons in the ripe seed. In the ripe seed the "perisperm" disappears almost completely: its remains form the thin "silver skin" which envelops the endosperm. The parchment layer which envelops the seed is the endocarp.

  2. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S

    1988-01-01

    with binding of the unsaturated acids is less pronounced. Chloride ions compete with binding of palmitate. Reserve albumin concentration in serum samples from 33 male adults was 420 +/- 59 microM (mean +/- SD), and in 33 females, 351 +/- 50 microM. Umbilical cord sera from ten newborn infants averaged 172......, using pure albumin solutions, we obtained the reserve albumin concentration for binding of palmitate, previously defined as the concentration of a pure standard albumin which binds the labelled ligand as tightly as it is bound in the sample. Two techniques were developed, one for 1-ml sample volumes......, another for 25 microliter. Reserve albumin for binding of palmitate, measured in pure albumin solutions, decreased equally on addition of palmitate and stearate, slightly less with oleate and still less with linoleate, indicating that palmitate and stearate are bound competitively while interaction...

  3. Egg on their faces. The story of human albumin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian; Bunn, Frances

    2002-03-01

    In 1998, the Cochrane Injuries Group published the results of a systematic review of human albumin administration in critically ill patients. The results showed that the risk of death in patients receiving albumin was 14%, and the risk of death in patients not receiving albumin was 8%, suggesting that for every 17 critically ill patients treated with albumin there is one extra death. The results were widely reported in the television and print media throughout the world and stimulated an immediate response from the drug regulatory agencies, the plasma products industry, and the medical profession. Despite vigorous attempts by the plasma products industry to limit the effect of the systematic review on albumin sales, the use of albumin declined steeply, showing that evidence from systematic reviews can have an important effect on clinical care.

  4. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  5. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction and characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) albumin and globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Hung, T V; Bennett, L

    2008-06-01

    Albumin and globulin fractions of 1 Desi and 2 Kabuli varieties of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) were extracted with water and salt solutions (K(2)SO(4) and NaCl). The extractable yields and particularly the albumin-globulin ratio varied greatly with the extraction medium and chickpea variety. Depending on the procedure employed, albumin could be extracted as a major fraction of chickpea proteins. Higher levels of essential amino acids and sulfur containing amino acids were found in albumins than in globulins of all chickpeas investigated. The common structural characteristics of both Kabuli and Desi chickpea albumins and globulins were clearly identified by densitometric profiles of their sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel patterns. Albumins contained subunits with higher molecular weights than those of globulins. The in vitro digestibility of the chickpea proteins by papain, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin indicated that globulins were more susceptible to proteolytic hydrolysis.

  7. A Study of Allelopathy of Some Shade Trees to Coffea arabicaL. Seedlings

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    Adi Prawoto

    2006-05-01

    recommended as shade trees or intercrops with Arabica coffee and for D. zibethinusits cropping pattern must be arranged so the mineral competition could be maintained minimum. Key words: Allelopathy, Coffea arabica, Macadamia integrifolia, Cinnamomum burmani, Cassia siamea, Cassia spectabilis, mineral.

  8. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  9. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  10. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of seed extract from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichaya Chowtivannakul

    2016-09-01

    These results indicated that seed extract from L. leucocephala has antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity is likely due to the phenolic content. An application of this extract should be considered as it can affect renal function by reducing the levels of albumin, ALP and total protein.

  11. Current issues in measurement and reporting of urinary albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Bruns, David E; Hortin, Glen L; Sandberg, Sverre; Aakre, Kristin M; McQueen, Matthew J; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Lieske, John C; Seccombe, David W; Jones, Graham; Bunk, David M; Curhan, Gary C; Narva, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin indicates kidney damage and is recognized as a risk factor for progression of kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The role of urinary albumin measurements has focused attention on the clinical need for accurate and clearly reported results. The National Kidney Disease Education Program and the IFCC convened a conference to assess the current state of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical issues affecting urine albumin measurements and to identify areas needing improvement. The chemistry of albumin in urine is incompletely understood. Current guidelines recommend the use of the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as a surrogate for the error-prone collection of timed urine samples. Although ACR results are affected by patient preparation and time of day of sample collection, neither is standardized. Considerable intermethod differences have been reported for both albumin and creatinine measurement, but trueness is unknown because there are no reference measurement procedures for albumin and no reference materials for either analyte in urine. The recommended reference intervals for the ACR do not take into account the large intergroup differences in creatinine excretion (e.g., related to differences in age, sex, and ethnicity) nor the continuous increase in risk related to albumin excretion. Clinical needs have been identified for standardization of (a) urine collection methods, (b) urine albumin and creatinine measurements based on a complete reference system, (c) reporting of test results, and (d) reference intervals for the ACR.

  12. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic...... indomethacin blood levels. Oleic acid does not affect indomethacin binding until the oleate/albumin molar ratio exceeds 2. A method for measuring the reserve albumin equivalent for binding indomethacin is described. Measurement of this reserve binding equivalent in 33 neonatal serum samples shows...

  13. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  14. Distribution and degradation of albumin in extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Anne-Marie; Taaning, E; Rossing, N

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of albumin were determined in twelve patients with extensive skin disease and in ten control subjects by measuring the metabolic turnover and transcapillary escape of 132 I-labelled albumin. The ratio of intravascular to total mass of albumin was normal. Thus...... the observed hypoalbuminaemia and the low intravascular mass reflect a reduced mass of total body albumin. The rate of synthesis was normal, but the transcapillary escape rate reflecting the microvascular leakiness to macromolecules, and the fractional disappearance rate were significantly higher...

  15. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient

  16. Physiological Dose-Response of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Plants to Glyphosate Depends on Growth Stage Respuesta Fisiológica de Plantas de Café (Coffea arabica L. a Glifosato Depende de la Etapa de Crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the main herbicide used in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in Brazil. Problems with herbicide drift commonly occur in orchard fields due to non-adequate spraying conditions. A series of experiments was carried out aiming to evaluate physiological dose-response of C. arabica plants submitted to exposure to simulated glyphosate drift in two distinct plant growth stages. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 180, 360, and 720 g acid equivalent (AE ha-1 directly on coffee plants with 10 and 45 d after transplanting (DAT. Glyphosate doses in a range of 180-360 g AE ha-1 increased photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in 10 DAT-plants up to 14 d after application (DAA while, in 45 DAT-plants, an increase was observed only up to 2 DAA, but this pattern was not persistent afterwards so that no difference in gas exchange was observed at 60 DAA in both plants. Macronutrient content was not affected by glyphosate application in both plants. Plant DM accumulation was not affected by glyphosate application at 10 DAT-plants, but an increase in plant growth was observed when glyphosate was applied in a range of 360-720 g AE ha-1 in 45 DAT-plants. Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí Vermelho IAC-144 responded differentially to glyphosate drift depending on plant growth stage, regarding on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and plant growth, in spite of macronutrient nutrition was not affected.Glifosato es el principal herbicida utilizado en las plantaciones de café (Coffea arabica L. en Brasil. Problemas con la deriva de herbicidas comúnmente ocurren en los campos de cultivo debido a condiciones no adecuadas de pulverización. Una serie de experimentos se llevó a cabo con el objetivo de evaluar la relación dosis-respuesta fisiológica de plantas de C. arabica expuestas a situaciones simuladas de exposición a deriva de glifosato en dos etapas distintas de crecimiento de las plantas. El glifosato se aplicó en dosis de 0

  17. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetic studies were performed in nine uraemic patients without oedema on chronic haemodialysis and in seven normal controls in order to determine microvascular leakiness and thereby, during steady state, lymph drainage of albumin. Transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb i.......e. the fraction of intravascular mass (IVMalb) passing into, or returning from, the extravascular space per unit time] and the distribution ratio (DRalb) between IVMalb and total albumin mass were determined from intravenously injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Before haemodialysis, TERalb was significantly...... with respect to controls (mean 0 X 44, range 0 X 42-0 X 48, P less than 0 X 01), and the extravascular mass of albumin was significantly decreased (mean 27 X 9 mumol kg-1, range 14.1 - 41.2 v. mean 35.9, range 27.1 - 43.8, P less than 0.05). We interpret the results as to indicate increased transvascular...

  18. Influência de diferentes níveis de sombreamento sobre o crescimento de mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. Influence of different shading levels on the growth of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Carlos Paiva

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se determinar o melhor processo de formação de mudas em diferentes níveis de sombreamento. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Cafeicultura do Departamento de Agricultura da ufla, onde mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.foram formadas sob quatro diferentes tipos de luminosidade, sendo: em pleno sol e sob sombrites, com 30%, 50% e 90% de sombreamento. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento com blocos casualisados, sendo quatro o número de blocos. O experimento foi conduzido até que as mudas atingissem o terceiro-quarto pares de folhas. As avaliações constituíram as seguintes análises de crescimento: altura, diâmetro de caule, número de pares de folha, peso seco de raíz, peso seco de parte aérea e área foliar. Concluiu-se que para as características de crescimento analisadas, as mudas sob sombrite com 50% de sombreamento foram melhores, seguidas daquelas com 90%, 30% e pleno sol.The present work aimed to determine the best shading levels for the growth of coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out at the Agriculture Department of the Federal University of Lavras. Coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. were grown under four shading levels: seedlings in full sunshine, and under 30%, 50%, and 90% shading. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, whith four replications. The experiment was run to the third/fourth leaf pair. Afterwards, the following analyses were performed: height, stem diameter, number of leaf pairs, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and leaf area. Results showed the seedlings develop best under 50% shading, then 90 and 30% shading, and lastly under full sunshine.

  19. Taxonomia de Coffea arabica L. VI: caracteres morfológicos dos haplóides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1952-06-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer dos trabalhos de melhoramento do café em execução no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, plantas haplóides foram encontradas nas variedades typica, bourbon, maragogipe, semperflorens, laurina, erecta, caturra e San Ramon, da espécie Coffea arabica. Todos os haplóides apresentam porte menor e fôlhas mais estreitas e mais finas do que as variedades que lhes deram origem. Apesar de as flores serem completas, nota-se esterilidade muito acentuada. Raramente se formam alguns frutos, e êstes são providos de uma única semente, motivo pelo qual as plantas haplóides são denominadas "monosperma". Os fatôres genéticos dominantes maragogipe (Mg, erecta (Er, caturra (Ct e San Ramon, bem como os gens recessivos semperflorens (sf, e laurina (lr, das variedades estudadas, manifestam-se nas plantas haplóides, de modo semelhante ao que ocorre nas plantas diplóides correspondentes. O fator para coloração bronze dos brotos novos tem dominância incompleta e, na condição heterozigota (Brbr, mostra intensidade intermediária de côr. Nas plantas haplóides contendo um só alelo Br, a côr dos brotos novos é bronze-clara. Uma única dose do fator Na, que também apresenta dominância incompleta, dando, na forma heterozigota (Nana e na presença de tt, o fenótipo conhecido por murta, manifesta-se, na forma haplóide, dando plantas semelhantes às homozigotas ttNaNa, apenas com fôlhas mais estreitas e mais finas. Chamou-se atenção para as linhas puras de café obtidas pela duplicação do número de cromosômios dos haplóides e sua aplicação nos ensaios de linhagens e na determinação das taxas de mutação. As observações realizadas na meiose da espécie C. arabica, bem como os dados das análises genéticas e as observações feitas nesses haplóides parecem indicar que, se essa espécie fôr alotetraplóide, tal origem deve ser bem antiga, comportando-se hoje a espécie C. arábica, como um diplóide normal. As plantas

  20. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta Coffee (Coffea Canepor

    OpenAIRE

    Erdiansyah, Novie Pranata; Sumirat, Ucu; -, Priyono

    2014-01-01

    The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute). There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 pr...

  1. Albumin fibrillization induces apoptosis via integrin/FAK/Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous proteins can be converted to amyloid-like fibrils to increase cytotoxicity and induce apoptosis, but the methods generally require a high concentration of protein, vigorous shaking, or fibril seed. As well, the detailed mechanism of the cytotoxic effects is not well characterized. In this study, we have developed a novel process to convert native proteins into the fibrillar form. We used globular bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein to verify the properties of the fibrillar protein, investigated its cellular effects and studied the signaling cascade induced by the fibrillar protein. Results We induced BSA, a non-cytotoxic globular protein, to become fibril by a novel process involving Superdex-200 column chromatography in the presence of anionic or zwittergenic detergent(s. The column pore size was more important than column matrix composite in fibril formation. The fibrillar BSA induced apoptosis in BHK-21 cell as well as breast cancer cell line T47D. Pre-treating cells with anti-integrin antibodies blocked the apoptotic effect. Fibrillar BSA, but not globular BSA, bound to integrin, dephosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK, Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. Conclusion We report on a novel process for converting globular proteins into fibrillar form to cause apoptosis by modulating the integrin/FAK/Akt/GSK-3β/caspase-3 signaling pathway. Our findings may be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of amyloid-like fibrils and applicable for the development of better therapeutic agents that target the underlying mechanism(s of the etiologic agents.

  2. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... the plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (index of 'lymph-imbalance') and the mass of intraperitoneal albumin (rlog = 0.82, P less than 0.001), indicating a significant role of 'lymph-imbalance' to sequestration of protein in the peritoneal cavity. Ascitic fluid albumin concentration...

  3. Dynamics of the concentration of IAA and some of its conjugates during the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Coffea canephora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benajmín; Galaz-Ávalos, Rosa María; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo; Loyola-Vargas, Victor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most of the somatic embryogenesis (SE) process requires the presence, either before or during the embryogenic process, of at least one exogenous auxin. This exogenous auxin induces the presence of endogenous auxins, which appears to be essential for SE induction. We found that during the preincubation period of SE in Coffea canephora, there is an important increase in both free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), as well as indole-3-butyric acid. This increase is accompanied by an increase in the expression of YUCCA (CcYUC), TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 (CcTAA1), and GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes. On the other hand, most of the IAA compounds decreased during the induction of SE. The results presented in this research suggest that a balance between free IAA and its amide conjugates is necessary to allow the expression of SE-related genes. PMID:24299659

  4. Rust and Thinning Management Effect on Cup Quality and Plant Performance for Two Cultivars of Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria-Beirute, Fabian; Murray, Seth C; Klein, Patricia; Kerth, Chris; Miller, Rhonda; Bertrand, Benoit

    2017-09-29

    Beverage quality is a complex attribute of coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Genotype (G), environment (E), management (M), postharvest processing, and roasting are all involved. However, little is known about how G × M interactions influence beverage quality. We investigated how yield and coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease (caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br.) management affect cup quality and plant performance, in two coffee cultivars. Sensory and chemical analyses revealed that 10 of 70 attributes and 18 of 154 chemical volatile compounds were significantly affected by G and M. Remarkably, acetaminophen was found for the first time in roasted coffee and in higher concentrations under more stressful conditions. A principal component analysis described 87% of the variation in quality and plant overall performance. This study is a first step in understanding the complexity of the physiological, metabolic, and molecular changes in coffee production, which will be useful for the improvement of coffee cultivars.

  5. Efeitos fisiologicos da fotoinibição da fotossintese em plantas jovens de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: A espécie Coffea arabica é considerada sensível às baixas temperaturas, podendo ser afetada em todo o seu ciclo. Essa espécie, principalmente na fase jovem, quando exposta à luz, após um período sob baixa temperatura, se torna mais sensível. Considerando a importância econômica da cultura cafeeira como item de exportação e ocupação de mão de obra agrícola no país, E reconhecendo que o cultivo do cafeeiro É afetado pela sazonalidade dos eventos climáticos adversos, dentre eles as tempe...

  6. Homeologous genes involved in mannitol synthesis reveal unequal contributions in response to abiotic stress in Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Nagashima, Getulio T; Bespalhok Filho, João C; Vieira, Luiz G E; Pereira, Luiz F P; Domingues, Douglas S

    2014-10-01

    Polyploid plants can exhibit transcriptional modulation in homeologous genes in response to abiotic stresses. Coffea arabica, an allotetraploid, accounts for 75% of the world's coffee production. Extreme temperatures, salinity and drought limit crop productivity, which includes coffee plants. Mannitol is known to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance in higher plants. This study aimed to investigate the transcriptional responses of genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism in C. arabica leaves under water deficit, salt stress and high temperature. Mannitol concentration was significantly increased in leaves of plants under drought and salinity, but reduced by heat stress. Fructose content followed the level of mannitol only in heat-stressed plants, suggesting the partitioning of the former into other metabolites during drought and salt stress conditions. Transcripts of the key enzymes involved in mannitol biosynthesis, CaM6PR, CaPMI and CaMTD, were modulated in distinct ways depending on the abiotic stress. Our data suggest that changes in mannitol accumulation during drought and salt stress in leaves of C. arabica are due, at least in part, to the increased expression of the key genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis. In addition, the homeologs of the Coffea canephora subgenome did not present the same pattern of overall transcriptional response, indicating differential regulation of these genes by the same stimulus. In this way, this study adds new information on the differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes under adverse environmental conditions showing that abiotic stresses can influence the homeologous gene regulation pattern, in this case, mainly on those involved in mannitol pathway.

  7. Partial characterization of proteins from baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Kézia Soares; da Silva, Maraiza Aparecida; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Neves, Valdir Augusto

    2011-08-30

    Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) is a fruit distributed throughout the Brazilian savanna and contains a seed with a high protein content, whose properties have been rarely explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize this protein, especially by isolation and quantifying its fractions and measuring some of its molecular properties. Baru seeds contain 244 g kg(-1) protein on a dry weight basis. Solubility profiles showed a preponderance of globulins. This fraction dominated the seed composition, with 61.7 wt% of the total soluble proteins. Albumins and glutelins accounted for 14 and 3.3 wt%, respectively. SDS-PAGE resolution of albumin and globulin showed main bands with molecular weights of 84 kDa and 64, 66 and 73 kDa, respectively. The total protein of the flour and the globulin showed values of in vitro digestibility of 85.59% and 90.54%, relative to casein. Total globulin produced only one chromatographic peak, both on Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration and on DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange columns, eluted at a concentration of 0.12 mol L(-1) NaCl. The baru seed had high protein content with large quantities of storage proteins. The chromatographic and solubility profiles indicate the predominance of a fraction with characteristics of a legumin-type protein. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  9. Circadian variation of urinary albumin excretion in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; van der Post, J. A.; van Acker, B. A.; Boer, K.; Koopman, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was tested that circadian variations in urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women in the third trimester of normal pregnancy are different from nonpregnant individuals. DESIGN: Circadian variability in urinary albumin excretion was studied both in pregnant women and in

  10. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  11. Possibilities of Using Combined Optical and AFM Investigations of Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2018-02-01

    The results of a complex study of 10% aqueous solution of human serum albumin using methods of optical and atomic force microscopy have been presented. The fine structure of main structures of albumin facies (vitreous matrix and concretions) has been revealed and some observed structural effects have been interpreted from the viewpoint of polymer materials science.

  12. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400Da [9]. Low-angle X-ray scattering [10] and neutron scattering [11] also in- dicated serum albumin to be a prolate ellipsoid. However, studies using 1H NMR indicated that a prolate structure was unlikely; rather a heart-shaped structure was proposed [12]. The shape of albumin reveals a heart-shaped molecule that can.

  13. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival of adult rat cerebral cortex neurons in primary culture. ... Because the attack of anoxia and mechanical/chemical force in the course of the single neuron separated from the brain, the adult neocortex neurons may be edema. Since albumin can reduce edema ...

  14. The relative role of serum albumin and urinary creatinine as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their weight, Body mass index, serum albumin and 24-hour urinary creatinine were determined before treatment, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th month of treatment. Using ANOVA, the mean values of the weight, BIM and serum albumin were analysed with further analysis paired student T- test of the pre-treatment ...

