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Sample records for albuminous seeds coffea

  1. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  2. Coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination : mechanism and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.

    2002-01-01

     Coffee seeds display slow and variable germination which severely hampers the production of seedlings for planting in the following growth season. Little work has been done with the aim to understand the behavior of coffee seeds during germination and there is a

  3. Abscisic acid controls embryo growth potential and endosperm cap weakening during coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Aelst, van A.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism and regulation of coffee seed germination were studied in Coffea arabica L. cv. Rubi. The coffee embryo grew inside the endosperm prior to radicle protrusion and abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the increase in its pressure potential. There were two steps of endosperm cap weakening. An in

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Vivek; Soumya, L; Bharadwaj, S; Chakra, Shilpa; Bhatt, Deepika; Sreedhar, B

    2016-01-01

    A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3+extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV-vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459 nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM-EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800-1500 cm(-1) indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20-30 nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones.

  5. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E A Amaral; Toorop, Peter E; Nijsse, Jaap; Bewley, J Derek; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2005-03-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA(4+7) inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA(4+7) showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one between 0 and 1 microM and a higher one between 10 and 100 microM. However, radicle protrusion in coffee seed depended on the de novo synthesis of GAs. Endogenous GAs were required for embryo cell elongation and endosperm cap weakening. Incubation of coffee seed in exogenous GA(4+7) led to loss of embryo viability and dead cells were observed by low temperature scanning microscopy only when the endosperm was surrounding the embryo. The results described here indicate that the inhibition of germination by exogenous GAs is caused by factors that are released from the endosperm during or after its weakening, causing cell death in the embryo and leading to inhibition of radicle protrusion.

  6. Abscisic acid controls embryo growth potential and endosperm cap weakening during coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E A Amaral; Toorop, Peter E; van Aelst, Adriaan C; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2004-12-01

    The mechanism and regulation of coffee seed germination were studied in Coffea arabica L. cv. Rubi. The coffee embryo grew inside the endosperm prior to radicle protrusion and abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the increase in its pressure potential. There were two steps of endosperm cap weakening. An increase in cellulase activity coincided with the first step and an increase in endo-beta-mannanase (EBM) activity with the second step. ABA inhibited the second step of endosperm cap weakening, presumably by inhibiting the activities of at least two EBM isoforms and/or, indirectly, by inhibiting the pressure force of the radicle. The increase in the activities of EBM and cellulase coincided with the decrease in the force required to puncture the endosperm and with the appearance of porosity in the cell walls as observed by low-temperature scanning electronic microscopy. Tissue printing showed that EBM activity was spatially regulated in the endosperm. Activity was initiated in the endosperm cap whereas later during germination it could also be detected in the remainder of the endosperm. Tissue printing revealed that ABA inhibited most of the EBM activity in the endosperm cap, but not in the remainder of the endosperm. ABA did not inhibit cellulase activity. There was a transient rise in ABA content in the embryo during imbibition, which was likely to be responsible for slow germination, suggesting that endogenous ABA also may control embryo growth potential and the second step of endosperm cap weakening during coffee seed germination.

  7. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  8. Proteomic analysis of albumin and globulin fractions of pea (Pisum sativum L. seeds

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    Jerzy Dziuba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteomic analysis is emerging as a highly useful tool in food research, including studies of food allergies. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis involving isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the most effective method of separating hundreds or even thousands of proteins. In this study, albumin and globulin tractions of pea seeds cv. Ramrod were subjected to proteomic analysis. Selected potentially alergenic proteins were identified based on their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Material and methods. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Ramrod harvested over a period of two years (Plant Breeding Station in Piaski-Szelejewo were used in the experiment. The isolated albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteomic images were analysed in the ImageMaster 2D Platinum program with the use of algorithms from the Melanie application. The relative content, isoelectric points and molecular weights were computed for all identified proteins. Electrophoregrams were analysed by matching spot positions from three independent replications. Results. The proteomes of albumins, globulins and legumin and vicilin fractions of globulins produced up to several hundred spots (proteins. Spots most characteristic of a given fraction were identified by computer analysis and spot matching. The albumin proteome accumulated spots of relatively high intensity over a broad range of pi values of -4.2-8.1 in 3 molecular weight (MW ranges: I - high molecular-weight albumins with MW of -50-110 kDa, II - average molecular-weight albumins with MW of -20-35 kDa, and III - low molecular-weight albumins with MW of -13-17 kDa. 2D gel electrophoregrams revealed the presence of 81 characteristic spots, including 24 characteristic of legumin and 14 - of vicilin. Conclusions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proved to be a useful tool for

  9. Effects of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 on arabica and conillon seeds coffea: physic-chemistry evaluation; Efeitos da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em sementes de cafe arabica e conillon: avaliacao fisico-quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus Henriques da

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. The coffee bean is one of the main products of the Brazilian trade balance. Two species of coffee are the most economically important: the Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre is the largest representative of the Coffea canephora Pierre is the coffea conillon. Food irradiation is an area of research that aims to increase the shelf life of foods and controlling pests. This study aimed to verify the physicochemical variables of Arabica coffee and conillon were affected when exposed to doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60. The samples were provided by Polo in Coffee Quality Technology, Federal University of Lavras - UFLA. The coffee samples were subjected to irradiation doses: 0 (control), 5 kGy and 10 kGy, a multipurpose irradiator of IPEN - Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and the University of São Paulo, at a rate of 7.5 kGy / hour. For irradiation the samples were vacuum-packed in appropriate packaging aluminised. After the process of irradiation the samples were stored at a temperature of 15 ± 1 deg C and relative humidity of 17 ± 1%. The following analyzes were performed: levels of total sugars, glucose, sucrose, caffeine, humidity, pH, total acidity, electrical conductivity and fibers. Analyses were performed 1, 30, 60 and 90 days after irradiation, and the results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. It was observed that the analysis results of the samples irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy showed values similar to the control. It was concluded that irradiation did not induce deleterious effects on arabica coffee seeds and conillon irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy to 90 days after irradiation. (author)

  10. Genética de Coffea: XII - Hereditariedade da côr amarela da semente

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    A. Carvalho

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The known species of Coffea can be grouped into two categories according to the color of their endosperm which is either green or yellow. The commercially cultivated varieties of Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner are well known for the green color of their seed while the less known varieties of Coffea liberica Hiern and Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur. have yellow Feed. In 1935, however, a yellow seeded type of C. arabica, was found in Brazil and has been described as Coffea arabica L. var. cera K.M.C. ; it is believed to have originated by mutation from Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer. In this paper the authors present the results of a genetic study of the yellow seeded mutant known as "cera". It has been found that in C. arabica, yellow endosperm is controlled by one pair of recessive factors cece. Hybrid seeds containing a Cece embryo were green (xenia, their endosperm being either Cecece or CeCece. Cera is a tetraploid variety and when it was crossed with diploid Coffea species having yellow endosperm, it was found to produce only yellow hybrid seeds. The cera, which is a yellow seeded mutant has been useful not only for definitely showing that the bulk of the coffee seed is true endosperm, but it has also proved useful is study of the biology of the coffee flower.

  11. Teste de condutividade elétrica individual na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. Individual electrical conductivity test for evaluation of the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L.

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    Paula de Souza Cabral Costa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O teste de condutividade elétrica é usado para medir os exsudatos das sementes, que certamente refletem a integridade do sistema de membranas. O teste é rápido e de operação simples, mas a metodologia necessita ser testada para cada espécie individualmente para obter uma melhor precisão e exatidão dos resultados. Este trabalho foi conduzido visando determinar o ponto de partição na realização do teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de café. Dez lotes de sementes de Coffea arabica sem pergaminho, cultivar Acaiá foram usados nesse estudo. Para a avaliação do ponto de partição as sementes foram embebidas por 96 horas e submetidas ao teste de germinação, correlacionando os valores de condutividade observados com os valores obtidos no teste de germinação. O ponto de partição é de 120,5µS.cm-1, considerando 70% de germinação.The conductivity test is used to measure the leaches from the seeds, which certaintily reflect the membrane system integrity. The test is rapid and it is of simple operation, but the methodology needs to be tested for each individual species in order to reach a better precision and accuracy. This work was conducted to determinate the partition point for the realization of electrical conductivity test in coffee seeds. Ten seed lots of Coffea arabica, cultivar Acaiá, without parchment, were used in this study. For the evaluation of the partition point, seeds were imbibed for 96 hours and submitted to the germination test, with the correlation between the conductivity values and those obtained in the germination test being evaluated. The partition point is 120,5µS.cm-1, considering 70% of germination.

  12. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities.

  13. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato

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    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  14. Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg.

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    Odintsova, T I; Rogozhin, E A; Sklyar, I V; Musolyamov, A K; Kudryavtsev, A M; Pukhalsky, V A; Smirnov, A N; Grishin, E V; Egorov, T A

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we isolated and characterized novel antifungal proteins from seeds of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.). We showed that they are represented by five isoforms, each consisting of two disulphide-bonded large and small subunits. One of them, To-A1 was studied in detail, including N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits, and shown to display sequence homology with the sunflower 2S albumin. Using different assays we demonstrated that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concentrations with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity. Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions.

  15. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: VIII - Novas determinações sôbre poliembrionia, sementes sem embrião e lojas dos frutos sem sementes em Coffea Coffee breeding: VIII - Additional information on polyembryony, germless seeds and empty seeds in Coffea

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    Aldo Alves

    1955-01-01

    29,50 e 30,00%, respectivamente. Entre as outras espécies, C. Dewevrei, C. canephora (Robusta e C. liberica x C. Dewevrei apresenta incidência maior desse defeito. Sementes moca ocorrem com freqüência variável nas variedades de C. arabica : é baixa em C. Dewevrei e mais elevada para C. canephora, C. congensis e nos híbridos arabica x Dewevrei e liberica x Dewevrei. A freqüência de sementes oriundas de frutos triloculares é mais elevada nas variedades de C. arabica, purpurascens, semperflorens, mokka e Bourbon Amarelo. Proporções muito elevadas dêste tipo de sementes foram encontradas para algumas variedades de C. Dewevrei.It is known that seeds with more than one embryo (polyembryonic as well as germless seeds are found to occur in the cultivated species of Coffea. Fruits with more than one seed per locule (false polyembryony or fruit locules without normal seeds are also found as well as fruits with only one developed locule (peaberry seeds, or trilocular fruits presenting three seeds. This paper presents the observations made on the frequencies of these abnormalities in several varieties of C. arabica, in C. canephora, C. Dewevrei, C. congensis and C. liberica and also in some interspecific hybrids. C. arabica var. typica was considered as a standard in comparisons made among arabica varieties. As a rule, polyembryonic seeds present two embryos. However, seeds with three normal embryos were also found with very low frequency. It vas observed that 1.19 per cent of polyembryonic seeds occurred in var. typica, while the incidence of this type of seed was 3.47 per cent for var. angustifolia and 3.16 per cent for var. erecta. For other species than arabica very reduced proportions of polyembryonic seeds were found in C. canephora (Robusta coffee, C. congensis (Congensis Bangelan and in a tetraploid hybrid C. arabica x C. Dewevrei (plant number C 387. Germless seeds were more frequently found in Yellow Caturra, Cera, Yellow Goiaba and Nana, among arabica

  16. Characterization of the emulsification properties of 2S albumins from sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Gary R; Rigby, Neil M; Mills, E N Clare; Belton, Peter S; Fido, Roger J; Tatham, Arthur S; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-03-01

    The ability of 2S albumins from sunflower seeds to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions has been investigated, demonstrating that one of the proteins (SFA8) effectively stabilizes emulsions, while another (SF-LTP) does not stabilize emulsions. The surface tension and surface dilation viscosity of these two proteins were measured, rationalizing the emulsifying ability of SFA8 in terms of its ability to form a strongly elastic monolayer at interfaces. The secondary structure changes that occur upon adsorption of SFA8 to the oil/water interface have also been studied by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that the beta-sheet content of the protein increased upon adsorption at the expense of alpha-helix and random structure. Moreover, FT-IR measurements indicate the presence of intermolecular beta-sheet formation upon adsorption. Fluorescence studies with an oil-soluble fluorescence quencher indicate that the single tryptophan residue present in SFA8 may become located in the oil-phase of the emulsion. This residue is thought to be partially buried in the native protein, and these data suggest that changes in the polypeptide region flanking this residue may play an important role in the molecular rearrangement that occur on or following adsorption to the oil/water interface.

  17. Caffeine inheritance in interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica x Coffea canephora (Gentianales, Rubiaceae

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    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine inheritance was investigated in F2 and BC1F1 generations between Coffea arabica var. Bourbon Vermelho (BV and Coffea canephora var. Robusta 4x (R4x. The caffeine content of seeds and leaves was determined during 2004 and 2005. Microsatellite loci-markers were used to deduce the meiotic pattern of chromosome pairing of tetraploid interspecific hybrids. Genetic analysis indicated that caffeine content in seeds was quantitatively inherited and controlled by genes with additive effects. The estimates of broad-sense heritability of caffeine content in seeds were high for both generations. In coffee leaves, the caffeine content (BSH from the same populations showed transgressive segregants with enhanced levels and high BSH. Segregation of loci-markers in BC1F1 populations showed that the ratios of the gametes genotype did not differ significantly from those expected assuming random associations and tetrasomic inheritance. The results confirm the existence of distinct mechanisms controlling the caffeine content in seeds and leaves, the gene exchange between the C. arabica BV and C. canephora R4x genomes and favorable conditions for improving caffeine content in this coffee population.

  18. Solution structure of a methionine-rich 2S albumin from sunflower seeds: relationship to its allergenic and emulsifying properties.

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    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Shewry, Peter R; Bruix, Marta; Tatham, Arthur S; Santoro, Jorge; Rico, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    The three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution of SFA-8, a 2S albumin 103-residue protein from seeds of sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.), has been determined by NMR methods. An almost complete (1)H resonance assignment was accomplished from analysis of two-dimensional (2D) COSY and 2D TOCSY spectra, and the structure was computed by using restrained molecular dynamics on the basis of 1393 upper limit distance constraints derived from NOE cross-correlation intensities measured in 2D NOESY spectra. In contrast with most other 2S albumins, SFA-8 consists of a single polypeptide chain without any cleavage in the segment of residues 30-46. The computed structures exhibited an rmsd radius of 0.52 A for the backbone structural core (residues 11-30 and 46-101) and 1.01 A for the side chain heavy atoms. The resulting structure consists of five amphipathic helices arranged in a right-handed superhelix, a folding motif first observed in nonspecific lipid transfer (nsLTP) proteins, and common to other 2S albumins. In contrast to nsLTP proteins, neither SFA-8 nor RicC3 (a 2S albumin from castor bean) has an internal cavity that is able to host a lipid molecule, which results from an exchange in the pairing of disulfide bridges in the CXC segment. Both 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins belong to the prolamin superfamily, which includes a number of important food allergens. Differences in the extension and solvent exposition of the so-called "hypervariable loop" (which connects helices III and IV) in SFA-8 and RicC3 may be responsible for the different allergenic properties of the two proteins. SFA-8 has been shown to form highly stable emulsions with oil/water mixtures. We propose that these properties may be determined partly by a hydrophobic patch at the surface of the protein which consists of five methionines that partially hide the Trp76 residue. The flexibility of the loop which contains Trp76 and the hydrophobicity of the whole environment may favor

  19. Growth, fecundity and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene.

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    Godfree, Robert C; Woods, Matthew J; Young, Andrew G; Burdon, Jeremy J; Higgins, T J V

    2004-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is an important step in the production and commercialisation of transgenic plants. To date, however, most risk assessment studies have been performed on crop plants, and few have considered the ecological consequences associated with genetic modification of pasture species. In this study we compared the growth, yield, population dynamics and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura (subclover) expressing a nutritive sunflower seed albumin (ssa) gene with the equivalent non-transgenic commercial line in a glasshouse competition trial. Plants were grown in low-fertility soil typical of unimproved native southeastern Australian grasslands. We measured survivorship, seed production rate, seed germination rate, seed weight, dry weight yield and the intrinsic rate of population increase (lambda) of plants grown in mixtures and monocultures over a range of densities (250 to 2000 plants m(-2)), and also determined intragenotypic and intergenotypic competition coefficients for each line. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic plants in any of the measured variables except survivorship; transgenic plants had a significantly lower survival rate than non-transgenic plants when grown at high densities (pdensity-dependent effects were observed for all measured variables, and in all models plant density affected the response variables more than the presence of the transgene. Based on these results, we conclude that the ssa gene construct appears to confer no advantage to transgenic T. s. subterraneum cv. Leura growing in mixed or pure swards under the fertility and density regimes examined in the trial. Our data also suggest that transgenic subterranean clover expressing the ssa gene is unlikely to exhibit a competitive advantage over associated non-transgenic commercial cultivars when grown in dense swards in low-fertility pastures.

  20. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

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    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  1. Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein from Moringa oleifera seeds, is a member of the 2S albumin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, José E C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Batista, Adelina B; Lobo, Marina D P; Pereira, Mirella L; Lima, João P M S; Almeida, Ricardo V M; Sousa, Antônio J S; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Oliveira, José T A; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin.

  2. Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein from Moringa oleifera seeds, is a member of the 2S albumin family.

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    José E C Freire

    Full Text Available Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4 were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3 and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4 with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin.

  3. Características do cultivar iarana de coffea arabica The iarana cultivar of coffea arabica

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    A. Carvalho

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas mecânicas de sementes de cafeeiros selecionados portadores de alelos individuais SH1, SH2 , SH3 , SH4 responsáveis pela resistência de Coffea arabica a grupos de raças fisiológicas de Hemileia vastatrix foram distribuídas aos lavradores com as denominações de cultivar iarana-C 73 e iarana-C 74. As sementes foram misturadas nas proporções, em peso, de 2:12:3:1 e 2:8:2:1, para os genotipos SH1SH1, SH2SH2 , SH3,SH3, e SH4SH4 , para os anos de 1973 e 1974, respectivamente. Todos os cafeeiros devem ser portadores dos alelos SH5SH5. A mistura foi distribuida em 1973, a 987 lavradores e, em 1974, a 463 lavradores de todas as regiões cafeeiras do Brasil. O iarana deverá ser plantado isoladamente do resto do cafezal em cada propriedade, para observação e seleção das plantas mais adaptadas para produção de sementes. As hibridações naturais que ocorrem entre plantas de diferentes genotipos darão origem a novas combinações genéticas portadoras de vários dos fatores genéticos, com espectro mais amplo de resistência às raças fisiológicas de H. vastatrix.Mechanical mixtures of seeds of selected plants of Coffea arabica carrying the dominant alleles SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4 conditioning resistance to different races of Hemileia vastatrix were released to the growers as Iarana C 73 and Iarana C 74 cultivars. The seeds were mixed in the proportion of 2:12:3:1 and 2:8:2:1 for the genotypes SH1SH1, SH2SH2, SH2SH3 and SH4SH4 for 1973 and 1974 crops, respectively. The mixed seeds were distributed to 987 farmers in 1973 and 463 coffee farmers in 1974 from most of the coffee regions in Brazil. Iarana is to be planted in isolated plots for observation and selection of the more adapted plants for seed production. Natural hybridization between plants of different genotypes will give rise to new combinations with broader spectrum of resistance to physiological races of H. vastratrix.

  4. Uma nova forma de Coffea

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    C. A. Krug

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos extensos trabalhos de melhoramento do cafeeiro, há 18 anos em realização na Subdivisão de Genética do Instituto Agronômico, tem-se dedicado especial atenção à espécie C. arabica L., pelo fato de todos os nossos cafèzais pertencerem a esta espécie que, sem dúvida, fornece o produto de melhor qualidade. Nas regiões de terras extremamente cansadas, um dos principais fatôres levados em consideração no melhoramento é a rusticidade, caráter êsse, entretanto, encontrado de preferência em outras espécies, tais como o C. canephora e C. Dewevrei, cujos cafés são de má qualidade. A hibridação interespecífica, que poderia reunir em uma só planta caraterísticos de rusticidade e boa qualidade de bebida, tem o inconveniente de dar origem a plantas triplóides, que são estéreis. Daí se deduz que a obtenção artificial de formas que combinassem êsses caraterísticos constitui problema, cuja solução é extremamente demorada. No presente trabalho, apresentam-se os caracteres de uma nova forma de Coffea, encontrada em cafèzal da Fazenda Itaporã, em Terra Roxa, município de Viradouro, que, com algumas ressalvas, oferece a desejada combinação de caracteres. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de um híbrido espontâneo entre C. arabica e C. Dewevrei, com 2n = 44 cromosômios, extremamente rústico e produtivo, cujas sementes fornecem uma bebida que pode ser classificada como boa. Apenas apresenta, como principal defeito, uma auto-esterilidade quase completa. Os seus caraterísticos botânicos são descritos em detalhe. Devido ao seu porte elevado, ramos abundantes e folhas grandes e coriáceas, esse cafeeiro se assemelha ao C. Dewevrei. Os frutos são oval-elípticos, de um vermelho bem escuro quando maduros, e as sementes oblongas, constatan-do-se elevada percentagem do tipo "moca" e "chocha". Quanto à constituição citológica, as pesquisas conduziram à hipótese de este cafeeiro possuir 22 cromosômios de C. arabica e 22 (n

  5. Genética de Coffea XXIV - Mutantes de Coffea arabica procedemtes da Etiópia Genetics of Coffea XXIV - Mutants of Coffea arabica from ethiopia

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    Alcides Carvalho

    1959-01-01

    ferrugem do cafeeiro, as quais estão sendo detalhadamente estudadas em Portugal. Diversos outros mutantes foram encontrados, afetando a posição das fôlhas nos ramos, a forma das fôlhas e dos frutos, a coloração do fruto, época de maturação e vigor vegetalivo. Alguns conjuntos são vigorosos e poderão ter interesse econômico. A ocorrência de vários fatôres novos nesse material da Etiópia indica o interêsse que há em se realizar um estudo pormenorizado dos mutantes de Coffea arábica existentes na região de origem da espécie.Very little is known about the genetic variability of the species Coffea arabica in its native home - the South-West of Ethiopia. Only more recently an increased interest is being noted with regard to the native coffee of this region and seed samples of wild, cultivated and subspontaneous coffee types have lately been gathered by various agricultural experts. Several small seedling populations from Ethiopia were received in Campinas in 1952 and 1953. Studies on genetic constitution of some of them is now being carried out. It was noted that the "Eritrean moca" coffee (PI 205 413, USDA is identical to the semperflorens mutant, being homozygous for the alleles sjsj. The results of the artificial pollination with the murta variety (ttNana revealed that from 33 analysed coffee plants from Ethiopia, 23 carry the alleles it, probably in the homozygous condition. The alleles tt characterize the variety bourbon, and its presence in Ethiopia indicates that this region and not the Reunion Island, as formerly thought, is the place of origin of this important commercial variety. The typica variety (TTNaNa also occurs in Ethiopia. Plants of the abyssinica variety were frequently found in some of the seedling populations. Although the alleles responsible for its main characters are not yet known, it was noted that abyssinica plants carry the alleles TT. Other populations, segregating for abyssinica characteristics bear the alleles it. The coffee

  6. Efeitos de tempos e temperaturas de condicionamento sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, L. sob condições ideais e de estresse térmico Effects of the times and temperatures of conditioning on the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L. under ideal conditions and under thermal stress

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    Sílvia Mara Pacheco Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com a presente pesquisa estudar tempos e temperaturas mais adequadas para o condicionamento fisiológico e avaliar os efeitos desses tratamentos na germinação sob condições de estresse térmico, de sementes de cafeeiro armazenadas. O estudo foi conduzido nos Laboratórios de Análise de Sementes e Técnicas Moleculares do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, utilizando-se sementes de café da cultivar Acaiá do cerrado. As sementes foram colhidas nos campos de produção da UFLA e armazenadas em condições de ambiente de agosto/2000 a janeiro/2001, quando foram submetidas ao condicionamento em água nas temperaturas de 15, 25 e 35ºC por 4, 8 12 dias de embebição. O condicionamento foi realizado em câmara tipo BOD, na presença de luz, e a aeração foi feita com compressores e bombas de aquário. Após cada tratamento, as sementes foram imediatamente submetidas à determinação do teor de água e avaliadas pelos testes de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação sob estresse térmico (20 e 35ºC e eletroforese de enzimas. Para comparação, foram utilizadas sementes sem tratamento de embebição. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que as sementes condicionadas em água a 15 e 25ºC apresentaram melhor desempenho da germinação em condições de estresse térmico; o condicionamento a 35ºC não foi apropriado; o condicionamento por 4 dias foi o menos eficiente em melhorar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e o condicionamento fisiológico em água mostrou-se eficaz ao revigoramento, principalmente a 25ºC por 12 dias.The goal of this work was the evaluation of the adequate times and temperatures for the physiological contitioning and effects of this techinique in the germination on stress conditions, of stored coffee seeds. The experiment was performed in the Seed and Molecular Techniques Laboratories of the UFLA's Agriculture Departament. The seeds used were from the cultivar Acai

  7. Characteristics of Germination of Piper nigrum and Coffea canephora Seeds Stored at an Ambient Temperature%胡椒和咖啡2种中间性种子的萌发特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华庚

    2006-01-01

    研究了胡椒(Piper nigrum Linnaeus)和中粒种咖啡(Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner)种子在常温自然贮藏条件的萌发特性.结果表明,刚采收的胡椒种子和中粒种咖啡种子的含水量、发芽率、活力指数分别为29.32%和46.11%、88%和92.0%、1.46和5.57.自然贮藏20 d,干燥脱水对胡椒种子的伤害较轻微,种子发芽率和活力指数仍高达82.7%和1.03;之后,由于严重脱水,种子发芽率和活力指数迅速下降;自然贮藏60 d,种子含水量下降到10.91%时,完全丧失发芽力.自然贮藏30 d,干燥脱水对中粒种咖啡种子的伤害较轻微,种子发芽率和活力指数仍高达80.5%和4.10;之后由于严重脱水,种子发芽率和活力指数急剧下降;自然贮藏90d,种子含水量下降到9.81%时,种子几乎完全丧失发芽力.由此认为,胡椒和中粒种咖啡是一种中间性种子,过度脱水使质膜结构和功能严重受损,最终导致种子活力的丧失.因此,在播种时,采用常温自然贮藏不超过20 d的胡椒种子及贮藏不超过30 d的中粒种咖啡种子为佳.

  8. Quantification of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta in roasted and ground coffee blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Laura Ruth; Pellegrino, Gloria; Giugno, Graziella; Consonni, Roberto

    2013-03-15

    This study reports direct quantification of arabica in roasted and ground coffee blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta. (1)H-NMR analysis of water extracts of coffee blends were combined with multivariate statistical analysis to obtain an OPLS model with high predictive capability. This approach allowed to evaluate the composition of coffee blends of unknown arabica and robusta content, on the basis of multiple chemical components. Differences in geographical origin of the analyzed samples did not affected the compositional determination of coffee blends. This approach represents a valid tool in authentication procedures of arabica and robusta blends of roasted and ground coffee.

  9. Komunitas Nematoda pada Tanaman Kopi (Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Muda di Kabupaten Tanggamus Lampung

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    I GEDE SWIBAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Community of Nematode in The Young Coffee ( Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Crops in Tanggamus District, Lampung. Tanggamus district is one of coffee production center in Lampung province. Since year of 2013, farmers in Tanggamus have been replaced the unproductive old coffee by coffee seed introduced from East Java. Introducing coffe seed from outside area at risk of carrying plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this research was to study community of nematode associated with young coffee crops in Tanggamus. Survey was conducted in coffee robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta fields belonging to farmer on September 2014. Soil samples were collected from three sites: Margo Mulyo, Sumber Rejo and Batu Bedil. Nematodes were extracted by sieving and centrifugation with sugar solution method. The results show that were 20 genera consisted of 9 genera of plant parasitic and 11 genera of free living nematodes associated with young coffee in Tanggamus. The nematode community was dominated by Pratylenchus and Radopholus. The population of Pratylenchus and Radopholus in Sumber Rejo site were 421 and 846 individual per 300 ml of soil respectively. It was needed to indentify up to species taxonomic level for Pratylenchus and Radopholus associated with young coffee in Tanggamus.

  10. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

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    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  11. Avaliação da bebida e outras características de cultivares de Coffea canephora e Coffea congensis Cup quality evaluation of Coffea canephora and Coffea congensis cultivars

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    A. A. Teixeira

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se várias características morfológicas de amostras de sementes e a qualidade do produto de alguns cultivares de Coffea canephora e de C. congensis, coletadas em quatro localidades do Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se uma escala de cinco pontos, desenvolvida em Angola, para avaliação da qualidade da bebida de C. canephora. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com os dos padrões kouillou de C. canephora do Estado do Espírito Santo e mundo-novo de C. arabica. Verificou-se que 46% das amostras de sementes beneficiadas foram classificadas como pertencentes a C. arabica e, 36%, a C. canephora. As porcentagens de sementes do tipo moca variaram de 10 a 50% para as amostras de C. canephora e de 20 a 40% para C. congensis. Para o mundo-novo essa porcentagem foi de 15%. Os dados referentes à qualidade da bebida indicaram que oito amostras deram bebida significativamente melhor do que a do padrão kouillou e nenhuma se revelou melhor do que a do mundo-novo. Comparações entre as médias de pontos conferidos à bebida de 17 amostras de C. canephora despolpadas com as correspondentes não despolpadas, revelaram diferenças significativas, indicando que a operação do despolpamento contribuiu para a melhoria da qualidade da bebida. As amostras de café despolpadas de C. canephora colhidas em Ribeirão Preto revelaram-se de melhor qualidade de bebida, em relação às das outras três localidades: Tietê, Jaú e Pindorama. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram, ainda, que os cultivares de C. congensis e de C. canephora podem dar bebida de qualidade semelhante.Coffea canephora and C. congensis cultivars were evaluated for morphological and cup quality characteristics, comparing seed samples from four localities of the State of São Paulo. A five point scale, developed in Angola for testing cup quality of C. canephora, was used. C. canephora cv. Kouillou, from the State of Espírito Santo, and C. arabica cv. Mundo-Novo were used as standards. According

  12. Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.

  13. Structural features of acelated galactomannans from green Coffea arabica Beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Coenen, G.J.; Vermeulen, N.C.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from green Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C, 1 h). Galactomannans were isolated from the water extract using preparative anion-exchange chromatography. Almost all of the galactomannans eluted in two neutral populations, while almost all of the arabinogalactans bo

  14. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The v

  15. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

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    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute. There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

  16. SHOOT AND ROOT EVALUATIONS ON SEEDLINGS FROM Coffea GENOTYPES

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    RAMOS LUIS CARLOS DA SILVA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots and shoots from seedlings of 29 coffee genotypes were studied to better characterize the entries from the Coffea germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brasil. The varieties were seeded in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications and 10 plants per plot. The characters evaluated were: plant (PL, shoot (SL and root (RL length; total plant (PDM, shoot (SDM, root (RDM and lateral root (LRDM dry matter. A lateral root index (LRI and shoot root dry matter (SRDM = SDM/RDM and length ratios; (SRL = SL/RL were calculated. The dwarf varieties (Catuaí, Icatu-caturra, Vila Sarchi, San Ramon, Vila Lobos, São Bernardo presented higher LRDM and lower SDM than the normal size varieties such as Mundo Novo, Bourbon Vermelho, Arábica, Amarelo de Botucatu, Glaucia, etc. The varieties Macrodiscus, Icatu-caturra, Bourbon Amarelo, Vila Lobos and C. congensis showed higher root development related to shoot. The Arábica coffee standard variety showed intermediary root and shoot development. Genotypes of high yield background were higher in SL and SDM, while the dwarf types had only lower SL than the normal ones, but higher RL and dry matters. Seedlings from genotypes of known higher field drought tolerance had lower SL and RL, but higher RDM. Significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients were obtained, such the genotypes for PL and PDM (r = 0.64; P = 0.01, SL and SDM (r = 0.40; P = 0.05, SDM and LRDM (r = 0.52; P = 0.05, RDM and LRI (r = 0.68; P = 0.01, LRI and SRDM (r = 0.85; P = 0.01 and LRI and LRDM (r = 0.84; P = 0.01. High genotypic correlations suggest that selection directed to one character will directly affect the other. Conversely, low or non-significant correlations suggest independence of association, an indication that it would be possible to select two characteristics to diverse directions. Selection could be done towards different goals to change root and shoot measures

  17. An EST-based analysis identifies new genes and reveals distinctive gene expression features of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondego, J.M.C.; Vidal, R.O.; Carazzolle, M.F.; Tokuda, E.K.; Parizzi, L.P.; Costa, G.G.L.; Pereira, L.F.P.; Andrade, A.C.; Colombo, C.A.; Vieira, L.G.E.; Pereira, G.A.G.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the world’s most important crops; it is consumed worldwide and plays a significant role in the economy of producing countries. Coffea arabica and C. canephora are responsible for 70 and 30% of commercial production, respectively. C. arabica is an allotetraploid from a re

  18. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the XMT and DXMT N-methyltransferases from Coffea canephora (robusta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Andrew A., E-mail: andrewmc@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Biget, Laurent [Nestlé Research and Development, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, Notre-Dame D’Oe, 37097 Tours (France); Lin, Chenwei [Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Petiard, Vincent [Nestlé Research and Development, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, Notre-Dame D’Oe, 37097 Tours (France); Tanksley, Steve D. [Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); McCarthy, James G. [Nestlé Research and Development, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, Notre-Dame D’Oe, 37097 Tours (France); European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2007-04-01

    The genes encoding XMT and DXMT, the enzymes from Coffea canephora (robusta) that catalyse the three independent N-methyl transfer reactions in the caffeine-biosynthesis pathway, have been cloned and the proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been crystallized in the presence of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosyl-l-cysteine (SAH) and substrate (xanthosine for XMT and theobromine for DXMT). Caffeine is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of plants including Coffea canephora (robusta) and there is growing evidence that caffeine is part of a chemical defence strategy protecting young leaves and seeds from potential predators. The genes encoding XMT and DXMT, the enzymes from Coffea canephora (robusta) that catalyse the three independent N-methyl transfer reactions in the caffeine-biosynthesis pathway, have been cloned and the proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Both proteins have been crystallized in the presence of the demethylated cofactor S-adenosyl-l-cysteine (SAH) and substrate (xanthosine for XMT and theobromine for DXMT). The crystals are orthorhombic, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} for XMT and C222{sub 1} for DXMT. X-ray diffraction to 2.8 Å for XMT and to 2.5 Å for DXMT have been collected on beamline ID23-1 at the ESRF.

  19. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown.

  20. Interaction between Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Intercropped Herbs under Field Conditions in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pacheco Bustos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine released from decaying seeds and leaves accumulates in a soluble form in the soil. The compound is known to inhibit mitosis, reduce the access of nutrients and water to surrounding plants which is one of limiting problems in intercropped coffee plantations. The allelopathic interactions between coffee (Coffea arabica L. and mint (Mentha piperita L., basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L. could be a diversification alternative and extra income activity for coffee growers outside the harvest period that could cope with high levels of caffeine in the soil. We tested the interaction of the proposed system (2004 – 2005 in rural area of Puebla State, Mexico. The results demonstrate that intercropping sage, spearmint, basil and oregano stimulate the plagiotropic growth of Coffea arabica plants most effectively in young production systems, through volatile essential oils. Intercropping basil, sage, spearmint and oregano in coffee plantations seems to be a promising approach for higher income and increasing yield and quality production in coffee farms.

  1. Analysis of phosphorus use efficiency traits in Coffea genotypes reveals Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora have contrasting phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Phosphate (Pi is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availability.Methods: Plants of twenty-one cultivars of C. arabica and four cultivars of C. canephora were grown under contrasting soil Pi availabilities. Biomass accumulation, tissue P concentration and accumulation and efficiency indices for P use were measured. Key Results: Coffee plant growth was significantly reduced under low Pi availability, and P concentration was higher in cultivars of C. canephora. The young leaves accumulated more P than any other tissue. The cultivars of C. canephora had a higher root/shoot ratio and were significantly more efficient in P uptake, while the cultivars of C. arabica were more efficient in P utilization. Agronomic P use efficiency varied among coffee cultivars and E16 Shoa, E22 Sidamo, Iêmen and Acaiá cultivars were classified as the most efficient and responsive to Pi supply. A positive correlation between P uptake efficiency and root to shoot ratio was observed across all cultivars at low Pi supply. These data identify Coffea genotypes better adapted to low soil Pi availabilities, and the traits that contribute to improved P uptake and use efficiency. These data could be used to select current genotypes with improved P uptake or utilization efficiencies for use on soils with low Pi availability and also provide potential breeding material and targets for breeding new cultivars better adapted to the low Pi status of Brazilian soils. This could ultimately reduce the use of Pi fertilizers in tropical soils, and contribute to

  2. Temporal and spatial expression of 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Chen, Grace Q

    2007-11-28

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed development, showing a bell-shaped temporal pattern. Residual levels of the transcript were present in the mature seed and degraded rapidly upon germination. Immunodetection analysis was performed using an anti-2S albumin antibody under reducing conditions. During seed development, the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein began to be synthesized at 26 days after pollination (DAP); the pro-protein was thereafter processed to mature proteins at 40 DAP, suggesting that the post-translation modification of 2S albumin takes place during this time period. Both the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein and the mature proteins accumulated throughout seed maturation and desiccation stages. During seed germination, both forms of the 2S albumin proteins were present in endosperm and cotyledon until the completion of germination and degraded rapidly afterwards. However, the antibody also detected a group of proteins/peptides in endosperm and cotyledon when the seeds progressed to germination and post-germination stages. A 14 kDa protein in the leaves of fully developed seedlings and mature plants also reacted to the anti-2S albumin antibody. The identity of the proteins accumulated in germinating seed and leaf remains unknown.

  3. A new source of resistance against coffee leaf rust from New-Caledonian natural interspecific hybrids between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora

    OpenAIRE

    Mahé, Laetitia; Varzea, V. M. P.; Le Pierrès, Daniel; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The development of cultivars resistant to coffee leaf rust caused by the fungal pathogen Hemileia vastatrix is a priority in coffee breeding. However, only very few descendants of interspecific hybrids between Coffea arabica and diploid relative species have been used as resistance source. Identification of new sources of resistance appeared therefore particularly worthwhile. Hybrid plants derived from interspecific hybridization between C. arabica and Coffea canephora and found in neo-natura...

  4. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such a

  5. Quality of the surface of Coffea arabica wood

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    Pedro Paulo de Carvalho Braga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood of Coffea arabica L. is considered a a residue of the coffee industry and is widely used as a source of energy. Few studies have shown other destinations such as the manufacture of small objects and furniture with rustic design. The objective of this work was to find the best fit in cutting speed during machining planer trowel the wood of Coffea arabica, taking into consideration the quality of the machined surface. The wood from the Coffea arabica came from an 15 years planting, spacing 3 x 2 m, of the municipality of Machado / MG. The tree was pruned, unfolded and flattened, in order for getting cut-proof of 30 mm thick, with variables length and width. The machining tests were performed at the Laboratory of Wood Machining (DCF / UFLA, varying the cutting speed in plane trowel. The qualification of the machined surface was performed by the feed per tooth (fz, visual analysis (ASTM D 1666-87 and roughness Ra and Rz. It was used a completely randomized design with 30 repetitions. We conducted the analysis of variance test and the average of Scott-Knott, at 5% significance level. It was calculated the percentage of marks obtained for the feed per tooth. The results showed that the quality of machined surface with cutting speeds of 19 and 21 m∙s-1 and forward speed of 6 m∙min-1 were satisfactory with small surveys of fiber and low values of feed per tooth ( fz and roughness Ra and Rz.

  6. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  7. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  8. Marcatori genetici per l'analisi, la caratterizzazione e la tracciabilità del caffè e delle due specie vegetali coffea arabica L.E coffea canephora.

    OpenAIRE

    Tornincasa, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Il caffè è uno dei più importanti prodotti del mercato internazionale, su cui si basano gli scambi commerciali di molti paesi. Esso si colloca tra i 5 prodotti agricoli economicamente più importanti del mondo ed è una risorsa economica essenziale per alcuni paesi in via di sviluppo. Nonostante il genere Coffea comprenda oltre 100 specie, solo due sono importanti dal punto di vista commerciale, vale a dire Coffea arabica (caffè Arabica) e Coffea canephora (caffè Robusta). Coffea arabica dà ...

  9. Aphids of Java. Part II: Sinomegoura Takahashi, 1960 (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a new species from Coffea*

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Sinomegoura. The following three species were collected in Java: Sinomegoura citricola (Van der Goot, 1917), from various woody plants; Sinomegoura symplocois (Van der Goot, 1917), collected by Van der Goot from Symplocos and described by him as Aulacorthum symplocois Van der Goot, 1917; and a new species collected from leaves of Coffea sp., Sinomegoura coffeae spec. nov. Keys are given to the apterae and alatae viviparae, and the species are described.

  10. Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babova, Oxana; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2016-03-01

    Green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora accessions from different geographical origin (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam) were extracted and the extracts analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of chlorogenic acids and caffeine content. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to identify chemical patterns separating the different species and accessions based on their geographical origin. C. canephora showed always a higher caffeine content with respect to C. arabica, whereas the C. arabica accessions from Kenya showed a higher chlorogenic acids and a lower caffeine content. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee extracts was assayed by the reducing power and DPPH assays. The antioxidant capacity correlated with the chlorogenic acids content. The results show that the C. arabica from Kenya possesses the highest chlorogenic acids/caffeine ratio and, among the C. arabica accessions, the highest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the C. arabica from Kenya is the most suitable green coffee source for nutraceutical applications because of its high antioxidant capacity and low caffeine content.

  11. Anatomia e desenvolvimento ontogenético de Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer Anatomy and ontogenetical development of Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dedecca

    1957-01-01

    layer of hardened and lignified cells, with scattered stomata. Mesocarp is formed by several layers of polyhedric, large and lignified cells, the innermost of which are somewhat compressed and flattened. Amidst these cells are visible the vascular bundles showing a great amount of fibers. Endocarp is about 100 microns thick and constitutes in the ripe fruits the so-called "seed parchment". Studied in cross section the endocarp shows to be formed by 5-6 layers of intercrossing strong fibers, what gives this zone of tissue an extraordinary strength. Maceration allows the detailed examination of the individual fibers which measure 350-370 microns in length by 20-45 microns in transverse diameter. The cell walls are very thick and provided with ramiform pits; cell lumen is almost occluded. The coffee seeds or coffee beans are elliptical or egg-shaped, plane-convex, possessing a longitudinal furrow on the plane surface. Seed coat is represented by the so-called "silver skin", which ontogenetically originates from the primine, the single ovule integument. This seed coat is about 70 microns thick and anatomically shows to be constituted by an outer layer of fibers somewhat similar to the endocarp fibers; they are, however, shorter, measuring the longest ones 180-320 microns in length and 18-30 microns in transverse diameter. Their thick walls are provided with round, elliptical, or elongated simple pits. The size of these fibers, the thickness and number of pits on their walls are considered by Chevalier as important taxonomic characteristics for the differentiation of Coffea species. Completing the silver skin structure there are several layers of amorphic parenchyma tissue, and a layer of indistinct cells which originate from the innermost cell layer of the primine. On the other hand, the fibers had their origin from the outermost cell layer of the primine. Endosperm is foimed by polyhedric cells of very thick cellulosic walls, functioning the cellulose in this case as food

  12. Coffea arabica instant coffee--chemical view and immunomodulating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Peter; Paulovičová, Ema; Matulová, Mária; Mislovičová, Danica; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi-Liverani, Furio

    2014-03-15

    Results of chemical analyses and immunological studies of two Coffea arabica instant coffee powders obtained by freeze-dried (ICPf) and spray-dried (ICPs) procedures, and arabinogalactan-protein (AGP3) obtained from ICPf are presented. For instant coffee powders no significant differences have been found in carbohydrate (ICPf: 37%, ICPs: 38%) as well as in caffeine (ICPf: 3.0%, ICPs: 3.4%) contents. Their (1)H NMR spectra revealed differences in trigonelline and chlorogenic acids content and in a degree of AGP backbone substitution. Immunobiological tests of all samples (ICPf, ICPs, AGP2 and AGP3) revealed a significant immunostimulatory effect on induction of interleukin 2 and free radicals secretion by mice immunocytes. Moreover, tests revealed more pronounced effect of arabinogalactans AGP2 and AGP3 compared to instant coffee powders (ICPf and ICPs).

  13. Development and validation of SSR markers for Coffea arabica L.

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    Robson Fernando Missio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of developing new SSR markers for Coffea arabica, two enriched genomic libraries withprobes (GT15 and (AGG10 were constructed. A total of 835 clones were sequenced and 756 presented good quality sequences.Redundant sequences were observed for 113 clones (14.94%. SSRs were found in 287 clones (38%. An estimated size of417.5Kb of the C. arabica genome was sampled, with an average of one SSR per 1.46Kb. Dinucleotide repeats were morefrequent than trinucleotides. Four repeat sequences, (AG/CTn, (AC/GTn, (AAG/CTTn, and (AGG/CCTn represented 61.1%of the total observed. A total of 96 SSR primers were designed and tested by PCR for two C. arabica genotypes. Ninety new SSRmarkers were validated for further genetic studies of C. arabica.

  14. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

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    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  15. Coffee seed physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, DA; Castro, de, JFM; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such as C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. racemosa have some interesting genetic characteristics, including resistance to pests and diseases and are used in breeding programs. To satisfy the demand for co...

  16. Partenogênese, partenocarpia e casos anormais de fertilização em Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie C. arabica L. é tetraplóide (2n = 44 ; em suas sementeiras, porém ocorrem ocasionalmente plantas di-haplóides (2n=22, hexaplóides (2n = 66 e octoplóides (2n=88. A origem das primeiras é atribuída à partenogênese ; as duas últimas devem-se formar pela união de gâmetos não reduzidos ou por processos de duplicação de cromossômios. A polinização dos tetraplóides pelos hexaplóides produziu somente plantas tetraplóides, sugerindo um processo partenogenético. Quando se cruzam as espécies C. arabica (2n = 44 e C. canephora (2n = 22 obtêm-se, além dos híbridos triplóides, indivíduos com o mesmo número de cromossômios que a planta mãe ; em vários casos essa ocorrência é atribuída à partenogênese. Dentro da espécie C. canephora verificou-se a ocorrência de partenocarpia e de partenogênese, quando se polinizou um indivíduo diplóide (2n = 22 com pólen de um tetraplóide (2n = 44. Assim, tanto em cruzamentos interespecíficos como intraespecíficos de Coffea, a diferença de número de cromossômios das plantas cruzadas determina, às vêzes, a partenocarpia e a partenogênese, observando-se ainda outros fenômenos como a união de gâmetas não reduzidos e a duplicação dos cromossômios de oosferas normalmente constituídas.The species C. arabica L. is tetraploid (2n=44 : among its progénie plants are found which are di-haploid (2n = 22, hexaploid (2n = 66 and octoploid (2n = 88. The origin of the first ones is attributed to parthenogenesis ; the last two must be formed by the the union of unreduced gametes or through processes of chromosome doubling. A parthenogenetic process is also attributed to the formation of tetraploids when the tetraploid plants are pollinated by the hexaploids. The cross C. arabica (2n=44 x C. canephora (2n = 22 gives besides the expected triploids, individuals with the same number of chromosomes as the seed parent; in various instances this occurrence is attributed to

  17. Distribution of Radopholus similisand Pratylenchus CoffeaeNematodes in Coffee Plantation

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    Retno Hulupi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A research to evaluate the difference of damage levels caused by two species nematodes, Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae on Arabica and Robusta coffee which were planted in the same endemic area have been conducted at Kalibendo (700 m asl. climate type B and Blawan coffee estate (1200 m asl., climate type D for two years. The results showed that in the medium highland (700 m asl. R. similis attacked Arabica coffee with necrotic root scale higher than surface Robusta coffee. Distribution of R. similis population in the 50 cm depth below soil surface was likely with their root distribution. On the other hand P. coffeae in 30 cm depth below soil therefore their resistance to R. similis was more likely due to the escape reason, as result of their different distribution population of those species in different depth. Key words : Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus coffeae, Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, distribution population.

  18. Solution structure of allergenic 2 S albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Uceda, D; Bruix, M; Santoro, J; Rico, M; Monsalve, R; Villalba, M

    2002-11-01

    The NMR solution structures at different levels of refinement of three different 2 S albumin seed proteins, the recombinant pronapin precursor from Brassica napus, the recombinant RicC3 from Ricinus communis and the methionine-rich protein from sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ), are described. The resulting common structure consists of a bundle of five alpha-helices, folded in a right-handed superhelix. The structure is very similar to that of other plant proteins: the hydrophobic protein from soybean, non-specific lipid transfer proteins and amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Analogies and differences in the structures of these families, as well as their possible relationship to allergenicity, are discussed.

  19. PROTEÍNAS EXTRACELULARES MARCADORAS DEL POTENCIAL EMBRIOGÉNICO EN SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Coffea spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Rodríguez; Cevallos, A M; Silvia Montes

    2000-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de las proteínas extracelulares EP3 y PE32 en suspensiones celulares de Coffea canephora var. Robusta y Coffea arabica cv. Catimor. El proceso embriogénico fue caracterizado inmunoquímicamente con la utilización de anticuerpos policlonales de ambas proteínas. El carácter embriogénico del cultivo se corroboró por el comportamiento de las proteínas estudiadas presentes en la matriz extracelular. Se sugiere la utilización de estas proteínas como marcadores moleculares de la...

  20. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  1. Coffea arabica clones resistant to coffee leaf miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Paulo Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian arabica coffee production is based on a set of highly productive cultivars sexually propagated. All of them are susceptible to coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella, and most of them are also susceptible to coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix. Aiming to reduce the selection process of cultivars with multiple resistances to both biotic constraints, the Coffea arabica clones 760, 1059, 1064 and 1215 were evaluated under field conditions. The mean yield of four C. arabica clones was not statistically different from the experimental controls; however, the yield of clone 1059 was 21% higher than the control cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. Leaf miner resistance level in all the evaluated clones remained the same as the mother plant’s. However, the same did not occur for resistance to H. vastatrix, due to the emergence of new pathogen races. In summary, it is potentially feasible the adoption of clone 1059 as a new clonal cultivar resistant to coffee leaf miner.

  2. Brachiaria decumbens supresses the initial growth of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Guilherme Faus da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria decumbens is becoming one the most common weeds growing in young coffee orchards because, besides its fast growth and difficulty of control, new coffee orchards are usually established in pasture areas. In order to verify the effect of B. decumbens plant density on the early growth of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Amarelo, a competition experiment was conducted under semi-controlled humidity conditions. Soil collected in a Typic Haplustox was placed in 70 L asbestos cement boxes and one coffee seedling was planted in each box. The B. decumbens seedlings were transplanted to the boxes at the 2-4 leaf stage. Treatments consisted of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, and 60 weeds m-2. The experimental period started 120 days after transplanting and the experimental design was organized as completely randomized blocks, with four replicates. All coffee plant parameters evaluated were negatively affected by the interference. The most sensitive characteristics were leaf area (41.8% reduction with 8 plants m-2, reaching 68.7% at a density of 60 plants m-2. Therefore, at a density of 8 plants m-2 the reduction in leaf dry biomass was 41.4% compared with the check. At the density of 60 plants m-2 it was 72.8%. B. decumbens, at a density of 8 or more plants m-2, suppressed coffee plants during a growth period of 120 days.

  3. Caracterização de cultivares de Coffea arabica mediante utilização de descritores mínimos Characterization of Coffea arabica cultivars by minimum descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Tosoni da Eira Aguiar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 70% do café produzido e comercializado mundialmente é oriundo de Coffea arabica. A espécie apresenta base genética estreita sendo as cultivares bastante aparentadas e originárias em sua maioria das tradicionais cultivares Típica e Bourbon. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar a eficiência de descritores mínimos na caracterização de cultivares de cafeeiros e como diferenciadores entre cultivares a serem submetidas ao processo de proteção de cultivares no Brasil. Foram avaliadas trinta e oito características botânicas ou tecnológicas das plantas, folhas, flores, frutos, sementes, assim como três características agronômicas. Utilizaram-se vinte e nove cultivares de cafeeiros selecionadas pelo Instituto Agronômico, sendo avaliadas trinta plantas de cada cultivar. Os resultados evidenciaram que apenas com a utilização das características porte, cor do fruto, resistência ao agente da ferrugem, Hemileia vastatrix e ciclo de maturação é possível obter uma discriminação eficiente dos diferentes grupos de cultivares avaliadas. A cor das folhas jovens e o diâmetro da copa revelaram-se importantes descritores na discriminação de cultivares do grupo Mundo Novo. Não foi possível, porém, identificar descritores eficientes na discriminação das cultivares dos grupos Catuaí Vermelho, Catuaí Amarelo e Icatu Vermelho.The species Coffea arabica is responsible for 70% of the world coffee production. The majority of cultivars has a narrow genetic origin, being derived basically from two old cultivars: Tipica and Bourbon. This investigation was carried out aiming at the characterization of selected cultivars of the Instituto Agronomico according to standard descriptors. Thirty five morphological or technological traits of canopy, leaves, flowers, fruits or seeds and three agronomic traits were evaluated in twenty nine cultivar lines of the current breeding program. The variables plant height, fruit

  4. Trueness-to-type and agronomic characteristics of Coffea arabica trees micropropagated by the embryogenic cell suspension technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, H; Bertrand, B

    2001-09-01

    Trueness-to-type and agronomic characteristics of trees of four coffee (Coffea arabica L.) F(1) hybrid clones derived from embryogenic cell suspensions were compared with those of trees produced from in vitro microcuttings. Three types of variants were observed among the 644 trees derived from embryogenic suspensions. Total frequency of the variants was 2.1% for trees originating from embryogenic cell suspensions, whereas no variant was found among the trees produced from microcuttings. The variant known as "thick leaf" had thick leaves, many abnormally starry flowers and low yields of large fruit. The "dwarf" variant was characterized by slow growth and small fruit. The "dwarf peaberry" variant had abnormal seeds in a single cavity, in addition to the "thick leaf" and "dwarf" characteristics. Compared with normal trees, the variants differed in leaf density and number of chloroplasts per guard cell. The variants aside, there were no differences in the main agronomic characteristics between trees produced from embryogenic suspensions and those produced from microcuttings. For all four clones, the trees had vegetative characteristics, productivity, fertility, and bean biochemical, mineral and organoleptic characteristics that were identical to those of the controls. We conclude that it is possible to generate coffee trees commercially with normal agronomic performance from embryogenic suspensions, because the frequency with which somaclonal variants occur is limited.