  15. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis-A Dose-Finding Study to Define Optimal Albumin Concentration and Dialysate Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Rosa Bianca; Nawrot, Gesa-Henrike; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Several artificial liver support concepts have been evaluated both in vitro and clinically. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) has shown to be one of the most simple approaches for removing albumin-bound toxins and water-soluble substances. Being faced with acute liver failure (ALF) in everyday practice encouraged our attempt to define the optimal conditions for SPAD more precisely in a standardized experimental setup. Albumin concentration was adjusted to either 1%, 2%, 3%, or 4%, while the flow rate of the dialysate was kept constant at a speed of 700 mL/h. The flow rate of the dialysate was altered between 350, 500, 700, and 1000 mL/h, whereas the albumin concentration was continuously kept at 3%. This study revealed that the detoxification of albumin-bound substances could be improved by increasing the concentration of albumin in the dialysate with an optimum at 3%. A further increase of the albumin concentration to 4% did not lead to a significant increase in detoxification. Furthermore, we observed a gradual increase of the detoxification efficiency for albumin-bound substances, from 350 mL/h to 700 mL/h (for bilirubin) or 1000 mL/h (for bile acids) of dialysate flow. Water-soluble toxins (ammonia, creatinine, urea, uric acid) were removed almost completely, regardless of albumin concentration or flow rate. In conclusion, this study confirmed that SPAD is effective in eliminating albumin-bound as well as water-soluble toxins using a simulation of ALF. Furthermore, this project was successful in evaluating the most effective combination of albumin concentration (3%) and dialysate flow (700 mL/h-1000 mL/h) in SPAD for the first time. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reference intervals for the P-Albumin bromocresol purple method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2017-10-01

    Correct reference intervals are an important part of test results. As establishing own reference intervals is a very expensive task, the NORIP reference intervals are often transferred for use in Nordic laboratories. The NORIP reference interval on P-Albumin was here compared to current results for laboratories using the bromocresol purple (BCP) method for P-Albumin. External quality control reports were used to investigate the change in levels between the BCP and BCG methods on P-Albumin. An algorithm was built for extracting and isolating the laboratory's healthy subject population. The algorithm was used to extract test results from the laboratory information system. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to evaluate the P-Albumin test result populations. The indirect method used here clearly shows that the NORIP reference intervals for P-Albumin are not fit for the current bromocresol purple methods. The method was also used to suggest new reference interval limits.

  17. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    in autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer by specific gene silencing. The effective delivery of the therapeutic to target cells and tissues is currently a great challenge for successful siRNA therapy. In the bloodstream, free siRNA is rapidly cleared by renal excretion or degraded by serum...... been used to create a range of albumin variants with FcRn affinity both lower and higher than that of wild-type albumin. The aim of this project is to develop a siRNA carrier system utilizing albumin as a natural delivery vehicle. Cholesteryl functionalized siRNA was designed to facilitate binding...... formulation with albumin. Furthermore, the experiments revealed a preferential accumulation of the 2- cholesteryl siRNA in the liver after 6 hours. The finding of accumulation in the liver was utilized in vivo to illustrate liver specific Factor VII silencing of ~30%, mediated only by albumin as a delivery...

  18. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  19. A novel adjuvant: polymerised serum albumin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, J.B.

    1985-09-01

    There is an ongoing need to develop new vaccine formulations. To complement accumulating knowledge on the structure of antigens and their interaction with cells of the immune system, new vaccine vehicles to optimise the immunogenic potential of the antigen must be developed. Associated with this adjuvanticity, should be minimal adverse side effects. This study was initiated to develop a vaccine vehicle, consisting of covalently cross-linked serum albumin beads, themselves non-immunogenic, containing virus. Following inoculation, in vivo proteolysis of the beads would allow a gradual release of antigen for sustained immunostimulation. This system might have application in virus vaccine programmes to improve low immunogenic vaccines, to allow optimal delivery of the recently derived synthetic virus subunit peptides as well as for inactivated virus vaccine preparations. 35 S-methionine labelled Blue Tongue Virus was used in this study

  20. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  1. Human serum albumin and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women and the mechanism of albumin for stress reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2017-08-01

    Significance: Serum albumin relates to oxidative stress inversely, but to the endothelial function positively, in pregnant women. Human serum albumin appears to reduce oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase inhibition in the human vascular smooth muscle, indicating that the serum level may be a critical determinant of vascular oxidative stress in some human diseases.

  2. Root system distribution and yield of 'Conilon' coffee propagated by seeds or cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the root system distribution and the yield of 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora propagated by seeds or cuttings. The experiment was carried out with 2x1 m spacing, in an Oxisol with sandy clay loam texture. A randomized complete block design was used, following a 2x9x6 factorial arrangement, with two propagation methods (seeds and cuttings, nine sampling spacings (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, 0.75, and 0.90 m between rows, and 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 between plants within rows, six soil depths (0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30, 0.30-0.40, 0.40-0.50, and 0.50-0.60 m, and six replicates. Soil cores (27 cm3 with roots were taken from 12 experimental units, 146 months after planting. The surface area of the root system and root diameter, length, and volume were assessed for 13 years and, then, correlated with grain yield. The highest fine root concentration occurred at the superficial soil layers. The variables used to characterize the root system did not differ between propagation methods. Moreover, no differences were observed for net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentrations, and instantaneous water-use efficiency in the leaves. Cutting-propagated plants were more productive than seed-propagated ones.

  3. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  4. Molecular mechanisms in the first step of aba-mediated response in #Coffea# ssp.

    OpenAIRE

    Guitton Cotta, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone universally conserved in land plants which coordinates several aspects of the plant response to water deficit such as root architecture, seed dormancy and regulation of stomatal closure. A mechanism of ABA signal transduction has been proposed, in volving intracellular ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCARs) interacting with PP2Cs phosphatases and SnRK2 protein kinases regulating this tripartite protein system. The goal of this study was to identify and characteriz...

  5. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  6. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  7. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  8. Adsorption behavior of oxidized galactomannans onto amino terminated surfaces and their interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierakowski, M.-R; Silva, Maria R.V. da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Biopolimeros]. E-mail: mrbiopol@quimica.ufpr.br; Freitas, R.A.; Moreira, Jose S.R. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Fujimoto, J.; Petri, D.F.S.; Cordeiro, Paulo R.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dfsp@quim.iq.usp.br; Andrade, Fabiana D

    2001-07-01

    A galactomannan (CF) extracted from Cassia fastuosa seeds was purified and oxidized with (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) to form a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (CFOX) with a degree of oxidation (DO) of 0.22. The chemical structures of CF and CFOX were characterized. The adsorption behavior of CF and CFOX onto amino-terminated surfaces was studied by means of ellipsometric measurements. The influence of p H and ionic strength on the adsorption was also investigated. At p H 4, there was a maximum in the adsorbed amount caused by strong electrostatic attraction between the substrate and the oxidized galactomannans. There was no ionic strength effect on the adsorption behavior. The immobilization of bovine serum albumin onto CF and CFOX was studied as a function of p H. At the isoelectric point a maximum in the adsorbed amount was found. (author)

  9. Adsorption behavior of oxidized galactomannans onto amino terminated surfaces and their interaction with bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierakowski, M.-R; Silva, Maria R.V. da; Freitas, R.A.; Moreira, Jose S.R.; Fujimoto, J.; Petri, D.F.S.; Cordeiro, Paulo R.D.; Andrade, Fabiana D.

    2001-01-01

    A galactomannan (CF) extracted from Cassia fastuosa seeds was purified and oxidized with (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) to form a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (CFOX) with a degree of oxidation (DO) of 0.22. The chemical structures of CF and CFOX were characterized. The adsorption behavior of CF and CFOX onto amino-terminated surfaces was studied by means of ellipsometric measurements. The influence of p H and ionic strength on the adsorption was also investigated. At p H 4, there was a maximum in the adsorbed amount caused by strong electrostatic attraction between the substrate and the oxidized galactomannans. There was no ionic strength effect on the adsorption behavior. The immobilization of bovine serum albumin onto CF and CFOX was studied as a function of p H. At the isoelectric point a maximum in the adsorbed amount was found. (author)

  10. Diversidade química de cafeeiros na espécie Coffea canephora Chemical diversity in coffee plants of Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Tosoni da Eira Aguiar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar seis variedades de C. canephora do Banco de Germoplasma de Café do Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas. Para tanto, considerou-se a caracterização química de quarenta e sete exemplares analisando-se as variáveis sólidos solúveis, lipídios, trigonelina, ácidos clorogênicos e cafeína nas sementes. Observou-se a existência de grande variação entre e dentro dos diferentes materiais analisados, com valores extremos de 24,53% a 30,68% para sólidos solúveis; 6,61% a 12,27% para lipídios; 0,73% a 1,59% para trigonelina; 3,30% a 6,30% para ácidos clorogênicos e 1,94% a 3,29% para cafeína, indicando a possibilidade de seleção de plantas de interesse para o melhoramento dessa espécie.The objective of this work was to characterize six C. canephora varieties from the Coffee Germoplasma Collection of Instituto Agronômico, in Campinas, Brazil. For this a chemical characterization of forthy seven examples was performed. Soluble solids, lipids, trigonelline, chlorogenic acids and caffeine contents were evaluated on seeds. The results demonstrated the occurrance of great variation among and within the analyzed materials, with values ranging from 24,53% to 30,68% for soluble solids; 6,61% to 12,27% for lipids; 0,73% to 1,59% for trigonelline; 3,30% to 6,30% for chlorogenic acids and 1,94% to 3,29% for caffeine. These results indicate the possibility of selection of superior plants for the improvement of the specie.

  11. Binding and Anticancer Properties of Plumbagin with Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Qi, Jinxu; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Liang, Shichu; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plumbagin has received extensive attention as a promising anticancer drug. Therefore, we investigated the binding and anticancer properties of plumbagin with human serum albumin. Fluorescence results demonstrated that plumbagin interacts with human serum albumin, although its binding affinity may be affected to various extents by different compounds. The human serum albumin-plumbagin complex structure revealed that plumbagin binds to the hydrophobic cavity in the IIA subdomain of human serum albumin through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The plumbagin-human serum albumin complex enhances cytotoxicity by 2- to 3-fold particularly in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with the unbound drug, the human serum albumin-plumbagin complex promotes HeLa cell apoptosis and has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of HeLa cells. In conclusion, this study contributes to the rational design and development of plumbagin-based drugs and a drug-human serum albumin delivery system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  13. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The ab- dominal sternite is cream-white. The femur of the hind leg is thick. The compound eyes are black. This study showed that the larvae developed within the shells, on surface of the seeds, rotten. Infestation by Megaselia rufipes Meigen on germinated oil palm seeds ... 29. Fig. 5: Cracked seeds infested with maggots.

  14. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  15. Meta-analysis for heritability estimates of vegetative and reproductive traits of Coffea arabica L.Meta-análise para estimativas de herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Baliza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of informations resulting from independent studies has been difficulted in almost all scientific fields, mainly due to the great number of scientific papers published in recent years. As a result, summarizing information became a need. In this context, a meta-analysis was conducted with the objective of summarizing the estimates for the heritability for vegetative and reproductive traits of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. Heritability estimates were appraised regarding the following traits: average height of plant, average diameter of the canopy, vegetative vigor, production of processed coffee, yield and rust. The data regarding the heritability estimates are from scientific articles published in national and international journals, congress annals, PhD thesis and Master dissertations. The technique of meta-analysis summarized the estimates heritability from different studies and made possible to conclude that all of the appraised traits are highly inherited, reflecting the great genetic variety of coffee plants, and that is possible to reach satisfactory genetic gains in improvement programs in which those traits are evaluated. A compilação de informações advindas de estudos independentes tem sido dificultada em quase todos os campos da ciência, devido principalmente, ao grande número de trabalhos científicos publicados nos últimos anos. Assim, sumarizar informações tornou-se uma necessidade. Neste contexto, uma meta-análise foi conduzida com o objetivo de sistematizar as estimativas para a herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.. Foram avaliadas as estimativas de herdabilidade referentes aos seguintes caracteres: altura média da planta, diâmetro médio da copa, vigor vegetativo, produção de café beneficiado, rendimento e resistência a ferrugem. Os dados referentes às estimativas de herdabilidade são provenientes de artigos científicos publicados em revistas

  16. Perfil sensorial da bebida café (Coffea arabica L. determinado por análise tempo-intensidade Sensorial profile of beverage coffee (Coffea arabica L. determined by analysis time-intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene A. M. Monteiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o gosto amargo, sabor fermentado e sabor queimado de nove amostras (mole/clara, dura/clara, rio/clara, mole/expresso, dura/expresso, rio/expresso, mole/escura, dura/escura e rio/escura da bebida café (Coffea arabica L. por meio da análise Tempo-Intensidade (TI. Foram avaliados seis parâmetros da curva: tempo para atingir a intensidade máxima (TImáx, intensidade máxima do estímulo (Imáx, tempo correspondente ao ponto onde a intensidade máxima começa a declinar (Td, tempo de duração da intensidade máxima (Platô, área sob a curva (Área e tempo total de duração do estímulo (Ttot. A análise demonstrou que as amostras de torra escura tiveram maior intensidade máxima (Imáx e tempo de duração do estímulo (Ttot para gosto amargo e sabor queimado, sendo que as amostras de torra clara apresentaram menor intensidade destes estímulos. Em relação ao sabor fermentado, a amostra rio/expresso foi a que apresentou maior intensidade.The present work had as objective to evaluate the bitter taste, fermented flavor and burned flavor of nine samples (soft/light, hard/light, rio/light, soft/express, hard/express, rio/express, soft/dark, hard/dark and rio/dark of the drink coffee (Coffea arabica L. through the analysis Time-Intensity (TI. Six parameters of the curve were evaluated: time to reach the maximum intensity (TImáx, maximum intensity of the incentive (Imáx, time corresponding to the point where the maximum intensity begins to refuse (Td, time of duration of the maximum intensity (Plateau, area under the curve (Área and total time of duration of the incentive (Ttot. The analysis demonstrated that the samples of dark toast had larger maximum intensity (Imáx and time of duration of the incentive (Ttot for bitter taste and burned flavor, while the samples of light toast presented smaller intensity of these stimulus. For the fermented flavor, the sample rio/express was the one that

  17. Quantification of storage proteins during seed imbibition of native species from the brazilian caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Francisco Santos da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poincianella pyramidalis (Fabaceae, Schinopsis brasiliensis (Anacardiaceae and Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Sapotaceae are native species of the Caatinga vegetation from northeastern Brazil and have both biological importance and potential economic uses. Little is known about the water uptake and degradation of storage proteins during seed germination of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imbibition and quantify the amount of storage proteins during seed germination of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium. Two lots of S. obtusifolium seeds with different vigour were used. Four replicates of 20 seeds of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium, were sown onto gerboxes with blotting paper soaked in distilled water and incubated during 72, 200 and 624 hours. Before and after imbibition seeds were weighed and frozen at until the sequential extraction and analysis of the seed storage proteins. Based on our results, we conclude that seed germination of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium has a well-defined triphasic imbibition. All storage proteins content of P. pyramidalis and S. brasiliensis seeds degraded along with the seed imbibition. Likewise, the content of albumins, globulins and glutelins decreased as S. obtusifolium seeds absorbed water.

  18. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  19. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  20. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed to unmethylated yeast and the adsorption amount of egg albumin...

  1. Age-adjusted glycated albumin accurately reflects blood glucose in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus: comparison with calculated glycated albumin determined by past blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Oshima, Miho; Amamiya, Satoshi; Nakao, Atsushi; Wada, Keiko; Okuhara, Koji; Hayano, Satoshi; Imamoto, Aya; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Glycated albumin is a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus. However, glycated albumin concentrations in infants are lower than those in adults and increase in an age-dependent manner. Based on our investigation of non-diabetic subjects, we proposed the possibility that the reference range for adults may be used regardless of age, provided that age-adjusted glycated albumin is employed. In the present study, we evaluate the usefulness of age-adjusted glycated albumin in neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. Six neonatal diabetes mellitus patients (four patients with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and two patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus) were included. Measured glycated albumin or age-adjusted glycated albumin was compared to calculated glycated albumin, which was determined using calculation formulae we had reported based on past blood glucose over the 50 days before measurement of glycated albumin. Measured glycated albumin was significantly lower than calculated glycated albumin (20.5 ± 4.9% versus 28.2 ± 6.1%; p diabetes mellitus in remission were lower than the reference range for adults, whereas age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were within the reference range for adults. We demonstrated that age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were consistent with calculated glycated albumin. Age-adjusted glycated albumin is therefore a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Terlipressin plus albumin versus midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Marta; Kamath, Patrick S; Merli, Manuela; Fasolato, Silvano; Toniutto, Pierluigi; Salerno, Francesco; Bernardi, Mauro; Romanelli, Roberto Giulio; Colletta, Cosimo; Salinas, Freddy; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Ridola, Lorenzo; Fornasiere, Ezio; Caraceni, Paolo; Morando, Filippo; Piano, Salvatore; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a serious complication of cirrhosis, is associated with high mortality without treatment. Terlipressin with albumin is effective in the reversal of HRS. Where terlipressin is not available, as in the United States, midodrine and octreotide with albumin are used as an alternative treatment of HRS. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of terlipressin plus albumin versus midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in the treatment of HRS in a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive terlipressin with albumin (TERLI group) and 22 to receive midodrine and octreotide plus albumin (MID/OCT group). The TERLI group received terlipressin by intravenous infusion, initially 3 mg/24 hours, progressively increased to 12 mg/24 hours if there was no response. The MID/OCT group received midodrine orally at an initial dose of 7.5 mg thrice daily, with the dose increased to a maximum of 12.5 mg thrice daily, together with octreotide subcutaneously: initial dose 100 μg thrice daily and up to 200 μg thrice daily. Both groups received albumin intravenously 1 g/kg of body weight on day 1 and 20-40 g/day thereafter. There was a significantly higher rate of recovery of renal function in the TERLI group (19/27, 70.4%) compared to the MID/OCT group (6/21, 28.6%), P = 0.01. Improvement in renal function and lower baseline Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score were associated with better survival. Terlipressin plus albumin is significantly more effective than midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in improving renal function in patients with HRS. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  4. Human serum albumin binding of certain antimalarials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Olivera S.; Cvijetić, Ilija N.; Zlatović, Mario V.; Opsenica, Igor M.; Konstantinović, Jelena M.; Terzić Jovanović, Nataša V.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.; Verbić, Tatjana Ž.

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between eight in-house synthesized aminoquinolines, along with well-known chloroquine, and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesized aminoquinolines, despite being structurally diverse, were found to be very potent antimalarials. Fluorescence measurements indicate that three compounds having additional thiophene or benzothiophene substructure bind more strongly to HSA than other studied compounds. Competitive binding experiments indicate that these three compounds bind significantly stronger to warfarin compared to diazepam binding site. Fluorescence quenching at three temperatures (20, 25, and 37 °C) was analyzed using classical Stern-Volmer equation, and a static quenching mechanism was proposed. The enthalpy and entropy changes upon sulphur-containing compound-HSA interactions were calculated using Van't Hoff equation. Positive values of enthalpy and entropy changes indicate that non-specific, hydrophobic interactions are the main contributors to HSA-compound interaction. Molecular docking and calculated lipophilicity descriptors indicate the same, pointing out that the increased lipophilicity of sulphur-containing compounds might be a reason for their better binding to HSA. Obtained results might contribute to design of novel derivatives with improved pharmacokinetic properties and drug efficacy.

  5. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  6. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. PMID:26152712

  7. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic.

  9. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  10. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  11. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    nucleases. Development of protective carriers for active transport of siRNA is a promising strategy to utilize the potential of siRNA therapeutics. Synthetic carriers have been used but are recognized as foreign and susceptible to capture by the mononuclear phagocytic system and invoking an immune response...... towards albumin. The binding affinity was shown to be dependent on position and number of modifications, and experiments suggested Fatty Acid site 5 as the binding site for the cholesteryl siRNA. In vitro experiments showed reduced serum degradation, increased stability of albumin/siRNA complexes for up...... to 72 hours in serum and reduced TNFα response towards albumin/siRNA complexes compared to naked siRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). It was also demonstrated that albumin can help efficient annealing of highly hydrophobic siRNA. Furthermore, it was shown that, by preferentially...