  5. Allelopathic effects of two cover crops Commelina diffusa Burm. F. and Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz on Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Berroa Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effect of the cover crops Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz (cucaracha and Commelina diffusa Burm. F. (canutillo were evaluated on Coffea arabica Lin. seeds Caturra Rojo variety. Germination tests were carried out “in vitro” and it was evaluated the root longitude, percentage of total germination and period of germination, as well as the height of the plant and the emergency percentage for the incorporation tests to the soil. It was also carried out, to both over crops, the preliminary chemical qualitative characterization. The results showed that the extracts of T. zebrina and of C. diffusa stimulated the “in vitro” germination and growth of C. arabica at different concentration levels. The incorporation to the soil of the extracts of C. diffusa stimulated the development of the plants of C. arabica, in a significant way, that supposes a considerable advantage in that concerns to the employment of these cover crops, when not implying noxious effects beside all the benefits implied when using cover crops. These last ones go from the protection and improvement of the properties of the soil, to the control of the spontaneous flora in the coffee agroecosystems.

  6. Serum albumin: touchstone or totem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarson, M P; Soni, N

    1998-08-01

    A decrease in serum albumin concentrations is an almost inevitable finding in disease states, and is primarily mediated in the acute phase by alterations in vascular permeability and redistribution. This change is not disease specific but marked changes that persist are generally associated with a poorer prognosis. Critical appraisal of long-standing practices and the availability of alternative colloid solutions have led to a reduction in albumin replacement therapy, and a widespread tolerance of lower albumin concentrations in patients. The factors determining serum albumin concentrations, their measurement and the implications of hypoalbuminaemia are reviewed. The clinical value of serum albumin measurement is discussed.

  7. O dimorfismo dos ramos em Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1950-06-01

    Full Text Available O dimorfismo dos ramos tem sido observado em vários gêneros de plantas, tais como Gossypium, Theobroma, Hedera, Musa, Araucária, Castilla, bem como em Coffea. Tal fenômeno se carateriza por uma diferenciação somática, que, na maioria dos casos, é permanente, podendo-se propagar as diferentes formas pela reprodução vegetativa. Como acontece nos representantes de Coffea, tal dimorfismo se carateriza por diferenças no hábito de crescimento, isto é, na direção dos ramos. Assim, a extremidade de um ramo ponteiro (ortotrópico reproduz, quando enxertada, uma planta normal, ao passo que a de um ramo lateral (plagiotrópico somente dará origem a ramos laterais. Em se tratando de um fenômeno tanto de interesse teórico como de importância prática (para a propagação vegetativa, resolveu-se fazer uma série de investigações em tôrno dêsse assunto, cujos primeiros resultados os autores relatam no presente trabalho. Apresentaram-se, em primeiro lugar, as observações feitas com referência à natureza das gemas existentes nas axilas das fôlhas de plantas novas, tanto na haste principal, como nos ramos laterais. Verificou-se que: a no eixo hipocotiledonar não há indícios da existência de gemas ; b na axila das fôlhas cotiledonares há um grupo de gemas dormentes, que são despertadas, dando origem a ramos ortotrópicos, quando o eixo epicotiledonar é cortado abaixo do primeiro par de fôlhas primárias; c o aparecimento de gemas, que dão ramos laterais (plagiotrópicos, só ocorre pela primeira vez, nas axilas do oitavo ao décimo primeiro par de folhas ; observou-se que certas estruturas genéticas impedem a formação de ramos plagiotrópicos mesmo até o trigésimo terceiro par de fôlhas ; d nas axilas da haste principal, possuidoras de gemas que dão origem a ramos plagiotrópicos, ocorrem também duas e, mais raramente, três outras, que produzem ramos ortotrópicos, e que se desenvolvem quando se suprime o eixo

  8. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  9. Investigation of Types and Hazard of Weeds in Coffea arabica Orchads in Nujiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Through the investigation of weeds in Coffea arabica orchads in NuJiang River basin, this study aimed to provide scientific guidance for the weed control and improving the ecological and economic benefits of the plantation of Cof- fea arabica. [Method] The types of weeds and the characteristics of weed occur- rence in Coffea arabica orchads in Nujiang River basin were investigated from July to August in 2012. [Result] The results showed that there were 69 types of weeds belonging to 21 families in Coffea arabica orchads. The predominant harmful types were shown as follows: Commelina nudiflora L. + Leptochloa chinensis, Cyperus ro- tundus L. + Bidens pilosa L. + Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrical + Ageratum conyzoides L. + Eupatorium odoratum L., Ageratum conyzoides L. + Digitaria san- guinalis (L.) Scop. The preponderant weeds consisted mainly of 10 species, namely, Cyperus rotundus L., Commelina nudiflora L., Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria san- guinalis (L.) Scop, Imperata cylindrical, Bidens pilosa L., Ageratum conyzoides L, E- upatorium odoratum L., Eleusine indica and Chenopodium serotinum L. [Conclusion] The result from this study is of great significance for the plantation of Coffea arabica in Nujiang River basin, as well as the control of weeds.

  10. Nickel elicits a fast antioxidant response in Coffea arabica cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Junior, R A; Moldes, C A; Delite, F S; Gratão, P L; Mazzafera, P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

    2006-01-01

    The antioxidant responses of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) cell suspension cultures to nickel (Ni) were investigated. Ni was very rapidly accumulated in the cells and the accumulation could be directly correlated with the increase of NiCl(2) concentration in the medium. At 0.05 mM NiCl(2) growth was stimulated, but at 0.5 mM NiCl(2), the growth rate was reduced. An indication of alterations in the presence of reactive oxygen species was detected by an increase in lipid peroxidation at 0.5 mM NiCl(2). Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GOPX; EC 1.11.1.7) and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) activities were increased, particularly at earlier NiCl(2) exposure times and the activities were higher at 0.5 mM NiCl(2) for most of exposure times tested. Non-denaturing PAGE revealed one CAT isoenzyme, nine SOD isoenzymes and four GR isoenzymes. The SOD isoenzymes were differentially affected by NiCl(2) treatment and one GR isoenzyme was increased by NiCl(2). NiCl(2) at 0.05 mM did not induce lipid peroxidation and the main response appeared to be via the induction of SOD, CAT, GOPX and APX activities for the removal of the reactive oxygen species and through the induction of GR to ensure the availability of reduced glutathione.

  11. Fungal epiphytes and endophytes of coffee leaves (Coffea arabica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Johanna; Bayman, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities, whether endophyte and epiphyte communities are equally diverse, and whether epiphytes and endophytes exhibit similar patterns of spatial heterogeneity among sites. Leaves of naturalized coffee plants were collected from six sites in Puerto Rico. Epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated by placing leaf pieces on potato dextrose agar without and with surface sterilization, respectively. A total of 821 colonies were isolated and grouped into 131 morphospecies. The taxonomic affinities of the four most common nonsporulating fungi were determined by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region: two grouped with Xylaria and one each with Botryosphaeria and Guignardia. Of the most common genera, Pestalotia and Botryosphaeria were significantly more common as epiphytes; Colletotrichum, Xylaria, and Guignardia were significantly more common as endophytes. Suprisingly, more morphospecies occurred as endophytes than as epiphytes. Differences among sites in number of fungi per plant were significant. Thus epiphytic and endophytic communities differed greatly on a single leaf, despite living only millimeters apart, and both communities differed from site to site. Significant correlations between occurrence of fungal morphospecies suggested that fungi may have positive or negative effects on their neighbors. This is the first quantitative comparison of epiphytic and endophytic fungal floras in any plant, and the first to examine endophytic fungi or epiphytic fungi in leaves of coffee, one of the world's most valuable crops.

  12. Site-Specific Insertion Polymorphism of the MITE Alex-1 in the Genus Coffea Suggests Interspecific Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dubreuil-Tranchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs are small nonautonomous class-II transposable elements distributed throughout eukaryotic genomes. We identified a novel family of MITEs (named Alex in the Coffea canephora genome often associated with expressed sequences. The Alex-1 element is inserted in an intron of a gene at the CcEIN4 locus. Its mobility was demonstrated by sequencing the insertion site in C. canephora accessions and Coffea species. Analysis of the insertion polymorphism of Alex-1 at this locus in Coffea species and in C. canephora showed that there was no relationship between the geographical distribution of the species, their phylogenetic relationships, and insertion polymorphism. The intraspecific distribution of C. canephora revealed an original situation within the E diversity group. These results suggest possibly greater gene flow between species than previously thought. This MITE family will enable the study of the C. canephora genome evolution, phylogenetic relationships, and possible gene flows within the Coffea genus.

  13. Variabilidade genética do rendimento intrínseco de grãos em germoplasma de Coffea Genetic variability for bean outturn in Coffea germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana de Gaspari-Pezzopane

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento intrínseco do café, relação percentual entre a massa de dois grãos normais tipo chato e do respectivo fruto que os contém, foi estudado em seis grupos de germoplasma de Coffea, com o objetivo de se conhecer a variabilidade genética para essa característica. Investigou-se o rendimento intrínseco de Coffea arabica em um grupo de cinco cultivares de porte baixo, em outro contendo 22 cultivares e seleções e, ainda, em outro grupo com 79 cultivares, variedades e formas botânicas, mutantes e acessos da Etiópia. Em C. canephora, foram analisados três acessos da variedade kouilou e 10 acessos da variedade robusta. Investigaram-se ainda, outras oito espécies do gênero Coffea. Observou-se considerável variabilidade genética tanto entre representantes de C. arabica quanto de C. canephora, assim como entre as diferentes espécies do gênero Coffea. A amplitude de variação nos valores de rendimento intrínseco referente ao último grupo foi bem maior que a de qualquer outro grupo estudado. A magnitude das variações observadas e as implicações econômicas do rendimento intrínseco indicam que essa característica pode ser utilizada como um critério adicional de seleção no melhoramento de C. arabica e C. canephora.The intrinsic coffee bean outturn, percent weight ratio of two normal flat beans and the respective whole fruit, was studied in six Coffea germplasm groups in order to investigate the genetic variability for this characteristic. It was evaluated in C. arabica a group of five short stature cultivars, another group composed of 22 cultivars and selections yet a third group of 79 items comprising cultivars, botanical varieties and types, mutations and accessions from Ethiopia. In C. canephora it were studied three acessions of var. kouilou and ten of var. robusta. It were investigated also eight other species of the genus Coffea. Considerable genetic variability was detected within C. arabica and C. canephora and

  14. Microsporogênese de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner com número duplicado de cromossomos Microsporogenesis in a tetraploid plant of Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone M. Sellito Boaventura

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo do comportamento meiótico de C. canephora tetraplóide com 2n =44 cromossomos por tratar-se de uma espécie considerada possível ancestral de C. arabica (2n = 44: constatou-se, em 92,0% das células-mães de pólen, em todas as fases da microsporogênese estudada, 2n = 44 cromossomos. Em diacinese os cromossomos se apresentaram na forma de mono-, bi-, tri- e tetravalentes. Em metáfase 1, somente 13,16% das células apresentaram 22II sendo a seguinte a fórmula média do pareamento: 3,61I; 15,21II 0,71III e 1,93IV. As irregularidades anafásicas resumiram-se praticamente na disjunção desigual dos cromossomos para os pólos de 21-23, 20-24 e 19-25. Somente 37,65% das células apresentaram segregação normal de 22 cromossomos para cada pólo. Em anáfase II, observaram-se sete tipos diferentes de distribuição cromatídica e, também, somente em 26,0% das células foi encontrada distribuição normal dos cromossomos. Após a citocinese, foram observadas tríades (1,6%, tétrades (77,0% e políades (21,4%. A inviabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi alta, 79,0%. Observações em cortes transversais medianos de frutos mostraram 43,4% do tipo normal, sendo 11,0% do tipo moca e 32,4% do chato. Em 56,6% dos frutos, não houve desenvolvimento de sementes, formando-se apenas perisperma.Cytological investigations in a tetraploid plant of Coffea canephora with 2n =44 chromosomes were performed, In every meiosis phase studied, 92.0% of lhe pollen mother cells were found as 2n =44 chromosomes. In dia kinesis, lhe chromosomes were found as univalents, bivalents, trivalents and quadrivalents-At first metaphase, only 13.16% were 22II The average chromosomic associations were 3.61I, 15.21II, 0.71III, and 1.93IV- Irregular chromosomic distribution to the poles included 21-23, 20-24 and 19-25, while only 37.65% of the cells exhibited normal segregations of 22 chromosomes to each pole at first anaphase. At second anaphase, seven different

  15. Efeitos de raios X na indução de mutações em Coffea arabica Effects of X-radiation on the induction of mutations in Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Carvalho

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes autopolinizadas do cultivar Bourbon Vermelho (Coffea arabica L. gerações S4 e S5 e de linhas puras obtidas a partir de haplóides, foram expostas a irradiações de raios X, correspondentes a dosagens de 5.000, 10.000, 12.500 e 23.000 R. Verificou-se na geração M2 de uma das plantas obtidas no tratamento com 12.500 R a ocorrência de uma mutação recessiva do tipo angustifólia. Cafeeiros com fenótipo normal, resultantes de sementes irradiadas com 5.000 e 23.000 R foram plantados no campo, em experimentos, cuja produção foi controlada por 14 anos. Notou-se, entre eles, diferenças acentuadas na produção de café cereja. Progênies desses cafeeiros com maior e menor produção, plantadas em outros experimentos e colhidas durante sete anos consecutivos, não revelaram correlação positiva entre a produção das plantas matrizes e suas progênies. O mesmo fato foi observado em um terceiro experimento, cujas produções individuais foram seguidas por cinco anos consecutivos. Os dados indicam que não devem ter ocorrido mutações favoráveis que contribuíssem para a melhoria de produção. Como o número de plantas analisadas foi relativamente pequeno, o fato de terem sido observadas mutações sugere a possibilidade de o processo contribuir para acréscimos na variabilidade genética em C. arabica.Selfed seeds of cv. Bourbon Vermelho (Coffea arabica from generations S4 and S5 and also of pure lines obtained from doubled haploids were exposed to X-rays in doses from 5,000 to 23,000 R. A recessive mutation of angustifolia type was found in a progeny of generation M2 derived from the treatment with 12,500 R. Phenotypically normal plants from seeds irradiated with 5,000 and 23,000 R were transplanted to the field and the yields were recorded for fourteen years. Large differences were observed in total yield of individual plants. During seven years, progenies of high and low yielding plants were studied and the data revealed no

  16. Ploidy level and caffeine content in leaves of Coffea Ploidia e conteúdo de cafeína em folhas de Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Coffea and varieties of C. arabica differing in chromosome number had their caffeine content determined in the leaves. For Coffea arabica var. "Angustifolia", var. "Caturra" and var. "Icatu", it was observed caffeine decrease from the haploid (2n = 22 to tetraploid leaves (2n = 44. Caffeine in the tetraploid "Angustifolia" was decreased by 50% when compared to the haploid. Caffeine reduction was also observed in leaves of C. canephora var. "Kouilou" as chromosome number was increased (2n = 22 ® 2n = 44. In this case, caffeine in the leaves of the diploid genotype was close to 4 times higher than in the tetraploid. On the other hand it was observed an increase of the alkaloid when the chromosome number was doubled in the C. canephora var. "Robusta".Variedades e espécies de café (Coffea que diferem quanto ao número de cromossomos tiveram o conteúdo de cafeína determinado em suas folhas. Para as variedades "Angustifolia", "Caturra" e "Icatu" de Coffea arabica foi observada redução no teor de cafeína de folhas haplóides (2n = 22 em relação a tetraplóides (2n = 44. Cafeína na forma tetraplóide da var. "Angustifolia" foi reduzida em 50% quando comparada com a forma haplóide. Redução de cafeína também foi observada em folhas de C. canephora var. "Kouilou" quando o número de cromossomos aumentou (2n = 22 ® 2n = 44. Neste caso, a cafeína nas folhas do genótipo diplóide foi cerca de quatro vezes maior que no tetraplóide. Por outro lado, foi observado aumento desse alcalóide quando o número de cromossomos foi duplicado em C. canephora var. "Robusta".

  17. Pengaruh Rootone-F dan Atonik Terhadap Pertumbuhan Setek Kopi Robusta (Coffea canephora)

    OpenAIRE

    Girsang, Frina Julianty

    2012-01-01

    FRINA JULIANTY GIRSANG, Pengaruh Rootone-F dan Atonik terhadap Pertumbuhan Setek Kopi Robusta (Coffea canephora) di bawah bimbingan Bapak Prof. DR. Sc. Agr. R. K. Dam artik, Ing. Dipl selaku ketua komisi pembimbing dan Bapak Ir. Asil Barus, MS selaku anggota komisi pembimbing. Penelitian telah dilaksanakan di rumah kassa Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) Medan mulai dari bulan Maret sampai dengan bulan Juli 2003. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pen...

  18. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XV - Microsporogênese em Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentadas as observações realizadas sôbre a microsporogênese nas variedades semperflorens e caturra, de Coffea arabica L. Notou-se que, no início da prófase, os cromossômios se colorem muito mal, não permitindo observações sôbre a sua morfologia; em paquitene, os cromossômios se apresentam com várias secções heteropicnóticas separadas por secções muito finas, que se colorem mal; o centrômero é bastante nítido e se acha ladeado de zonas bem heteropicnóticas; as extremidades dos braços dos cromossômios se colorem mal e se perdem no meio do citoplasma ; o nucléolo é bastante visível e a êle se acham ligados alguns cromossômios. É difícil determinar o número exato de cromossômios ligados ao nucléolo, tendo-se encontrado de 1 a 4. De paquitene a metáfase I, as fases se sucedem rapidamente. Em diplotene, os cromossômios são curtos, não mais se percebendo o centrômero. Em diaquinese os 22 pares de cromossômios se repelem pela sua parte mais colorida, onde se encontra o centrômero, e se unem pela parte clara, onde se notam os quiasmas ; o número de quiasmas, por célula, varia de 29 a 43 ; a média por bivalente é de 1,67, em semperjlorens, e 1,75, em caturra. Em metáfase I, o número médio de quiasmas, por bivalente,. é de 1,69, em semperjlorens, e 1,67, em caturra. Em anáfase I, os 22 pares de cromossômios se separam normalmente. Em telófase I, os cromossômios se colorem mal. Não há, praticamente, intercinese; os cromossômios contraem-se de novo e entram em anáfase II. A formação dos micrósporos é normal. Depois de soltos, ocorre a divisão nuclear, dando origem a dois núcleos com 22 cromossômios. Isto ocorre três a quatro dias antes da abertura das flores; o núcleo vegetativo é grande, esférico e homogêneo, colo-rindo-se mal; o núcleo reprodutivo é menor, reticulado, colore-se bem e se localiza na periferia da célula; ao seu redor se destaca uma por

  19. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  20. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  1. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  2. Host-range Characterization of Two Pratylenchus coffeae Isolates from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Silva; Inomoto, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, s...

  3. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  4. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km. Neelofar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €- amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an

  5. The use of fatty acid profile as a potential marker for Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) for corn adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compositions of six coffee (Coffea arabica L.) varieties (Catuaí, Catuca, Burbourn, Mundo Novo, Rubí, and Topázio) known to produce good, intermediate and poor quality coffee were determined for the first time. Average area % of the FAMEs of the six varieties was: pa...

  6. Radopholus arabocoffeae sp. n. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae), a nematode pathogenic to Coffea arabica in Vietnam, and additional data on R. duriophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, P.Q.; Nguyen, C.N.; Waeyenberge, L.; Subbotin, S.A.; Karssen, G.; Moens, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radopholus arabocoffeae sp. n., a new nematode pathogenic on Coffea arabica cv. Catimor, is described from Vietnam. Females of R. arabocoffeae sp. n. are characterised by the broad amphidial apertures with prominent margins. Males are characterised by the bursa extending to one third, rarely middle,

  7. [Metabolic control of seed germination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time.

  8. Population of Pratylenchus coffeae (Z. and growth of Arabica coffee seedling inoculated by Pseudomonas diminuta L. and Bacillus subtilis (C..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fauzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPratylenchus coffeae is a parasitic nematoda that infected the roots of some plants, one of them is coffee. The Infection of Pratylenchus coffeae cause root tissue damage that led to root lession and make root become rotten, it will interfere the ability of roots to absorb water and nutrients in the soil which resulted in the growth of plants. At the moment, control of Pratylenchus coffeae are following integrated pests management (IPM program, which integrated between the use of coffee resistant clone and application of biological agents. Research on biological control was conducted more intensive, at the moment; due to it is friendlier save against environment and cheaper then using chemical nematicides. The research was conducted to know the effects of Micorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB,Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis in suppressing the population of P. coffeaeas well as their effect on growth of coffee seedling.  Coffee arabica (Coffea arabica L. seedling one moth old were used in the experiment. The experiment prepared with eight treatments and five  replications, as follows: A (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 108 cfu / ml, B (Pseudomonas diminuta with density of 2x108 cfu / ml, C (Bacillus subtilis with density of 108 cfu / ml , D (Bacillus subtilis with density 2x108 cfu / ml, E (Carbofuran nematicide 5 g formulation / pot, F (Pseudomonas diminuta and Bacillus subtilis with each density of 108 cfu / ml, K- (Nematoda inoculation but without bacteria and nematicide, K+ (coffee seedling  without any additional treatment. The experiment was conducted for sixteen weeks or about four months. The results of the experiment showed that application of MHB could suppress population of P. coffeae and increase coffee seedling growth significantly. Inoculation of B. subtilis at 108 cfu per seedling suppressed significantly nematoda population of 71.3% compared with untreated seedling but inoculated with nematoda. It was not

  9. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

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    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  10. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  11. Identification of Putative Molecular Markers Associated with Root Traits in Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

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    Devaraja Achar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffea canephora exhibit poor root system and are very sensitive to drought stress that affects growth and production. Deeper root system has been largely empirical as better avoidance to soil water limitation in drought condition. The present study aimed to identify molecular markers linked to high root types in Coffea canephora using molecular markers. Contrasting parents, L1 valley with low root and S.3334 with high root type, were crossed, and 134 F1 individuals were phenotyped for root and associated physiological traits (29 traits and genotyped with 41 of the 320 RAPD and 9 of the 55 SSR polymorphic primers. Single marker analysis was deployed for detecting the association of markers linked to root associated traits by SAS software. There were 13 putative RAPD markers associated with root traits such as root length, secondary roots, root dry weight, and root to shoot ratio, in which root length associated marker OPS1850 showed high phenotypic variance of 6.86%. Two microsatellite markers linked to root length (CPCM13400 and root to shoot ratio (CM211300. Besides, 25 markers were associated with more than one trait and few of the markers were associated with positively related physiological traits and can be used in marker assisted trait selection.

  12. Evaluation of Somatic Embryogenesis Ability in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre

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    Priyono Priyono

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Embriogenesis somatik diharapkan sebagai metode perbanyakan tanaman yang sangat efektif pada kopi. Evaluasi dua jenis proses embriogenesis somatik, yaitu proses langsung dan tidak langsung akan bermanfaat untuk menggambarkan kemampuan proliferasi sel. Penelitian untuk mengevaluasi embriogenesis somatik kopi Robusta (Coffea canephora yang mempunyai tingkat keragaman genetik tinggi telah dilakukan di Nestlé R&D Centre Tours, Perancis. Bahan tanam menggunakan kopi Robusta koleksi Nestle Perancis dan tiga klon koleksi Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia (Puslitkoka. Tiga aspek, yaitu proses embriogenesis, keragaman embriogenesis dan kemantapan embriogenesis dievaluasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa baik embriogenesis somatik langsung maupun tidak langsung dapat diamati. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kedua proses embriogenesis somatik tersebut merupakan dua mekanisme yang berbeda. Dalam penelitian ini ditunjukkan bahwa kemampuan embriognesis somatik tergantung pada genotipe, baik antar maupun di dalam kelompok genetik kopi Robusta, yaitu Congolese,Guinean dan Conillon. Lebih lanjut diketahui bahwa kedua proses embriogenesis somatik tersebut stabil terhadap indukan sebagai sumber eksplan. Kemampuan embriogenesis somatik tidak langsung ketiga klon Puslitkoka (BP409, BP961 dan Q121 sangat beragam, sehingga memberikan harapan adanya pola segregasi yang baik berdasarkan kemampuan embriogenesis somatik tidak langsung pada populasi yang dibuat dari silangan klon tersebut.Key words: Coffea canephora, somatic embryogenesis, variability, stability, genotype.

  13. Anatomical and chemical properties and density of Coffea arabica L. wood

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    Marisa Aparecida Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Minas Gerais is the largest producer of coffee in Brazil and the amount of residue in crops seems adequate to support production of solid wood products of Coffea arabica L., which is currently used for energy purposes or remains in the area. This activity adds insignificant value the coffee products and release CO2, which has harmful effects to the environment. This study was conducted with the aim of characterizing technologically Coffea arabica L. wood to enhance its use in furniture, to characterize its anatomical, chemical and wood basic density. The density showed an average of 0.608g.cm-3. The anatomical analysis showed distinct growth layers, semiporosos vessels with simple perforation plates. The axial parenchyma is apotracheal and diffuse in the aggregate with heterogeneous rays, not laminated and fiber libriformes not septate with bordered pits distinct. The chemical content of extract in hot and cold water were respectively 6.1% and 9.6%. The ash content was found to be 0.68%. Data were comparable to those of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and Piptadenia peregrina Benth, (angico-vermelho used for the production of furniture.

  14. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a)...

  15. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  16. Estudo cariométrico dos poliplóides de Coffea

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    Giorgio Schreiber

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o volume nuclear de uma série de plantas de café com 22-44-66-88 cromossômios: C. congensis, C. arabica var. monosperma, C. arabica var. typica e C. arabica var. bullata e pelo método estatístico cariométrico. Das curvas de frequência (que não são "normais", foi calculado o valor normal (modo para cada número de cromossômios. Com êstes valores modais e os respectivos números de cromossômios foi calculada a equação de regressão, o êrro de estimação e o coeficiente de correlação. A correlação é perfeita, sendo, porém, a espécie C. congensis discordante dos demais elementos da série por ter um valor volumétrico correspondente a 33 cromossômios apesar dos 22 encontrados nas metáfases somáticas. Êste resultado é apontado para ulteriores investigações citogenéticas sôbre esta espécie. O resultado geral destas pesquisas mostra a perfeita correlação entre o número de genomas haplóides e o volume nuclear ; deve ser considerado, porém, válido somente no confronto entre núcleos que se encontram na mesma fase do ciclo de crescimento interfásico.Caryometric researches on Coffea polyploids. General discussion of the problem and preliminary results. A series of polyploid plant of Coffea with 22, 44, 66, and 88 chromosomes (C. congensis, C. arabica var. monosperma, C. arabica var. typica, C. arabica var. bullata have been studied with caryometric statistical method. The chromosome numbers have been plotted again,st the modal value of the frequency curves of nuclear volume and the regression equation, standard error of estimation and correlation coefficent have been calculated. The correlation results perfect between the chromosome number and the nuclear volume for all the elements of the polyploid series of Coffea arabica. Coffea congensis, althought with 22 chromosomes, has a nuclear volume exactly correspondent to that of C. arabica with 33 chromosomes. This fact is appointed for further

  17. Partial map of Coffea arabica L. and recovery of the recurrent parent in backcross progenies

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    Antonio Carlos Baião de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partial map of Coffea arabica L. was constructed based on a backcross population and RAPD markers.From a total of 178 markers evaluated, only 134 that segregated 1:1 (P>0.05 were used to develop the map. Seventeenmarkers were not linked, while 117 formed 11 linkage groups, covering a genome distance of 803.2 cM. The maximumdistance between adjacent markers was 26.9 cM, and only seven intervals exceeded 20 cM. The markers were further used forassisted selection of the plants closest to the recurrent parent, to accelerate the introgression of rust resistance genes in thecoffee breeding program. Three BC1 plants resistant to coffee leaf rust and with high genetic similarity to ‘Catuaí’ wereselected and integrated in the following backcross cycles.

  18. Soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates in coffee pulp (Coffea arabica) from seven cultivars at three ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Ramírez-Coronel, Ma Ascención; Aranda-Delgado, Eduardo; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    The contents of soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) were analyzed in coffee pulp (CP) of seven cultivars of Coffea arabica at three different ripening stages. Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of HCAs were evaluated and improved. HCAs were present mainly in the soluble fraction (68-97%). Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid (94-98%) in the soluble fraction, whereas caffeic acid was the most abundant HCA found in the bound fraction (72-88%). Small amounts of free and bound ferulic and p-coumaric acids were also detected. The content of total HCAs in CP reached the maximum concentration at the semiripe stage (7.4-25.5 mg/g CP, dw) but decreased at the ripe stage for six of the seven cultivars. These findings suggest that unripe or semiripe coffee cherries, considered as defective cherries, are a potential inexpensive source of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids.

  19. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Maria E.M. Pinto e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Saude Publica. Dept. de Nutricao

    2013-07-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  20. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

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    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera

    Full Text Available Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee.

  1. Effect of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis in leaf cultures of Coffea canephora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, T; Arakawa, O; Yasuda, T; Uchida, N; Yamaguchi, T

    1991-07-01

    The effects of plant growth regulators on somatic embryogenesis were studied in leaf cultures of Coffea canephora. The maximum number of somatic embryos were obtained on media that contained only cytokinin as a plant growth regulator. All of the auxins tested (NAA, IBA, IAA and 2, 4-D) inhibited the formation of embryos. The optimal concentration of each cytokinin (2-iP, BA and kinetin) for somatic embryogenesis was 5 μM. Under optimal conditions, each explant formed more than 100 embryoids with little callus and few adventitious roots. Embryoids were formed only at the cut edges of the leaf discs. Cytokinins were absorbed only at the cut edges of leaf discs that were in contact with the medium, and were not transported to other parts of the explant.

  2. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  3. Effect of Coffea canephora aqueous extract on microbial counts in ex vivo oral biofilms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Iorio, Natália Lopes Pontes; Farah, Adriana; Netto dos Santos, Kátia Regina; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, the ex vivo antimicrobial effect of brewed coffee was tested on oral biofilms. For this, unsweetened and sweetened (10 % sucrose) brewed light-roasted Coffea canephora at 20 % was used in biofilms formed by non-stimulated saliva from three volunteers. After 30 min contact with unsweetened and sweetened brews, the average microorganism count in the biofilms reduced by 15.2 % and 12.4 %, respectively, with no statistical difference among them. We also observed a drop of microorganisms in the biofilms after treatment with sucrose solution at 5 % compared to control (saline) and to sucrose at 1 % and 3 %. In conclusion, Coffea canephora extract reduces the microbial count in oral biofilm, and our data suggest that sucrose concentration in coffee brew can influence its antimicrobial property against the referred biofilm.

  4. Produção de matéria seca, crescimento radicular e absorção de cálcio, fósforo e alumínio por coffea canephora e coffea arabica sob influência da atividade do alumínio em solução Dry matter production, root growth and calcium, phosphorus and aluminum absorption by coffea canephora and coffea arabica under influence of aluminum activity in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, o crescimento radicular e a absorção e distribuição do Ca, P e Al nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes de dois clones de café conilon (Coffea canephora (Mtl 25 e Mtl 27 e de uma variedade de café Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica, cultivados em solução nutritiva com atividade crescente de Al3+. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade para 5 L, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon, modificada. Após oito dias de adaptação, as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de Al de 0, 500, 1.000 e 2.000 µmol L-1, que corresponderam a atividades de Al3+ em solução, estimadas pelo software GEOCHEM, de 20,68, 50,59, 132,9 e 330,4 µmol L-1, respectivamente. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Al e P na planta. O sistema radicular foi separado, para determinação da área e do comprimento. A variedade Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica apresentou-se menos sensível ao Al3+, quando comparada aos clones de conilon (Coffea canephora. O clone de conilon Mtl 25 foi menos sensível ao Al3+ em relação ao Mtl 27. O aumento da atividade de Al3+ promoveu redução nos teores de P e Ca nas folhas e raízes do cafeeiro, especialmente nos clones Mtl 25 e Mtl 27. O acúmulo de Al no sistema radicular e a restrição do transporte para a parte aérea são importantes fatores na tolerância de plantas ao Al3+.This study had the objective of evaluating the dry matter production, root growth, and the absorption and distribution of Ca, P and Al in the leaves, stem and roots of two Conilon (Coffea canephora coffee clones (Mtl 25 and Mtl 27 and the coffee variety Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica grown in nutrient solution with increasing Al3+ activity. The plants were cultivated in 5 L pots, containing modified Hoagland & Arnold nutrient solution. After eight days of adaptation, the plants were subjected to Al concentrations of 0, 500, 1.000 and 2.000 mol L-1, which

  5. A survey of mangiferin and hydroxycinnamic acid ester accumulation in coffee (Coffea) leaves: biological implications and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Claudine; Mondolot, Laurence; Rakotondravao, Arsene; Bidel, Luc P. R.; Gargadennec, Annick; Couturon, Emmanuel; La Fisca, Philippe; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Jay-Allemand, Christian; Davis, Aaron P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The phenolic composition of Coffea leaves has barely been studied, and therefore this study conducts the first detailed survey, focusing on mangiferin and hydroxycinnamic acid esters (HCEs). Methods Using HPLC, including a new technique allowing quantification of feruloylquinic acid together with mangiferin, and histochemical methods, mangiferin content and tissue localization were compared in leaves and fruits of C. pseudozanguebariae, C. arabica and C. canephora. The HCE and mangiferin content of leaves was evaluated for 23 species native to Africa or Madagascar. Using various statistical methods, data were assessed in relation to distribution, ecology, phylogeny and use. Key Results Seven of the 23 species accumulated mangiferin in their leaves. Mangiferin leaf-accumulating species also contain mangiferin in the fruits, but only in the outer (sporophytic) parts. In both leaves and fruit, mangiferin accumulation decreases with ageing. A relationship between mangiferin accumulation and UV levels is posited, owing to localization with photosynthetic tissues, and systematic distribution in high altitude clades and species with high altitude representatives. Analyses of mangiferin and HCE content showed that there are significant differences between species, and that samples can be grouped into species, with few exceptions. These data also provide independent support for various Coffea lineages, as proposed by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Sampling of the hybrids C. arabica and C. heterocalyx cf. indicates that mangiferin and HCE accumulation may be under independent parental influence. Conclusions This survey of the phenolic composition in Coffea leaves shows that mangiferin and HCE accumulation corresponds to lineage recognition and species delimitation, respectively. Knowledge of the spectrum of phenolic accumulation within species and populations could be of considerable significance for adaptation to specific environments. The potential

  6. Human microglial cells synthesize albumin in brain.

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    Sung-Min Ahn

    Full Text Available Albumin, an abundant plasma protein with multifunctional properties, is mainly synthesized in the liver. Albumin has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD since it can bind to and transport amyloid beta (Abeta, the causative agent of AD; albumin is also a potent inhibitor of Abeta polymerization. Despite evidence of non-hepatic transcription of albumin in many tissues including kidney and pancreas, non-hepatic synthesis of albumin at the protein level has been rarely confirmed. In a pilot phase study of Human Brain Proteome Project, we found evidence that microglial cells in brain may synthesize albumin. Here we report, for the first time, the de novo synthesis of albumin in human microglial cells in brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the synthesis and secretion of albumin from microglial cells is enhanced upon microglial activation by Abeta(1-42- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treatment. These data indicate that microglial cells may play a beneficial role in AD by secreting albumin that not only inhibits Abeta polymerization but also increases its clearance.

  7. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form albumin-hepar

  8. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  9. Velocidade de penetração do tubo polínico em Coffea arabica L. Speed of pollen tube penetration in Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Coffea arabica a côr amarela do endosperma é determinada por um fator genético recessivo cera (ce ce. Endospermas que tragam uma ou duas doses do dominante Ce são de côr verde. Êsse fenômeno de xenia foi utilizado para determinar a velocidade de penetração do tubo polínico através do estilo. O método adotado foi o da polinização simultânea ou com Uoras de intervalo, dos mesmos estigmas com pólen Ce e pólen cc. Em seguida, de espaços a espaços de tempo eram eliminados os estilos. Verificou-se que sem a introdução do tubo polínico no interior do ovário não se produz o estímulo para a frutificação. O pólen estranho emite tubos po-linicos mais velozes nos estilos da varietlade cêra do que o próprio pólen. No primeiro caso, os tubos polínicos levam 24 a 48 horas para se introduzir na cavidade ovariana; na autofecundação êsse tempo se eleva para 48 a 68 horas. Comparando tais resultados com os obtidos anteriormente nas variedades typica, semperflorens e no café Mundo Novo, conclui-se que a velocidade do tubo polinico varia também de acôrdo com a variedade ou com as condições ambientes na ocasião da polinização.Yellow endosperm in Coffea arabica is determined by recessive gene (ce ce ; single, double and triple doses of the dominante Ce determine the normal green color. Such a xenia mechanism has been used in this investigation to determine the; speed of pollen tube penetration through the style. The stigmata of protected flowers were pollinated simultaneously, or at intervals of hours with both Ce and ce pollen. The styles were eliminated after a certain time had elapad. It has been found that, even though seedless fruits are formed in coffee, fruit development is not stimulated it the pollen tube does.nospenetrate into the ovary. Pollen tubes from foreign pollen grew faster through the cera styles than proper cera pollen tubes. In the first case, 24 to 48 hours elapsed between pollination and pollen tube

  10. ALBUMIN AS PROGNOSTIC VALUE IN HOSPITALISED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrapani Alavala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cases of a pathological state, there might be a low formation of the albumin in liver or high degradation of the albumin. In either of the ways, the serum albumin will be lowered. Stress and strain is also known to cause hypoalbuminemia i.e. low serum level of albumin. Since albumin is a protein, it has to be transcribed from the genes and studies have shown that TNF-alpha supresses this transcription process. The TNF-alpha is known to increase in any inflammation and thus forms a cascade. In case of hospitalised patients, the stress and strain in pre-surgical patients and chronically hospitalised patients, the serum albumin levels are known to be less than normal. In chronically hospitalised patients, the nutritional cause can also be taken into consideration for lower serum albumin levels. Early detection of these low levels of serum albumin levels helps the surgeons and the physicians to intervene and thus cut off the progression of the disease. A sincere effort has been made in this study to understand the relations of the serum albumin level and its effects on the prognosis of the disease and outcome of the surgery if the patient is undergoing any. This study is intended to help the physician, surgeon, and general practitioners to understand and intervene in the event and thus help the patient to recover earlier and in a better way. METHODS Aim of the study is to estimate the mean serum albumin levels in hospitalised patients to estimate the mean serum albumin levels in patients undergoing surgery and to correlate the serum albumin levels and the prognosis of the patient. The study has been done in the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad. The study was done from October 2013 to November 2014. The study is a cross-sectional study. The study is also double blinded and randomised. The study is a multi-level study. The sample size included one hundred patients. One hundred patients were identified in the

  11. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  12. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for ...

  13. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  14. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  15. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, H; Fyfe, J C; Jacobsen, C; Mounier, F; Verroust, P J; Orskov, H; Willnow, T E; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-05-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low-molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.

  16. Protective Response Mechanisms to Heat Stress in Interaction with High [CO2] Conditions in Coffea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Madlles Q.; Rodrigues, Weverton P.; Fortunato, Ana S.; Leitão, António E.; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Pais, Isabel P.; Martins, Lima D.; Silva, Maria J.; Reboredo, Fernando H.; Partelli, Fábio L.; Campostrini, Eliemar; Tomaz, Marcelo A.; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I.; Lidon, Fernando J. C.; DaMatta, Fábio M.; Ramalho, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling studies have predicted that coffee crop will be endangered by future global warming, but recent reports highlighted that high [CO2] can mitigate heat impacts on coffee. This work aimed at identifying heat protective mechanisms promoted by CO2 in Coffea arabica (cv. Icatu and IPR108) and Coffea canephora cv. Conilon CL153. Plants were grown at 25/20°C (day/night), under 380 or 700 μL CO2 L−1, and then gradually submitted to 31/25, 37/30, and 42/34°C. Relevant heat tolerance up to 37/30°C for both [CO2] and all coffee genotypes was observed, likely supported by the maintenance or increase of the pools of several protective molecules (neoxanthin, lutein, carotenes, α-tocopherol, HSP70, raffinose), activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and the upregulated expression of some genes (ELIP, Chaperonin 20). However, at 42/34°C a tolerance threshold was reached, mostly in the 380-plants and Icatu. Adjustments in raffinose, lutein, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and HSP70 pools, and the upregulated expression of genes related to protective (ELIPS, HSP70, Chape 20, and 60) and antioxidant (CAT, CuSOD2, APX Cyt, APX Chl) proteins were largely driven by temperature. However, enhanced [CO2] maintained higher activities of GR (Icatu) and CAT (Icatu and IPR108), kept (or even increased) the Cu,Zn-SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and promoted a greater upregulation of those enzyme genes, as well as those related to HSP70, ELIPs, Chaperonins in CL153, and Icatu. These changes likely favored the maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at controlled levels and contributed to mitigate of photosystem II photoinhibition at the highest temperature. Overall, our results highlighted the important role of enhanced [CO2] on the coffee crop acclimation and sustainability under predicted future global warming scenarios. PMID:27446174

  17. Porta-enxertos afetando o desenvolvimento de mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz Marcelo Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de mudas de Coffea arabica L., em função do porta-enxerto, foi avaliado em condições de campo, na fazenda Jatobá município de Paula Cândido - MG. Utilizaram-se como enxerto quatro genótipos de C. arabica L.: as variedades Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e as linhagens H 419-10-3-1-5 e H 514-5-5-3, e, como porta-enxerto, três genótipos de Coffea canephora Pierre et Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1, Robustão Capixaba (EMCAPA 8141 e um genótipo de C. arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além da utilização de quatro pés-francos. A combinação de enxertia H419/EMCAPA teve aumento na altura da planta, no número de nós da haste principal, no número de ramos plagiotrópicos da haste principal, no diâmetro de caule, no número de nós do ramo plagiotrópico mediano e na produção quando comparada com o respectivo pé-franco. As combinações Catuaí/Apoatã, H514/Apoatã, H514/Conilon e H514/EMCAPA tiveram reduções na produção quando comparadas com os respectivos pés-francos. A enxertia em café pode influenciar o desenvolvimento das plantas, quando se compararam diferentes combinações enxerto/porta-enxerto com os respectivos pés-francos. A linhagem H 419-10-3-1-5 foi beneficiada na produção de café pelos porta-enxertos Apoatã e EMCAPA, e no crescimento apenas pelo EMCAPA.

  18. Production of herbicide-resistant coffee plants (Coffea canephora P. via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Ribas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants of Coffea canephora P. resistant to the herbicide ammonium glufosinate were regenerated from leaf explants after co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pCambia3301, a plasmid that contains the bar and the uidA genes both under control of 35S promoter. Direct somatic embryogenesis was induced on basal medium contained ¼ strength macro salts and half strength micro salts of MS medium, organic constituents of B5 medium and 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 5µM N6 - (2-isopentenyl-adenine (2-iP. Ten µM ammonium glufosinate was used for putative transgenic somatic embryos selection. Presence and integration of the bar gene were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Selected transgenic coffee plants sprayed with up to 1600 mg.L-1 of FinaleTM, a herbicide containing glufosinate as the active ingredient, retained their pigmentation and continued to grow normally during ex vitro acclimation.Plantas transgênicas de Coffea canephora P resistentes ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio foram regeneradas a partir de explantes foliares co-cultivados com Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 contendo o plasmídio pCambia3301 que contém os genes bar e uidA ambos sob controle do promotor 35S. Embriogênese somática direta foi induzida no meio contendo ¼ da concentração de macro, metade da concentração de micronutrientes do meio MS, constituintes orgânicos do meio B5 e 30 g.L-1 de sacarose suplementado com 5µM N6 - (2-isopentenil-adenina (2-iP e 10 µM de glufosinato de amônio para seleção de embriões transgênicos putativos. A presença e a integração do gene bar foram confirmados pelas análises de PCR e Southern blot. As plantas transgênicas selecionadas de café, pulverizadas com 1600 mg.L-1 do herbicida FinaleTM que contém glufosinato como ingrediente ativo, mantiveram a coloração e continuaram crescendo normalmente na aclimatação ex vitro.

  19. Sustained photosynthetic performance of Coffea spp. under long-term enhanced [CO2].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Ramalho

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the world's most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m(-2 s(-1, RH (75% and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L(-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49% when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L(-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down

  20. Fontes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro, Perileucoptera coffeella, em Coffea spp. Sources of resistance to leaf miner, Perileucoptera coffeella, in Coffea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Guerreiro Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se determinar, em nível de laboratório, por meio de infestações artificiais uniformes, fontes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro Perileucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville, 1842, entre as espécies Coffea stenophyila, C. salvatríx, C. racemosa, C. liberíca, C. eugenioides, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei, C. brevípes, C. congensis e C, canephora e os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho e Mundo Novo de C. arábica. Utilizaram-se testes de livre escolha e de confinamento, sendo avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: oviposição, número de discos lesionados por parcela, nota visual, área foliar danificada por parcela e área foliar danificada por lagarta. De acordo com os parâmetros analisados, pode-se, com relação ao número de pontos atribuídos na avaliação visual e quanto à porcentagem de discos lesionados, agrupar as espécies C. stenophyila, C. brevipes, C. liberíca e C. salvatrix, como altamente resistentes; C. racemosa, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei e C. eugenioides, como moderadamente resistentes, e C. congensis, C. canephora e C. arabica, como suscetíveis. Considerando os parâmetros área foliar danificada por parcela e área foliar danificada por lagarta, C. arabica pode ser classificada como altamente suscetível, mantendo-se C. congensis e C. canephora como suscetíveis.The species C. stenophyila, C. salvatrix, C. racemosa, C. liberíca, C. eugenioides, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei, C. brevipes, C. congensis and C. canephora and cvs Catuaí Vermelho and Mundo Novo of C. arabica were evaluated for resistance to leaf miner (Períleucoptera coffeeila (Guérin-Mèneville, 1842 under lab conditions with artificial infestations of leaf discs. There was no preference of P. coffeella for oviposition on any of the afore mentioned species. According to subjective visual ratings, number of discs with lesions, damaged foliar area and caterpillar consumption, C. stenophylla, C. salvatrix, C. Ilberica and C. brevipescan be considered as highly

  1. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  2. Estimation of leaf area in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L. of the Castillo® variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Unigarro-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models based on measurements of single leaf dimensions or a combination there are useful tools for determining individual leaf area (LA because they are non-destructive, precise, simple and economical methods. The present study was carried out at the Central Station Naranjal of Cenicafé, located in the Department of Caldas (Colombia, four models were defined using the variables length (L and/or width (W to estimate LA in coffee leaves of the Castillo® variety (Coffea arabica L.. Estimation of regression coefficients was performed using information recorded from 6,441 leaves (group 1, and their validation was performed using records from another 992 leaves (group 2. Leaves were collected from all strata of the canopy and ranged from 0.76 to 140 cm2 in LA. In addition to exhibiting coefficients of variation differing from zero based on t-tests at 1%, the evaluated models possess coefficients of determination between 0.93 and 0.99. Four expressions have developed and adjusted to estimate leaf area in individual leaves, based on the measurement of simple variables and non-destructive.

  3. Estudio del proceso de callogénesis en genotipos promisorios de cafeto (Coffea canephora P..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Vega María Esther

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available on la finalidad de obtener callos embriogénicos y luego embriones somáticos de los mismos en el cultivo del café (Coffea canephora P., se cultivaron in vitro explantes foliares de ramas ortotrópicas de plantas establecidas en campo. Los medios de cultivo contenían las sales minerales recomendadas por Murashige y Skoog (1962 y como reguladores del crecimiento se estudiaron el 2,4-D (0.5 mg/L y la Kinetina (2.0 mg/L, así como el RIZOBAC (0.4-1.8 mg/L para la inducción del callo embriogénico. Se observó que la dosis de 0.9 mg/L de RIZOBAC y 2.0 mg/L de Kinetina favorecieron notablemente la formación de callos embriogénicos de alta frecuencia (46.0-98.7 %. Estos callos cultivados en un medio suplementado con ANA (0.1 mg/L y Kinetina (0.5 mg/L originaron embriones somáticos en diferentes estadios de desarrollo. Palabras clave: Robusta; clones; callos; 2,4-D; Kinetina; RIZOBAC.

  4. Host-range characterization of two Pratylenchus coffeae isolates from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R A; Inomoto, M M

    2002-06-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, okra, melon, eggplant, and lettuce were the best hosts of the Marília isolate. Poor hosts included French marigold, Rangpur lime, banana, sesame, peanut, sunflower, cotton, French bean, onion, and small onion. The best hosts of the Rio de Janeiro isolate were sesame, soybean, sorghum, castor oil plant, watermelon, squash, eggplant, and melon; the poorest hosts were French marigold, coffee, Rangpur lime, banana, sunflower, peanut, maize, millet, French bean, cotton, onion, sweet pepper, lettuce, okra, and small onion. These isolates have important molecular and morphological differences, suggesting host preference is linked to these characteristics.

  5. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  6. Leaf anatomy characterization of Coffea arabica plants at different seasonal periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the hindering factors for coffee plant growth and yield. This study aimed to analyze the anatomy of leaves grown during the rainy and dry seasons in nine Coffea arabica L. plants, previously described as tolerant or sensitive to water deicit, in order to identify structural features of drought tolerance. We measured the size and density of stomata and epidermal cells, the thickness of epidermis and mesophyll, the diameter of petiole and midrib, the thickness of phloem and xylem in the midrib and petiole, and the diameter and frequency of elements of xylem vessels. Differences observed between the leaf structure of coffee plants evaluated and the leaf growth conditions (rainy and dry seasons indicated that there is a favorable anatomical plasticity regarding drought conditions. Thicker palisade parenchyma and total limbo, larger radii of phloem and xylem in the petiole and midrib were considered as favorable structural features to cope with water scarcity and they could be used as criteria to select drought-resistant cultivars. The following coffee plants were considered as more adapted to drought: Geisha, Semperlorens, BA 10, IAC H 8105-7, IAC H 8421-2, and the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81.

  7. Leaf anatomy, ultrastructure and plasticity of Coffea arabica L. in response to light and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Francisco Pompelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation occurs at all organizational levels and across temporal scales within plants. However, the magnitude and functional significance of this plasticity is little explored in perennial species. We examined the influence of different light regimes and nitrogen (N availability on the morphological and physiological plasticity of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.. Potted plants were grown under full sunlight and shade (50% and were fertilized with Hoagland’s solutions containing 0, 16 or 23mM N. Most leaf traits responded to light with a classic full sunlight vs. shade dichotomy [e.g., compared with those grown under full sunlight, 50% leaves had a thinner palisade mesophyll and a lower leaf mass per area (LMA for improved light capture]. The outer periclinal cell walls in both epidermises exhibited thick epicuticular wax and three distinct layers. Chloroplasts of the mesophyll cells were densely occupied by thylakoids and starch grains. These characteristics were observed most clearly in plants supplemented by nitrogen or in those grown in shade conditions. Large starch granules were observed, but no membrane injuries were observed in either treatment. The plasticity index was high for the physiological traits that are associated with photoprotection and the maintenance of a positive carbon balance under shade but was low for most morpho-anatomical features.

  8. Characterization of Coffea arabica monofloral honey from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Mazzafera, Paulo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2016-07-15

    In this study, samples of coffee honey produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were characterized based on their melissopalynology, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and mineral and caffeine contents. The caffeine content in the nectar from coffee flowers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blends of honey were obtained from three Coffea arabica crops, each with 10 colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera. All honey samples contained monofloral (75-78%) pollen belonging to C. arabica. Physicochemical parameters (total acidity, pH, moisture, dry matter, ash, and qualitative hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the approved limits established by EU legislation. Coffee honey contains high levels of ascorbic acid (294.68 mg kg(-1)) and low amounts of total flavonoids (3.51 ± 0.18 mg QE kg(-1)). The most abundant minerals were potassium and calcium (962.59 ± 154.3 and 343.75 ± 25.56 mg kg(-1), respectively). The caffeine content in coffee nectar (1.64 mg kg(-1)) was approximately 8-fold lower than that in honey (12.02 ± 0.81 mg kg(-1)).