  12. Characterisation and functional properties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Singh, Preeti; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Shivhare, Uma S

    2011-01-15

    People in developing countries depend largely on non-conventional protein sources to augment the availability of proteins in their diets. Watermelon seed meal is reported to contain an adequate amount of nutritional proteins that could be extracted for use as nutritional ingredients in food products. Osborne classification showed that globulin was the major protein (≥500 g kg (-1)) present in watermelon seed meal, followed by albumin and glutelin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the polypeptides had low molecular weights ranging from 35 to 47 kDa. Isoelectric focusing revealed that the isoelectric point of most proteins was in the acidic range 4-6. These proteins are rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. An increase in pH (5-9) significantly (P watermelon protein fractions respectively, while surface hydrophobicity ranged from 126.4 to 173.2 and from 125.8 to 169.3 respectively. The foaming and emulsifying properties of albumin were better than those of the other proteins studied. The good nutritional and functional properties of watermelon seed meal proteins suggest their potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  14. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the finding of this study, it is suggested that the biochemical profile of long-term oral contraceptive users be assessed periodically. Résumé Sérum protéine totale, albumine, globuline, le rapport albumine/globuline et le niveau du cholestérol tous étaient determines chez 25 clients, en utilisant contraceptives oraux ...

  15. Albumin-drug interaction and its clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Keishi; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2013-12-01

    Human serum albumin acts as a reservoir and transport protein for endogenous (e.g. fatty acids or bilirubin) and exogenous compounds (e.g. drugs or nutrients) in the blood. The binding of a drug to albumin is a major determinant of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. The present review discusses recent findings regarding the nature of drug binding sites, drug-albumin binding in certain diseased states or in the presence of coadministered drugs, and the potential of utilizing albumin-drug interactions in clinical applications. Drug-albumin interactions appear to predominantly occur at one or two specific binding sites. The nature of these drug binding sites has been fundamentally investigated as to location, size, charge, hydrophobicity or changes that can occur under conditions such as the content of the endogenous substances in question. Such findings can be useful tools for the analysis of drug-drug interactions or protein binding in diseased states. A change in protein binding is not always a problem in terms of drug therapy, but it can be used to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic agents or to enhance the accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals to targets for diagnostic purposes. Furthermore, several extracorporeal dialysis procedures using albumin-containing dialysates have proven to be an effective tool for removing endogenous toxins or overdosed drugs from patients. Recent findings related to albumin-drug interactions as described in this review are useful for providing safer and efficient therapies and diagnoses in clinical settings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 cases (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Amy V; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Delaforcade, Armelle M; Chan, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs. Design-Retrospective case series. 73 client-owned hospitalized dogs. Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded. Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications. Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.

  17. Structural Characterization of the Allergenic 2S Albumin Cor a 14: Comparing Proteoform Patterns across Hazelnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Robin; Happe, Jana; Brümmer, Ina; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2017-02-03

    The hazelnut allergen Cor a 14 belongs to the 2S albumins, a family of heterodimeric seed storage proteins exhibiting a high degree of structural diversity. Given its relevance as an allergen and the potential to elicit severe reactions, elucidation of the sequence heterogeneity of naturally occurring Cor a 14 is essential for the development of reliable diagnostics and risk evaluation. We therefore performed a comprehensive survey on the proteoforms of Cor a 14 and determined their quantitative distribution in three different hazelnut cultivars by a combinatory HPLC-HRMS approach including bottom-up and intact mass analysis. Compared with the Cor a 14 prototype sequence, we identified three sequence polymorphisms, two of the small and one of the large subunit, and elucidated their specific pairing on the protein level. Furthermore, we located a pronounced microheterogeneity on the protein termini and, for the first time, provide data on varying proteoform patterns between different cultivars of an allergenic seed. Together, these data present the basis for a more detailed investigation on the allergenicity of Cor a 14 in different cultivars and constitute, to be best of our knowledge, the largest set of proteoforms so far reported for a 2S albumin.

  18. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  19. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  20. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-02-15

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed onto unmethylated yeast and the adsorbed amount of egg albumin increased with increasing methylation degree. The amount of egg albumin adsorbed onto MeYE increased with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and steeply decreased above pH 7. The Langmuir isotherm was applied to determine the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin on MeYE. Both the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount increased with the degree of methylation. The saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin onto MeYE having methylation degree 77% was 8.41 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) or 0.378 gg(-1) at near neutral pH.

  1. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. 125 I- and/or 131 I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. 99m Tc-labeled DTPA and 51 Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial 99m Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h

  2. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  3. The effect of irrigation on synchronization of coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) flowering and berry ripening at Chipinge, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarirambi, M. T.; Chingwara, V.; Shongwe, V. D.

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) is a short day plant that flowers and ripens irregularly in many subtropical and tropical production areas. This results in a prolonged, laborious and tiresome hand harvesting period which can potentially compromise coffee quality. Synchronising or scheduling the ripening of coffee berries can help in reducing harvesting costs through reduction of the number of cycles and harvest trips. This study was carried out to assess the quantity and frequency of irrigation, on stimulation of early, uniform flowering and berry ripening of coffee in order to reduce harvesting trips. High soil moisture depletion (25 cb or 30 cb) followed with increased irrigation levels resulted in increased number of flowers and subsequent number of berries per bunch at given assessment dates. Moisture depletion levels of 25 cb or 30 cb followed by application of 20 l or 25 l of water per tree advanced coffee flowering and subsequent berry ripening in this experiment when compared to other moisture depletion levels followed by application of 15 l of water per tree.

  4. Genetic variation and risks of introgression in the wild Coffea arabica gene pool in south-western Ethiopian montane rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Berecha, Gezahegn; Gijbels, Pieter; Hundera, Kitessa; Glabeke, Sabine; Vandepitte, Katrien; Muys, Bart; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    The montane rainforests of SW Ethiopia are the primary centre of diversity of Coffea arabica and the origin of all Arabica coffee cultivated worldwide. This wild gene pool is potentially threatened by forest fragmentation and degradation, and by introgressive hybridization with locally improved coffee varieties. We genotyped 703 coffee shrubs from unmanaged and managed coffee populations, using 24 microsatellite loci. Additionally, we genotyped 90 individuals representing 23 Ethiopian cultivars resistant to coffee berry disease (CBD). We determined population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and admixture of cultivar alleles in the in situ gene pool. We found strong genetic differentiation between managed and unmanaged coffee populations, but without significant differences in within-population genetic diversity. The widespread planting of coffee seedlings including CBD-resistant cultivars most likely offsets losses of genetic variation attributable to genetic drift and inbreeding. Mixing cultivars with original coffee genotypes, however, leaves ample opportunity for hybridization and replacement of the original coffee gene pool, which already shows signs of admixture. In situ conservation of the wild gene pool of C. arabica must therefore focus on limiting coffee production in the remaining wild populations, as intensification threatens the genetic integrity of the gene pool by exposing wild genotypes to cultivars.

  5. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems.

  6. EFEITO DE Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. e Coffea arabica L. SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO DE Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Scroferneker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de extratos aquosos de Ilex paraguariensis (erva-mate e Coffea arabica (café em ágar Sabouraud dextrose no crescimento de Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428. F. pedrosoi foi cultivada em placas de Petri contendo ágar Sabouraud dextrose suplementado com extratos aquosos derivados de 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4 e 5g de pó de erva-mate ou de café fervidos em 100ml de água destilada por 30 min. Os diâmetros das colônias do fungo foram determinados após 7 dias. A incorporação dos extratos de erva-mate ou café no meio de crescimento não causou diferenças significativas no crescimento radial de F. pedrosoi ATCC 46428 comparado ao controle. Entretanto, estudos sobre o requerimento nutricional são importantes na sistematização do perfil bioquímico, o que pode contribuir na elucidação da bioquímica funcional do microrganismo.

  7. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis, DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis,Duke. Coffee s husks was obtained from a farm 150 km far from Brasilia city and cedrorana sawdust from a local saw mill. Thispaper presents results from energy and biomass variables like moisture content, bulk density, lower and superior heating power, ashcontent, fixed carbon, volatile matter and volumetric energy. It has also studied carbonization, charcoal, pyroligneous licqor and noncondensablegases. A comparison between Coffee s husk with 0% moisture content and Cedrorana sawdust portrays the followingresults: bulk density 144.41 kg/m3, fixed carbon 10.31%, superior heating power 4.57 kWh (or 16.46 MJ or 3.933 Mcal/kg, charcoalcontent 40,64% and heating value per cubic meter 2,179 MJ/m3

  8. FTIR Spectrum and Antimutagenicity of Coffea arabica Pulp and Arachis hypogaea Testa In Relation to their In Vitro Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Barcelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pulp (Coffea arabica and peanut testa (Arachis hypogaea are common agricultural wastes which are extensively studied as potential sources of bioactive compounds. This study attempted to determine the correlation of the antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition and antimutagenic activities of the crude extracts of both plant samples. Quantification of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and monomeric anthocyanins and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR analysis were performed to characterize bioactive compounds. Based from the results, peanut testa extract (PTE exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared to coffee pulp extract (CPE at 500 μg/mL but was lower than L-Ascorbic Acid (LAA. The antimutagenic activity of PTE at > 125 μg/mL was higher compared to both RPE and LAA. Mitotic indices of A. cepa treated with PTE+MMS were higher compared to groups treated with RCPE+MMS, LAA+MMS, deionized water and MMS only. Correlation analysis revealed the TAC of ripe coffee pulp extract had significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic activity but high correlation with LPI. The LPI of CPE showed significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic activity. In PTE, TAC shows high significant correlation with its antimutagenic property and LPI while LPI has significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic property. The observed activity of the CPE and PTE may be attributed primarily to the phenolic compounds in both plant extracts.

  9. Calcium and phosphate effects on growth and alkaloid production in Coffea arabica: experimental results and mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, J L; Graves, D J; Brodelius, P

    1991-04-15

    Plant, mammalian, and microbial cells are commonly immobilized in calcium alginate gels for the production of valuable secondary metabolites. However, calcium ions are known to inhibit growth in various types of cells, and calcium is an integral part of such gels. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of calcium on the growth and alkaloid production of a model cell-line, Coffea arabica, in suspension culture before, attempting to immobilize such cells in alginate. A kinetic model was then developed from the results to describe cell growth and alkaloid production and the mechanism by which calcium influences these variables. In addition, it was observed that there was a characteristic relationship between the concentration of calcium in the external medium and the concentration of extra cellular and intracellular phosphate. The intracellular phosphate level was, in turn, related to the production of alkaloids. Using these results, a dynamic mathematical model of cell growth and alkaloid production was developed based on the proposed roles of calcium and phosphate. The model showed satisfactory agreement with three sets of experiments at different calcium concentrations. A possible linkage between the calcium and phosphate results is postulated based on the limited solubility of calcium phosphate.

  10. Effect of CO2 on somatic embryos development Coffea arabica L. cv. ‘Caturra rojo’ and Clematis tangutica K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Barbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies to optimize somatic embryogenesis have traditionally focused on the components of the culture medium but little other in vitro environment factors have been analyzed such as the composition of the gaseous atmosphere. The objective of this work was to determine the influence of CO2 on the development of the somatic embryo during the transition from the globular to the torpedo stage. The research was carried out on two model species for somatic embryogenesis that they are developed in different climatic zones: Coffea arabica L. cv. ‘Caturra rojo’ and Clematis tangutica K. Three CO2 concentrations (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% combined with 21% O2 and two controls (passive exchange and forced ventilation were used. The effect of CO2 on the differentiation of somatic embryos from globular to torpedo stage in coffee and clematis was demonstrated, since in the treatments with passive exchange, where there was accumulation of CO2, the differentiation of somatic embryos was superior to treatments with forced ventilation. With 5.0% CO2 the process of differentiation of the embryos in the globular stage was stimulated, because in the treatment with this concentration of CO2 for coffee and clematis the highest proportion of embryos in torpedo stages and low levels of malformation were obtained.   Keywords: carbon dioxide, differentiation, in vitro environment, somatic embryogenesis

  11. Observações citológicas em Coffea: VII - A macrosporogênese na variedade "monosperma"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the observations made in the ovule and development of the macrogametophyte in Coffea arabica L. var. monosperma. The young ovule is normally constituted by a rudimentary nucellus surrounded by a single and well developed integument. No irregularities are found until the beginning of the first meiotic division in the ma-crosporocyte which is situated inside the nucellus. The two meiotic divisions are very abnormal and during this process, 44,4 % of the otherwise normal macrospores degenerate. Only. a few normal macrospores are formed. The functional macrospore is not always the chalazal one as in the normal coffee varieties. Irregularities occur also in the subseguent divisions in the formation of the embryo sac. Degeneration then increased from 44,4 to 82,0%. Only one complete embryo sac has been found among the 87 examined ovules. During the formation of the embryo sac, even when complete degeneration occurs, the ovule increases in volume due to the multiplication of the integument cells. From the moment in which the embryo sac should be formed (two days after the flower opening this increase in volume stops. A total desorganization of the ovule occurs around 105 days after the opening of the flower.

  12. Agroecological zoning of Coffea arabica in the Atoyac de Álvarez municipality, Guerrero state, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Antonio González González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Costa Grande, the largest coffee-producing region in the state of Guerrero, is where the lowest yields are obtained at the state level: An average 249 kg per ha, according to Sagarpa et al. (2011. This may be due not only to the low plant density in the area (approximately 1 274 plants per hectare, but also to the lack of chemical fertilization. It is estimated that chemical fertilizers are applied to only 0.2% of the coffee plants, and only 3% of them benefit from the manure added to the soil. With the aim to establish agro-ecological areas for Coffea arabica (i.e., those with the most favorable agricultural conditions and the highest biophysical potential for optimum yields a territorial survey was carried out in the municipality of Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero analyzing geomorphological, hydrothermal and edaphic maps based on GIS platforms. Six map sheets at a scale of 1:50 000 (INEGI, 2009 were employed so as to cover the entire area of study. On these maps the altitude, inclination, climate (temperature, rainfall and soil types...

  13. Observações anatômicas em plantas de Coffea arabica L. obtidas por enraizamento de estacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Madeira Santos Jesus

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma forma para se obter diminuição significativa de tempo e recursos despendidos nos programas de melhoramento de Coffea arabica L. é a clonagem de híbridos F1 por meio de estacas caulinares. Alguns estudos, em diferentes instituições, foram realizados buscando-se definir um método eficiente para esse tipo de clonagem. Com o objetivo de verificar-se a presença de barreiras anatômicas ao enraizamento de estacas caulinares do cafeeiro e a origem das raízes adventícias, bem como compara-las às raízes provenientes de plantas obtidas por semeadura, foram realizadas análises anatômicas no Departamento de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG. Utilizaram-se estacas caulinares de cafeeiro dos cultivares Acaiá e Rubi e mudas obtidas por semeadura direta e por estaquia. Os cortes realizados nas estacas caulinares mostraram não existirem barreiras anatômicas ao enraizamento adventício. Nas estacas enraizadas, a origem do primórdio radicular foi próxima aos tecidos vasculares. Cortes histológicos nas raízes formadas nas estacas e nas raízes de mudas obtidas por semeadura confirmaram que elas apresentam as mesmas estruturas primárias.

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE CUATRO ESPECIES FORESTALES ASOCIADAS CON CAFÉ (Coffea Arabica L. Y EN MONOCULTIVO EN EL LITORAL ECUATORIANO

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    Pedro Suatunce Cunuhay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se implantó un ensayo de sistema agroforestal con café (Coffea arabica L. en el área del cantón Quevedo, en la Finca Experimental “La Represa”, en el año de 1997. Se plantaron cuatro especies forestales en asociación con café (C. arabica L., y también se establecieron parcelas de árboles y café en monocultivo, en parcelas contiguas. Las especies forestales utilizadas fueron el guayacán blanco (Cybistax donnell-smithii Rose, laurel prieto (Cordia megalantha Chadat, fernansánchez (Triplaris cumingiana Wedd y teca (Tectona grandis L. F.. El objetivo fue comparar la producción de madera y café bajo los sistemas agroforestales y en los sistemas de plantación en monocultivo tanto de los árboles como del café. La producción por hectárea de café fue mayor en monocultivo. La incidencia (% del minador del café (Perileucoptera coffeella Green fue baja en los dos sistemas, además no hubo diferencias significativas entre los cafetales asociados y en monocultivo. El volumen de las especies forestales fue mayor en los sistemas agroforestales. Según la evaluación del uso eficiente de la tierra, cualquiera de los sistemas agroforestales evaluados es mejor que los cultivos puros de estas especies.

  15. Revealing the Diversity of Introduced Coffea canephora Germplasm in Ecuador: Towards a National Strategy to Improve Robusta

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    Rey Gastón Loor Solórzano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources of Coffea canephora have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. canephora in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants of C. canephora grown in different living collections in Ecuador, compared to 29 genotypes representing the main genetic and geographic diversity groups identified within the species. Results indicated that most of the genotypes introduced are of Congolese origin, with accessions from both main subgroups, SG1 and SG2. Some genotypes were classed as hybrids between both subgroups. Substantial phenotypic diversity was also found, and correlations were observed with genetic diversity. Ecuadorian Robusta coffee displays wide genetic diversity and we propose some ways of improving Robusta in Ecuador. A breeding program could be based on three operations: the choice of elite clones, the introduction of new material from other countries (Ivory Coast, Uganda, and the creation of new hybrid material using genotypes from the different diversity groups.

  16. Sensory Description of Cultivars (Coffea Arabica L. Resistant to Rust and Its Correlation with Caffeine, Trigonelline, and Chlorogenic Acid Compounds

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    Larissa de Oliveira Fassio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the chemical compounds in Arabica coffee beans in the definition of the drink sensory quality and authentication of coffee regions, the aim of this study was to evaluate, from principal component analysis—PCA—if there is a relation between the caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA content and the sensory attributes of the drink, and in this context, enabling the differentiation of cultivars in two coffee-producing regions of Brazil. We evaluated seven rust-resistant Coffea arabica cultivars, and two rust-susceptible cultivars in two cultivation environments: Lavras, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, and Patrocinio in the Cerrado region of Minas Gerais. The flavor and acidity were determinant for differentiation of the cultivars and their interaction with the evaluated environments. Cultivars Araponga MG1, Catigua MG2, and Catigua MG1 are the most suitable for the production of specialty coffee in the state of Minas Gerais. A poor correlation was found between caffeine, trigonelline, 5-CQA contents, and fragrance, flavor, acidity, body, and final score attributes. However, these compounds enabled the differentiation of the environments. The PCA indicated superiority in the sensory quality of cultivars resistant to rust, compared to the control, Bourbon Amarelo, and Topázio MG1190.

  17. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  18. Aplicación de una técnica de Cromatografía de Exclusión molecular para la purificación de ADN en plantas de Coffea sp. APPLICATION OF A TECHNIQUE OF MOLECULAR EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DNA FROM Coffea sp. PLANTS

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    Ana María García Cepero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores inconvenientes en la extracción y purificación de biomoléculas a partir de plantas del género Coffea, es un alto contenido de polifenoles y compuestos tánicos. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología que permite obtener ADN de alta pureza. La extracción del ADN del homogeneizado de tejido foliar en siete genotipos de Coffea sp., se realizó mediante la técnica citada por Chaparro (1993 y su purificación se logró mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular sobre una fase estacionaria de Sephacryl S-1000. Los resultados muestran que la alta eficiencia de separación de ARN degradado, proteínas, pigmentos y compuestos que absorben entre 220 y 300 nm, permiten obtener un ADN de alta pureza a juzgar por los datos espectrofotométricos y electroforéticos.One of the greatest difficulties in extracting and purifying biomolecules from plants in the genus Coffea is the high polyphenol and tannin contents. In this study a methodology is described that allows obtaining high purity DNA from leaf tissues of seven genotypes of Coffea sp. by means of the technique desribed by Chaparro (1993 and its further purification was achieved by molecular exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-1000 (Pharmacia. The results showed that the high separation efficiency of degraded RNA, proteins, pigments, and other compounds that absorb between 220 and 300 nm allowed obtaining high purity DNA as judged by the spectophometric and electroforetic data.

  19. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as A Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J.; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in formation of different types of...

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Albumin Family in Vertebrates

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    Shugang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Albumins are the most well-known globular proteins, and the most typical representatives are the serum albumins. However, less attention was paid to the albumin family, except for the human and bovine serum albumin. To characterize the features of albumin family, we have mined all the putative albumin proteins from the available genome sequences. The results showed that albumin is widely distributed in vertebrates, but not present in the bacteria and archaea. The phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate albumin family implied an evolutionary relationship between members of serum albumin, α-fetoprotein, vitamin D–binding protein, and afamin. Meanwhile, a new member from the albumin family was found, namely, extracellular matrix protein 1. The structural analysis revealed that the motifs for forming the internal disulfide bonds are highly conserved in the albumin family, despite the low overall sequence identity across the family. The domain arrangement of albumin proteins indicated that most of vertebrate albumins contain 3 characteristic domains, arising from 2 evolutionary patterns. And a significant trend has been observed that the albumin proteins in higher vertebrate species tend to possess more characteristic domains. This study has provided the fundamental information required for achieving a better understanding of the albumin distribution, phylogenetic relationship, characteristic motif, structure, and new insights into the evolutionary pattern.

  1. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.E.; Gibson, A.H.; Oram, R.N.; Shaikh, M.A.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  2. Anatomy and ontogeny of Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae: Faboideae seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. T. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and ontogeny of Pterodon emarginatus seed using the usual techniques. The ovules are campilotropous, crassinucelate, and bitegmic. The following processes occur during integument development: anticlinal divisions and phenolic compound accumulations in the exotesta, whose cells become palisade; predominantly periclinal divisions and cell expansion in the mesotesta, where the rapheal bundle differentiates; differentiation of the hourglass-cell layer adjacent to the palisade; fusion of outer and inner integuments, which remain individualized structures only at the micropylar end; and intense pectin impregnation in the mesotesta thicker walls with lignification restricted to the xylem. At the hilar pole, the Faboideae seed characteristic structure develops, with double palisade layer, subhilar parenchyma, and tracheid bar. The younger nucellus shows thicker pectic cell walls and is consumed during seed formation. The endosperm is nuclear and, after cellularization, shows peripheral cells with dense lipid content; the seeds are albuminous. The axial embryo shows fleshy cotyledons, which accumulate lipid and protein reserves; starch is rare. Although the seed structure is characteristic of the Fabaceae, the inner integument coalesces into the outer integument without being reabsorbed.

  3. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  4. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model. Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  5. Quantitative determination of albumin in microlitre amounts of rat serum: With a short note on serum albumin levels in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.; Hollander, C.F.

    1967-01-01

    A simple dye binding method for determining rat serum albumin, which employs the anionic dye 2-(4′-hydroxybenzneeazo) benzoic acid (HBABA) is described. Albumin in 5μ1 of serum is determined colorimetrically. Purified rat albumin is used as a primary standard and rat serum as a reference sample.

  6. The effect of auxin 2,4-D and cytokinin 2-ip on direct somatic embryogenesis formation of Coffea arabica L. leaf explant

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    Rina Arimarsetiowati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the propagation technique for coffee plant production is tissue culture. Tissue culture technique for Coffea arabica L. faces some problems, mainly in the planlet formation regenerated from explants. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect 2,4-D and 2-ip combination on the formation of direct somatic embryogenesis of Coffea arabica L. in leaves explant. Auxin (2,4-D and cytokinin (2-ip concentrations of, respectively, 1; 5 µM and 5; 10; 15; 20 were used as treatments. This research was conducted using completely randomized design with 10 replications. Observation to induce somatic embryos was done by quantitatively on number of callus from explant and number of embryogenic callus. Beside that, observation by qualitative descriptive was also done on deve lopment of embryogenesis. The results showed that Arabica coffee leaves explant of AS 2K clones could be induced in all medium combination except 5µM 2,4-D and 20µM 2-ip combination. Arabica coffee leaves explant of S 795, Sigararutang and AS 1 varieties could be induced in all medium combination. The highest frequency of callus formation was found in AS 2K, Sigararutang and AS 1 varieties on medium containing 1µM 2,4-D in combination with 10µM 2-ip, whereas for the S 795 variety on medium containing 5µM 2,4-D in combination with 10µM 2-ip. The highest frequency of embriogenic callus in all Arabica coffee variety could be reached on medium containing 5µM 2,4-D in combination with 15µM 2-ip. Key words : Coffea arabica L., somatic embryogenesis, 2,4-D, 2-ip, tissue culture, leaves, callus embryogenic.

  7. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  8. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD FOTOSINTÉTICA ASOCIADA CON EL INTERCAMBIO GASEOSO DE DOS VARIEDADES DE Coffea arabica OBTENIDAS POR CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Isaac; J. L. González-Olmedo; Maribel Rivas; A. Moreno

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo se desarrolló en el Laboratorio de Células y Cultivo de Tejidos del Centro de Bioplantas en julio de 2007, con el objetivo de evaluar la actividad fotosintética de las plántulas de Coffea arabica var. Catuai y Caturra rojo, obtenidas in vitro en fase de multiplicación. Se determinaron la tasa de fotosíntesis neta, transpiración, conductancia estomática y concentración de pigmentos clorofílicos para cada una de las variedades a las ocho semanas de cultivadas; las vitroplantas crecie...

  10. Proteômica diferencial em clones de Coffea canephora sob condições de déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Breno Lourenzzo Salgado

    2007-01-01

    A tolerância à seca é o resultado de numerosas características anatômicas, morfológicas e fisiológicas, de natureza constitutiva ou indutiva. Vários mecanismos são responsáveis pela tolerância, e salienta-se a necessidade de que sejam identificados genes e seus produtos que estejam envolvidos nas diferentes respostas que conferem tolerância à seca em café. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a resposta adaptativa de clones de Coffea canephora ao déficit hídrico além de identificar pro...

  11. Servicios ecosistémicos en cultivos de Coffea arabica L.: almacenamiento de carbono en la localidad de Arroyo de las Cañas Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Sayago Ortega, Jhair

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se discute la eficiencia de los diferentes métodos de valoración agroambiental para la valoración de los servicios ecosistémicos en un sistema agroforestal. El trabajo se concentra en los servicios generados en los bosques y selvas. Los cultivos bajo sombra de Coffea arabica L. son sistemas agroforestales de gran importancia ecológica por los servicios ecosistémicos que proveen. En México, la crisis cafetalera que se vive desde principios de la década de los 90’s y el recie...

  12. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  13. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Avaliação da fertilidade dos solos de sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. em Lavras-MG Evaluation of soil fertility in agroforest systems with coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. in Lavras-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grandi Salgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade dos solos em um sistema agroflorestal composto por cafeeiros (Coffea arábica L. - Mundo Novo, ingazeiros (Inga vera Willd e grevíleas (Grevilea robusta A. Cunn, situado em Lavras, Minas Gerais, foi instalado o presente experimento. Usou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram: a cafeeiros a pleno sol, b cafeeiros consorciados com ingazeiros e c cafeeiros consociados com grevílea. Os espaçamentos dos cafeeiros nos três sistemas foi 4 x 1 m, para o ingazeiro 8 m x 15 m e para a grevílea 12 m x 10 m. Aos 15 anos de idade do cafeeiro e do ingazeiro e aos 9 anos da grevílea foram avaliadas as seguintes características dos solos, pH, acidez potencial (H+Al, alumínio trocável (Al+3, bases trocáveis (Ca+2 e Mg+2, potássio disponível (K+, fósforo disponível(P, enxofre (S, CTC efetiva (T, soma de bases (SB, saturação de bases (V e matéria orgânica (MO. Os resultados foram submetidos à analise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Após a análise dos dados, concluiu-se que, embora tenha havido diferenças entre alguns elementos estudados, as características químicas dos solos nos três sistemas não foram severamente afetadas.The objective of this wark was to evaluat e the soil fertility in an agroforest system using coffee trees (Coffea arabica L - Mundo Novo, inga trees (Inga vera Wild and grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta A Cunn situated in Lavras, Minas Geris. A completely randomized experimental design with tree treatments and seven replicates was utilized. The treatments were : a coffee trees in full sunshine; b coffee trees mixed with inga trees and c coffee trees mixed with grevillea trees. Tree spacings in the three systems were 4 x 1m for coffee, 8 m x 15 m for inga and 12 x 10 m for grevillea. With coffee and inga trees at 15 years of age and grevillea trees at 9 years of age

  15. Cinética da secagem de clones de café (Coffea canephora Pierre em terreiro de chão batido Kinetics of coffee berry clones drying (Coffea canephora Pierre in ground pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a cinética da secagem de quatro clones de café da espécie Coffea canephora submetidos à secagem em terreiro de chão batido, bem como ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais selecionando aquele que melhor representa o fenômeno em estudo. Foram utilizados frutos de café dos clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro180, colhidos com os teores de água iniciais de 1,20; 1,32; 1,51 e 1,46 (decimal base seca (b.s., respectivamente. A secagem prosseguiu em terreiro de chão batido até que o produto atingisse o teor de água de 0,137; 0,133; 0,142 e 0,140 (decimal b.s. respectivamente para os clones Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados dez modelos matemáticos citados na literatura específica e utilizados para representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. Baseando-se em parâmetros estatísticos, conclui-se que os modelos Verma, Dois Termos e Aproximação da Difusão foram adequados para representação da secagem dos quatro clones de café analisados, e além destes, para o clone Cpafro 167, os modelos Thompson, Page, Newton, Logarítmico, Henderson e Pabis e Exponencial de Dois Termos também se mostraram satisfatórios na descrição do fenômeno; já o tempo necessário para a secagem em terreiro de chão batido dos clones de café Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180 foi de 189,5 h.The objective of this work was to study the drying kinetics of four coffee berry clones Coffea canephora species dried in ground pavement and to fit different mathematical models to different experimental data selecting the one that best represents the phenomenon. Have been used coffee berry of clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 and Cpafro 180, harvested at moisture content of 1.20; 1.32; 1.51 e 1.46 (decimal d.b., respectively. The drying continued in ground pavement until achieved the moisture

  16. Modelagem matemática para a secagem de clones de café (Coffea canephora Pierre em terreiro de concreto = Mathematical modeling for drying coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre berry clones in concrete yard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estimar e avaliar as curvas de secagem do café da espécie Coffea Canephora e ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais de quatro clones. Foram utilizados frutos de café dos clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180, colhidos com os teores de água iniciais de 1,20; 1,32; 1,51 e 1,46 (decimal b.s., respectivamente. A secagem prosseguiu em terreiro de concreto até que o produto atingisse o teor de água de, aproximadamente, 0,10 (decimal b.s.. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados dez modelos matemáticos, citados na literatura específica e utilizados para representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. Pelos resultados obtidos e com base em parâmetros estatísticos, pode-se concluir que o modelo de Page foi adequado para representação da secagem dos quatro clones de caféanalisados. Além desse, para o clone Cpafro 180, os modelos Verna, Dois Termos e Aproximação da Difusão também se mostraram satisfatórios na descrição do fenômeno. O tempo necessário para a secagem em terreiro de concreto dos clones de café Cpafro 194,Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180, até o teor de água de 0,10 (decimal b.s., foi de 117,5 h, e o coeficiente de difusão foi de 4,50 x 10-11; 5,17 x 10-11; 5,08 x 10-11 e 5,50 x 10-11 m2 s-1,para os clones analisados, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to obtain and evaluate thedrying curves for the coffee berry species Coffea Canephora, and to fit different mathematical models into the experimental data of four clones. Coffee berries from the following clones were used: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 and Cpafro 180, harvested at moisturecontents of 1.20; 1.32; 1.51 and 1.46 (decimal d.b., respectively. The drying continued in a concrete yard until the moisture content of 0.10 (decimal d.b. was achieved. Ten mathematical models cited in literature were fitted to the experimental data in order torepresent

  17. Targeting Albumin Binding Function as a Therapy Goal in Liver Failure: Development of a Novel Adsorbent for Albumin Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Adrian; Stange, Jan; Baumann, Anja K; Pfensig, Claudia; Suraj, Matthias; Ibrahim, Badr; Eggert, Martin

    2017-12-20

    Liver failure results in impaired hepatic detoxification combined with diminished albumin synthesis and is associated with secondary organ failure. The accumulation of liver toxins has shown to saturate albumin binding sites. This was previously demonstrated by an in vitro test for albumin binding capacity (ABiC) that has shown to inversely correlate with the established MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score. In this study, we introduced a new adsorbent material for albumin dialysis treatments that improves albumin binding capacity. The new charcoal adsorbent was developed by an evolutionary test schedule. Batch testing of charcoals was performed as steady-state experiments. The charcoal reflecting the highest increase in albumin binding capacity was then introduced to kinetic models: Perfusion tests were designed to evaluate adsorption capacity and kinetics for liver failure marker toxins. A dynamic recirculation model for liver failure was used for upscaling and comparison against conventional MARS adsorbents as the gold standard in an albumin dialysis setting. Batch tests revealed that powdered activated Hepalbin charcoal displayed the highest ABiC score. Hepalbin charcoal also demonstrated higher adsorptive capacity and kinetics for liver failure marker toxins as determined by perfusion tests. These findings translated to tests of upscaled adsorbents in a dynamic model for liver failure: upscaled Hepalbin adsorbent removes bile acids, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin significantly better than MARS adsorbents and significantly increases ABiC. The novel adsorbent Hepalbin offers a significant improvement over both MARS adsorbents concerning liver failure marker toxin removal and ABiC improvement. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  18. Liposome encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttala, Hima Bindu; Ko, Young Tag

    2015-03-01

    Albumin nanoparticles have been explored as a promising delivery system for various therapeutic agents. One limitation of such formulations is their poor colloidal stability in vivo. Present study aimed at enhancing the chemotherapeutic potential of paclitaxel by improving the colloidal stability and pharmacokinetic properties of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticles (APNs) such as Abraxane®. This was accomplished by encapsulating the preformed APNs into PEGylated liposomal bilayer by thin-film hydration/extrusion technique. The resulting liposome-encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel hybrid nanoparticles (L-APNs) were nanosized (~200 nm) with uniform spherical dimensions. The successful incorporation of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle (NP) in liposome was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Such hybrid NP showed an excellent colloidal stability even at 100-fold dilutions, overcoming the critical drawback associated with simple albumin-paclitaxel NP system. L-APNs further showed higher cytotoxic activity towards B16F10 and MCF-7 cells than APN; this effect was characterized by arrest at the G2/M phase and a higher prevalence of apoptotic subG1 cells. Finally, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies in tumor mice demonstrated that L-APNs showed a significantly enhanced plasma half-life, and preferential accumulation in the tumor. Taken together, the data indicate that L-APNs can be promising therapeutic vehicles for enhanced delivery of PTX to tumor sites.

  19. Interaction of mycotoxin zearalenone with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Gerner, Zsófia; Lemli, Beáta

    2017-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species. Fungal contamination of cereals and plants can result in the formation of ZEN, leading to its presence in different foods, animal feeds, and drinks. Because ZEN is an endocrine disruptor, it causes reproductive disorders in farm animals and hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Despite toxicokinetic properties of ZEN were studied in more species, we have no information regarding the interaction of ZEN with serum albumin. Since albumin commonly plays an important role in the toxicokinetics of different toxins, interaction of ZEN with albumin has of high biological importance. Therefore the interaction of ZEN with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, ultrafiltration, and molecular modeling studies. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies demonstrate that ZEN forms complex with HSA. Binding constant (K) of ZEN-HSA complex was quantified with fluorescence quenching technique. The determined binding constant (logK=5.1) reflects the strong interaction of ZEN with albumin suggesting the potential biological importance of ZEN-HSA complex formation. Based on the results of the investigations with site markers as well as docking studies, ZEN occupies a non-conventional binding site on HSA. Considering the above listed observations, we should keep in mind this interaction if we would like to precisely understand the toxicokinetic behavior of ZEN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  3. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ..... atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes and other diseases.

  4. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...... h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space...

  7. Magnetic dye-affinity beads for human serum albumin purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabası, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Cibacron Blue F3GA was covalently attached onto magnetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (mPVAL) beads (100-150 μm in diameter) for human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption from human plasma. Despite low nonspecific adsorption of HSA on mPVAL beads, Cibacron Blue F3GA attachment significantly increased the HSA adsorption. The maximum HSA adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Higher HSA adsorption was observed from human plasma. Desorption of HSA from mPVAL beads was achieved by medium containing 1.0 M KSCN at pH 8.0. To test the efficiency of albumin adsorption from human serum, before and after albumin adsorption was demonstrated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses. HSA molecules could be reversibly adsorbed and desorbed 10 times with the magnetic beads without noticeable loss in their HSA adsorption capacity.

  8. Genética de Coffea. XVIII - Variegação no cafeeiro Leaf variegation in coffee plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available A variegação das fôlhas do cafeeiro tanto em plantas novas como em plantas adultas tem sido freqüentemente observada. Plantas variegadas podem ocorrer espontaneamente nas progénies das diversas variedades de Coffea arabica L., motivo porque não devem constituir variedade distinta dessa espécie, como foi proposto por Cramer. As plantas variegadas em estudo puderam ser agrupadas em duas categorias, isto é, aquelas em que a variegação não se acha associada com anomalias na forma e textura das folhas e aquelas nas quais a variegação é acompanhada dessas anomalias. No primeiro grupo o padrão de variegação não é uniforme para tôdas as fôlhas, enquanto no segundo grupo o padrão é semelhante para tôda a planta. Usualmente apenas alguns ramos das plantas do primeiro grupo são variegados. Observou-se algumas vezes que as duas fôlhas do mesmo verticilo têm padrões semelhantes de variegação. Encontraram-se também fôlhas variegadas nas quais a metade da lâmina é variegada ou mesmo albina, enquanto a outra metade apresenta a côr verde normal. Os dados genéticos obtidos, embora preliminares para a maioria das plantas variegadas em investigação, permitiram concluir que o padrão de variegação da planta 180, pertencente ao primeiro grupo, é herdado pelo citoplasma e não é transmitido pelo pólen. O padrão de variegação da planta 253-21, pertencente ao segundo grupo, no entanto, parece ser transmitido pelo polen.Leaf variegation in coffee plants is a relatively common abnormality, and variegated seedlings have been found to occur spontaneously in progenies of most varieties of Coffea arabica L. For this reason it is thought that variegated types should not be described as distinct varieties, as it was done before by Cramer. Variegated coffee plants can be grouped in two categories : first, those in which variegated leaves are normal in shape and texture, but do not show a uniform variegation pattern; and second, those

  9. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s −1 ) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms. (paper)

  10. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  11. The protective effect of Phoenix dactylifera L. seeds against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Dalia H A; Ali, Sahar A

    2014-08-08

    In traditional Egyptian medicine, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm) seeds are listed in folk remedies for the management of diabetes, liver diseases and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of Phoenix dactylifera L. seeds aqueous suspension against the chemically-induced hepatic injury in rats. Liver injury was achieved by exposing Wistar rats to CCl4 (10% in olive oil; 0.5 mL/rat; IP) twice a week for 4 weeks. Along with CCl4, aqueous suspensions of raw or roasted Phoenix dactylifera seeds (1.0 g/kg) were administered orally in a daily manner. Our results demonstrated that Phoenix dactylifera seeds significantly improved the CCl4-induced alterations in liver function parameters (AST, ALT, ALP and albumin). Moreover, the CCl4-induced oxidative stress, represented by elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), nitric oxide and oxidative DNA damage, was ameliorated by Phoenix dactylifera seeds treatment. In addition, Phoenix dactylifera seeds restored the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase) that were declined after CCl4 treatment. Examination of liver histopathology revealed that Phoenix dactylifera seeds attenuate the incidence of liver lesions (including vacuolization and fibroblast proliferation) triggered by CCl4 intoxication. The Phoenix dactylifera seeds could be a promising candidate for protection against the CCl4-induced liver intoxication, and this hepatoprotective effect might be attributed to the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering bispecificity into a single albumin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nilvebrant