  9. Galactinol synthase transcriptional profile in two genotypes of Coffea canephora with contrasting tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Benedito Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased synthesis of galactinol and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs has been reported in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. In this work, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of a Coffea canephora galactinol synthase gene (CcGolS1 in two clones that differed in tolerance to water deficit in order to assess the contribution of this gene to drought tolerance. The expression of CcGolS1 in leaves was differentially regulated by water deficit, depending on the intensity of stress and the genotype. In clone 109A (drought-susceptible, the abundance of CcGolS1 transcripts decreased upon exposure to drought, reaching minimum values during recovery from severe water deficit and stress. In contrast, CcGolS1 gene expression in clone 14 (drought-tolerant was stimulated by water deficit. Changes in galactinol and RFO content did not correlate with variation in the steady-state transcript level. However, the magnitude of increase in RFO accumulation was higher in the tolerant cultivar, mainly under severe water deficit. The finding that the drought-tolerant coffee clone showed enhanced accumulation of CcGolS1 transcripts and RFOs under water deficit suggests the possibility of using this gene to improve drought tolerance in this important crop.

  10. Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genes early expressed during infection by the rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Diana; Santos, Patricia; Agostini, Caroline; Bon, Marie-Claude; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; C Silva, Maria; Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Ribeiro, Ana; Argout, Xavier; Nicole, Michel

    2004-11-01

    SUMMARY The beverage cash crop coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is subject to severe losses caused by the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. In naturally resistant coffee plants, a specific hypersensitive reaction (HR) may be elicited early to stop fungal infection. To isolate host genes involved in HR, we undertook an expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. Two cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and 527 non-redundant ESTs were generated from 784 randomly picked clones. Classification of the ESTs into several functional categories showed that more than one-quarter of the predicted proteins might encode disease resistance (R) proteins, stress- and defence-proteins, and components of signal transduction pathways. Twenty-eight differentially screened sequences (DSSs) were selected after differential hybridization of 1000 cDNA clones from each library. Investigation of the expression patterns of a subset of 13 DSSs showed higher levels of gene expression in inoculated plants compared with control plants. HR-up-regulation of transcript accumulation occurred for 9 out of the 13 genes 24 and 48 h after H. vastatrix challenge. Two genes encoded homologues of the Arabidopsis DND1 and NDR1 proteins, suggesting conservation of resistance signalling pathways in perennial plants. Other HR-regulated sequences matched receptor kinases, AP2 domain- and WRKY transcription factors, cytochromes P450, heat shock 70 proteins, glucosyltransferases and proteins of unknown function. The ESTs reported here provide a useful resource for studying coffee resistance responses and for improving C. arabica for durable disease resistance.

  11. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CORRELATION OF COFFEE FRUIT (Coffea arabica DURING ITS RIPENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN DARÍO ARISTIZÁBAL TORRES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se correlacionaron las coordenadas del espacio de color CIELAB y la reflectancia en el espectro visible del epicarpio del fruto de café Coffea arabica, variedad Colombia, de 9 diferentes estados de desarrollo, con propiedades físicas como masa fresca y seca, contenido de humedad y diámetros, y propiedades mecánicas como fuerza de desprendimiento del fruto, firmeza, fuerza de fractura, deformación y energía requerida para fracturar la pulpa. Utilizando análisis de regresión lineal multivariado se obtuvieron modelos que predicen significativamente propiedades del fruto de café a partir del conocimiento de las coordenadas cromáticas (a* y/o b* o de la reflectancia para diferentes longitudes de onda discriminantes de estados de desarrollo, con un nivel de confianza del 99% y un R2 entre 78,5 y 99,9 %. Los resultados obtenidos podrían ser utilizados para el diseño de sistemas de recolección, clasificación y determinación rápida de la calidad del café.

  12. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  13. The Greater Phenotypic Homeostasis of the Allopolyploid Coffea arabica Improved the Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of Both Diploid Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Bardil, Amélie; Baraille, Hélène; Dussert, Stéphane; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Dubois, Emeric; Severac, Dany; Dereeper, Alexis; Etienne, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    Polyploidy impacts the diversity of plant species, giving rise to novel phenotypes and leading to ecological diversification. In order to observe adaptive and evolutionary capacities of polyploids, we compared the growth, primary metabolism and transcriptomic expression level in the leaves of the newly formed allotetraploid Coffea arabica species compared with its two diploid parental species (Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora), exposed to four thermal regimes (TRs; 18-14, 23-19, 28-24 and 33-29°C). The growth rate of the allopolyploid C. arabica was similar to that of C. canephora under the hottest TR and that of C. eugenioides under the coldest TR. For metabolite contents measured at the hottest TR, the allopolyploid showed similar behavior to C. canephora, the parent which tolerates higher growth temperatures in the natural environment. However, at the coldest TR, the allopolyploid displayed higher sucrose, raffinose and ABA contents than those of its two parents and similar linolenic acid leaf composition and Chl content to those of C. eugenioides. At the gene expression level, few differences between the allopolyploid and its parents were observed for studied genes linked to photosynthesis, respiration and the circadian clock, whereas genes linked to redox activity showed a greater capacity of the allopolyploid for homeostasis. Finally, we found that the overall transcriptional response to TRs of the allopolyploid was more homeostatic compared with its parents. This better transcriptional homeostasis of the allopolyploid C. arabica afforded a greater phenotypic homeostasis when faced with environments that are unsuited to the diploid parental species.

  14. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Birn, H.; J. C. Fyfe; Jacobsen, C.; Mounier, F.; Verroust, P. J.; Orskov, H; Willnow, T.E.; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-01-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show ...

  15. A review of albumin binding in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Verbeke, Kristin; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2008-05-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is associated with excess mortality in patients with kidney disease. Albumin is an important oxidant scavenger and an abundant carrier protein for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Several specific binding sites for anionic, neutral, and cationic ligands were described. Overall, the extent of binding depends on the ligand and albumin concentration, albumin-binding affinity, and presence of competing ligands. Chronic kidney disease affects all these determinants. This may result in altered pharmacokinetics and increased risk of toxicity. Renal clearance of albumin-bound solutes mainly depends on tubular clearance. Dialytic clearance by means of conventional hemodialysis/hemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis is limited. Other epuration techniques combining hemodialysis with adsorption have been developed. However, the benefit of these techniques remains to be proved.

  16. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  17. Respuesta fotosintética de Coffea arabica L. a diferentes niveles de luz y disponibilidad hídrica

    OpenAIRE

    Yesid Alejandro Mariño

    2014-01-01

    El sombrío permite una mejor aclimatación del café (Coffea arabica L.) en zonas donde el invierno se caracteriza por bajas temperaturas nocturnas seguido de días soleados y el verano, por altas temperaturas y lluvias ocasionales. En este estudio, realizado en Viçosa-MG, Brasil, se analizaron los efectos de dos condiciones de luminosidad (pleno sol y 15% de la radiación solar) y disponibilidades de agua en el suelo sobre las relaciones hídricas y el desempeño fotosintético en C. arabica en dos...

  18. Respuesta fotosintética de coffea arabica a diferentes niveles de luz y disponibilidad hídrica

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño, Yesid Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    El sombrío permite una mejor aclimatación del café (Coffea arabica) en zonas donde el invierno se caracte-riza por bajas temperaturas nocturnas seguido de días soleados y el verano, por altas temperaturas y lluvias ocasionales. En este estudio, realizado en Viçosa-MG, Brasil, se analizaron los efectos de dos condiciones de luminosidad (pleno sol y15% de la radiación solar) y disponibilidades de agua en el suelo sobre las relaciones hídricas y el desempeño fotosintético en C. arabica en dos é...

  19. BAC-end sequences analysis provides first insights into coffee (Coffea canephora P.) genome composition and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dereeper, Alexis; Guyot, Romain; Dubreuil Tranchant, Christine; Anthony, François; Argout, X.; Bellis, F; Combes, Marie-Christine; Gavory, F.; De Kochko, Alexandre; Kudrna, D.; Leroy, T.; Poulain, J.; Rondeau, M.; Song, X; Wing, R

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most important agricultural commodities. Coffee belongs to the Rubiaceae family in the euasterid I clade of dicotyledonous plants, to which the Solanaceae family also belongs. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of a homozygous doubled haploid plant of Coffea canephora were constructed using two enzymes, HindIII and BstYI. A total of 134,827 high quality BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from the 73,728 clones of the two libraries, and 131,41...

  20. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  1. Distribution and degradation of albumin in extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Anne-Marie; Taaning, E; Rossing, N;

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of albumin were determined in twelve patients with extensive skin disease and in ten control subjects by measuring the metabolic turnover and transcapillary escape of 132 I-labelled albumin. The ratio of intravascular to total mass of albumin was normal. Thus the ...... catabolic rate of albumin supports the concept of a causal relationship between these parameters....

  2. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  3. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  4. Foaming properties of guar foaming albumin

    OpenAIRE

    細見, 典子; Hosomi, Noriko; 原田, 麻子; Harada, Asako; 下山, 亜美; Shimoyama, Ami; 土居, 幸雄; Doi, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    From guar meal we recently isolated an albumin fraction with a high foaming ability, named guar foaming albumin (GFA) . Here, we further characterized the foaming activity, foam stability and surface tension of GFA solutions. Foaming activity and foam stability were estimated by measuring the conductivity of foam using a glass column with a conductivity cell. Surface tension was measured by the drop weight method using a stalagmometer. GFA showed higher foaming activity than casein at any pro...

  5. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  6. Modifications on leaf anatomy of Coffea arabica caused by shade of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Modifications on leaf anatomy in Coffea arabica shaded with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, compared to cultivation under full sun, were assessed. The leaves fully exposed to sunlight presented thicker cuticles and cellular walls, narrower epidermis cells, palisade parenchyma with longer cells, thicker lacunar parenchyma, fewer intercellular spaces and a larger stomata number. Leaves under dense shade presented a narrower cuticle and cellular wall; a mesophyll with smaller volume, but with larger intercellular spaces; and epidermis with thicker cells and a smaller stomata amount, surrounded by subsidiary cells of smaller dimensions. Plants grown under full sunlight presented higher values of net photosynthesis. The results evidenced that the species C. arabica has a wide range of phenotypic adaptation to changes in the radiation intensity.Adaptações de plantas da mesma espécie aos diferentes habitats, constituem a base da diferenciação entre folhas a pleno sol e folhas sob sombra e estão associadas a características anatômicas distintas. Para caracterizar tais mudanças em cafeeiros cultivados sob sombra de guandu (Cajanus cajan e a pleno sol, em Londrina, PR, foram realizadas avaliações de modificações ocorridas na anatomia foliar. As estruturas internas avaliadas foram: parede celular e cutícula; epiderme; mesofilo (parênquima paliçádico, parênquima lacunoso e espaços intercelulares e estômatos. Para todas as variáveis avaliadas observaram-se diferenças anatômicas entre folhas expostas ao sol e à sombra. As folhas expostas ao sol apresentaram cutículas e paredes celulares mais espessas, células da epiderme mais estreitas, parênquima paliçádico com células mais alongadas, parênquima lacunoso espesso e com poucos espaços intercelulares e maior número de estômatos. Folhas sob condições de denso sombreamento apresentam menor espessamento da cutícula e da parede celular; mesofilos com menores volumes, porém com

  7. Characterization of the interaction between 3-Oxotabersonine and two serum albumins by using spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qing; Yan, Jin; He, Jiawei; Bai, Keke [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuilab@sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2013-06-15

    3-Oxotabersonine (OTAB) is a component of Voacanga africana, which is a type of traditional drug in Africa widely used for treating diseases. This study examines the interaction of OTAB with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions. The interaction between OTAB and BSA/HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular modeling under simulated physiological conditions. The experimental results confirm that the quenching mechanism is a static quenching process. The binding site number (n) and the apparent binding constant (K) were measured at various temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, namely, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS), were calculated. Furthermore, the structural changes in the serum albumin that affected the OTAB binding were determined using FT-IR. The binding site was assumed to be located in site I of the BSA/HSA (subdomain IIA). -- Highlights: ► Make use of the 3-Oxotabersonine firstly extracted from seeds of Voacanga africana Stapf to study the drug–protein system. ► Use two kinds of similar structure serum albumins to do a comparative study. ► FT-IR was used to study the conformational change of BSA and HSA. ► Use the BSA and HSA structure obtained from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank for molecular docking.

  8. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  9. Introgression molecular analysis of a leaf rust resistance gene from Coffea liberica into C. arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, N S; Marques, D V; Varzea, V M P; Silva, M C; Combes, M C; Lashermes, P

    2004-10-01

    Leaf rust caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix is the most devastating disease of arabica coffee ( Coffea arabica). Therefore, developing leaf rust-resistant varieties has been a breeding objective of the highest priority in many countries. The purpose of the present work was to gain insight into the mechanism of introgression into C. arabica of a leaf rust resistance gene from C. liberica (i.e. S(H)3 resistance factor) and to identify associated molecular markers. An F(2) progeny (i.e. 101 individuals) derived from a cross between Matari, an arabica accession and liberica-introgressed line S.288, was evaluated for resistance against three different races of H. vastatrix. The progeny segregated for the S(H)3 gene in a 3:1 ratio, as expected for a single dominant gene. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of a population subset using 80 different primer combinations revealed that at least half of the total polymorphism observed in the population is associated with introgression of C. liberica chromosome fragments. Furthermore, 15 primer combinations generating candidate marker bands associated with the S(H)3 resistance gene were used to analyse the whole F(2) population. A total of 34 marker bands originating from S.288 and attributable to introgression were scored. None exhibited segregation distortion. Linkage analysis revealed only three distinct introgressed fragments corresponding to a total length of 52.8 cM. Twenty-one markers were strongly associated (LOD score >14) with the S(H)3 gene and were grouped together in a single linkage group of 6.3 cM. The results are discussed in relation to the efficient use of genetic resources in arabica breeding.

  10. Impact of the Coffea canephora gene introgression on beverage quality of C. arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, B; Guyot, B; Anthony, F; Lashermes, P

    2003-08-01

    Lines of Coffea arabica derived from the Timor Hybrid (hybrid between C. arabica and C. canephora) are resistant to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) and to the nematode Meloidogyne exigua. The introgression of C. canephora resistance genes is suspected of causing a drop in beverage quality. Coffee samples from pure lines, compared in a Trial 1, and from F1 hybrids and parental lines from a half-diallel trial in a Trial 2, were studied for beverage quality, chemical composition and amount of introgressed genetic material. Chemical analyses (caffeine, chlorogenic acids, fat, trigonelline, sucrose) were carried out with near-infrared spectrometry by reflectance of green coffee. The number of amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers introgressed from the Timor Hybrid varied from 1 to 37 for the lines studied. There were significant differences between lines for all of the biochemical compounds analysed and for the acidity and the overall standard of the beverage. Two lines (T17927, T17924) were significantly poorer than the controls for sucrose and beverage acidity. T17924 also had more chlorogenic acids and was poorer for the overall standard. However, two highly introgressed lines, T17934 and T17931 (25 and 30 AFLP markers, respectively), did not differ from the non-introgressed controls. There were no correlations between the number of AFLP markers and the chemical contents or beverage attributes. Significant correlations were found between the performance of the parents and their general combining ability for beverage quality. It was concluded that it should be possible to find lines with both the desired resistance genes and good beverage quality. Selection can avoid accompanying the introgression of resistance genes with a drop in beverage quality.

  11. Aquaporins in Coffea arabica L.: Identification, expression, and impacts on plant water relations and hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniussi, Matilda; Del Terra, Lorenzo; Savi, Tadeja; Pallavicini, Alberto; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Plant aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in the transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes, and thus play major roles in the regulation of plant water balance, as well as in growth regulation and response to abiotic stress factors. Limited information is currently available about the presence and role of AQPs in Coffea arabica L., despite the economic importance of the species and its vulnerability to drought stress. We identified candidate AQP genes by screening a proprietary C. arabica transcriptome database, resulting in the identification of nine putative aquaporins. A phylogenetic analysis based on previously characterized AQPs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum tuberosum allowed to assign the putative coffee AQP sequences to the Tonoplast (TIP) and Plasma membrane (PIP) subfamilies. The possible functional role of coffee AQPs was explored by measuring hydraulic conductance and aquaporin gene expression on leaf and root tissues of two-year-old plants (C. arabica cv. Pacamara) subjected to different experimental conditions. In a first experiment, we tested plants for root and leaf hydraulic conductance both before dawn and at mid-day, to check the eventual impact of light on AQP activity and plant hydraulics. In a second experiment, we measured plant hydraulic responses to different water stress levels as eventually affected by changes in AQPs expression levels. Our results shed light on the possible roles of AQPs in the regulation of C. arabica hydraulics and water balance, opening promising research lines to improve the sustainability of coffee cultivation under global climate change scenarios.

  12. Use of coffee (Coffea arabica pulp for the production of briquettes and pellets for heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cubero-Abarca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing generates high amount of residues that are sources of environmental pollution. Therefore, an appropriate solution is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of coffee pulp to produce briquettes and pellets. The study included pulp drying (using air, solar and hot air methods; the production of briquettes and pellets; the evaluation of their energy, physical and mechanical properties; and the evaluation of pellet quality using X-ray densitometry. The results showed that the pulp presented an initial moisture content of 90%, resulting in drying times of 699, 308 and 55 hours for air, solar and hot air drying, respectively, and the calorific values of the pellets and briquettes were 12,501 kJ kg-1 and 11,591 kJ kg-1, respectively. The ash content was 8.68% for the briquettes and 6.74% for the pellets. The density of the briquettes was 1,110 kg m-3, compared with 1,300 kg m-3 for the pellets. The apparent densities were 1,000 kg m-3 and 600 kg m-3 for the briquettes and pellets, respectively, and the water absorptions by the briquettes were 7.90% and 8.10% by the pellets. The maximum horizontal compression effort was 26.86 kg cm-2, measured in the pellets, compared with 4.52 kg cm-2 in the briquettes. The maximum horizontal load was 93.24 kg, measured in the briquettes, compared with 33.50 kg in the pellets. The value of the pellet durability test was 75.54%. X-ray densitometry showed that the pellet was uniform and a few cracks were observed on the pellet surface.

  13. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXXVIII. Observações sobre progênies do cultivar Mundo-Novo de Coffea arabica na estação experimental de Mococa Coffee breeding: XXXVIII-observation on progenies of the Mundo-Novo cultivars of Coffea arabica in the Mococa experimental station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio R. Rocha

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Os dados analisados no experimento localizado em Mococa sobre a produtividade de 112 progênies dos cultivares Mundo-Novo S1 e S2, Bourbon-Amarelo, BourbonVermelho e Caturra-Vermelho de Coffea arabica no período de 1955 a 1971, indicaram que as de Mundo-Novo S1, de prefixos MP 474, MP 502, MP 469, MP 492 e MP 475, revelaram-se como as mais produtivas, assemelhando-se a algumas progênies 'Mundo--Novo' S2. Dentre estas, destacou-se a de prefixo MP 388-6, que atingiu o nível mais elevado de produção do experimento. As progênies de 'Mundo-Novo', em conjunto, produziram 44% a mais do que as de Bourbon-Amarelo e, estas, 60% a mais do que as de Bourbon-Vermelho e Caturra-Vermelho. A altura e o diâmetro da copa atingiram valores médios mais elevados para as progênies de 'Mundo-Novo'. Verificaram-se correlações positivas e altamente significativas entre altura média da planta e diâmetro médio da copa com a produção das progênies. As progênies mais produtivas revelaram rendimento (relação entre peso de café maduro e beneficiado de aproximadamente 6,0 e porcentagem de sementes normais, do tipo chato, acima de 80. Quanto ao tamanho das sementes do tipo chato, duas progênies 'Mundo-Novo' S1, MP 474 e MP 452, apresentaram peneira média maior, permi-tindo seleção de plantas com essa característica e com elevada produção.Coffee progenies of the Mundo-Novo cultivars of Coffea arabica were studied in an experiment located at the Mococa Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico in comparison with Bourbon-Amarelo, Bourbon-Vermelho and Caturra-Vermelho cultivars of the same species. During a period of 17 consecutive cropping years (1955-1971, Mundo-Novo yielded approximately 44% more than Bourbon-Amarelo and this cultivars yielded 60% more than Bourbon-Vermelho and Caturra-Vermelho. Among the 89 S1 'Mundo-Novo' progenies, MP 474, MP 502, MP 469, MP 492 and MP 475 yielded as much as the two best 'Mundo-Novo' S2 progenies. Greater

  14. Consequences of stoichiometric error on nuclear DNA content evaluation in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using DAPI and propidium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, Michel; Barre, Philippe; Louarn, Jacques; Duperray, Christophe; Hamon, Serge

    2002-04-01

    The genome size of coffee trees (Coffea sp.) was assessed using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA was stained with two dyes [4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI) and propidium iodide (PI)]. Fluorescence in coffee tree nuclei (C-PI or C-DAPI) was compared with that of the standard, petunia (P-PI or P-DAPI). If there is no stoichiometric error, then the ratio between fluorescence of the target nuclei and that of the standard nuclei (R-PI or R-DAPI) is expected to be proportional to the genome size. Between-tree differences in target : standard fluorescence ratios were noted in Coffea liberica var. dewevrei using propidium iodide and DAPI. For both dyes, between-tree differences were due to a lack of proportionality when comparing locations of the coffee peak and the petunia peak. Intraspecific genome size variations clearly cannot explain variations in the target : standard fluorescence ratio. The origin of the lack of proportionality between target and standard fluorescences differed for the two dyes. With propidium iodide, there was a regression line convergence point, and no between-tree differences were noted in this respect, whereas there was no such convergence with DAPI. An accurate estimate of genome size can thus be obtained with PI. Implications with respect to accessibility and binding mode are discussed.

  15. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.

  16. How albumin administration for cirrhosis impacts on hospital albumin consumption and expenditure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federica Mirici-Cappa; Paolo Caraceni; Marco Domenicali; Ernesto Gelonesi; Barbara Benazzi; Giacomo Zaccherini; Franco Trevisani; Cristina Puggioli; Mauro Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of guidelines for albumin prescription in an academic hospital, which is a referral center for liver diseases. METHODS: Although randomized trials and guidelines support albumin administration for some complications of cirrhosis, the high cost of albumin greatly limits its use in clinical practice. In 2003, a multidisciplinary panel at Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital (Bologna, Italy) used a literature-based consensus method to list all the acute and chronic conditions for which albumin is indicated as first- or second-line treatment. Indications in hepatology included prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction and renal failure induced by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome and refractory ascites. Although still debated, albumin administration in refractory ascites is

  17. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  18. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Muniz da Silva Fragoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA and bovine serum albumin (BSA through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08 × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20 × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01 × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04 × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  19. Centrifugal partition chromatography as a tool for preparative purification of pea albumin with enhanced yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérot, Serge; Le Goff, Elisabeth; Foucault, Alain; Quillien, Laurence

    2007-01-15

    A new procedure including the use of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is proposed to purify PA1b and its isoforms. These pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed proteins are toxic against weevils and can be used as an environment-friendly insecticide. CPC was applied to a whole albumin fraction prepared from pea flour. The butanol:aqueous TFA system used in CPC allowed the separation of PA1b from other albumins and a degree of purification above 95%. Compared to analytical procedures based on methanol extraction, anion exchange and then reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), CPC recovered PA1b in much better yield, which is indispensable for large-scale purification of a biodegradable insecticide.

  20. Imidazole binding to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, M C; Ceballos, A; Mariño, E; Cachaza, J M; Domínguez-Gil, A; Kuemmerle, H P

    1988-06-01

    Imidazole is a substance released by the organism when a new salicylate derivative, imidazole salicylate is administered. A study was made of the binding of imidazole to human serum albumin by an in vitro assay employing an ultrafiltration technique. For the concentration range that imidazole was found in plasma following administration of the drug to healthy volunteers, the mean binding percentages were: 12.1 +/- 1.8 and 19.7 +/- 3.1 at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, respectively. The results obtained in the study follow a model entailing three equal and independent binding sites of imidazole to serum albumin and the values of the corresponding constants were determined. Apparently, the presence in the plasma samples of sodium salicylate at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml does not affect the binding of imidazole to human serum albumin.

  1. PRODUCCIÓN DE FITOMASA POR Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner EN DOS CICLOS PRODUCTIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustamante González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En áreas de la Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao ubicadas en La Mandarina, municipio Tercer Frente, provincia Santiago de Cuba y La Alcarraza, municipio Sagua de Tánamo, provincia Holguín, se evaluó la producción de biomasa de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. Robusta desde la plantación hasta el cuarto año en ambas localidades y luego de la poda baja y hasta el cuarto año en la Alcarraza. Los cafetos fueron plantados a 3 x 1,5 m en suelos Pardos bajo sombra de Samanea saman Jerr en la primera localidad y Leucaena leucocephala Lam de Wit en la segunda. La fitomasa se separó en hojas, ramas, tallos, frutos y raíces. A partir de los 24 meses y al año después de la poda se recolectaron mensualmente las hojas del cafeto caídas. Para el estudio del sistema radical se extrajeron bloques de suelo de 25 x 25 x 25 cm, en un área formada por 1,5 m (distancia hacia la calle y 0,75 m (entre plantas, en todos los casos centrado en relación con la planta y hasta un metro de profundidad. El volumen del suelo extraído representó ¼ del volumen ocupado por la planta. Se determinó la masa seca de cada órgano. La producción de fitomasa alcanzó valores de 25 toneladas de masa seca ha -1 independientemente de la fase de la plantación. Hasta el cuarto año el sistema radical predominó en la fitomasa, seguido de las hojas y luego los tallos. La participación de los frutos se incrementó en la etapa de cosecha y al concluir el experimento los cafetos habían destinado para su formación entre el 16-20 % de la masa seca total, independientemente del ciclo de desarrollo

  2. A Study of Allelopathy of Some Shade Trees to Coffea arabicaL. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2006-05-01

    recommended as shade trees or intercrops with Arabica coffee and for D. zibethinusits cropping pattern must be arranged so the mineral competition could be maintained minimum. Key words: Allelopathy, Coffea arabica, Macadamia integrifolia, Cinnamomum burmani, Cassia siamea, Cassia spectabilis, mineral.