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L. is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lashermes Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%. At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our

  14. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  15. BAC-end sequences analysis provides first insights into coffee (Coffea canephora P.) genome composition and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Guyot, Romain; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Anthony, François; Argout, Xavier; de Bellis, Fabien; Combes, Marie-Christine; Gavory, Frederick; de Kochko, Alexandre; Kudrna, Dave; Leroy, Thierry; Poulain, Julie; Rondeau, Myriam; Song, Xiang; Wing, Rod; Lashermes, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most important agricultural commodities. Coffee belongs to the Rubiaceae family in the euasterid I clade of dicotyledonous plants, to which the Solanaceae family also belongs. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of a homozygous doubled haploid plant of Coffea canephora were constructed using two enzymes, HindIII and BstYI. A total of 134,827 high quality BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from the 73,728 clones of the two libraries, and 131,412 BESs were conserved for further analysis after elimination of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences. This corresponded to almost 13 % of the estimated size of the C. canephora genome. 6.7 % of BESs contained simple sequence repeats, the most abundant (47.8 %) being mononucleotide motifs. These sequences allow the development of numerous useful marker sites. Potential transposable elements (TEs) represented 11.9 % of the full length BESs. A difference was observed between the BstYI and HindIII libraries (14.9 vs. 8.8 %). Analysis of BESs against known coding sequences of TEs indicated that 11.9 % of the genome corresponded to known repeat sequences, like for other flowering plants. The number of genes in the coffee genome was estimated at 41,973 which is probably overestimated. Comparative genome mapping revealed that microsynteny was higher between coffee and grapevine than between coffee and tomato or Arabidopsis. BESs constitute valuable resources for the first genome wide survey of coffee and provide new insights into the composition and evolution of the coffee genome.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L.) is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation) and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%). At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our results make Agrobacterium

  17. Diversity and Communities of Foliar Endophytic Fungi from Different Agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in Two Regions of Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.; González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  18. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Saucedo-García

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some

  19. Proteomic analysis of apoplastic fluid of Coffea arabica leaves highlights novel biomarkers for resistance against Hemileia vastatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eGuerra-Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A proteomic analysis of the apoplastic fluid (APF of coffee leaves was conducted to investigate the cellular processes associated with incompatible (resistant and compatible (susceptible Coffea arabica-Hemileia vastatrix interactions, during the 24-96 hai period. The APF proteins were extracted by leaf vacuum infiltration and protein profiles were obtained by 2-DE. The comparative analysis of the gels revealed 210 polypeptide spots whose volume changed in abundance between samples (control, resistant and susceptible during the 24-96 hai period. The proteins identified were involved mainly in protein degradation, cell wall metabolism and stress/defense responses, most of them being hydrolases (around 70%, particularly sugar hydrolases and peptidases/proteases. The changes in the APF proteome along the infection process revealed two distinct phases of defense responses, an initial/basal one (24-48 hai and a late/specific one (72-96 hai. Compared to susceptibility, resistance was associated with a higher number of proteins, which was more evident in the late/specific phase. Proteins involved in the resistance response were mainly, glycohydrolases of the cell wall, serine proteases and pathogen related-like proteins (PR-proteins, suggesting that some of these proteins could be putative candidates for resistant markers of coffee to H. vastatrix. Antibodies were produced against chitinase, pectin methylesterase, serine carboxypeptidase, reticuline oxidase and subtilase and by an immunodetection assay it was observed an increase of these proteins in the resistant sample. With this methodology we have identified proteins that are candidate markers of resistance and that will be useful in coffee breeding programs to assist in the selection of cultivars with resistance to H. vastatrix.

  20. Respuesta fotosintética de Coffea arabica L. a diferentes niveles de luz y disponibilidad hídrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Alejandro Mariño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío permite una mejor aclimatación del café (Coffea arabica L. en zonas donde el invierno se caracteriza por bajas temperaturas nocturnas seguido de días soleados y el verano, por altas temperaturas y lluvias ocasionales. En este estudio, realizado en Viçosa-MG, Brasil, se analizaron los efectos de dos condiciones de luminosidad (pleno sol y 15% de la radiación solar y disponibilidades de agua en el suelo sobre las relaciones hídricas y el desempeño fotosintético en C. arabica en dos épocas contrastantes. Independientemente de la época de evaluación, las plantas cultivadas en condiciones de baja disponibilidad hídrica presentaron reducciones en la fotosíntesis (A, conductancia estomática (g s y en la razón Ci/Ca en los dos tratamientos lumínicos. Estos cambios fueron acompañados con la reducción en la conductancia hidráulica y la transpiración. No se presentaron diferencias significativas en la producción cuántica efectiva, en el coeficiente de extinción no-fotoquímica y en la productividad cuántica basal de los procesos no fotoquímicos. Sobre la disponibilidad hídrica adecuada, las plantas cultivadas al sol presentaron reducciones en A, g s y Ci/Ca en la época de invierno. Adicionalmente, se encontraron limitaciones fotoquímicas con la reducción en la razón de las fluorescencias variable e inicial. Los resultados indican que cualquier recomendación de uso de sombrío como práctica de manejo debe ser tomada con precaución.

  1. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBrunel-Muguet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures (High Temperature (HT, 33 °C/day, 19 °C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T, 20°C/day, 15°C/day and S supply (High S (HS, 500 µm SO42- vs. Low S (LS, 8.7 µM SO42- during seed filling on (i yield components (seed number, seed dry weight (SDW and seed yield, (ii grain composition (nitrogen (N and S contents and quality (fatty acid (FA composition and seed storage protein (SSP accumulation and (iii germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings. Abscisic acid (ABA, soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose +stachyose/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  2. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO(2-) 4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO(2-) 4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  3. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  4. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  5. A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi spore germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Angela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica (CaclXIP leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. Results A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica (CaclXIP, was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18, and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%. Conclusions Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust.

  6. An endoplasmic reticulum-localized Coffea arabica BURP domain-containing protein affects the response of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to diverse abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Sy Nguyen; Kang, Hunseung

    2017-11-01

    The Coffea arabica BURP domain-containing gene plays an important role in the response of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to abiotic stresses via regulating the level of diverse proteins. Although the functions of plant-specific BURP domain-containing proteins (BDP) have been determined for a few plants, their roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of most plant species, including coffee plant (Coffea arabica), are largely unknown. In this study, the function of a C. arabica BDP, designated CaBDP1, was investigated in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The expression of CaBDP1 was highly modulated in coffee plants subjected to drought, cold, salt, or ABA. Confocal analysis of CaBDP1-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CaBDP1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. The ectopic expression of CaBDP1 in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed germination of the transgenic plants under abiotic stress and in the presence of ABA. Cotyledon greening and seedling growth of the transgenic plants were inhibited in the presence of ABA due to the upregulation of ABA signaling-related genes like ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. Proteome analysis revealed that the levels of several proteins are modulated in CaBDP1-expressing transgenic plants. The results of this study underscore the importance of BURP domain proteins in plant responses to diverse abiotic stresses.

  7. A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Santana, Celso G; Godoy, Claudia V; Seixas, Claudine D S; Silva, Marilia S; Moreira, Leonora R S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Price, Daniel; Fitches, Elaine; Filho, Edivaldo X F; Mehta, Angela; Gatehouse, John A; Grossi-De-Sa, Maria F

    2011-02-07

    Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP) leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP), was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α)8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18), and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w) enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%. Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust.

  8. Compositional changes of proteins and amino acids in germinating coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Massao Shimizu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm is the main reserve tissue in coffee seeds. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. seeds were germinated for six weeks and qualitative and quantitative changes in amino acids and proteins were investigated. The total content of free amino acids were reduced during germination, however, protein content remained constant. SDS-PAGE profiles showed that legumin-like proteins became less stained in the last weeks. Asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine were the major free amino acids, although serine and glutamine were also significant. Except for tyrosine, which increased with germination, all other amino acids were reduced. Analysis of the amino acid composition of the total soluble protein showed glutamic acid/glutamine and glycine as the main amino acids. However, other amino acids such as leucine, aspartic acid/asparagine, alanine, lysine, serine were also found in reasonable amounts.Endosperma é o principal tecido de reserva em sementes de café. Sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. foram germinadas por seis semanas e as alterações qualitativas e quantitativas de aminoácidos e proteínas foram investigadas. O conteúdo total de aminoácidos livres reduziu durante a germinação, no entanto, o conteúdo de proteínas permaneceu constante. Perfis eletroforéticos de proteínas em SDS-PAGE mostraram que proteínas do tipo legumina foram menos coradas nas últimas semanas. Asparagina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, alanina e lisina foram os principais aminoácidos, apesar de que serina e glutamina também estavam presentes em quantidades significativas. Exceto tirosina, a qual aumentou durante a germinação, todos os outros aminoácidos tiveram redução em sua concentração. A análise aminoacídica da fração de proteína solúvel total mostrou que ácido glutâmico/glutamina e glicina eram os principais aminoácidos presentes. No entanto, outros aminoácidos, tais como leucina, ácido asp

  9. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species. The seeds were primed using seven different solutions for three different priming durations. Primed seed lots were evaluated for seed germination, seedling vigour index, seedling emergence and ...

  10. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  11. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  12. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in urinary creatinine excretion. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. We examined 7,623 participants of the PREVEND and RENAAL studies for reclassified when using ACR instead of 24-hour UAE, the characteristics of reclassified participants, and their outcomes. Albuminuria was categorized into 3 ACR and UAE categories: 300mg/g or mg/24 h, respectively. Baseline ACR and 24-hour UAE. Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. When using ACR in the early morning void instead of 24-hour UAE, 88% of participants were classified in corresponding albuminuria categories. 307 (4.0%) participants were reclassified to a higher, and 603 (7.9%), to a lower category. Participants who were reclassified to a higher ACR category in general had a worse CV risk profile compared with nonreclassified participants, whereas the reverse was true for participants reclassified to a lower ACR category. Similarly, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that reclassification to a higher ACR category was associated with a tendency for increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas reclassification to a lower ACR category was associated with a tendency for lower risk. Net reclassification improvement, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of follow-up, was 0.107 (P=0.002) for CV events and 0.089 (P<0.001) for all-cause mortality. Early morning void urine collection instead of spot urine collection. Our results indicate that there is high agreement between early morning void ACR and 24-hour UAE categories. Reclassification is therefore limited, but when present, is generally indicative of the presence of CV risk factors and prognosis. Copyright © 2016

  13. Genética de Coffea: XXII - Novas observações sôbre a influência do alelo na, na produção dos cafeeiros Genetics of Coffea: XXII - Additional observations on the influence of the na allele on coffee yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available As progênies de cafeeiros murta são constituídas de plantas bourbon (ttNaNa, murta (ttNana e anãs (ttnana, na proporção de 1:2:1. A fim de comparar as produções de cafeeiros bourbon e murta, progênies de 14 plantas matrizes murta foram estudadas em Campinas, cada progênie sendo inicialmente constituída de 10 plantas murta e 10 plantas bourbon. Em Pindorama estudaram-se apenas cinco progênies, constituída cada uma delas de cinco plantas murta e cinco bourbon. Tôdas foram plantadas a um pé por cova, para estudo das produções individuais. As plantas anãs não foram levadas para o campo por serem de desenvolvimento excessivamente lento e apresentarem produção pràticamente nula. Algumas delas foram conservadas em viveiro a fim de se observar seu desenvolvimento e frutificação. Verificou-se maior número de falhas entre as plantas murta do que entre as bourbon, principalmente em Campinas, indicando que os cafeeiros murta são mais fracos do que os cafeeiros bourbon. Em Pindorama esta diferença foi menos acentuada. A produção total média no período 1939-1952 em Campinas e em Pindorama foi analisada, confirmando-se os resultados já anteriormente obtidos, em Campinas, de que a produção do conjunto de plantas bourbon é bem maior do que a das plantas murta. A parte bourbon produziu cêrca de 70% a mais em Campinas e 100% a mais em Pindorama, do que a parte murta. O alelo na, além de influir sobre alguns caracteres morfológicos, deve ser o principal responsável pela drástica redução da produtividade das plantas murta. Os efeitos do alelo na não se fazem sentir no tamanho e peso dos frutos e sementes. É mais provável que a ação dêste alelo se relacione com a redução do número total de flores nas plantas murta ou no pegamento destas flôres, resultando em um menor número de frutos, em relação às plantas bourbon.The murta variety of Coffea arabica is a heterozygous ttNana, its progeny segregating bourbon (tt

  14. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  15. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  16. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to animal phyla, algae, and in mollusk shells. 5. It has been found that supersaturation is critical in determining the calcium carbonate polymorph pre- ... in figure 1c: s (spherical), r (rhomboidal), f (filamentous). pure. The bovine serum albumin were extra pure. (more than 99%), and purchased from Sigma Chemi- cals.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  18. The proteomic analysis of barley albumins and globulins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s709-s711 ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * albumins * globulins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  20. Evaluation of prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background & objectives: This study was designed to assess the prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic HIV subjects on ART with or without malaria infection. Methods: 150 participants (male, n=65, female, n=85) aged between 17 and 70 years were recruited for the study at the HIV clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  1. Physico-chemical properties of South American iguanid albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J

    1980-12-15

    Except for a markedly reduced anodal electrophoretic mobility, the serum of the Galapagos marine iguana was physico-chemically identical to that of terrestrial iguanids. Reduction in albumin net charge may have facilitated the adaptation of this species to a semi-aquatic environment.

  2. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consequence, it can be considered as a bio-functional mimic of enzyme SOD and has a promising application prospect in antioxidant drug field. Keywords. Bovine serum albumin; biopolymer metal complexes; superoxide; free radical; scavenging activity. 1. Introduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), natural byproducts.

  3. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed

  4. Microdetermination of human serum albumin by differential pulse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), based on a silver electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine, was developed. L-cysteine can be modified onto a silver electrode by covalent bonding ...

  5. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  6. Effects of Vitamin C Treatment on Serum Protein, Albumin, Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... albumin and gamma globulin in the trypanosome-infected treated rats. It was concluded that consumption of the Vitamin C ameliorated the pathological changes in serum protein and body weight of T. brucei – infected rats. Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei, Rattus norvegicus, Ascorbic acid, Body weight, Serum protein ...

  7. Plasma Levels of Total Proteins, Albumin, Globulin and Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated in 25 HIV positive subjects and 25 age and sex-matched controls. Test subjects were recruited from the Haematology day Clinic and Medical wards of the. OAUTHC, lle-Ife. The controls were equally obtained from staff and students within the OAUTHC, ...

  8. [Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiuk, I P; Knaub, A Ia; Shandrenko, S H

    2014-01-01

    Protein's postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin's modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM) was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each) and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 degrees C in the dark for up to 30 days. We have determined the fluorescent properties of the samples, the content of protein's carbonyl groups and the redistribution of protein's molecular weight. The following ratings of aldehydes from the lowest to the highest effect have been obtained. Fluorescent albumin adducts formation: formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, ribose, glyoxal; carbonylation of the protein: ribose, formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal; polymerization of albumin--the formation of intermolecular crosslinks: ribose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde. The results indicate that these aldehydes have different capability for protein's modifications. For example, formaldehyde, having the lowest ability to form fluorescent adducts, shows the highest ability to form protein's intermolecular crosslinks. Therefore, methods and parameters in order to evaluate the protein postsynthetic modification intensity have to be chosen correctly according to carbonyl stress peculiarity in order to evaluate the protein's postsynthetic modification intensity.

  9. Remineralization of demineralized albumin-calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Hunziker, E.B.; Layrolle, P.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Calvert, P.D.; de Groot, K.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin were coprecipitated (under physiological conditions of temperature and pH) upon the surfaces of titanium-alloy samples, which thereby became coated with a dense, proteinaceous mineral layer 30-50 µm in thickness. Dissolution of the inorganic phase by

  10. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proteins are well-known for efficiency and selecti- vity that few other natural or artificial molecules can match,24,25 whether in catalysis or molecular recogni- tion. Owing to 35 cysteine residues, human serum albu- min (HSA) is facile to be combined with metal ions. The serum albumin is readily available, non-antigenic.

  11. Bioactive albumin-based carriers for tumour chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Yasser; Khan, Ikram Ullah; Hussain, Talib; Alamgeer; Serra, Christophe A; Rizvi, Syed A A; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are posed as the natural counterpart of the synthetic polymers for the development of drug delivery systems and few of them, have been regarded safe for drug delivery purposes by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood. Interest in the exploration of pharmaceutical applications of albumin-based drug delivery carriers, especially for the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, has increased in recent years. Albumin has several advantages over synthetic polymers, as it is biocompatible, biodegradable, has low cytotoxicity and has an excellent binding capacity with various drugs. Micro- and nano-carriers not only protect active pharmaceutical ingredients against degradation, but also offer a prolonged release of drugs in a controlled fashion. Since existing tumour chemotherapeutic agents neither target tumour cells, nor are they specific to tumour cells, a slow release of drugs from carriers would be beneficial in targeting carcinogenic cells intracellularly. This article aims at providing an overview of pharmaceutical applications of albumin as a drug delivery carrier in tumour chemotherapy.

  12. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Il, Kim; Son-Ae, Choe; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  13. Extracorporeal circuits and autoregulation: effect of albumin coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, P.; Kok, W. E.; van den Bos, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Autoregulation of muscle blood flow often is difficult to demonstrate when extracorporeal perfusion is used. This could be caused by contact of blood and foreign material. Accordingly, we tested whether autoregulation is preserved when the system is coated with albumin. Polyurethane tubing between

  14. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Mcvie, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  15. The clearance of albumin microspheres from an intramuscular injection site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.N.; Davis, S.S.; Frier, M.; Hardy, J.G.; Wilson, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Human serum albumin microspheres of three different diameters were radiolabelled with indium-111, and a suspension injected into rabbit thigh muscle. Clearance from the intramuscular site was monitored for 2 weeks using gamma scintigraphy. The clearance rates were compared with the injection site clearance of non-biodegradable polystyrene microspheres. (U.K.)

  16. Effect of Temperature on Tolbutamide Binding to Glycated Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szkudlarek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycation process occurs in protein and becomes more pronounced in diabetes when an increased amount of reducing sugar is present in bloodstream. Glycation of protein may cause conformational changes resulting in the alterations of its binding properties even though they occur at a distance from the binding sites. The changes in protein properties could be related to several pathological consequences such as diabetic and nondiabetic cardiovascular diseases, cataract, renal dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease. The experiment was designed to test the impact of glycation process on sulfonylurea drug tolbutamide-albumin binding under physiological (T = 309 K and inflammatory (T = 311 K and T = 313 K states using fluorescence and UV-VIS spectroscopies. It was found in fluorescence analysis experiments that the modification of serum albumin in tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues environment may affect the tolbutamide (TB binding to albumin in subdomain IIA and/or IIIA (Sudlow’s site I and/or II, and also in subdomains IB and IIB. We estimated the binding of tolbutamide to albumin described by a mixed nature of interaction (specific and nonspecific. The association constants Ka (L∙mol−1 for tolbutamide at its high affinity sites on non-glycated albumin were in the range of 1.98–7.88 × 104 L∙mol−1 (λex = 275 nm, 1.20–1.64 × 104 L∙mol−1 (λex = 295 nm and decreased to 1.24–0.42 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 275 nm (T = 309 K and T = 311 K and increased to 2.79 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 275 nm (T = 313 K and to 4.43–6.61 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 295 nm due to the glycation process. Temperature dependence suggests the important role of van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding in hydrophobic interactions between tolbutamide and both glycated and non-glycated albumin. We concluded that the changes in the environment of TB binding of albumin in subdomain IIA and/or IIIA as well as in subdomains IB and IIB influence on

  17. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  18. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  19. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  20. Morphometric and Productive Characterization of Nineteen Genotypes from the Colombian Coffea Collection / Caracterización Morfométrica y Productiva de Diecinueve Genotipos de la Colección Colombiana del Género Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Wilson Mejía Montoya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen genotypes of the Colombian Coffee (Coffeaarabica L. Collection were characterized through features related to productivity, crown architecture and light interception. The results revealed significant differences among genotypes. Branches and leaves were found to be dominantly plagiophyl. Leaf area (LA and Leaf area index (LAI made accession CU1812 (which correspondsto variety Castillo® stand out for its photosynthetically activeradiation (PAR interception and coffee bean production. Likewise, a PAR based cluster analysis allowed dividing the genotypes in three groups. Because of their higher yield, the most outstanding genotypes were Caturra, CU-1812 and Harrar R2. This factor showed correlation with PAR absorption. The current results are useful for future works in coffee breeding programs. / Se caracterizaron 19 genotipos de la Colección Colombiana de Café (Coffea arabica L.; para ello se estudiaron aspectos relacionados con la arquitectura del dosel, la interceptación de la radiación y la producción. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre los genotipos, predominando en las ramas la distribución plagiofila; una disposición similar se observóen las hojas. El área foliar (AF y el índice de área foliar (IAF,contribuyeron a que la introducción CU1812, componente de la variedad Castillo®, se destacara por presentar los mayores valores de interceptación de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA y producción de café cereza. Así mismo, el análisis de agrupamiento con base en la RFA, permitió ordenar los genotipos en tres grupos,destacándose Caturra, CU-1812 y Harrar R2 por su mayorrendimiento, factor que mostró correlación con la RFA captadapor el dosel. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación son de utilidad en futuros trabajos de mejoramiento genético en café.