  3. Physiological Dose-Response of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Plants to Glyphosate Depends on Growth Stage Respuesta Fisiológica de Plantas de Café (Coffea arabica L. a Glifosato Depende de la Etapa de Crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the main herbicide used in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in Brazil. Problems with herbicide drift commonly occur in orchard fields due to non-adequate spraying conditions. A series of experiments was carried out aiming to evaluate physiological dose-response of C. arabica plants submitted to exposure to simulated glyphosate drift in two distinct plant growth stages. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 180, 360, and 720 g acid equivalent (AE ha-1 directly on coffee plants with 10 and 45 d after transplanting (DAT. Glyphosate doses in a range of 180-360 g AE ha-1 increased photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance in 10 DAT-plants up to 14 d after application (DAA while, in 45 DAT-plants, an increase was observed only up to 2 DAA, but this pattern was not persistent afterwards so that no difference in gas exchange was observed at 60 DAA in both plants. Macronutrient content was not affected by glyphosate application in both plants. Plant DM accumulation was not affected by glyphosate application at 10 DAT-plants, but an increase in plant growth was observed when glyphosate was applied in a range of 360-720 g AE ha-1 in 45 DAT-plants. Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí Vermelho IAC-144 responded differentially to glyphosate drift depending on plant growth stage, regarding on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and plant growth, in spite of macronutrient nutrition was not affected.Glifosato es el principal herbicida utilizado en las plantaciones de café (Coffea arabica L. en Brasil. Problemas con la deriva de herbicidas comúnmente ocurren en los campos de cultivo debido a condiciones no adecuadas de pulverización. Una serie de experimentos se llevó a cabo con el objetivo de evaluar la relación dosis-respuesta fisiológica de plantas de C. arabica expuestas a situaciones simuladas de exposición a deriva de glifosato en dos etapas distintas de crecimiento de las plantas. El glifosato se aplicó en dosis de 0

  4. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P peritoneal accumulation of the albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  5. Cloning and Expression of α-D-Galactosidase from Coffee Bean( Coffea liberica & Coffea canephora )%具血型转换功能的咖啡α-半乳糖苷酶基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁素钰; 郑学勤

    2005-01-01

    从大粒种咖啡(Coffea liberica)和中粒种咖啡(Coffea canephora)中分离克隆到了α-半乳糖苷酶(α-D-gal-actosidase)cDNA的开放阅读框架即编码区,分别记为Gal-D与Gal-Z,长度与已发表的小粒种咖啡cDNA编码序列相同均为1 089 bp,同源性与已发表的小粒种咖啡cDNA编码序列相比分别为98.7%和99.27%.将克隆到的Gal-D与Gal-Z用巴斯德毕赤氏酵母Pichia pastoris表达载体pPICZαA(分泌甲醇诱导型)和pGAPZαA(分泌组成型)成功地构建了如下酵母表达载体:pPICZαA/Gal-Z,pPICZαA/Gal-D和pGAPZαA/Gal-D,并转入酵母宿主菌GS115进行了发酵表达研究.实验得出工程菌株pPICZαA/Gal-D/GS115的重组表达产物酶活最高可达48 22(U/mL),对发酵产物进行了SDS-PAGE电泳,得到一条清晰的主条带.

  6. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...

  7. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  8. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  9. Taxonomia de Coffea arabica L. VI: caracteres morfológicos dos haplóides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1952-06-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer dos trabalhos de melhoramento do café em execução no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, plantas haplóides foram encontradas nas variedades typica, bourbon, maragogipe, semperflorens, laurina, erecta, caturra e San Ramon, da espécie Coffea arabica. Todos os haplóides apresentam porte menor e fôlhas mais estreitas e mais finas do que as variedades que lhes deram origem. Apesar de as flores serem completas, nota-se esterilidade muito acentuada. Raramente se formam alguns frutos, e êstes são providos de uma única semente, motivo pelo qual as plantas haplóides são denominadas "monosperma". Os fatôres genéticos dominantes maragogipe (Mg, erecta (Er, caturra (Ct e San Ramon, bem como os gens recessivos semperflorens (sf, e laurina (lr, das variedades estudadas, manifestam-se nas plantas haplóides, de modo semelhante ao que ocorre nas plantas diplóides correspondentes. O fator para coloração bronze dos brotos novos tem dominância incompleta e, na condição heterozigota (Brbr, mostra intensidade intermediária de côr. Nas plantas haplóides contendo um só alelo Br, a côr dos brotos novos é bronze-clara. Uma única dose do fator Na, que também apresenta dominância incompleta, dando, na forma heterozigota (Nana e na presença de tt, o fenótipo conhecido por murta, manifesta-se, na forma haplóide, dando plantas semelhantes às homozigotas ttNaNa, apenas com fôlhas mais estreitas e mais finas. Chamou-se atenção para as linhas puras de café obtidas pela duplicação do número de cromosômios dos haplóides e sua aplicação nos ensaios de linhagens e na determinação das taxas de mutação. As observações realizadas na meiose da espécie C. arabica, bem como os dados das análises genéticas e as observações feitas nesses haplóides parecem indicar que, se essa espécie fôr alotetraplóide, tal origem deve ser bem antiga, comportando-se hoje a espécie C. arábica, como um diplóide normal. As plantas

  10. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  11. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iod......OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181...

  12. Isolation of cDNA encoding the catalytic site of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A; Ortiz-García, Matilde M; Minero-García, Yereni; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Hernández-Sotomayor, SM Teresa; Suárez-Solís, Víctor M

    2008-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the catalytic site of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) was isolated from Coffea arabica suspension cells. The cDNA (designated CaPLC) encodes a polypeptide of 308 amino acids, containing the catalytic X and Y domains, and has 99% identity to the soybean gene. Recombinant CaPLC protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and used to produce a polyclonal antibody. The peptide has a molecular mass of 27 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses. Immunoblots revealed the presence of PLC-like proteins in the tissues of different plant species. PMID:19513191

  13. EFFECT OF Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. AND Coffea arabica L. ON THE GROWTH OF Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Scroferneker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from Ilex paraguariensis (maté and Coffea arabica (coffee combinedwith Sabouraud dextrose agar on the growth of Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428. F. pedrosoi was grown on Petri dishes containingSabouraud dextrose agar amended with aqueous extract derived from 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5g of maté or coffee powder boiled in 100mlof water for 30 min. The diameters of fungal colonies were determined after 7 days. The incorporation of maté or coffee extracts intothe growth media did not cause significant differences in the radial growth of F. pedrosoi ATCC 46428 when compared to the control.Nevertheless, nutritional requirement studies are important to the systematization of the biochemical profile, which may contribute toelucidating the functional biochemistry of F. pedrosoi.

  14. EFFECT OF Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. AND Coffea arabica L. ON THE GROWTH OF Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Scroferneker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from Ilex paraguariensis (maté and Coffea arabica (coffee combined with Sabouraud dextrose agar on the growth of Fonsecaea pedrosoi ATCC 46428. F. pedrosoi was grown on Petri dishes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar amended with aqueous extract derived from 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5g of maté or coffee powder boiled in 100ml of water for 30 min. The diameters of fungal colonies were determined after 7 days. The incorporation of maté or coffee extracts into the growth media did not cause significant differences in the radial growth of F. pedrosoi ATCC 46428 when compared to the control. Nevertheless, nutritional requirement studies are important to the systematization of the biochemical profile, which may contribute to elucidating the functional biochemistry of F. pedrosoi.

  15. Preparation and characterization of albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, H.F.M.; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Verrijk, R.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Feijen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres were prepared by a two-step process which involved the preparation of a soluble albumin-heparin conjugate, followed by formation of microspheres from this conjugate or by a double cross-linking technique involving both coupling of soluble albumin and heparin and microsph

  16. Release of macromolecules from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Hydrophilic microspheres based on albumin-heparin conjugates have been prepared as a macromolecular delivery system. The soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized and crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion with glutaraldehyde to form microspheres in the same manner as for albumin microsphere

  17. Binding of disodium cromoglycate to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa de Aspuru, Eduardo; Zatón, Ana M. L.

    1998-07-01

    The binding of several benzopiranone derivatives to human serum albumin was determined. The antiallergic drug disodium cromoglycate binds weakly to serum albumin. However, its precursors, chromones of smaller size, were able to bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the protein, and are carried by serum albumin in blood.

  18. Drug Delivery Vehicles Based on Albumin-Polymer Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanyan; Stenzel, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Albumin has been a popular building block to create nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes. The performance of albumin as a drug carrier can be enhanced by combining protein with polymers, which allows the design of carriers to encompass a broader spectrum of drugs while features unique to synthetic polymers such as stimuli-responsiveness are introduced. Nanoparticles based on polymer-albumin hybrids can be divided into two classes: one that carries album as a bioactive surface coating and the other that uses albumin as biocompatible, although nonbioactive, building block. Nanoparticles with bioactive albumin surface coating can either be prepared by self-assembly of albumin-polymer conjugates or by postcoating of existing nanoparticles with albumin. Albumin has also been used as building block, either in its native or denatured form. Existing albumin nanoparticles are coated with polymers, which can influence the degradation of albumin or impact on the drug release. Finally, an alternative way of using albumin by denaturing the protein to generate a highly functional chain, which can be modified with polymer, has been presented. These albumin nanoparticles are designed to be extremely versatile so that they can deliver a wide variety of drugs, including traditional hydrophobic drugs, metal-based drugs and even therapeutic proteins and siRNA.

  19. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......, and 73%, 97%, and 73% for Ualb/Ucreat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that measurement of the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio is a specific and quite sensitive alternative to measurement of the urinary albumin excretion rate in timed collections, when screening for microalbuminuria....

  20. Antioxidant Effect and Water-Holding Capacity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatoumata Tounkara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestion of proteins extracted from Roselle seed on the production of bioactive peptides. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract different protein fractions namely globulin, albumin and glutelin. The proteins were digested using pepsin (1 h followed by pancreatin (1 h in order to produce hydrolysates with good antioxidant activity. The prepared hydrolysates were as effective as antioxidants in model systems, in scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and was also influenced by the type of protein fraction. The albumin fraction hydrolysates prepared showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by Glutelin and Globulin hydrolysates respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. All of the prepared hydrolysates were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a meat model system. Albumin hydrolysates showed the highest improved meat cooking ability followed by Glutelin and Globulin respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. The molecular weight distribution analysis of the hydrolysates was determined and most of the peptides were found between 1000 Da and below. The study findings suggest that Roselle seed protein hydrolysates can be applied as functional food ingredients and that their composition determines their functional properties thus their potential application in the food and feed industries.

  1. [Second structure of the protein factions from lotus seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lian-Hui; Zeng, Hong-Yan; Cai, Xi-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Following the sequential Osborne extraction procedure, the proteins of lotus seeds were classified. The secondary structures of albumin, globulin, prolamine and glutelin fractions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR images of amide I and III bands from the four protein fractions were analyzed using Fourier deconvolution and curve-fitting technique. The results showed that there were minor differences in every corresponding peak position and peak area percent of secondary structure between albumin and globulin as well as between prolamin and glutelin. But there were differences in every corresponding peak position between albumin (or globulin) and prolamin (or glutelin). Especially the area percents of the corresponding nonrandom structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) of albumin and globulin were significantly larger than those of prolamin and glutelin. The contents of nonrandom structures of albumin and globulin extracted with 0.1 mol x L(-1) NaCl solution were about 55% and those of prolamine and glutelin fractions were only at round 40%, indicating that the secondary structures of the salt-extraction protein were ordered and stable.

  2. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  3. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  4. Hibridações entre Coffea arabica e C. kapakata. análise citológica de um híbrido triplóide Crossability between C. arabica and C. kapakata and cytological analysis of the hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Mônaco

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cruzamentos realizados entre Coffea arabica e C. kapakata revelaram que há possibilidade de hibridação entre estas duas espécies e que o pegamento é bem mais elevado quando C. arabica é usada como planta feminina. Os resultados das hibridações realizadas, acrescidos aos já existentes sôbre a relação de compatibilidade de C. kapakata com outras espécies, vêm reforçar a sua inclusão dentro do gênero Coffea. As observações feitas na meiose de um híbrido triplóide entre C. arabica e C. kapakata demonstraram a formação de 1,33III 9,45II e 10,07I em média, para diacinese e primeira metáfase. As separações anafásicas são irregulares, bem como as tétrades produzidas. Os grãos de pólen contêm, em sua maioria, 13 a 17 cromossomos. Os híbridos triplóides são vigorosos e vêm sendo utilizados no melhoramento, visando introduzir nos cultivares de C. arabica a resistência à sêca presente em C. kapakata.The ability of C. kapakata to cross with C. arabica was analysed in the present paper. The ratios between seed-ovules, seedling-seeds and seedling-ovules were taken into account in order to evaluate the kinhood of the two species. It was found that the crossing rate was higher when C. arabica, the tetraploid species, was used as female. In the backcrosses it was found that the hybrid could not be crossed with C. kapakata, while C. arabica crosses in both directions with the F, hybrid. The hybrids were morphologically intermediate to both species. Observations were made about the meiosis of one of the hybrids. The chromosome associations were in average 1.33III 9.45II and 10.07I, for diakinesis and first metaphase. The distribution of the chromosomes during anaphase as well as the tetrades are abnormal. The pollen grains contain more frequently from 13 to 17 chromosomes. The hybrids between C. arabica and C. kapakata have been used as bridge for transferring drought resistance of C. kapakata to the cultivars of C

  5. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  6. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  7. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  8. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  9. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  10. Meta-analysis for heritability estimates of vegetative and reproductive traits of Coffea arabica L.Meta-análise para estimativas de herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Baliza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of informations resulting from independent studies has been difficulted in almost all scientific fields, mainly due to the great number of scientific papers published in recent years. As a result, summarizing information became a need. In this context, a meta-analysis was conducted with the objective of summarizing the estimates for the heritability for vegetative and reproductive traits of coffee (Coffea arabica L.. Heritability estimates were appraised regarding the following traits: average height of plant, average diameter of the canopy, vegetative vigor, production of processed coffee, yield and rust. The data regarding the heritability estimates are from scientific articles published in national and international journals, congress annals, PhD thesis and Master dissertations. The technique of meta-analysis summarized the estimates heritability from different studies and made possible to conclude that all of the appraised traits are highly inherited, reflecting the great genetic variety of coffee plants, and that is possible to reach satisfactory genetic gains in improvement programs in which those traits are evaluated. A compilação de informações advindas de estudos independentes tem sido dificultada em quase todos os campos da ciência, devido principalmente, ao grande número de trabalhos científicos publicados nos últimos anos. Assim, sumarizar informações tornou-se uma necessidade. Neste contexto, uma meta-análise foi conduzida com o objetivo de sistematizar as estimativas para a herdabilidade de caracteres vegetativos e reprodutivos de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.. Foram avaliadas as estimativas de herdabilidade referentes aos seguintes caracteres: altura média da planta, diâmetro médio da copa, vigor vegetativo, produção de café beneficiado, rendimento e resistência a ferrugem. Os dados referentes às estimativas de herdabilidade são provenientes de artigos científicos publicados em revistas

  11. Perfil sensorial da bebida café (Coffea arabica L. determinado por análise tempo-intensidade Sensorial profile of beverage coffee (Coffea arabica L. determined by analysis time-intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene A. M. Monteiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o gosto amargo, sabor fermentado e sabor queimado de nove amostras (mole/clara, dura/clara, rio/clara, mole/expresso, dura/expresso, rio/expresso, mole/escura, dura/escura e rio/escura da bebida café (Coffea arabica L. por meio da análise Tempo-Intensidade (TI. Foram avaliados seis parâmetros da curva: tempo para atingir a intensidade máxima (TImáx, intensidade máxima do estímulo (Imáx, tempo correspondente ao ponto onde a intensidade máxima começa a declinar (Td, tempo de duração da intensidade máxima (Platô, área sob a curva (Área e tempo total de duração do estímulo (Ttot. A análise demonstrou que as amostras de torra escura tiveram maior intensidade máxima (Imáx e tempo de duração do estímulo (Ttot para gosto amargo e sabor queimado, sendo que as amostras de torra clara apresentaram menor intensidade destes estímulos. Em relação ao sabor fermentado, a amostra rio/expresso foi a que apresentou maior intensidade.The present work had as objective to evaluate the bitter taste, fermented flavor and burned flavor of nine samples (soft/light, hard/light, rio/light, soft/express, hard/express, rio/express, soft/dark, hard/dark and rio/dark of the drink coffee (Coffea arabica L. through the analysis Time-Intensity (TI. Six parameters of the curve were evaluated: time to reach the maximum intensity (TImáx, maximum intensity of the incentive (Imáx, time corresponding to the point where the maximum intensity begins to refuse (Td, time of duration of the maximum intensity (Plateau, area under the curve (Área and total time of duration of the incentive (Ttot. The analysis demonstrated that the samples of dark toast had larger maximum intensity (Imáx and time of duration of the incentive (Ttot for bitter taste and burned flavor, while the samples of light toast presented smaller intensity of these stimulus. For the fermented flavor, the sample rio/express was the one that

  12. Immune Response and Pasteurella Resistance in Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Various Amounts of Black Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiela M. El Bagir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

  13. Root system distribution and yield of 'Conilon' coffee propagated by seeds or cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the root system distribution and the yield of 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora propagated by seeds or cuttings. The experiment was carried out with 2x1 m spacing, in an Oxisol with sandy clay loam texture. A randomized complete block design was used, following a 2x9x6 factorial arrangement, with two propagation methods (seeds and cuttings, nine sampling spacings (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, 0.75, and 0.90 m between rows, and 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 between plants within rows, six soil depths (0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30, 0.30-0.40, 0.40-0.50, and 0.50-0.60 m, and six replicates. Soil cores (27 cm3 with roots were taken from 12 experimental units, 146 months after planting. The surface area of the root system and root diameter, length, and volume were assessed for 13 years and, then, correlated with grain yield. The highest fine root concentration occurred at the superficial soil layers. The variables used to characterize the root system did not differ between propagation methods. Moreover, no differences were observed for net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentrations, and instantaneous water-use efficiency in the leaves. Cutting-propagated plants were more productive than seed-propagated ones.

  14. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  15. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  16. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  17. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.; Argraves, W Scott

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and...

  18. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  19. Aplicación de una técnica de Cromatografía de Exclusión molecular para la purificación de ADN en plantas de Coffea sp. APPLICATION OF A TECHNIQUE OF MOLECULAR EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DNA FROM Coffea sp. PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García Cepero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores inconvenientes en la extracción y purificación de biomoléculas a partir de plantas del género Coffea, es un alto contenido de polifenoles y compuestos tánicos. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología que permite obtener ADN de alta pureza. La extracción del ADN del homogeneizado de tejido foliar en siete genotipos de Coffea sp., se realizó mediante la técnica citada por Chaparro (1993 y su purificación se logró mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular sobre una fase estacionaria de Sephacryl S-1000. Los resultados muestran que la alta eficiencia de separación de ARN degradado, proteínas, pigmentos y compuestos que absorben entre 220 y 300 nm, permiten obtener un ADN de alta pureza a juzgar por los datos espectrofotométricos y electroforéticos.One of the greatest difficulties in extracting and purifying biomolecules from plants in the genus Coffea is the high polyphenol and tannin contents. In this study a methodology is described that allows obtaining high purity DNA from leaf tissues of seven genotypes of Coffea sp. by means of the technique desribed by Chaparro (1993 and its further purification was achieved by molecular exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-1000 (Pharmacia. The results showed that the high separation efficiency of degraded RNA, proteins, pigments, and other compounds that absorb between 220 and 300 nm allowed obtaining high purity DNA as judged by the spectophometric and electroforetic data.

  20. The location of aluminium in protoplasts and suspension cells taken from Coffea arabica L. with different tolerance of Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benítez, J Efraín; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando

    2009-11-01

    Biotechnological advances in coffee research (in vitro manipulation, multiplication, generation and development of transgenic coffee plants with specific traits like high yield and good quality) have contributed to description of the metabolic pathways involved in the response mechanisms to environmental factors like abiotic stress. Coffea arabica L. plants grow in acidic soils, and therefore aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major negative impact on crop productivity. To understand Al toxicity mechanisms in cells via the Al absorption kinetic, we isolated protoplasts from two C. arabica L. suspension cell lines: Al-sensitive (L2) and Al-tolerant (LAMt). Protoplasts of LAMt line exhibited lower Al absorption levels than protoplasts of the L2 line. Use of two fluorescent tracers (morin and calcofluor white) indicated that Al interacts with internal cell structures, such as the plasma membrane and nucleus, with differences in both cell lines. Al-tolerance in the LAMt is probably associated with the cell wall as well as intracellular structures. These data will help to better understand Al toxicity in C. arabica, and Al toxicity mechanisms in plant cells.

  1. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis, DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis,Duke. Coffee s husks was obtained from a farm 150 km far from Brasilia city and cedrorana sawdust from a local saw mill. Thispaper presents results from energy and biomass variables like moisture content, bulk density, lower and superior heating power, ashcontent, fixed carbon, volatile matter and volumetric energy. It has also studied carbonization, charcoal, pyroligneous licqor and noncondensablegases. A comparison between Coffee s husk with 0% moisture content and Cedrorana sawdust portrays the followingresults: bulk density 144.41 kg/m3, fixed carbon 10.31%, superior heating power 4.57 kWh (or 16.46 MJ or 3.933 Mcal/kg, charcoalcontent 40,64% and heating value per cubic meter 2,179 MJ/m3

  2. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems. PMID:24294225

  3. Observações anatômicas em plantas de Coffea arabica L. obtidas por enraizamento de estacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Madeira Santos Jesus

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma forma para se obter diminuição significativa de tempo e recursos despendidos nos programas de melhoramento de Coffea arabica L. é a clonagem de híbridos F1 por meio de estacas caulinares. Alguns estudos, em diferentes instituições, foram realizados buscando-se definir um método eficiente para esse tipo de clonagem. Com o objetivo de verificar-se a presença de barreiras anatômicas ao enraizamento de estacas caulinares do cafeeiro e a origem das raízes adventícias, bem como compara-las às raízes provenientes de plantas obtidas por semeadura, foram realizadas análises anatômicas no Departamento de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG. Utilizaram-se estacas caulinares de cafeeiro dos cultivares Acaiá e Rubi e mudas obtidas por semeadura direta e por estaquia. Os cortes realizados nas estacas caulinares mostraram não existirem barreiras anatômicas ao enraizamento adventício. Nas estacas enraizadas, a origem do primórdio radicular foi próxima aos tecidos vasculares. Cortes histológicos nas raízes formadas nas estacas e nas raízes de mudas obtidas por semeadura confirmaram que elas apresentam as mesmas estruturas primárias.

  4. FTIR Spectrum and Antimutagenicity of Coffea arabica Pulp and Arachis hypogaea Testa In Relation to their In Vitro Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Barcelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pulp (Coffea arabica and peanut testa (Arachis hypogaea are common agricultural wastes which are extensively studied as potential sources of bioactive compounds. This study attempted to determine the correlation of the antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition and antimutagenic activities of the crude extracts of both plant samples. Quantification of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and monomeric anthocyanins and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR analysis were performed to characterize bioactive compounds. Based from the results, peanut testa extract (PTE exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared to coffee pulp extract (CPE at 500 μg/mL but was lower than L-Ascorbic Acid (LAA. The antimutagenic activity of PTE at > 125 μg/mL was higher compared to both RPE and LAA. Mitotic indices of A. cepa treated with PTE+MMS were higher compared to groups treated with RCPE+MMS, LAA+MMS, deionized water and MMS only. Correlation analysis revealed the TAC of ripe coffee pulp extract had significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic activity but high correlation with LPI. The LPI of CPE showed significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic activity. In PTE, TAC shows high significant correlation with its antimutagenic property and LPI while LPI has significant moderate correlation with its antimutagenic property. The observed activity of the CPE and PTE may be attributed primarily to the phenolic compounds in both plant extracts.

  5. Sensory Description of Cultivars (Coffea Arabica L. Resistant to Rust and Its Correlation with Caffeine, Trigonelline, and Chlorogenic Acid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira Fassio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the chemical compounds in Arabica coffee beans in the definition of the drink sensory quality and authentication of coffee regions, the aim of this study was to evaluate, from principal component analysis—PCA—if there is a relation between the caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA content and the sensory attributes of the drink, and in this context, enabling the differentiation of cultivars in two coffee-producing regions of Brazil. We evaluated seven rust-resistant Coffea arabica cultivars, and two rust-susceptible cultivars in two cultivation environments: Lavras, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, and Patrocinio in the Cerrado region of Minas Gerais. The flavor and acidity were determinant for differentiation of the cultivars and their interaction with the evaluated environments. Cultivars Araponga MG1, Catigua MG2, and Catigua MG1 are the most suitable for the production of specialty coffee in the state of Minas Gerais. A poor correlation was found between caffeine, trigonelline, 5-CQA contents, and fragrance, flavor, acidity, body, and final score attributes. However, these compounds enabled the differentiation of the environments. The PCA indicated superiority in the sensory quality of cultivars resistant to rust, compared to the control, Bourbon Amarelo, and Topázio MG1190.

  6. Observações citológicas em Coffea: VII - A macrosporogênese na variedade "monosperma"

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    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1941-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the observations made in the ovule and development of the macrogametophyte in Coffea arabica L. var. monosperma. The young ovule is normally constituted by a rudimentary nucellus surrounded by a single and well developed integument. No irregularities are found until the beginning of the first meiotic division in the ma-crosporocyte which is situated inside the nucellus. The two meiotic divisions are very abnormal and during this process, 44,4 % of the otherwise normal macrospores degenerate. Only. a few normal macrospores are formed. The functional macrospore is not always the chalazal one as in the normal coffee varieties. Irregularities occur also in the subseguent divisions in the formation of the embryo sac. Degeneration then increased from 44,4 to 82,0%. Only one complete embryo sac has been found among the 87 examined ovules. During the formation of the embryo sac, even when complete degeneration occurs, the ovule increases in volume due to the multiplication of the integument cells. From the moment in which the embryo sac should be formed (two days after the flower opening this increase in volume stops. A total desorganization of the ovule occurs around 105 days after the opening of the flower.

  7. Schistosome albumin is of host, not parasite, origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Dillon, Gary P; Wilson, R Alan

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated schistosome albumin as part of a mechanism for neutralizing the oxidative assault by host immune defenses and suggested that the gene had been acquired by horizontal transfer from the mammalian host. In the course of proteomic analyses of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm vomitus and eggs recovered from mice, we identified numerous peptides, largely derived from murine rather than parasite albumin. We therefore conjectured that the supposed S. mansoni albumin sequence deposited on GenBank might be the result of contamination rather than horizontal gene transfer. Based on phylogenetic analysis the most likely source was the Syrian (golden) hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Proteomic analysis of Syrian hamster albumin generated peptide identities to S. mansoni as the top hit, with a high ion score >1,500 and 63% coverage of the translated cDNA sequence. RT-PCR using specific primers permitted amplification of the M. auratus albumin transcript, which is identical to the deposited S. mansoni albumin sequence. PCR amplification of a fragment of the M. auratus albumin gene from genomic DNA suggests a homologous structure to the Mus musculus albumin gene. We were unable to find the S. mansoni albumin gene sequence by in silico searching on either version 3 of the S. mansoni genome assembly or the >3 million shotgun DNA reads. Finally, Southern blotting detected the albumin gene in M. auratus but not in S. mansoni genomic DNA, even when the latter was present in a 10-fold excess. Collectively, our data make the strongest case that the schistosome albumin protein described in previous reports is of host origin and all nucleotide-derived data are the result of contamination with host material. By analogy, we suggest that other reported examples of horizontal gene transfer to schistosomes might similarly be explained by complementary/genomic DNA contamination.