  1. Protein Intakes and Serum Albumin Levels in a Japanese General Population: NIPPON DATA90

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Makoto; Higashiyama, Aya; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Yuu; Okayama, Akira; Okamura, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well-known that albumin is synthesized in the liver; serum albumin is a major component of serum proteins. However, it has not been well elucidated how dietary protein intakes are associated with serum albumin levels in general populations without extreme malnutrition. We cross-sectionally investigated in the representative Japanese the association between dietary protein intake and serum albumin levels. Methods A total of 7715 subjects (3220 men and 4495 women, aged 30 years...

  2. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  4. Investigation of interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bifeng; Gao Feng; Ao Limei

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and the protein serum albumin. The investigation was based on the fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residue of serum albumin after binding with the dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The extent of the interactions between bovine serum albumin and dendrimer-coated MNPs strongly depends on their surface groups and pH value

  5. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, Martin; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  6. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen

    2007-01-01

    hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  7. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    filtration of albumin in microcirculatory beds with permeable capillaries (splanchnic organs), in between the haemodialysis treatment, and filtration of protein-poor fluid in areas with 'tight' capillaries (skeletal muscle, cutis) resulting in interstitial space protein depletion here. As the patients were...

  8. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-11-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first molecular insights into the response of the germinating barley seeds to F. graminearum for controlling the disease, germinating seeds were treated with water as control or inoculated with F. graminearum conidia and samples were harvested at 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation (dai). Although germination rates were not significantly different between F. graminearum-inoculated and control samples, albumins and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated in the inoculated samples at 1-3 dai, indicating that there was an interaction between the germinating seeds and F. graminearum. Subsequently, a gel-based proteomic approach was employed to identify differentially expressed proteins in the seeds responding to fungal infection at 3 dai, which revealed 42 protein spots, 41 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. The up-regulated proteins mainly included heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and the proteins involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to F. graminearum infection, which provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  10. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  11. Prevalence of isolated non-albumin proteinuria in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and urine albumin: An unexpected discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Alexander; Zebelman, Arthur M; Sharp, Thomas M; Samantha Flynn; Bernstein, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    Isolated non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) is a condition when urine total protein concentrations are elevated without elevation of urine albumin. The prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was assessed in this study. The database of a US nationwide laboratory network was queried for test results when random urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein and also when timed 24-hour urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein. The total prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was calculated for patient groups having normal and low-normal urine albumin (random and timed) with elevated and severely increased urine total protein (random and timed). Also, the prevalence of NAP was calculated for patients with normal urine albumin to assess the probability of missing proteinuria if only urine albumin is measured. The prevalence of NAP in the random samples group was 10.1% (15.2% for females and 4.7% for males). Among patients with normal random albumin, there were 20.0% (27.3% of females and 10.7% of males) patients with NAP. The prevalence of NAP in the timed samples group was 24.6% (29.8% for females and 18.5% for males). Among patients with normal timed urine albumin, there were 36.2% (40.0% of females and 30.8% of males) patients with NAP. There was a strong positive association with female gender and NAP in most patients groups. Testing for only urine (micro)albumin can miss up to 40% of females and 30.8% of males with gross proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  13. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  14. Higher endogenous methionine in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds affects the composition of storage proteins and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Pajak, Agnieszka; Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Amir, Rachel; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies demonstrate that exogenous application of the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine into cultured soybean cotyledons and seedlings reduces the level of methionine-poor storage proteins and elevates those that are methionine-rich. However, the effect of higher endogenous methionine in seeds on the composition of storage products in vivo is not studied yet. We have recently produced transgenic Arabidopsis seeds having significantly higher levels of methionine. In the present work we used these seeds as a model system and profiled them for changes in the abundances of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, the two major groups of storage proteins, using 2D-gels and MALDI-MS detection. The findings suggest that higher methionine affects from a certain threshold the accumulation of several subunits of 12S-globulins and 2S-albumins, regardless of their methionine contents, resulting in higher total protein contents. The mRNA abundances of most of the genes encoding these proteins were either correlated or not correlated with the abundances of these proteins, implying that methionine may regulate storage proteins at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The elevations in total protein contents resulted in reduction of total lipids and altered the fatty acid composition. Altogether, the data provide new insights into the regulatory roles of elevated methionine levels on seed composition.

  15. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  16. Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O

    2014-10-01

    Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 μg) and octamer the least (50 μg). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  18. Impaired Albumin Uptake and Processing Promote Albuminuria in OVE26 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y S; Zheng, S; Kralik, P M; Benz, F W; Epstein, P N

    2016-01-01

    The importance of proximal tubules dysfunction to diabetic albuminuria is uncertain. OVE26 mice have the most severe albuminuria of all diabetic mouse models but it is not known if impaired tubule uptake and processing are contributing factors. In the current study fluorescent albumin was used to follow the fate of albumin in OVE26 and normal mice. Compared to normal urine, OVE26 urine contained at least 23 times more intact fluorescent albumin but only 3-fold more 70 kD fluorescent dextran. This indicated that a function other than size selective glomerular sieving contributed to OVE26 albuminuria. Imaging of albumin was similar in normal and diabetic tubules for 3 hrs after injection. However 3 days after injection a subset of OVE26 tubules retained strong albumin fluorescence, which was never observed in normal mice. OVE26 tubules with prolonged retention of injected albumin lost the capacity to take up albumin and there was a significant correlation between tubules unable to eliminate fluorescent albumin and total albuminuria. TUNEL staining revealed a 76-fold increase in cell death in OVE26 tubules that retained fluorescent albumin. These results indicate that failure to process and dispose of internalized albumin leads to impaired albumin uptake, increased albuminuria, and tubule cell apoptosis.

  19. Potential Role of Amino Acid/Protein Nutrition and Exercise in Serum Albumin Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Wada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. However, according to recent animal studies, the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by albumin turnover and may also reflect amino acid/protein nutritional status. Furthermore, as the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by exercise training, measuring the pre- and post-exercise redox states of serum albumin in athletes may be useful in assessing amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise-induced oxidative stress, which are closely associated with skeletal muscle adaptive responses. This article extensively reviews serum albumin and the redox state of albumin in the context of amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise training.

  20. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  1. Cellular Specificity of the Blood-CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave...... rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through...... positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only...

  2. Does serum albumin and creatinine predict survival of inpatient palliative care patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Aye; Alqudihy, Shukri; Rybicki, Lisa; Platt, Alexandra; Davis, Mellar P

    2014-12-01

    Low creatinine and albumin are found among the chronically ill patients. This study retrospectively reviewed albumin and creatinine levels for survival in patients upon admission. Records of patients admitted over 2 months were reviewed. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified cutpoints in albumin and creatinine that predicted survival. Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox proportional hazards, and stepwise Cox analyses identified prognostic factors. Of 83 patients, 81 were assessable. Variables for worse survival were albumin creatinine >0.93 mg/dL, and male gender. Albumin by continuous, median, RPA, and tertiles was significant; creatinine by RPA. Hazard ratio for albumin >3.1 was 0.28 (P creatinine >0.91 mg/dL was 1.8 (P = .046). Albumin and creatinine are prognostically important. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a specific receptor for human albumin on a group L Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmler, C

    1988-08-01

    Certain group L streptococci demonstrate surface receptors for human albumin. Binding of 125I-albumin to group L streptococci could be inhibited by unlabelled albumin preparations from humans, dogs, mice and bovines, but not by albumin from rabbits. The albumin-binding proteins (ABP) could be solubilized from the streptococcal surface by hot acid treatment of the bacteria and isolated by affinity chromatography on human-albumin sepharose. ABP and specific antisera produced against ABP inhibited 125I-albumin binding to group L streptococci. The molecular weight of ABP determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, was approximately 48,000 Dalton. ABP preparations of group G streptococci isolated from bovines and humans demonstrated cross reactivity with antiserum produced against group L streptococcal ABP.

  4. Tamoxifen and curcumin binding to serum albumin. Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Maliszewska, M.; Pożycka, J.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Góra, A.; Sułkowska, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is widely used for the breast cancer treatment and is known as chemopreventive agent. Curcumin (CUR) is natural phenolic compound with broad spectrum of biological activity e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and chemopreventive. Combination of tamoxifen and curcumin could be more effective with lower toxicity than each agent alone in use for the treatment or chemoprevention of breast cancer. Binding of drugs to serum albumin is an important factor, which determines toxicity and therapeutic dosage of the drugs. When two drugs are administered together the competition between them for the binding site on albumin can result in a decrease in bound fraction and an increase in the concentration of free biologically active fraction of drug.

  5. Novel lipid hybrid albumin nanoparticle greatly lowered toxicity of pirarubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenqi; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao

    2013-10-07

    Pirarubicin (THP) is an effective anthracycline for the treatment of solid tumor. However, its potential side effects are prominent and clinical use is restricted. We aimed to develop a novel pirarubicin-oleic acid complex albumin nanoparticle (THP-OA-AN) in order to reduce the toxicity of THP. Oleic acid, human serum albumin (HSA), and egg yolk lecithin E80 was used to prepare THP-OA-AN. Prepared THP-OA-AN was characterized and animal experiments were conducted to assess its tumor suppression effect, distribution, and toxicity. Comparison between THP and THP-OA-AN showed that, with retained antitumor efficiency, the toxicity of THP-OA-AN is significantly reduced regarding bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This study developed a safe and effective formulation of THP, which has greater potential for clinic use in the tumor therapy.

  6. Diagnostic agents containing albumin and methods for making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saklad, E.L.; Layne, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification outlines a method for providing a diagnostic agent for use in radiological testing, comprising the production of an admixture of a source of radionuclide ion (sup(99m)Tc), a reducing agent (source of stannous ions at a pH below 7) and a stabilized, defatted human albumin being sufficiently purified for an aqueous solution not to become cloudy for at least an hour at a pH of 4 or below. Other aspects of the patent provide for a method of producing a radiodiagnostic kit of the above components, packaged in a sealed sterile non-pyrogenic container, and also a method of concentrating sup(99m)Tc in vivo in a target mammalian tissue, by intravenous administration of a mixture of sup(99m)Tc, a reducing agent, and delipidized serum albumin. (U.K.)

  7. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C......, by using a fluorescence quench titration technique. The interaction of indomethacin with human serum albumin has been studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength and pH. The results suggest that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the binding. The possible role of lysine residues...... in this interaction was studied by modifying exposed and buried lysine residues of HSA with potassium cyanate and studying indomethacin binding with the modified HSA. The data suggest that the interaction takes place via a salt bridge formation between the carboxylate group of indomethacin and a buried lysine residue...

  8. Albumin-gold-glutathione is a probable auranofin metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.F. III; Coffer, M.; Isab, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The newly licensed gold drug, auranofin ((2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-1-D-gluco-pyranosato-S-)triethylphoshine-gold(I)) crosses cell membranes and enters cells which are inaccessible to parenteral gold drugs. In vivo, the triethylphosphine ligand and gold of auranofin, but not the thio-sugar moiety, accumulate in and subsequently efflux from red blood cells (RBCs). Extracellular albumin increases in the extent of gold efflux and acts as a gold binding site. The rate of efflux is first-order in RBC gold concentration. Studies using RBCs in which labelled [ 14 C]-glutathione is generated in situ incorporation of [ 14 C]- glycine demonstrate that glutathione also effluxes from the RBCs and forms a gold-glutathione-albumin complex. This may be the immunopharmacologically active complex

  9. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  10. Contribution to the study of 14C-acetate as the precursor of aminoacids in detached leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    Labelled acetates with 14 C were used as the forerunner of aminoacids in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica cv Mundo Novo). Leaves with the labelled acetates were incubated and released CO 2 was retained in paper discs with hiamine for further radioactivity detection. Separated proteins furnished 13 amino-acids through acid hidrolysis, all of them were identified by bidimensional filter paper chromatography. Through the obtained results it is possible to conclude that acetates are metabolized by the leafs and are related to the processes of leaf synthesis. It was possible to show that an utilization of acetate for energetical production via Krebs cycle was donne. The obtained conclusions show too that methylic carbon was more incorporated than carboxylic carbon [pt

  11. Urea in Weaver Ant Feces: Quantification and Investigation of the Uptake and Translocation of Urea in Coffea Arabica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Nanna Hjort; Wollenweber, Bernd; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2016-01-01

    analyzed, and urea concentrations ranging from 1.98 to 31.05 μg/mg ant feces were detected. Subsequently, we investigated the uptake and translocation of 15N2-urea in amounts corresponding to the estimated urea contribution via feces depositions on single host plant leaves under laboratory conditions......Weaver ants are tropical insects that nest in tree canopies, and for centuries these ants have been used for pest control in tropical orchards. Trees hosting weaver ants might benefit not only from the pest protective properties of these insects but also an additional supply of nutrients from ant...... feces deposited on the leaves. In a recent study, we demonstrated that Coffea arabica plants hosting Oecophylla smaragdina weaver ants under laboratory conditions experienced enhanced nitrogen availability compared with plants grown without ants. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to further...

  12. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  13. Multienzyme degradation of host serum albumin in ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Pytelková, Jana; Perner, Jan; Horn, Martin; Konvičková, Jitka; Schrenková, Jana; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 604-613 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GA14-33693S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : albumin digestion * tick * proteolysis * gut Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  14. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  15. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presti Mardiyani Purwaningtyas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic Root-Lession nematode of Pratylenchus coffeae can reduce the Indonesian coffee plants productivity. Several studies reported that Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis endophytic bacteria were antagonistic bacteria to nematode. The objective of this research was to reveal the effectiveness of bacterial colonies density of P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1, B.subtilis (UB BS1, and a combination of both bacteria on nematode mortality using median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time 50 (LT50. The densities of bacteria used in this study were 107, 109, 1011 and 1013 cfu/ml. 35 testing nematodes were used and the mortality was counted at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after treatments. The results showed that LC50 values of P. fluorescens was (UB_Pf1 was 4,3x108 cfu/ml, LC50 B. subtilis (UB_Bs1 was 1,9x109cfu/ ml, and LC50 combination of both bacteria was, 8x107 cfu/ml. It implies that the application of the combination of both bacteria are more pathogenic than single bacterial treatment. The results also showed that the highest LT50 value was 13.21  hours combination of bacterial colonies with a density of 1013 cfu/ml and the lowest LT50 value was 52.00 hours on P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1 treatment with colonies density of 107 cfu/ml.How to CitePurwaningtyas, P. M., Rahardjo, B. T., & Tarno, H. (2016. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 286-293. 

  16. Multicenter evaluation of an enzymatic method for glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Renata; Bonetti, Graziella; Callà, Cinzia; Carta, Mariarosa; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Di Gaetano, Nicola; Ferri, Marilisa; Guerra, Elena; Lavalle, Gabriella; Cascio, Claudia Lo; Martino, Francesca Gabriela; Montagnana, Martina; Moretti, Marco; Santini, Gabriele; Scribano, Donata; Testa, Roberto; Vero, Anna; Mosca, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    The use of glycated albumin (GA) has been proposed as an additional glycemic control marker particularly useful in intermediate-term monitoring and in situation when HbA 1c test is not reliable. We have performed the first multicenter evaluation of the analytical performance of the enzymatic method quantILab Glycated Albumin assay implemented on the most widely used clinical chemistry analyzers (i.e. Abbott Architect C8000, Beckman Coulter AU 480 and 680, Roche Cobas C6000, Siemens ADVIA 2400 and 2400 XPT). The repeatability of the GA measurement (expressed as CV, %) implemented in the participating centers ranged between 0.9% and 1.2%. The within-laboratory CVs ranged between 1.2% and 1.6%. A good alignment between laboratories was found, with correlation coefficients from 0.996 to 0.998. Linearity was confirmed in the range from 7.6 to 84.7%. The new enzymatic method for glycated albumin evaluated by our investigation is suitable for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeted albumin-based nanoparticles for delivery of amphipathic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongzuo; Fisher, Michael; Juliano, R L

    2011-05-18

    We report the preparation and physical and biological characterization of human serum albumin-based micelles of approximately 30 nm diameter for the delivery of amphipathic drugs, represented by doxorubicin. The micelles were surface conjugated with cyclic RGD peptides to guide selective delivery to cells expressing the α(v)β(3) integrin. Multiple poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) with molecular weight of 3400 Da were used to form a hydrophilic outer layer, with the inner core formed by albumin conjugated with doxorubicin via disulfide bonds. Additional doxorubicin was physically adsorbed into this core to attain a high drug loading capacity, where each albumin was associated with about 50 doxorubicin molecules. The formed micelles were stable in serum but continuously released doxorubicin when incubated with free thiols at concentrations mimicking the intracellular environment. When incubated with human melanoma cells (M21+) that express the α(v)β(3) integrin, higher uptake and longer retention of doxorubicin was observed with the RGD-targeted micelles than in the case of untargeted control micelles or free doxorubicin. Consequently, the RGD-targeted micelles manifested cytotoxicity at lower doses of drug than control micelles or free drug.

  18. Molecularly imprinted composite cryogel for albumin depletion from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Müge; Baydemir, Gözde; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2012-11-01

    A new composite protein-imprinted macroporous cryogel was prepared for depletion of albumin from human serum prior to use in proteom applications. Polyhydroxyethyl-methacylate-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) composite cryogel was prepared with high gel fraction yields up to 83%, and its morphology and porosity were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, swelling studies, flow dynamics, and surface area measurements. Selective binding experiments were performed in the presence of competitive proteins human transferrin (HTR) and myoglobin (MYB). MIP composite cryogel exhibited a high binding capacity and selectivity for human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence of HTR and MYB. The competitive adsorption amount for HSA in MIP composite cryogel is 722.1 mg/dL in the presence of competitive proteins (HTR and MYB). MIP composite cryogel column was successfully applied in the fast protein liquid chromatography system for selective depletion of albumin in human serum. The depletion ratio was highly increased by embedding beads into cryogel (85%). Finally, MIP composite cryogel can be reused many times with no apparent decrease in HSA adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Krysiuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein’s postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin’s modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 °C in the dark for up to 30 days. We have determined the fluorescent properties of the samples, the content of protein’s carbonyl groups and the redistribution of protein’s molecular weight. The following ratings of aldehydes from the lowest to the highest effect have been obtained. Fluo­rescent albumin adducts formation: formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, ribose, glyoxal; carbonylation of the protein: ribose, formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl­glyoxal; polymerization of albumin – the formation of intermolecular crosslinks: ribose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde. The results indicate that these aldehydes have different capability for protein’s modifications. For example, formaldehyde, having the lowest ability to form fluorescent adducts, shows the highest ability to form protein’s intermolecular crosslinks. Therefore, methods and parame­ters in order to evaluate the protein postsynthetic modification intensity have to be chosen correctly according to carbonyl stress peculiarity in order to evaluate the protein’s postsynthetic modification intensity.