  8. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis seeds: molecular evidence for successive processing of seed proteins and its implication in the stress response to sulfur nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-11-01

    Seed storage proteins are synthesized as sources of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur for the next generation of plants. Their composition changes according to nutritional conditions. Here, we report the precise molecular identification of seed proteins by proteomic analysis of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and methionine-over-accumulating mutant mto1-1 plants. The identities of 50 protein spots were determined in the protein extract of mature Arabidopsis seeds by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Of these protein spots, 42 were identified as derived from 12S globulins or 2S albumins. These results indicate that approximately 84% of protein species in Arabidopsis seeds are derived from a few genes coding for 12S globulins and 2S albumins. Extensive mass spectrometric analysis of the 42 spots revealed that successive C-terminal degradation occurred on the 12S globulins. The feasibility of this C-terminal processing was rationalized by molecular modeling of the three-dimensional structure of 12S globulins. The C-terminal degradation at glutamic acid residues of the 12S globulin subunits was repressed under sulfur-deficient conditions. Transcriptome analysis was combined with proteomic analysis to elucidate the mechanism of changes in seed protein composition in response to sulfur deficiency. The results suggest that seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis undergo multi-layer regulation, with emphasis on post-translational modifications that enable the plant to respond to sulfur deficiency.

  9. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities)

  10. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  11. Effects of glycation on meloxicam binding to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trynda-Lemiesz, Lilianna; Wiglusz, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    The current study reports a binding of meloxicam a pharmacologically important new generation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to glycated form of the human serum albumin (HSA). The interaction of the meloxicam with nonglycated and glycated albumin has been studied at pH 7.4 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 M NaCl, using fluorescence quenching technique and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Results of the present study have shown that the meloxicam could bind both forms of albumin glycated and nonglycated at a site, which was close to the tryptophan residues. Similarly, how for native albumin glycated form has had one high affinity site for the drug with association constants of the order of 10 5 M -1. The glycation process of the HSA significantly has affected the impact of the meloxicam on the binding of other ligands such as warfarin and bilirubin. The affinity of the glycated albumin for bilirubin as for native albumin has been reduced by meloxicam but observed effect was weaker by half (about 20%) compared with nonglycated albumin. In contrast to the native albumin meloxicam binding to glycated form of the protein only slightly affected the binding of warfarin. It seemed possible that the effects on warfarin binding might be entirely attributable to the Lys 199 modification which was in site I.

  12. Albumin storage in neoplastic astroglial elements of gangliogliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Ann Kristin; Grote, Alexander; Raabe, Anna; Urbach, Horst; Friedman, Alon; von Lehe, Marec; Becker, Albert J.; Niehusmann, Pitt

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors are frequent neuropathological findings in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Little is known regarding epileptogenic mechanisms in this group of neoplasms with gangliogliomas (GG) as the most common entity. Presence of hemosiderin deposits in GG points to impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, we hypothesized a potential role of BBB dysfunction and astrocytic albumin uptake as potential epileptogenic factor in GG. Methods Prussian blue staining and fluorescent double-immunohistochemistry with antibodies against albumin, GFAP, CD34 and GLUT-1 were used to analyze hemosiderin deposits and astroglial albumin accumulation in tumor and adjacent pre-existing brain tissue of GG (n = 10) and several control groups, i.e. dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT; n = 5), focal cortical dysplasia with balloon cells (FCD IIb; n = 10), astrocytomas WHO grade II (n = 5) and clear renal cell carcinoma brain metastases (RCCM, n = 6). Results Our results revealed strong hemosiderin deposits in GG. Intriguingly, we noted substantial albumin uptake exclusively in neoplastic glial cell components of GG and DNT, whereas no significant albumin was present in perilesional reactive astrocytes. Strikingly, we did not observe substantial albumin uptake in further controls. Conclusion Glial albumin uptake was restricted to long-term epilepsy associated, vasculature-containing tumors. Intratumoural BBB dysfunction in concert with subsequent accumulation of albumin by neoplastic glial cell elements represent a new putatively epileptogenic mechanism for long-term epilepsy-associated tumors. PMID:23182422

  13. Tolerância de progênies de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L.) ao excesso de manganês em solução nutritiva

    OpenAIRE

    Zabini, André Vinicius; Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV; Martinez, Hermínia Emília Prieto; Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV; Silva, Camila Andrade; Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV

    2007-01-01

    A toxidez de manganês é uma das mais comuns entre os micronutrientes, especialmente em solos tropicais ácidos, afetando o crescimento e a produtividade das culturas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância ao excesso de manganês em progênies de cafeeiros arábica (Coffea arabica L.), foi instalado um experimento fatorial 14 x 2 (14 progênies e 2 concentrações de manganês) no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com três repetições. As mudas dos cafeeiros foram cultivadas durante sete meses em cas...

  14. Seed Development and Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  15. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  16. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

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    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  17. Avaliação da fertilidade dos solos de sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. em Lavras-MG Evaluation of soil fertility in agroforest systems with coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. in Lavras-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grandi Salgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade dos solos em um sistema agroflorestal composto por cafeeiros (Coffea arábica L. - Mundo Novo, ingazeiros (Inga vera Willd e grevíleas (Grevilea robusta A. Cunn, situado em Lavras, Minas Gerais, foi instalado o presente experimento. Usou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram: a cafeeiros a pleno sol, b cafeeiros consorciados com ingazeiros e c cafeeiros consociados com grevílea. Os espaçamentos dos cafeeiros nos três sistemas foi 4 x 1 m, para o ingazeiro 8 m x 15 m e para a grevílea 12 m x 10 m. Aos 15 anos de idade do cafeeiro e do ingazeiro e aos 9 anos da grevílea foram avaliadas as seguintes características dos solos, pH, acidez potencial (H+Al, alumínio trocável (Al+3, bases trocáveis (Ca+2 e Mg+2, potássio disponível (K+, fósforo disponível(P, enxofre (S, CTC efetiva (T, soma de bases (SB, saturação de bases (V e matéria orgânica (MO. Os resultados foram submetidos à analise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Após a análise dos dados, concluiu-se que, embora tenha havido diferenças entre alguns elementos estudados, as características químicas dos solos nos três sistemas não foram severamente afetadas.The objective of this wark was to evaluat e the soil fertility in an agroforest system using coffee trees (Coffea arabica L - Mundo Novo, inga trees (Inga vera Wild and grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta A Cunn situated in Lavras, Minas Geris. A completely randomized experimental design with tree treatments and seven replicates was utilized. The treatments were : a coffee trees in full sunshine; b coffee trees mixed with inga trees and c coffee trees mixed with grevillea trees. Tree spacings in the three systems were 4 x 1m for coffee, 8 m x 15 m for inga and 12 x 10 m for grevillea. With coffee and inga trees at 15 years of age and grevillea trees at 9 years of age

  18. Modelagem matemática para a secagem de clones de café (Coffea canephora Pierre em terreiro de concreto = Mathematical modeling for drying coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre berry clones in concrete yard

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    Osvaldo Resende

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estimar e avaliar as curvas de secagem do café da espécie Coffea Canephora e ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais de quatro clones. Foram utilizados frutos de café dos clones: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180, colhidos com os teores de água iniciais de 1,20; 1,32; 1,51 e 1,46 (decimal b.s., respectivamente. A secagem prosseguiu em terreiro de concreto até que o produto atingisse o teor de água de, aproximadamente, 0,10 (decimal b.s.. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados dez modelos matemáticos, citados na literatura específica e utilizados para representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. Pelos resultados obtidos e com base em parâmetros estatísticos, pode-se concluir que o modelo de Page foi adequado para representação da secagem dos quatro clones de caféanalisados. Além desse, para o clone Cpafro 180, os modelos Verna, Dois Termos e Aproximação da Difusão também se mostraram satisfatórios na descrição do fenômeno. O tempo necessário para a secagem em terreiro de concreto dos clones de café Cpafro 194,Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 e Cpafro 180, até o teor de água de 0,10 (decimal b.s., foi de 117,5 h, e o coeficiente de difusão foi de 4,50 x 10-11; 5,17 x 10-11; 5,08 x 10-11 e 5,50 x 10-11 m2 s-1,para os clones analisados, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to obtain and evaluate thedrying curves for the coffee berry species Coffea Canephora, and to fit different mathematical models into the experimental data of four clones. Coffee berries from the following clones were used: Cpafro 194, Cpafro 193, Cpafro 167 and Cpafro 180, harvested at moisturecontents of 1.20; 1.32; 1.51 and 1.46 (decimal d.b., respectively. The drying continued in a concrete yard until the moisture content of 0.10 (decimal d.b. was achieved. Ten mathematical models cited in literature were fitted to the experimental data in order torepresent

  19. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

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    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  1. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  2. The seed nuclear proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  3. Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O

    2014-10-01

    Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 μg) and octamer the least (50 μg). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes.

  4. Adsorption behavior of oxidized galactomannans onto amino terminated surfaces and their interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierakowski, M.-R; Silva, Maria R.V. da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Biopolimeros]. E-mail: mrbiopol@quimica.ufpr.br; Freitas, R.A.; Moreira, Jose S.R. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Fujimoto, J.; Petri, D.F.S.; Cordeiro, Paulo R.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dfsp@quim.iq.usp.br; Andrade, Fabiana D

    2001-07-01

    A galactomannan (CF) extracted from Cassia fastuosa seeds was purified and oxidized with (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) to form a uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (CFOX) with a degree of oxidation (DO) of 0.22. The chemical structures of CF and CFOX were characterized. The adsorption behavior of CF and CFOX onto amino-terminated surfaces was studied by means of ellipsometric measurements. The influence of p H and ionic strength on the adsorption was also investigated. At p H 4, there was a maximum in the adsorbed amount caused by strong electrostatic attraction between the substrate and the oxidized galactomannans. There was no ionic strength effect on the adsorption behavior. The immobilization of bovine serum albumin onto CF and CFOX was studied as a function of p H. At the isoelectric point a maximum in the adsorbed amount was found. (author)

  5. Genética de Coffea. XVIII - Variegação no cafeeiro Leaf variegation in coffee plants

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    A. Carvalho

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available A variegação das fôlhas do cafeeiro tanto em plantas novas como em plantas adultas tem sido freqüentemente observada. Plantas variegadas podem ocorrer espontaneamente nas progénies das diversas variedades de Coffea arabica L., motivo porque não devem constituir variedade distinta dessa espécie, como foi proposto por Cramer. As plantas variegadas em estudo puderam ser agrupadas em duas categorias, isto é, aquelas em que a variegação não se acha associada com anomalias na forma e textura das folhas e aquelas nas quais a variegação é acompanhada dessas anomalias. No primeiro grupo o padrão de variegação não é uniforme para tôdas as fôlhas, enquanto no segundo grupo o padrão é semelhante para tôda a planta. Usualmente apenas alguns ramos das plantas do primeiro grupo são variegados. Observou-se algumas vezes que as duas fôlhas do mesmo verticilo têm padrões semelhantes de variegação. Encontraram-se também fôlhas variegadas nas quais a metade da lâmina é variegada ou mesmo albina, enquanto a outra metade apresenta a côr verde normal. Os dados genéticos obtidos, embora preliminares para a maioria das plantas variegadas em investigação, permitiram concluir que o padrão de variegação da planta 180, pertencente ao primeiro grupo, é herdado pelo citoplasma e não é transmitido pelo pólen. O padrão de variegação da planta 253-21, pertencente ao segundo grupo, no entanto, parece ser transmitido pelo polen.Leaf variegation in coffee plants is a relatively common abnormality, and variegated seedlings have been found to occur spontaneously in progenies of most varieties of Coffea arabica L. For this reason it is thought that variegated types should not be described as distinct varieties, as it was done before by Cramer. Variegated coffee plants can be grouped in two categories : first, those in which variegated leaves are normal in shape and texture, but do not show a uniform variegation pattern; and second, those

  6. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

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    Aurora Saucedo-García

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some

  7. Respuesta fotosintética de Coffea arabica L. a diferentes niveles de luz y disponibilidad hídrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesid Alejandro Mariño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío permite una mejor aclimatación del café (Coffea arabica L. en zonas donde el invierno se caracteriza por bajas temperaturas nocturnas seguido de días soleados y el verano, por altas temperaturas y lluvias ocasionales. En este estudio, realizado en Viçosa-MG, Brasil, se analizaron los efectos de dos condiciones de luminosidad (pleno sol y 15% de la radiación solar y disponibilidades de agua en el suelo sobre las relaciones hídricas y el desempeño fotosintético en C. arabica en dos épocas contrastantes. Independientemente de la época de evaluación, las plantas cultivadas en condiciones de baja disponibilidad hídrica presentaron reducciones en la fotosíntesis (A, conductancia estomática (g s y en la razón Ci/Ca en los dos tratamientos lumínicos. Estos cambios fueron acompañados con la reducción en la conductancia hidráulica y la transpiración. No se presentaron diferencias significativas en la producción cuántica efectiva, en el coeficiente de extinción no-fotoquímica y en la productividad cuántica basal de los procesos no fotoquímicos. Sobre la disponibilidad hídrica adecuada, las plantas cultivadas al sol presentaron reducciones en A, g s y Ci/Ca en la época de invierno. Adicionalmente, se encontraron limitaciones fotoquímicas con la reducción en la razón de las fluorescencias variable e inicial. Los resultados indican que cualquier recomendación de uso de sombrío como práctica de manejo debe ser tomada con precaución.

  8. The effects of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior and development of Coccus viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Fernandes, M E S; Queiroz, R B; Xavier, V M; Martinez, H E P

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemicals may modify the food quality, reduce a plant's palatability to insects, or defend against pests. This work aimed to study 1) relationships between the nitrogen and potassium levels given to plants in nutritive solutions and the foliar phytochemical concentrations, 2) the effect of nutrients and secondary compounds of Coffea arabica on the behavior of Coccus viridis, and 3) tolerance of C. arabica to losses. Deficient, normal, and excessive nitrogen and potassium fertilization treatments were used. Each treatment had two plants (one infested and one noninfested plant). The contents of phytochemicals in the infested plants' leaves and their dry matter of roots, stems, and leaves as well as the total contents in noninfested plants, were determined. The adults and nymphs of C. viridis were counted for 60 d in all treatments. It was verified that elevated nitrogen and potassium levels in the nutritional solutions led to increased of nymphs and adults of C. viridis to the coffee plants over time. Potassium and nitrogen had both direct and indirect effects on C. viridis. The direct effect was because of the increase of the nitrogen content in the leaves. The indirect effect instead was because of reductions in the caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents in the leaves. This is the first study to show relationship nutrient levels of coffee phytochemicals in response to herbivory by scale insects. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid applied on coffee leaves stimulated the locomotory activity of the green scale, thus reducing their feeding compared with untreated leaves. The elevation of caffeine and chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves affect this generalist insect by stimulating the locomotion of crawlers.

  9. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Coffea arabica (L. is greatly enhanced by using established embryogenic callus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lashermes Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following genome sequencing of crop plants, one of the main challenges today is determining the function of all the predicted genes. When gene validation approaches are used for woody species, the main obstacle is the low recovery rate of transgenic plants from elite or commercial cultivars. Embryogenic calli have frequently been the target tissue for transformation, but the difficulty in producing or maintaining embryogenic tissues is one of the main problems encountered in genetic transformation of many woody plants, including Coffea arabica. Results We identified the conditions required for successful long-term proliferation of embryogenic cultures in C. arabica and designed a highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method based on these conditions. The transformation protocol with LBA1119 harboring pBin 35S GFP was established by evaluating the effect of different parameters on transformation efficiency by GFP detection. Using embryogenic callus cultures, co-cultivation with LBA1119 OD600 = 0.6 for five days at 20 °C enabled reproducible transformation. The maintenance conditions for the embryogenic callus cultures, particularly a high auxin to cytokinin ratio, the age of the culture (optimum for 7-10 months of proliferation and the use of a yellow callus phenotype, were the most important factors for achieving highly efficient transformation (> 90%. At the histological level, successful transformation was related to the number of proembryogenic masses present. All the selected plants were proved to be transformed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Conclusion Most progress in increasing transformation efficiency in coffee has been achieved by optimizing the production conditions of embryogenic cultures used as target tissues for transformation. This is the first time that a strong positive effect of the age of the culture on transformation efficiency was demonstrated. Our

  11. Isolation, identification and purification of caffeine from Coffea arabica L. and Camellia sinensis L.: A combination antibacterial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muthanna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to isolate the most important bioactive compound from Coffea arabica (coffee beans and Camellia sinensis (green tea leaves. Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione was isolated from both plants using a liquid-liquid extraction method, detected on thin layer chromatography (TLC plates in comparison with standard caffeine, which served as a positive control. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were used to confirm the purity and characterization of the extracted caffeine. The isolated material(s from both plants were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against six selected pathogenic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacteria were; Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria included; Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis , Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Both compounds at a concentration of 2 mg/ml showed similar antibacterial activities against all tested bacteria, except for P. mirabilis , and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against P. aeruginosa using a modified agar diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of caffeine was determined using a broth microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtitre plates. MIC values ranged from 62.5 to 250.0 µg/ml for the caffeine isolated from coffee and 62.5 to 500.0 µg/ml for green tea caffeine. Combination results showed additive effects against most pathogenic bacteria especially for P. aeruginosa, using both antibacterial assays.

  12. Diversity and Communities of Foliar Endophytic Fungi from Different Agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in Two Regions of Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.; González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  13. Proteomic analysis of apoplastic fluid of Coffea arabica leaves highlights novel biomarkers for resistance against Hemileia vastatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eGuerra-Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A proteomic analysis of the apoplastic fluid (APF of coffee leaves was conducted to investigate the cellular processes associated with incompatible (resistant and compatible (susceptible Coffea arabica-Hemileia vastatrix interactions, during the 24-96 hai period. The APF proteins were extracted by leaf vacuum infiltration and protein profiles were obtained by 2-DE. The comparative analysis of the gels revealed 210 polypeptide spots whose volume changed in abundance between samples (control, resistant and susceptible during the 24-96 hai period. The proteins identified were involved mainly in protein degradation, cell wall metabolism and stress/defense responses, most of them being hydrolases (around 70%, particularly sugar hydrolases and peptidases/proteases. The changes in the APF proteome along the infection process revealed two distinct phases of defense responses, an initial/basal one (24-48 hai and a late/specific one (72-96 hai. Compared to susceptibility, resistance was associated with a higher number of proteins, which was more evident in the late/specific phase. Proteins involved in the resistance response were mainly, glycohydrolases of the cell wall, serine proteases and pathogen related-like proteins (PR-proteins, suggesting that some of these proteins could be putative candidates for resistant markers of coffee to H. vastatrix. Antibodies were produced against chitinase, pectin methylesterase, serine carboxypeptidase, reticuline oxidase and subtilase and by an immunodetection assay it was observed an increase of these proteins in the resistant sample. With this methodology we have identified proteins that are candidate markers of resistance and that will be useful in coffee breeding programs to assist in the selection of cultivars with resistance to H. vastatrix.

  14. Proteomic analysis of apoplastic fluid of Coffea arabica leaves highlights novel biomarkers for resistance against Hemileia vastatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Guimarães, Leonor; Tenente, Rita; Pinheiro, Carla; Chaves, Inês; Silva, Maria do Céu; Cardoso, Fernando M H; Planchon, Sébastien; Barros, Danielle R; Renaut, Jenny; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2015-01-01

    A proteomic analysis of the apoplastic fluid (APF) of coffee leaves was conducted to investigate the cellular processes associated with incompatible (resistant) and compatible (susceptible) Coffea arabica-Hemileia vastatrix interactions, during the 24-96 hai period. The APF proteins were extracted by leaf vacuum infiltration and protein profiles were obtained by 2-DE. The comparative analysis of the gels revealed 210 polypeptide spots whose volume changed in abundance between samples (control, resistant and susceptible) during the 24-96 hai period. The proteins identified were involved mainly in protein degradation, cell wall metabolism and stress/defense responses, most of them being hydrolases (around 70%), particularly sugar hydrolases and peptidases/proteases. The changes in the APF proteome along the infection process revealed two distinct phases of defense responses, an initial/basal one (24-48 hai) and a late/specific one (72-96 hai). Compared to susceptibility, resistance was associated with a higher number of proteins, which was more evident in the late/specific phase. Proteins involved in the resistance response were mainly, glycohydrolases of the cell wall, serine proteases and pathogen related-like proteins (PR-proteins), suggesting that some of these proteins could be putative candidates for resistant markers of coffee to H. vastatrix. Antibodies were produced against chitinase, pectin methylesterase, serine carboxypeptidase, reticuline oxidase and subtilase and by an immunodetection assay it was observed an increase of these proteins in the resistant sample. With this methodology we have identified proteins that are candidate markers of resistance and that will be useful in coffee breeding programs to assist in the selection of cultivars with resistance to H. vastatrix.

  15. Aluminium-induced phospholipid signal transduction pathway in Coffea arabica suspension cells and its amelioration by silicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintal-Tun, Fausto; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Ramos-Díaz, Ana; Escamilla-Bencomo, Armando; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Exley, Christopher; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2007-02-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is of economic importance worldwide. Its growth in organic-rich acidic soils is influenced by aluminium such that coffee yield may be impaired. Herein we have used the Al-sensitive C. arabica suspension cell line L2 to analyse the effect of two different Al species on the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway. Our results have shown that the association of Al with coffee cells was affected by the pH and the form of Al in media. More Al was associated with cells at pH 4.3 than 5.8, whereas when Al was present as hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS) the association was halved at pH 4.3 and unchanged at pH 5.8. Two signal transduction elements were also evaluated; phospholipase C (PLC) activity and phosphatidic acid (PA) formation. PLC was inhibited ( approximately 50%) when cells were incubated for 2 h in the presence of either AlCl(3) or Al in the form of HAS. PA formation was tested as a short-term response to Al. By way of contrast to what was found for PLC, incubation of cells for 15 min in the presence of AlCl(3) decreased the formation of PA whereas the same concentration of Al as HAS produced no effect upon its formation. These results suggest that Al is capable to exert its effects upon signal transduction as Al((aq))(3+) acting upon a mechanism linked to the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway.

  16. MICORRIZACIÓN In Vitro DE PLÁNTULAS DE Coffea canephora VAR. ROBUSTA: ¿UNA REALIDAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanne Fernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Una incursión en la literatura más reciente revela que la inoculación de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA en las raíces de plántulas micropropagadas juega un papel beneficioso. Por lo que este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar los efectos provocados por la inoculación del HMA Glomus clarum sobre el desarrollo in vitro de Coffea canephora var. Robusta. Se estudiaron dos tipos de propágulos (esporas y micelio externo y un tratamiento control sin inocular bajo un diseño Completamente Aleatorizado, evaluándose: altura, peso fresco foliar y radical, número de pares de hojas, número de raíces, porcentaje de contaminación microbiana, conteo y clasificación de embriones, presencia de estructuras fúngicas y actividades enzimáticas de Peroxidasa y Polifenoloxidasa. Se encontraron efectos positivos con la inoculación de este hongo, alcanzándose una colonización micorrízica temprana. Siempre que se inoculó se obtuvieron incrementos, tanto en el sistema radical como en la altura y en el número de pares de hojas de las vitroplantas. Además, se encontró en estas plantas una nueva producción de callos embriogénicos, efecto no informado anteriormente en la micorrización de plántulas micropropagadas. Finalmente, se observaron diferencias significativas en las actividades enzimáticas de las plantas inoculadas, corroborándose la presencia del simbionte en el interior radical.

  17. Bilirubin-albumin binding, bilirubin/albumin ratios, and free bilirubin levels: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Dijk, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    Treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is predominantly based on one parameter, i.e., total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Yet, overt kernicterus has been reported in preterm infants at relatively low TSB levels, and it has been repeatedly shown that free unconjugated bilirubin (freeUCB) levels, or bilirubin/albumin (B/A) ratios for that matter, are more closely associated with bilirubin neurotoxicity. In this article, we review bilirubin-albumin binding, UCBfree levels, and B/A ratios in addition to TSB levels to individualize and optimize treatment especially in preterm infants. Methods to measure bilirubin-albumin binding or UCBfree are neither routinely performed in Western clinical laboratories nor incorporated in current management guidelines on unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. For bilirubin-albumin binding, this seems justified because several of these methods have been challenged, and sufficiently powered prospective trials on the clinical benefits are lacking. Technological advances in the measurement of UCBfree may provide a convenient means for integrating UCBfree measurements into routine clinical management of jaundiced infants. A point-of-care method, as well as determination of UCBfree levels in various newborn populations, is desirable to learn more about variations in time and how various clinical pathophysiological conditions affect UCBfree levels. This will improve the estimation of approximate UCBfree levels associated with neurotoxicity. To delineate the role of UCBfree in the management of jaundiced (preterm) infants, trials are needed using UCBfree as treatment parameter. The additional use of the B/A ratio in jaundiced preterms has been evaluated in the Bilirubin Albumin Ratio Trial (BARTrial; Clinical Trials: ISRCTN74465643) but failed to demonstrate better neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants bilirubin toxicity. Yet, different methodologies for estimating these parameters exist, and sufficiently powered, prospective clinical

  18. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review

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    Christian J. Wiedermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review.

  19. A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi spore germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Angela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica (CaclXIP leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. Results A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP from coffee (Coffea arabica (CaclXIP, was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18, and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%. Conclusions Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust.

  20. Growing of Coffea arabica in High Altitudes in China%中国小粒种咖啡高海拔种植研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪波; 周华; 李锦红; 林兴文; 白学慧; 郭铁英; 肖兵; 夏红云; 杨积忠

    2014-01-01

    对云南小粒种咖啡高海拔种植适应性进行分析和评价,进一步明确在适宜的范围内,海拔越高,杯品质量越好。高海拔是生产精品咖啡的重要条件,卡蒂姆咖啡在高海拔种植杯品质量显著提高。发展高海拔咖啡生产,可提高咖啡生产经营效益,对促进国内小粒种咖啡生产持续发展具有现实意义。%In this paper, Coffea arabica high altitudes in China are analyzed and evaluated. Further defined that the higher the altitude, the better quality of cup in appropriate range is one of the important conditions for producing specialty coffee, Catimor variety which is grown in the high altitude can obtain high quality coffee. Development of high altitude coffee production will realize high quality and high prices, raising the coffee production and business operation efficiency. It is of great significance for promoting to the sustainable development of Chinese Coffea arabica production.

  1. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Kubica, Marcin; Pissis, Solon P; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing shortest left-seed array, longest left-seed array and checking for seeds of a given length. The algorithm for the last problem is used to compute the seed array of a string (i.e., the shortest seeds for all the prefixes of the string) in $O(n^2)$ time. We describe also a simpler alternative algorithm computing efficiently the shortest seeds. As a by-product we obtain an $O(n\\log{(n/m)})$ time algorithm checking if the shortest seed has length at least $m$ and finding the corresponding seed. We also correct some important details missing in th...