  20. Microvascular albumin permeability in isolated perfused lung: effects of EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, D.F.; Malik, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of decreases in perfusate concentrations of calcium and magnesium on the pulmonary vascular permeability in the isolated perfused rabbit lung. The albumin permeability-surface area product (PS) and the albumin reflection coefficient (sigma) were determined in the same lung using 125 I- and 131 I-labeled albumin tracers. Decreases in vascular Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations were induced by adding ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the perfusate. Decreases in the concentration of these cations resulted in an increase in the PS from a control value of 1.18 +/- 0.13 X 10(-3) to 7.69 +/- 0. 75 X 10(-3) cm3 X min-1 X g wet lung wt-1 and a decrease in the sigma from 0.96 +/- 0.01 to 0.74 +/- 0.02. The decrease in sigma suggests an increase in the calculated equivalent pore radius from 44 to 63 A. The results indicate that Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ play a role in the maintenance of normal pulmonary vascular permeability to proteins

  1. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  2. Control of seed borne diseasees in organic seed propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The key control measure of plant diseases in organic agriculture is crop rotation, mixed cropping and moderate fertilization. A wide range of plant diseases can be controlled or minimized in this way. However, at least one group of plant diseases, the seed borne diseases, cannot. The seed borne diseases are not transmitted through the soil, and crop rotation is therefore an insufficient tool. Mixed cropping is impractical in seed propagation, where seed purity according to the...

  3. Stress metabolism in green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.): expression of dehydrins and accumulation of GABA during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniela; Breitenstein, Björn; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In order to produce tradeable standard green coffee, processed beans must be dried. The drying procedure affects the abundance of relevant aroma substances, e.g. carbohydrates. Using molecular tools, the corresponding metabolic basis is analyzed. A decrease in water potential of the still living coffee seeds induces massive drought stress responses. As a marker for these stress reactions, accumulation of a general stress metabolite, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and associated gene expression of drought stress-associated dehydrins were monitored. The results of this study indicate that metabolism in drying coffee beans is quite complex since several events trigger accumulation of GABA. The first peak of GABA accumulation during drying is correlated with expression of isocitrate lyase and thus with ongoing germination processes in coffee seeds. Two subsequent peaks of GABA accumulation correspond to maxima of dehydrin gene expression and are thought to be induced directly by drought stress in the embryo and endosperm tissue, respectively. Apart from the significance for understanding basic seed physiology, metabolic changes in coffee seeds during processing provide valuable information for understanding the role and effect of the steps of green coffee processing on the quality of the resulting coffee.

  4. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen genetically diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes were grown under three diverse .... genetic line. GenotypiC differences in the quality of seed provide an opportunity for employing. genotypiC selection as a method of improving seed quality (Adebisi,. 2004). ...... Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seed vigour ...

  6. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  7. Cowpea seed coat chemical analysis in relation to storage seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field emergence of stored cowpea seeds in the tropical environment is a major limitation to its production, particularly in cultivars with unpigmented seed coats. To determine the storage potential of cowpea, seeds of five cultivars comprising two pigmented and three unpigmented ones were subjected to controlled ...

  8. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  9. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  10. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistanc...

  11. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Low seed quality was observed in ... Seed quality did not vary between cultivars. Regardless of the fermentation process and cultivars used, the best seed and seedling qualities were observed when the amount of rainfall during the experiment ..... wet (Bouaziz and Hicks, 1990; Evans and Etherington.

  12. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  13. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  14. Lower seed rates favor seed multiplication ratio with minimal impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four sowing rates (50, 75, 100, 125 kg ha-1) and three row spacing (10, 20, 30 cm) on seed multiplication ratio, seed yield, and seed quality of wheat at Kulumsa and Assasa from 2012 to 2014. Results indicated that ...

  15. Albumin-bound fatty acids induce mitochondrial oxidant stress and impair antioxidant responses in proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishola, D. A.; Post, J. A.; van Timmeren, M. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koomans, H. A.; Braam, B.; Joles, J. A.

    Albumin induces oxidative stress and cytokine production in proximal tubular cells (PTECs). Albumin-bound fatty acids (FAs) enhance tubulopathic effects of albumin in vivo. We proposed that FA aggravation of albumin-induced oxidative stress in PTECs might be involved. We hypothesized that

  16. Use of electrophoretic techniques in determining the composition of seed storage proteins in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Bewley, J D

    1988-11-01

    Holoprotein molecular weights and polypeptide composition can be determined for complex mixtures of oligomeric proteins using two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. The variety of two-dimensional analyses presented here is a reflection of the general usefulness of each method for the identification and characterization of the different classes of seed storage proteins in alfalfa. These techniques can be applied to studies of storage proteins in other seeds as well as non-seed storage proteins. The major seed storage proteins in alfalfa are medicagin (a legumin-like globulin), alfin (a vicilin-like globulin) and a family of lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3). These comprise 30%, 10%, and 20%, respectively, of the total extractable protein from cotyledons of mature seeds. Alfin is a heterogeneous oligomeric protein (Mr approximately 150,000) composed of polypeptides ranging in size from Mr 14,000 to 50,000 (alpha 1-alpha 6; 50,000, 38,000, 32,000, 20,000, 16,000 and 14,000, respectively). Medicagin is also a high molecular weight oligomeric protein, but requires high concentrations of salt for solubilisation. It is comprised of a family of individually distinct subunits, each composed of an acidic polypeptide (A1-A9; Mr 49,000 to 39,000) linked via disulphide bond(s) to a basic polypeptide (B1, B2, B3; Mr 24,000, 23,000 and 20,000, respectively). This pairing is highly specific and two families are recognizable on the basis of the B polypeptide (B3 or B1/B2). Subunits (Mr approximately 50,000-65,000) are assembled as trimers (8S) or larger oligomers (12S-15S) in mature seeds. The lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3) are acidic (pI less than 6), and consist of sets of disulphide-bonded polypeptides (Mr 15,000 and 11,000).

  17. Some human albumine metabolism aspects, gathered with the utilization of 131I-albumine in normal female individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    14 female individuals underwent a study of some aspects of the 131 I human albumine metabolism, by following-up the decreasing plasmatic radioactivity rate of this substance. The outcome of this study led to the following conclusions: the distribution hal-life presented an average and confidence interval of 15,40 +- -+ 2,16 hours; renovation half-life showed a median and confidence interval of 11,17 +- -+ 2,10 days; the renovation ratio presented an average and confidence interval of 6,80 +- -+ 1,31% days -1 . The conclusions hereabove allowed the authors to discuss the performance of these parameters upon the evaluation of the albumine synthesis and catabolism [pt

  18. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  19. Absorção, translocação e utilização de zinco, cobre e manganês por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica Absorption, translocation and utilization of zinc, copper and manganese in grafted seedlings of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio Tomaz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparativamente ao pé-franco, a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto altera os complexos mecanismos de "feedback" entre parte aérea e raízes, afetando de maneira positiva ou negativa a eficiência nutricional da planta. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência da absorção, translocação e utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn por mudas de Coffea arabica L., de acordo com o porta-enxerto utilizado. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia como substrato, recebendo solução nutritiva circulante. Utilizaram-se, como enxerto, quatro genótipos de C. arabica: os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e os híbridos 'H 419-10-3-1-5' e 'H 514-5-5-3' , e, como porta-enxerto, quatro genótipos, sendo três de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1 e RC EMCAPA 8141 (recombinação entre clones da variedade Robustão Capixaba - EMCAPA 8141 e uma linhagem de Coffea arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além de quatro pés-francos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos, quatro repetições e uma planta por parcela. A eficiência nutricional das mudas quanto ao Zn, Cu e Mn variou de acordo com a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. A progênie 'H 514-5-5-3' foi mais eficiente quanto à utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn e produção de matéria seca, quando combinada com os porta-enxertos Apoatã LC 2258 e Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. O Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 foi mais eficiente na utilização de Cu e Mn quando combinado com Apoatã LC 2258.There are complexes feedback mechanisms involving the relationship rootstock/scion, whick can positively or negatively affect the plant nutrient efficiency use. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of uptake, translocation and utilization of Zn, Cu and Mn in coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse

  20. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  1. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila

    OpenAIRE

    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  2. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km Neelofar

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed

  3. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelofar, Km; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM) and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed that this type of

  4. Etude de l’hybridation inter-spécifique entre espèces du genre Coffea en Nouvelle-Calédonie : distribution des niches favorables et structuration de la diversité

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez , Céline

    2009-01-01

    Coffee trees are originated from inter-tropical forests of Africa and Madagascar and their diversification origin areas are highly threatened. Among the 103 species of the Coffea genus, only three are cultivated: C. arabica, C. canephora and C. liberica. C. canephora has the widest natural distribution in tropical African forests, and its genetic diversity is structured in five distinct groups. The study of the genetic diversity structuring has revealed a particular importance of the Dahomey ...

  5. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  6. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  7. Sexual reproduction, seeds, and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter T. McDonough

    1985-01-01

    Natural genetic interchange and extensive colonization of aspen by seed strongly depends upon favorable climatic and microclimatic conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combination of environmental conditions, there is significant L, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed production generally is profuse;...

  8. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  9. Atrativo para as abelhas Apis mellifera e polinização em café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, e teve como objetivos estudar uma cultura de café (Coffea arabica L., var. Mundo Novo, quanto à biologia floral, a freqüência e comportamento dos insetos na flor, testar o produto Bee-HereR (Hoescht Shering Agrevo do Brasil Ltda quanto a sua atratividade para as abelhas Apis mellifera e verificar a produção de frutos com e sem a visita dos insetos. Para isso, foram verificados o tempo do desenvolvimento e quantidade de açúcar solúvel do néctar das flores; freqüência das visitações dos insetos, no decorrer do dia, por meio de contagem do número de insetos visitando as flores, a cada 60 minutos, das 8 às 17 horas, 10 minutos em cada horário; tempo (em segundos e tipo de coleta (néctar e/ou pólen dos insetos mais freqüentes; perda de botões florais; porcentagem de flores que se transformaram em frutos; tempo de formação e contagem dos grãos de café, observando-se a porcentagem de frutificação em flores visitadas ou não pelos insetos. Também foram realizados testes por pulverização utilizando-se o produto Bee-HereR , diluído em xarope e em água, em diferentes horários. A flor durou, em média, cerca de 3 dias desde sua abertura até o murchamento. A quantidade de açúcares do néctar apresentou diferença significativa entre os horários, sendo maior às 8 horas (em média, 102,18 ± 8,75 mg de carboidratos totais por flor. A abelha A. mellifera foi o inseto mais freqüente nas flores de café, coletando, principalmente, néctar no decorrer do dia. A perda de botões florais causada pelas chuvas foi, em média, 26,50 ± 11,70%. O tempo para a formação do fruto foi 6 meses e o número de frutos decorrentes do tratamento descoberto foi maior (38,79% e 168,38%, em 1993 e 1994, respectivamente que do tratamento coberto. Apesar da eficiência do produto Bee-HereR ser afetada pelas condições climáticas, ele pode ser usado para atrair as abelhas A. mellifera na

  10. Eventos do processo de infecção de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides inoculados em folhas de Coffea arabica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Batista Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre os eventos de pré-penetração, penetração e colonização de isolados de C. gloeosporioides, obtidos de mangueira e cafeeiro, quando inoculados em folhas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. da cultivar Catucaí Vermelho. As folhas foram selecionadas, padronizadas e lavadas, demarcando-se áreas circulares de 0,5 cm de diâmetro na face abaxial, inoculando-se uma alíquota de 20 µL da suspensão de conídios. Utilizou-se um isolado obtido de mangueira e dois isolados obtidos de cafeeiro com mancha manteigosa. Realizaram-se avaliações com 3, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 144 e 240 horas após a inoculação (hai. Todos os materiais foram processados e observados em microscópico eletrônico de varredura. Os conídios de todos os isolados aderiram freqüentemente nas depressões das células da epiderme e células-guarda dos estômatos, formando septo antes da germinação. A penetração, na maior parte, se deu por via direta e algumas vezes por estômatos. Isolados de cafeeiro germinaram em folhas de 6 a 8 hai, produzindo apressórios 12 hai e acérvulos de 96 a 144 hai. O isolado de mangueira germinou de 6 a 8 hai com formação de apressório de 8 a 12 hai e produziu novos conídios diretamente em hifas conidiogênicas. Não foi observada a formação acérvulos para este isolado.The present study was carried out with the objective to provide information on the pre-penetration, penetration and colonization events of isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from mango and coffee, when inoculated in coffee leaves. The cultivar Catucaí Vermelho was used in all experiments. Coffee leaves were selected, standardized and washed in sterile water. After that, circular areas of 0.5 cm in diameter were marked on the undersurface of the leaves. In the center of each circular area, 20 µL of spore suspension was deposited. One isolate from mango and two from coffee presenting blister

  11. The impact of foliar boron sprays on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under glass house condition to study the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram (Vigna mungo). Black gram (V. mungo L. var. DPU-88-31) was grown under controlled sand culture condition at deficient and sufficient B levels. After 32 days of sowing B deficient plants were sprayed with three concentrations of B (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% borax) at three different stages of reproductive development, i.e. prior to flowering, initiation of bud formation and after bud formation. Deficient B supply decreased the anther and pollen size, pollen tube growth, pollen viability as well as stigmatic receptivity which were increased by foliar B application. Foliar spray at all the three concentrations and at all stages increased the yield parameters like number of pods, pod size and number of seeds formed per plant. Foliar B application also improved the seed yield and seed quality in terms of storage seed proteins (albumin, globulin, glutenin and prolamin) and carbohydrates (sugars and starch) in black gram. The foliar application of B in appropriate doses (particularly 0.1%) after bud formation made quantitative and qualitative improvement in seed yield of black gram by supplementing additional/critical B requirements for reproductive development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... In the Middle East, lupin seeds are consumed as a snack after they are soaked in water, scalded and ... used as roasted bean 'kolo' and to prepare local alcoholic drink 'katikala' and other food products .... Switzerland), followed 15 min cooling under running tap water and finally centrifuged at 2000 x g for ...

  13. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  14. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  15. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  16. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  17. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  18. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as a Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-05-16

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in the formation of different types of chemical-protein adducts with different interaction sites or peptide sequences. Our goal is to generate a human albumin transgenic mouse model that can be used to establish human protein biomarkers of exposure to hazardous xenobiotics for human risk assessment via animal studies. We have developed a human albumin transgenic mouse model and characterized the genotype and phenotype of the transgenic mice. The presence of the human albumin gene in the genome of the model mouse was confirmed by genomic PCR analysis, whereas liver-specific expression of the transgenic human albumin mRNA was validated by RT-PCR analysis. Further immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the transgenic human albumin protein is a full-length, mature protein, which is less abundant than the endogenous mouse albumin that coexists in the serum of the transgenic mouse. The transgenic protein was able to form ex vivo adducts with a genotoxic metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a procarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. This novel human albumin transgenic mouse model will facilitate the development and validation of albumin-carcinogen adducts as biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure and/or toxicity in humans.

  19. Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A Liddelow

    Full Text Available To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse and exogenous (human albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA, and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub

  20. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  1. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    When seed producers and seed users are geographically or functionally separated, seeds are transferred from producers to users. In market-oriented systems, transfer includes the pricing of seed, which reflects the procurement cost and seed quality. Physiological quality is documented via the seed...

  2. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if...

  3. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed...

  4. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  5. Albumin-based or albumin-linked calibrators cause a positive bias in serum proteins assayed by the biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Sváchová, Lenka; Novosád, Lukás; Jarkovský, Jirí; Sedlák, Pavel; Horák, Petr; Dobrovolná, Hana; Hlavácová, Barbora

    2009-01-01

    Assay of total serum protein by the biuret method calibrated with albumin standards according to the reference method provides results with a positive bias approximately 3%-5% exceeding the total error of 3.4% allowable for total protein in serum analysis made by analysers using two-part reagents and short-term procedures. We used two types of two-part biuret reagents utilised in a short-term measurement in analysers with albumin or serum calibrators, in which protein was attested by the Kjeldahl method. Tests with potentially interfering substances proved that serum blanking used in a short-term biuret procedure is not capable of sufficiently eliminating effects of serum interferents. A short-term blanking is evidently capable of suppressing only an absorbance caused by serum-present coloured and turbid interferents, but its capacity to transform them (oxidise, hydrolyse, saponify, etc.) to some other not-interfering substances is very low compared with a long-term blanking. Lipids and bilirubin are responsible for significant positive bias of total protein in normal serum samples (approximately 3%) and even a greater positive offset in lipaemic and icteric sera (approximately 5%). We verified that interference tests based on a normal serum spiked with endogenous lipids and bilirubin give quite false and misleading results in the biuret reaction. A pure albumin, not depending on its bovine/human origin, gives absorbance responding only to its copper complexes with protein with a biuret regent, while its absorbance with a serum also includes the absorbance of interferents present in serum. The simplest way to improve current short-term biuret procedures is the use of a human serum calibrator with total protein attested by the Kjeldahl method. A serum calibrator, behaving analogously to serum samples, compensates for a positive bias in most normal sera. Reagents with a greater concentration of active biuret components (copper and alkali, reference method included

  6. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  7. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  9. Surface reactions of a plasma-sprayed CaO-P2O5-SiO2-based glass with albumin, fibroblasts and granulocytes studied by XPS, fluorescence and chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzonetti, G; Iucci, G; Frontini, A; Infante, G; Furlani, C; Avigliano, L; Del Principe, D; Palumbo, G; Rosato, N

    2000-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to define the chemical composition of the outermost surface layer and the surface modification of a plasma-coated phospho-silicate glass (identified as BVA) when immersed in K-phosphate buffer or in phosphate buffered human albumin solution. Its behavior was compared with that of a soda-lime-based glass (identified as BVH) treated in the same way. The surface % composition of plasma-sprayed glass was consistent with bulk composition. After incubation with buffer, a Ca-P-rich layer developed only on the surface of BVA glass. Human serum albumin was bound reversibly to both glasses maintaining its native state. However, the protein completely covered the BVA glass surface within 24 h, with the formation of a mixed albumin-Ca-P layer, while 4 days incubation was necessary for complete coverage of BVH glass surface. Murine fibroblasts seeded on plasma-coated BVA glass showed a proliferation pattern similar to that of control cells grown on Petri dish, while cells seeded on BVH had more restricted growth. A limited response was induced in polymorphonuclear granulocytes by both bulk glasses powder. In conclusion, the glass identified as BVA has the suitable characteristics of its surface layers to be considered biologically active from both a chemical and a cellular point of view.

  10. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under...

  11. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume....../min, packed cell volume increased, plasma volume decreased and intravascular mass of albumin decreased significantly. During noradrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms/min, packed cell volume increased and plasma volume decreased, but intravascular mass of albumin did not change. 4. Application...... of a hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic glucose clamp led to an increase in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and a decrease in intravascular mass of albumin. Packed cell volume remained constant, while plasma volume, measured by radiolabelled albumin, decreased. 5. We conclude that the previously reported changes...

  12. Apoptotic activity of frog Bombina maxima skin albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xia; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Yun

    2006-02-01

    Albumin, the most abundant protein components of blood plasma, is synthesized and secreted by liver cells in vertebrates. Recently, it was demonstrated that frog Bombina maxima albumin is also expressed in skin. Both B. maxima albumins from skin and serum (BmA-skin and BmA-serum) have similar biochemical characteristics except that the former contains haem b. Present studies showed that BmA-skin exhibited cytotoxic activity on H9 and C8166 cells. Pretreated with hemin to induce erythroid differentiation, K562 cells lost their resistance to cytotoxicity of BmA-skin. After treating cells with BmA-skin for 48 h, 50 percentage cytotoxic concentrations (CC(50)) of BmA-skin on H9, C8166 and hemin-treated K562 cells were 1.31+/-0.09, 1.59+/-0.08 and 2.28+/-0.06 microM, respectively. The cell death induced by BmA-skin was mediated by apoptosis of the tested cell lines, as demonstrated by nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and DNA hypodiploidy of apoptosis cells. At BmA-skin concentration of 2 microM, 27.3%, 19.7% and 17.8% of H9, C8166 and hemin-treated K562 cells were found to be apoptotic. In contrast, BmA-serum possessed no cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity on all the cell lines tested, even with concentration used up to 15 microM. These results indicated that bound haem b in BmA-skin contributed significantly to its cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity on the cell lines assayed.

  13. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  14. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  15. Biomolecular Interaction Study of Cyclolinopeptide A with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rempel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics, energetics, and structure of Cyclolinopeptide A binding with Human Serum Albumin were investigated with surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. The complex is formed through slow recognition kinetics that is temperature sensitive in the range of 20°C–37°C. The overall reaction was observed to be endothermic (ΔH=204 kJ mol−1 and entropy driven (ΔS=746 J mol−1K−1 with overall small changes to the tertiary structure.

  16. Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin

    OpenAIRE

    I. P. Krysiuk; A. J. Knaub; S. G. Shandrenko

    2014-01-01

    Protein’s postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin’s modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM) was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each) and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 °C i...

  17. Albumin microaggregates for radioactive scanning of reticuloendothelial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saklad, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    An agent is described for radioactively imaging the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of vertebrates, especially primates, particularly the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The RES agent consists of a sup(99m)Tc-labelled microaggregated complex of a reducing metal and albumin to the unlabelled microaggregated complex in the form of a kit. The agent may also contain a stabilizing ligand for the reducing metal, e.g. a phosphonate, phosphate, aminocarboxylate, polyhydroxycarboxylate or polycarboxylates. The methods of preparing the agent and using it for RES imaging are described. (U.K.)

  18. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    interaction is critical for the long term stability of a pharmaceutical. Protein complex formation is important for extended half-life in vivo and is essential to cellular communication such as the induction of the insulin response. This thesis focuses on human serum albumin (HSA) as a central player...... by a repulsive network of HSA molecules screening the interaction of other proteins, hereby decreasing the aggregation propensity. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Due to its very limited half-life of approximately 3 minutes, Novo Nordisk A...

  19. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  20. Caveolae-dependent and -independent uptake of albumin in cultured rodent pulmonary endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Li

    Full Text Available Although a critical role for caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis in pulmonary endothelium is well established, considerably less is known about caveolae-independent pathways. In this current study, we confirmed that cultured rat pulmonary microvascular (RPMEC and pulmonary artery (RPAEC endothelium endocytosed Alexa488-labeled albumin in a saturable, temperature-sensitive mode and internalization resulted in co-localization by fluorescence microscopy with cholera B toxin and caveolin-1. Although siRNA to caveolin-1 (cav-1 in RPAEC significantly inhibited albumin uptake, a remnant portion of albumin uptake was cav-1-independent, suggesting alternative pathways for albumin uptake. Thus, we isolated and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC from wild type and cav-1(-/- mice and noted that ~ 65% of albumin uptake, as determined by confocal imaging or live cell total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy (TIRF, persisted in total absence of cav-1. Uptake of colloidal gold labeled albumin was evaluated by electron microscopy and demonstrated that albumin uptake in MLEC from cav-1(-/- mice was through caveolae-independent pathway(s including clathrin-coated pits that resulted in endosomal accumulation of albumin. Finally, we noted that albumin uptake in RPMEC was in part sensitive to pharmacological agents (amiloride [sodium transport inhibitor], Gö6976 [protein kinase C inhibitor], and cytochalasin D [inhibitor of actin polymerization] consistent with a macropinocytosis-like process. The amiloride sensitivity accounting for macropinocytosis also exists in albumin uptake by both wild type and cav-1(-/- MLEC. We conclude from these studies that in addition to the well described caveolar-dependent pulmonary endothelial cell endocytosis of albumin, a portion of overall uptake in pulmonary endothelial cells is cav-1 insensitive and appears to involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis-like process.

  1. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg lysozyme on albumin-heparin microspheres was linear until saturation was abruptly reached, The adsorption isotherms of human lysozyme at low and high ionic strength were typical of adsorption isoth...

  2. A model to estimate the relative position of sites for ligands in serum albumins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Art Adriel Emidio de Araújo; Grassini, Maria Carolina Vilela; Cortez, Célia Martins; Silva, Dilson

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical-computational model developed to estimate the relative position of ligand binding sites in HSA and BSA, based on the theory of fluorescence quenching, considering the molecular and spectrofluorimetric differences and similarities between these two albumins. Albumin is the largest and the most abundant serum protein in vertebrates. The ability to bind xenobiotics makes albumin important to the bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs.

  3. Lower serum albumin level is associated with higher fractional excretion of creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the tubular secretion of creatinine. It is known that fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr) increases with decreasing GFR. Association of serum albumin level with the tubular secretion of creatinine was also reported previously. Alteration of FE-Cr may affect the performance of GFR estimating equations based on serum creatinine. Therefore, we analyzed the factors influencing FE-Cr and compared the performance of GFR equations in subjects stratified by serum albumin levels. Seven hundred and fifty-seven Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance. GFR and Ccr were measured simultaneously. FE-Cr was calculated as the ratio of Ccr to GFR. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the factors influencing FE-Cr. Age, gender, GFR, body mass index (BMI), body weight, height and serum albumin level were analyzed as the parameters. Estimated GFR was calculated by Japanese GFR equations based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr), serum cystatin C (Eq-cys) and 5 variables including serum albumin (Eq-5var). FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR (p serum albumin level (p = 0.004) were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Biases of Eq-cr, Eq-cys and Eq-5var in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl were 6.4 ± 18.8, 2.0 ± 18.1 and 3.0 ± 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. GFR and serum albumin level were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons of the bias of GFR equation based on serum creatinine.

  4. Albumin-derived peptides efficiently reduce renal uptake of radiolabelled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegt, Erik; Eek, Annemarie; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.; Jong, Marion de

    2010-01-01

    In peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), the maximum activity dose that can safely be administered is limited by high renal uptake and retention of radiolabelled peptides. The kidney radiation dose can be reduced by coinfusion of agents that competitively inhibit the reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, such as positively charged amino acids, Gelofusine, or trypsinised albumin. The aim of this study was to identify more specific and potent inhibitors of the kidney reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides, based on albumin. Albumin was fragmented using cyanogen bromide and six albumin-derived peptides with different numbers of electric charges were selected and synthesised. The effect of albumin fragments (FRALB-C) and selected albumin-derived peptides on the internalisation of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide by megalin-expressing cells was assessed. In rats, the effect of Gelofusine and albumin-derived peptides on the renal uptake and biodistribution of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was determined. FRALB-C significantly reduced the uptake of all radiolabelled peptides in vitro. The albumin-derived peptides showed different potencies in reducing the uptake of 111 In-albumin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-minigastrin in vitro. The most efficient albumin-derived peptide (peptide 6), was selected for in vivo testing. In rats, 5 mg of peptide 6 very efficiently inhibited the renal uptake of 111 In-minigastrin, by 88%. Uptake of 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide was reduced by 26 and 33%, respectively. The albumin-derived peptide 6 efficiently inhibited the renal reabsorption of 111 In-minigastrin, 111 In-exendin and 111 In-octreotide and is a promising candidate for kidney protection in PRRT. (orig.)

  5. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-b...

  6. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  7. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  8. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preza, Ana M; Jaramillo, María E; Puebla, Ana M; Mateos, Juan C; Hernández, Rodolfo; Lugo, Eugenia

    2010-10-20

    Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Differential extraction of proteins from unfermented and semi-fermented-dry cacao seeds was performed and characterized by SDS-PAGE and FPLC size-exclusion chromatography. Antitumor activity was evaluated against murine lymphoma L5178Y in BALB/c mice (6 × 104 cells i.p.), with a treatment oral dose of 25 mg/kg/day of each protein fraction, over a period of 15 days. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS+ and ORAC-FL assays. Albumin, globulin and glutelin fractions from both cacao seed type were obtained by differential solubility extraction. Glutelins were the predominant fraction. In the albumin fraction, polypeptides of 42.3 and 8.5 kDa were found in native conditions, presumably in the form of two peptide chains of 21.5 kDa each one. The globulin fraction presented polypeptides of 86 and 57 kDa in unfermented cacao seed that produced the specific-cacao aroma precursors, and after fermentation the polypeptides were of 45 and 39 kDa. The glutelin fraction presented proteins >200 kDa and globulins components cacao seed, it was observed that the albumin fraction showed antitumoral activity, since it caused significant decreases (p cacao protein fractions with their identification, supporting the traditional use of the plant. The albumin fraction showed antitumor and free radical scavenging capacity, however both activities were not correlated. The protein fractions could be considered as source of potential antitumor peptides.

  9. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  10. Elucidation of structural and functional properties of albumin bound to gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Dongre, P M

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle-albumin complexes are being designed for targeted drug delivery and imaging. However, the changes in the functional properties of albumin due to adsorption on nanoparticles remain elusive. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate the structural and functional properties of human and bovine serum albumin bound to negatively charged gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Fluorescence data demonstrated static quenching of albumin by GNP with the quenching of buried as well as surface tryptophan in BSA. The binding process was enthalpy and entropy-driven in HSA and BSA, respectively. At lower concentrations of GNP there was a higher affinity for tryptophan, whereas at higher concentrations both tryptophan and tyrosine participated in the interaction. Synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed that the microenvironment of tryptophan in HSA turned more hydrophilic upon exposure to GNP. The α-helical content of albumin was unaltered by GNP. Approximately 37 and 23% reduction in specific activity of HSA and BSA was observed due to GNP binding. In presence of warfarin and ibuprofen the binding constants of albumin-GNP complexes were altered. A very interesting observation not reported so far is the retained antioxidant activity of albumin in presence of GNP i.e. we believe that GNPs did not bind to the free sulfhydryl groups of albumin. However enhanced levels of copper binding were observed. We have also highlighted the differential response in albumin due to gold and silver nanoparticles which could be attributed to differences in the charge of the nanoparticle.

  11. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  12. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Ranek, L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin during the first 60 min after injection...... was only moderately reduced. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin was significantly elevated in all the cirrhotics, mean 10.2%/h, range 8.8 to 12.3%/h, in comparison to values for twenty-eight normal subjects 5.4%/h, range 3.5-7.2%/h. Our results can best be explained by increased filtration out...

  13. Effect of 6-BA on nodal explant bud sproutings of Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo Efeito de 6-BA na brotação de gemas de explantes nodais de Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos da Silva Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee plants can be micropropagated by nodal bud sprouting using the 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA hormone. However, literature reports the use of a wide range of 6-BA, from 0.5 to 88.8 µM L-1. So, this study was performed to narrow that range. Nodal explants of Coffea arabica cv Mundo Novo obtained from in vitro plantlets were inoculated on gelled-MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-BA. Two assays were carried out: in the first one, 6-BA was used at concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µM L-1, being evaluated at 43 and 123 days. In the second experiment, dosis of 10, 20 and 30 µM L-1, have evaluated at 65 and 100 days. Treatments with 6-BA induced multiple sprouting from the nodal explants, which were best characterized around 100 days after inoculation. The nodal explants grew taller and showed multiple shoots, whereas the effect of 6-BA at 5 to 25 µM L-1 was similar to that with higher concentrations (50 and 100 µM L-1. Nodal explants yielded from 2.9 to 6.0 buds per node, achieving height of 1.3 to 1.5 cm at 5 to 25 µM L-1 of 6-BA, whereas they yielded from 4.3 to 4.9 buds per node but the sprouting grew about 0.8 cm at 50 and 100 µM L-1 of 6-BA. This study indicated that multiple sprouting of lateral buds can be induced by lower concentrations of 6-BA, for example, from 10 to 30 µM L-1, diminishing possible risks of somaclonal variation due to high levels of hormone concentration.O cafeeiro pode ser micropropagado via brotação de gemas laterais, aplicando o regulador de crescimento 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA. Entretanto, a literatura apresenta ampla variação da dose empregada, desde 0.5 a 88.8 µM L-1. Assim, este estudo visou otimizar doses para explantes nodais do cafeeiro C. arabica cv Mundo Novo. Explantes nodais, obtidos de plântulas cultivadas in vitro, foram inoculados em meio MS geleificado, com adição de diferentes concentrações de 6-BA. Foram feitos dois experimentos: no primeiro, 6-BA foi

  14. Serum albumin, but not glycated albumin was a potent factor affecting the performance of GFR equation based on serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Makino, Hirofumi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Tsuda et al. reported that high HbA1C or high glycated albumin (GA) level is a major factor in overestimation of GFR by Japanese GFR equation based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr). They developed a modified equation of Eq-cr (M-Eq-cr) using GA or HbA1c. Therefore, effect of GA levels on the estimated GFR (eGFR) by Eq-cr was evaluated in Japanese subjects. We validated the accuracy of the modified equation using GA by Tsuda et al. (M-Eq-cr) and new equations that we developed in the present study. Seven hundred and fifteen Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance (Cin). The subjects were divided into two groups by upper limit of the GA reference range (GA-1: GA 16.4 %). Factors affecting the ratio of eGFR to Cin (eGFR/Cin) were evaluated using multivariate analysis. New equations based on creatinine and albumin (Eq-cr-alb) and based on creatinine, albumin and GA were developed from development dataset (382 subjects). Performances of the equations were validated in validation dataset (333 subjects). Correlation coefficients between eGFR by Eq-cr and Cin were 0.839 and 0.914 in GA-1 and GA-2, respectively. Slopes (95 % confidential interval) of the regression lines with zero intercepts were 1.013 (0.991 to 1.036) and 0.997 (0.951 to 1.043), respectively. Both slopes were not significantly different from 1.0. Biases were -2.3 ± 19.0 and 0.2 ± 11.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Accuracy (p30; percentage of subjects within 30 % of Cin) (95 % CI) were 78 % (75, 81) and 71 % (62, 78), respectively. There was no significant difference in bias and accuracy between the two groups, indicating a reasonable accuracy of Eq-cr in GA-1 and GA-2. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower serum albumin and higher GA were associated with higher eGFR/Cin. Albumin was a more potent factor affecting eGFR/Cin than GA. M-Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR and had significantly larger bias compared with Eq-cr in subjects with GA > 20

  15. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  16. Similarity of permeabilities for Ficoll, pullulan, charge-modified albumin and native albumin across the rat peritoneal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsson, D; Axelsson, J; Rippe, C; Rippe, B

    2009-08-01

    Compared to neutral globular proteins, neutral polysaccharides, such as dextran, pullulan and Ficoll, appear hyperpermeable across the glomerular filtration barrier. This has been attributed to an increased flexibility and/or asymmetry of polysaccharides. The present study investigates whether polysaccharides are hyperpermeable also across the continuous capillaries in the rat peritoneum. In anaesthetized Wistar rats, FITC-Ficoll or FITC-pullulan together with (125)I-human serum albumin (RISA) or neutralized (125)I-bovine serum albumin (nBSA) were given intravenously, after which peritoneal dialysis (PD) using conventional PD fluid (Gambrosol 1.5%) was performed for 120 min. Concentrations of FITC-polysaccharides and radioactive albumin species in plasma and dialysis fluid were analysed with high-performance size exclusion chromatography and a gamma counter respectively. Transperitoneal clearance values were calculated for polysaccharides in the molecular radius range 36-150 A, and for RISA and nBSA. Ficoll and pullulan showed more or less identical permeabilities, compared to RISA and nBSA, across the peritoneal membrane. Although RISA-clearance, 5.50 +/- 0.28 (microL min(-1); +/-SEM), tended to be lower than the clearances of Ficoll(36A) (6.55 +/- 0.25), pullulan(36A) (6.08 +/- 0.22) and nBSA (6.56 +/- 0.23), the difference was not statistically significant. This is in contrast to the hyperpermeability exhibited by polysaccharides across the glomerular filtration barrier and also contrasts with the charge selectivity of the latter. The phenomenon of molecular flexibility is more important for a macromolecule's permeability through the glomerular filter than across the continuous peritoneal capillary endothelium. Furthermore, it seems that charge plays a subordinate role in the steady-state transport across the combined peritoneal capillary-interstitial barrier.

  17. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  18. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. IV - Café Influence of moisture content on the viability of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de café, recém-colhidas e imediatamente sêcas à sombra e ao sol, foram conservadas com diferentes teores de umidade em dois tipos de recipientes, abertos e hermèticamente fechados, à temperatura não controlada do laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos através de determinações periódicas das porcentagens de germinação e umidade das sementes armazenadas nessas condições, foram tiradas as seguintes conclusões: a a vitalidade das sementes foi inteiramente independente do processo de seca; b a longevidade das sementes conservadas em recipientes hermèticamente fechados foi inversamente proporcional ao seu teor de umidade; sementes com aproximadamente 20%, 13% e 10% de umidade premaneceram viáveis durante 4, 8 e 21 meses, respectivamente. c o teor inicial de umidade não teve qualquer influência sôbre a longevidade das sementes armazenadas em recipientes abertos; isto se verificou, provavelmente, em virtude da quantidade relativamente pequena de sementes, o que permitiu uma rápida desidratação daquelas que se encontravam com teores elevados de umidade; a vitalidade das sementes colocadas nestes recipientes permaneceu inalterada por oito a dez meses. Estas conclusões estão inteiramente em desacôrdo com as de vários autores, segundo as quais a semente de café perde rapidamente sua vitalidade pela simples desidratação ao ar.Freshly harvested seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer were air dried and sun-dried at different levels of moisture content and stored in open and sealed containers at room temperature. Moisture determination and germination tests were made on the "fresh" seeds and at different intervals during the storage period. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn: 1 The process of drying did not interfere with the seed viability. 2 The longevity of the seeds kept in sealed containers was inversely proportional to the seed moisture content. Seeds containing about

  19. Formulation and characterization of catalase in albumin microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwale, Rodney C; Oettinger, Carl W; Pai, S Balakrishna; Addo, Richard; Uddin, Nasir; Siddig, Aladin; D'Souza, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Catalase in albumin microspheres were formulated for intravenous administration to antagonize the effects of over-production of reactive oxygenated species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in septic shock. The aim was to increase effective half-life of catalase and take advantage of the phagocytic uptake of the encapsulated catalase by the vascular endothelium. Catalase microspheres were prepared by spray-drying. The microspheres were evaluated for particle size, particle shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, chemical stability, thermal stability and in vitro drug release characteristics. The microspheres had a mean particle size of 4.7 +/- 2 microm, optimal for phagocytic uptake, as demonstrated by Makino et al. SEM revealed that microspheres were spherical with smooth surface morphology. An encapsulation efficiency of 91.5 +/- 3% was achieved and the encapsulated catalase was chemically and thermally stable. Application of in vitro drug release data to the Higuchi kinetic equation indicated matrix diffusion-controlled catalase release from albumin microspheres.

  20. Phenylbutazone and ketoprofen binding to serum albumin. Fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, Małgorzata

    2014-10-01

    A combination of phenylbutazone (PBZ) and ketoprofen (KP) is popular in therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but could be unsafe due to the uncontrolled growth of toxicity. Quenching fluorescence of serum albumin in the presence of the both drugs has been characterized by dynamic KQ [M(-1)], static V [M(-1)] quenching constants and also association constants Ka [M(-1)]. The quenching of tryptophanyl residues fluorescence by the KP and PBZ indicates the capability of these drugs to accept the energy from Trp-214 and Trp-135. Strong displacement of KP and PBZ bound to albumin cause by the binding of the second drug to SA close to Trp-214 (subdomain IIA) has been obtained. The displacement was also confirmed on the basis of quenching and association constants. The conclusion, that both PBZ and KP form a binding site in the same subdomains (IIA or/and IB), points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of the uncontrolled toxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.