  2. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  3. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  4. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  5. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic i...... no significant correlation of the reserve binding to the albumin level. This methodology may be useful in studying the variable response of infants with patent ductus arteriosus to indomethacin. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  6. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  7. Genética de Coffea: XXII - Novas observações sôbre a influência do alelo na, na produção dos cafeeiros Genetics of Coffea: XXII - Additional observations on the influence of the na allele on coffee yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available As progênies de cafeeiros murta são constituídas de plantas bourbon (ttNaNa, murta (ttNana e anãs (ttnana, na proporção de 1:2:1. A fim de comparar as produções de cafeeiros bourbon e murta, progênies de 14 plantas matrizes murta foram estudadas em Campinas, cada progênie sendo inicialmente constituída de 10 plantas murta e 10 plantas bourbon. Em Pindorama estudaram-se apenas cinco progênies, constituída cada uma delas de cinco plantas murta e cinco bourbon. Tôdas foram plantadas a um pé por cova, para estudo das produções individuais. As plantas anãs não foram levadas para o campo por serem de desenvolvimento excessivamente lento e apresentarem produção pràticamente nula. Algumas delas foram conservadas em viveiro a fim de se observar seu desenvolvimento e frutificação. Verificou-se maior número de falhas entre as plantas murta do que entre as bourbon, principalmente em Campinas, indicando que os cafeeiros murta são mais fracos do que os cafeeiros bourbon. Em Pindorama esta diferença foi menos acentuada. A produção total média no período 1939-1952 em Campinas e em Pindorama foi analisada, confirmando-se os resultados já anteriormente obtidos, em Campinas, de que a produção do conjunto de plantas bourbon é bem maior do que a das plantas murta. A parte bourbon produziu cêrca de 70% a mais em Campinas e 100% a mais em Pindorama, do que a parte murta. O alelo na, além de influir sobre alguns caracteres morfológicos, deve ser o principal responsável pela drástica redução da produtividade das plantas murta. Os efeitos do alelo na não se fazem sentir no tamanho e peso dos frutos e sementes. É mais provável que a ação dêste alelo se relacione com a redução do número total de flores nas plantas murta ou no pegamento destas flôres, resultando em um menor número de frutos, em relação às plantas bourbon.The murta variety of Coffea arabica is a heterozygous ttNana, its progeny segregating bourbon (tt

  8. Interaction between Xanthoxylin and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Maogui; TIAN Jianniao; HUANG Yonglin; BIAN Hedong; CHEN Zhengfeng; LIANG Hong

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between xanthoxylin (XT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulative physiological conditions has been analyzed in detail by various spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence, circular dichro- ism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching data revealed that the quenching constants (K) were 3.31×105, 2.03×105 and 0.94×105 L·mol-1 at 286, 298 and 310 K, respectively. Based on the fluorescence results, the fluorescence quenching mechanism of the interaction between XT and BSA has been found to be combined static and dynamic quenching. Thermodynamic parameters △H0, △S0 and △G0 sug- gested that the hydrophobic force played a main role in binding of XT to BSA. The effect of XT on the conforma- tion of BSA was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and quantitatively calculated from CD spectroscopy with reduc- tion of α-helical content by about 3.9%. In addition, the effect of common ions on the binding constant was also dis- cussed.

  9. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  10. Review: Glycation of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Matsuda, Ryan; Barnaby, Omar S; Hoy, K S; Wa, Chunling; DeBolt, Erin; Koke, Michelle; Hage, David S

    2013-10-21

    Glycation involves the non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars and/or their reactive degradation products to amine groups on proteins. This process is promoted by the presence of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes and occurs with various proteins that include human serum albumin (HSA). This review examines work that has been conducted in the study and analysis of glycated HSA. The general structure and properties of HSA are discussed, along with the reactions that can lead to modification of this protein during glycation. The use of glycated HSA as a short-to-intermediate term marker for glycemic control in diabetes is examined, and approaches that have been utilized for measuring glycated HSA are summarized. Structural studies of glycated HSA are reviewed, as acquired for both in vivo and in vitro glycated HSA, along with data that have been obtained on the rate and thermodynamics of HSA glycation. In addition, this review considers various studies that have investigated the effects of glycation on the binding of HSA with drugs, fatty acids and other solutes and the potential clinical significance of these effects.

  11. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  12. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  13. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S

    1988-01-01

    with binding of the unsaturated acids is less pronounced. Chloride ions compete with binding of palmitate. Reserve albumin concentration in serum samples from 33 male adults was 420 +/- 59 microM (mean +/- SD), and in 33 females, 351 +/- 50 microM. Umbilical cord sera from ten newborn infants averaged 172......Dialysis experiments were performed with an acetylcellulose membrane between two identical sample solutions; a trace amount of radiolabelled palmitate was added on one side and the rate of dialytic equilibration of the label was measured. By comparison with rates measured in standard experiments......, using pure albumin solutions, we obtained the reserve albumin concentration for binding of palmitate, previously defined as the concentration of a pure standard albumin which binds the labelled ligand as tightly as it is bound in the sample. Two techniques were developed, one for 1-ml sample volumes...

  14. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  15. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  16. Porta-enxertos afetando o crescimento e a produção de plantas de Coffea Arabica L. Rootstocks affecting the growth and yeld of Coffea Arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio Tomaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a produção de plantas de C. arabica, em função do porta-enxerto, foi avaliado em condições de campo, em Paula Cândido - MG. Utilizaram-se como enxerto quatro genótipos de C. arabica: as variedades Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e as progênies H 419-10-3-1-5 e H 514-5-5-3, e, como porta-enxerto, três genótipos de Coffea canephora Pierre ex A.Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1, sementes oriundas de um campo de recombinação entre os clones de variedade Robustão Capixaba (EMCAPA 8141 e o genótipo de C. arabica: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além da utilização de quatro pés-francos. A enxertia em cafeeiro pode influenciar o desenvolvimento das plantas, quando se compararam diferentes combinações enxerto/porta-enxerto com os respectivos pés-francos.Em plantas de cafeeiro enxertadas de seis anos, as combinações de enxertia Catuaí 15/Conilon, Oeiras/Apoatã, Oeiras/EMCAPA e H419/EMCAPA suplantaram os respectivos pés-francos na produção de café.The effect of rootstocks on vegetative growth and yield of coffee plants (C. arabica were evaluated under field condition at Paulo Cândio, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was tested four genotypes of C. arabica as grafts the varieties Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 and Oeiras MG 6851 and the progenies H 419-10-3-1-5, H 514- 5-5-3 and three genotypes of C. canephora as rootstocks: Apoatã LC 2258, Conillon Muriaé-1 and recombination among clones of the variety Robustão Capixaba (EMCAPA 8141 and one genotype of C. arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. As a control it was wed non-grafted plants. Based on the results it could be concluded that plant development may was affected by grafting when non-grafted plants and graft/ rootstock combinations are compared. The grafting combinations Catuaí 15/Conilon, Oeiras/Apoatã, Oeiras/EMCAPA and H419/EMCAPA of 6 year, promoted increase in coffee yield, when compared to the respective non-grafted plant.

  17. Morphometric and Productive Characterization of Nineteen Genotypes from the Colombian Coffea Collection / Caracterización Morfométrica y Productiva de Diecinueve Genotipos de la Colección Colombiana del Género Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Wilson Mejía Montoya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen genotypes of the Colombian Coffee (Coffeaarabica L. Collection were characterized through features related to productivity, crown architecture and light interception. The results revealed significant differences among genotypes. Branches and leaves were found to be dominantly plagiophyl. Leaf area (LA and Leaf area index (LAI made accession CU1812 (which correspondsto variety Castillo® stand out for its photosynthetically activeradiation (PAR interception and coffee bean production. Likewise, a PAR based cluster analysis allowed dividing the genotypes in three groups. Because of their higher yield, the most outstanding genotypes were Caturra, CU-1812 and Harrar R2. This factor showed correlation with PAR absorption. The current results are useful for future works in coffee breeding programs. / Se caracterizaron 19 genotipos de la Colección Colombiana de Café (Coffea arabica L.; para ello se estudiaron aspectos relacionados con la arquitectura del dosel, la interceptación de la radiación y la producción. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre los genotipos, predominando en las ramas la distribución plagiofila; una disposición similar se observóen las hojas. El área foliar (AF y el índice de área foliar (IAF,contribuyeron a que la introducción CU1812, componente de la variedad Castillo®, se destacara por presentar los mayores valores de interceptación de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA y producción de café cereza. Así mismo, el análisis de agrupamiento con base en la RFA, permitió ordenar los genotipos en tres grupos,destacándose Caturra, CU-1812 y Harrar R2 por su mayorrendimiento, factor que mostró correlación con la RFA captadapor el dosel. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación son de utilidad en futuros trabajos de mejoramiento genético en café.

  18. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B.

    2002-01-01

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and...

  19. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  20. Jatropha curcas hemagglutinin is similar to a 2S albumin allergen from the same source and has unique sugar affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Divya N; Singh, Vijay; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported the purification and preliminary X-ray characterization of a hemagglutinin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas and, with the detailed sequencing information available now, we find that it is similar to a 2S albumin allergen isolated from the same source. Through a search of Jatropha genome database (http://www.kazusa.or.jp/jatropha/), we map it to the sequence id JcCA0234191 (now referred to as Jcr4S00619.70 in the new version, release 4.5) which has a conserved alpha amylase inhibitor/seed storage protein domain found in the 2S albumin allergens. The putative sequence of the small and large chains of the protein is assigned and the total mass of the two subunits matches with the intact mass 10 kDa determined through MALDI. The protein retains hemagglutination activity between pH 6-9 and up to 60 °C on heat treatment and its hemagglutination activity is inhibited by sialic acid and fetuin. Bioinformatics studies show that the isolated protein sequence clusters in close association with a 2S albumin from Ricinus communis in phylogeny analysis and has a conservation of the characteristic four disulfide linkage pattern. Hemagglutinins and lectins are known to have allergenic effects through their interaction with immunoglobulin E and histamine release and earlier studies have shown that this interaction can be inhibited by lectin-specific sugars. We hope this report bridges the plant allergens and hemagglutinins further for exploring possible mediation of allergenic activity through sialic acid and complex sugar interactions and generates further interest in the area.

  1. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  2. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  3. Compositional changes of proteins and amino acids in germinating coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Massao Shimizu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm is the main reserve tissue in coffee seeds. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. seeds were germinated for six weeks and qualitative and quantitative changes in amino acids and proteins were investigated. The total content of free amino acids were reduced during germination, however, protein content remained constant. SDS-PAGE profiles showed that legumin-like proteins became less stained in the last weeks. Asparagine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine and lysine were the major free amino acids, although serine and glutamine were also significant. Except for tyrosine, which increased with germination, all other amino acids were reduced. Analysis of the amino acid composition of the total soluble protein showed glutamic acid/glutamine and glycine as the main amino acids. However, other amino acids such as leucine, aspartic acid/asparagine, alanine, lysine, serine were also found in reasonable amounts.Endosperma é o principal tecido de reserva em sementes de café. Sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. foram germinadas por seis semanas e as alterações qualitativas e quantitativas de aminoácidos e proteínas foram investigadas. O conteúdo total de aminoácidos livres reduziu durante a germinação, no entanto, o conteúdo de proteínas permaneceu constante. Perfis eletroforéticos de proteínas em SDS-PAGE mostraram que proteínas do tipo legumina foram menos coradas nas últimas semanas. Asparagina, ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, alanina e lisina foram os principais aminoácidos, apesar de que serina e glutamina também estavam presentes em quantidades significativas. Exceto tirosina, a qual aumentou durante a germinação, todos os outros aminoácidos tiveram redução em sua concentração. A análise aminoacídica da fração de proteína solúvel total mostrou que ácido glutâmico/glutamina e glicina eram os principais aminoácidos presentes. No entanto, outros aminoácidos, tais como leucina, ácido asp

  4. The Relationship between Albumin-Binding Capacity of Recombinant Polypeptide and Changes in the Structure of Albumin-Binding Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormotova, E A; Gupalova, T V

    2015-07-01

    Many bacteria express surface proteins interacting with human serum albumin (HSA). One of these proteins, PAB from anaerobic bacteria, contains an albumin-binding domain consisting of 45 amino acid residues known as GA domain. GA domains are also found in G proteins isolated from human streptococcal strains (groups C and G) and of albumin-binding protein isolated from group G streptococcal strains of animal origin. The GA domain is a left-handed three-helix bundle structure in which amino acid residues of the second and third helixes are involved in albumin binding. We studied the relationship between HSA-binding activity of the recombinant polypeptide isolated from group G streptococcus of animal origin and structure of the GA domain is studied. Structural changes in GA domain significantly attenuated HAS-binding capacity of the recombinant polypeptide. Hence, affinity HSA-binding polypeptide depends on stability of GA domain structure.

  5. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

    2004-01-01

    A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C...

  6. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  7. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    filtration of albumin in microcirculatory beds with permeable capillaries (splanchnic organs), in between the haemodialysis treatment, and filtration of protein-poor fluid in areas with 'tight' capillaries (skeletal muscle, cutis) resulting in interstitial space protein depletion here. As the patients were...... considered to be in steady state during the measurements, the increased TERalb indicates increased lymph flux of albumin. The interstitial space protein 'wash-down' and increased lymph drainage probably serve as oedema prevention....

  8. Variación en la tolerancia a desinfectantes de genotipos élite de Coffea spp. cultivados in vitro Variation in tolerance to disinfectants of elite genotypes of Coffea spp. cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López-Gómez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La embriogénesis somática puede ser afectada por la oxidación de los explantes al aplicar un método común de desinfección. En el Campo Experimental Rosario Izapa en 2006, se determinó la tolerancia a desinfectantes de explantes foliares de genotipos de café, mediante la dosis letal media (DL50 y con base en la tolerancia, se definió el desinfectante óptimo para el establecimiento aséptico. La DL50 de hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO, de hipoclorito de calcio (Ca[ClO]2 y la combinación de ambos, en explantes foliares de genotipos de Coffea canephora P. (INIFAP 95-8, 95-9, 97-10, 97-12, 97-15, 97-18, 97-19, 97-20, 00-24 y 00-28 y genotipos de C. arabica L. (INIFAP 2000-1018, 2000-1128 y 2000-692, se determinó mediante la aplicación de ocho concentraciones de NaClO (0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5%, ocho concentraciones de Ca(ClO2 (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 y 10% y la combinación. Con base en la tolerancia se aplicaron tratamientos de desinfección: 1, 3 y 6% de NaClO, 3.5, 7 y 10.5% de Ca(ClO2 y la combinación testigo de 3 y 7% de NaClO y Ca(ClO2, respectivamente. Existió variabilidad en la tolerancia, puesto que la DL50 varió dependiendo del genotipo y el agente desinfectante. La mayoría de los genotipos fueron menos tolerantes al NaClO (DL50 de 2 a 4%; no obstante, el NaClO controló la contaminación y oxidación en dosis bajas (1 y 3%. El NaClO y el Ca(ClO2 en bajas concentraciones de hasta 2 y 3.5% respectivamente, son una opción para la desinfección de explantes de café que pueden garantizar un estado fisiológico adecuado para dar inicio a la embriogénesis.The somatic embryogenesis can be affected by explants' oxidation when a common method of disinfection is. In the Experimental Field Rosario Izapa in 2006, the tolerance to disinfectants of leaf explants of coffee genotypes was determined by the median lethal dose (LD50 and based on its tolerance the optimal disinfectant for aseptic establishment was defined. The LD50 of

  9. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  10. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

  11. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and redu

  12. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki;

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  13. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  14. The earliest seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  15. Seed germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  16. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; N. Manickam; V. Srinevasan; S. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  17. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

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    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  18. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-cheng

    2013-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism.

  19. Binding of furosemide to albumin isolated from human fetal and adult serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Silvestri, D; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum from 58 placentas obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma from 8 individuals. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed only one spot that comigrated with commercial human albumin. Binding to albumin was measured by equilibrium dialysis of an aliquot of albumin solution (0.7 ml) against the same volume of 0.13 M sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.4). At a total concentration of 2 micrograms/ml (therapeutic range), the unbound fraction of furosemide was 2.71% (fetal albumin) and 2.51% (adult albumin). Two classes of binding sites for furosemide were observed in fetal and adult albumin. The number of binding sites (moles of furosemide per mole of albumin) was 1.22 (fetal albumin) and 1.58 (adult albumin) for the high-affinity site and 2.97 (fetal albumin) and 3.25 (adult albumin) for the low-affinity site. The association constants (M-1) were 3.1 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 2.6 X 10(4) (adult albumin) for the high-affinity set of sites and 0.83 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 1.0 X 10(4) (adult albumin) low-affinity site. The displacement of furosemide from albumin was studied with therapeutic concentrations of several drugs. Valproic acid, salicylic acid, azapropazone and tolbutamide had the highest displacing effects which were significantly higher with fetal than with adult albumin.

  20. Avaliação das cultivares Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo e Bourbon Vermelho de Coffea arabica L. em Campinas, SP Evaluation of the cultivars Mundo Novo, Bourbon Amarelo and Bourbon Vermelho of Coffea arabica L., in Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Fazuoli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar a diversidade genética da cultivar Mundo Novo, progênies S1 de 92 novas plantas matrizes, selecionadas em 1952, no município de Urupês (SP, foram estudadas em experimento instalado no Centro Experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas, utilizando-se como testemunhas 12 progênies S2 de Mundo Novo, seis de Bourbon Amarelo e sete de Bourbon Vermelho. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso com 21 repetições, parcelas de uma única cova e uma planta por cova, tendo sido realizadas colheitas consecutivas durante 33 anos. Foram mensuradas também as seguintes variáveis: índice de avaliação visual, precocidade de maturação dos frutos, porcentagem de sementes dos tipos chato, moca e concha e tamanho das sementes mediante determinação da peneira média. Diferenças significativas foram verificadas na produção dentro e entre grupos de Mundo Novo S1, Mundo Novo S2, Bourbon Amarelo e Bourbon Vermelho, sendo a média de produção das progênies S1, 6% superior à do grupo Mundo Novo S2. Foram observadas nas progênies de Mundo Novo S1 e S2, respectivamente, produtividade 39% e 30% superior à do Bourbon Amarelo e 112% e 99%, respectivamente, à do Bourbon Vermelho. Entre as 30 progênies mais produtivas, 4 pertencem à geração S2 e as restantes à geração S1 de Mundo Novo, indicando a eficiência da primeira seleção realizada em 1943. De modo geral, verificaram-se nas melhores progênies da cultivar Mundo Novo maturação média, sendo CP447, a mais precoce e CP502, a mais tardia. Apenas a progênie CP474 conseguiu peneira média superior às demais. Com o presente trabalho, concluiu-se que as progênies da cultivar Mundo Novo têm ótima capacidade produtiva, boa longevidade e excelente rusticidade. As novas seleções evidenciaram ainda mais o valor dessa cultivar, sendo uma das mais produtivas que se conhece em C. arabica.Coffea arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo is the most outstanding coffee

  1. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBrunel-Muguet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures (High Temperature (HT, 33 °C/day, 19 °C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T, 20°C/day, 15°C/day and S supply (High S (HS, 500 µm SO42- vs. Low S (LS, 8.7 µM SO42- during seed filling on (i yield components (seed number, seed dry weight (SDW and seed yield, (ii grain composition (nitrogen (N and S contents and quality (fatty acid (FA composition and seed storage protein (SSP accumulation and (iii germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings. Abscisic acid (ABA, soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose +stachyose/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  2. Structure characterization of protein fractions from lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera) seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-Yan; Cai, Lian-Hui; Cai, Xi-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ju; Li, Yu-Qin

    2011-08-01

    Protein fractionation of lotus seed was carried out and the structures of the protein fractions were studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) was used to investigate changes in molecular structures of the protein fractions. FTIR and UV-vis spectra showed the protein fractions had different protein molecular structures. FTIR spectra showed β-sheets and β-turns as the major secondary structures in the individual protein fractions, while the amounts of α-helix and random coil structures among the different fractions did not significantly change. The amounts of β-sheet structures of albumin and globulin were significantly higher than ones of prolamin and glutelin, implying albumin and globulin had high stabilities because of the high content in β-sheet structures. The observed similarity in the amounts of α-helix, random coil, β-sheet and β-turn structures shared by albumin and globulin indicated that their interior conformations were similar.

  3. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  4. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  5. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presti Mardiyani Purwaningtyas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic Root-Lession nematode of Pratylenchus coffeae can reduce the Indonesian coffee plants productivity. Several studies reported that Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis endophytic bacteria were antagonistic bacteria to nematode. The objective of this research was to reveal the effectiveness of bacterial colonies density of P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1, B.subtilis (UB BS1, and a combination of both bacteria on nematode mortality using median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time 50 (LT50. The densities of bacteria used in this study were 107, 109, 1011 and 1013 cfu/ml. 35 testing nematodes were used and the mortality was counted at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after treatments. The results showed that LC50 values of P. fluorescens was (UB_Pf1 was 4,3x108 cfu/ml, LC50 B. subtilis (UB_Bs1 was 1,9x109cfu/ ml, and LC50 combination of both bacteria was, 8x107 cfu/ml. It implies that the application of the combination of both bacteria are more pathogenic than single bacterial treatment. The results also showed that the highest LT50 value was 13.21  hours combination of bacterial colonies with a density of 1013 cfu/ml and the lowest LT50 value was 52.00 hours on P. fluorescens (UB_Pf1 treatment with colonies density of 107 cfu/ml.How to CitePurwaningtyas, P. M., Rahardjo, B. T., & Tarno, H. (2016. The Effect of Bacteria Colony Pseudomonas fluorescens (UB_Pf1 and Bacillus subtilis (UB_Bs1 on the Mortality of Pratylenchus coffeae (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 286-293. 

  6. Introgression into the allotetraploid coffee ( Coffea arabica L.): segregation and recombination of the C. canephora genome in the tetraploid interspecific hybrid ( C. arabicax C. canephora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. C.; Combes, M. C.; Anthony, F.; Charrier, A.; Lashermes, P.

    2002-03-01

    Transfer of desired characters from the diploid relative species such as Coffea canephora into the cultivated allotetraploid coffee species ( Coffea arabica L.) is essential to the continued improvement of varieties. Behaviour of the C. canephora genome and its interaction with the C. arabica genome were investigated in tetraploid interspecific hybrids ( C. arabicax C. canephora 4 x) resulting from a cross between an accession of C. arabica and a tetraploid plant of C. canephora obtained following colchicine treatment. Segregation and co-segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and microsatellite loci-markers were studied in two BC(1) populations. These two populations of 28 and 45 individuals, respectively, resulted from the backcross of two tetraploid F(1)plants to C. arabica. The presence in BC(1) plants of specific C. canephora markers was scored for 24 loci (11 RFLP and 13 microsatellites) distributed on at least 7 of the 11 linkage groups identified in C. canephora. At almost all loci analysed, the segregation of C. canephora alleles transmitted by the ( C. arabicax C. canephora 4 x) hybrids conformed to the expected ratio assuming random chromosome segregation and the absence of selection. The recombination fractions of C. canephorachromosome segments were estimated for seven marker intervals, and compared with the recombination fractions previously observed in C. canephora for the equivalent marker intervals. The recombination frequencies estimated in both plant materials were rather similar, suggesting that recombination in the ( C. arabicax C. canephora 4 x) hybrid is not significantly restricted by the genetic differentiation between chromosomes belonging to the different genomes. The hybrid ( C. arabicax C. canephora 4 x) therefore appeared particularly favourable to intergenomic recombination events and gene introgressions.

  7. Physalis peruviana seed storage

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    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  8. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  9. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

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    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  10. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

  11. Biocompatibility of electrospun human albumin: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk, B H; Kowalczyk, T; Łyżniak, M; Zembrzycki, K; Mikułowski, G; Wysocki, J; Kawiak, J; Pojda, Z

    2015-03-02

    Albumin is rarely used for electrospinning because it does not form fibres in its native globular form. This paper presents a novel method for electrospinning human albumin from a solution containing pharmaceutical grade protein and 25% polyethylene oxide (PEO) used as the fibre-forming agent. After spontaneous cross-linking at body temperature, with no further chemicals added, the fibres become insoluble and the excess PEO can be washed out. Albumin deposited along the fibres retains its native characteristics, such as its non-adhesiveness to cells and its susceptibility for degradation by macrophages. To demonstrate this we evaluated the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this novel product. After subcutaneous implantation in mice, albumin mats were completely resorbable within six days and elicited only a limited local inflammatory response. In vitro, the mats suppressed cell attachment and migration. As this product is inexpensive, produced from human pharmaceutical grade albumin without chemical modifications, retains its native protein properties and fulfils the specific requirements for anti-adhesive dressings, its clinical use can be expedited. We believe that it could specifically be used when treating paediatric patients with epidermolysis bullosa, in whom non-healing wounds occur after minor hand injuries which lead to rapid adhesions and devastating contractures.

  12. Absorção, translocação e utilização de zinco, cobre e manganês por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica Absorption, translocation and utilization of zinc, copper and manganese in grafted seedlings of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio Tomaz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparativamente ao pé-franco, a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto altera os complexos mecanismos de "feedback" entre parte aérea e raízes, afetando de maneira positiva ou negativa a eficiência nutricional da planta. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência da absorção, translocação e utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn por mudas de Coffea arabica L., de acordo com o porta-enxerto utilizado. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia como substrato, recebendo solução nutritiva circulante. Utilizaram-se, como enxerto, quatro genótipos de C. arabica: os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e os híbridos 'H 419-10-3-1-5' e 'H 514-5-5-3' , e, como porta-enxerto, quatro genótipos, sendo três de Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conilon Muriaé-1 e RC EMCAPA 8141 (recombinação entre clones da variedade Robustão Capixaba - EMCAPA 8141 e uma linhagem de Coffea arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além de quatro pés-francos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos, quatro repetições e uma planta por parcela. A eficiência nutricional das mudas quanto ao Zn, Cu e Mn variou de acordo com a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. A progênie 'H 514-5-5-3' foi mais eficiente quanto à utilização de Zn, Cu e Mn e produção de matéria seca, quando combinada com os porta-enxertos Apoatã LC 2258 e Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. O Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 foi mais eficiente na utilização de Cu e Mn quando combinado com Apoatã LC 2258.There are complexes feedback mechanisms involving the relationship rootstock/scion, whick can positively or negatively affect the plant nutrient efficiency use. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of uptake, translocation and utilization of Zn, Cu and Mn in coffee seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse

  13. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seeds are tiny, brown, black or white seeds. They are almost as small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint ... minerals. Chia seeds are also rich in essential fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6. Essential fatty ...

  14. Anionic Calixarene-Capped Silver Nanoparticles Show Species-Dependent Binding to Serum Albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W. Coleman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The anionic calixarenes para-sulphonatocalix[4]arene and 1,3-di-Ophosphonatocalix[ 4]arene, have been used to cap silver nanoparticles. The binding of these functional particles with regard to various serum albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, porcine serum albumin and sheep serum albumin has been studied by variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching of the fluorescence of the proteins was shown to vary as a function of the anionic calixarene capping molecule and also as a function of the origin of the serum albumin. It is thus possible to discriminate between the different species.

  15. Anionic calixarene-capped silver nanoparticles show species-dependent binding to serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauran, Yannick; Brioude, Arnaud; Kim, Beomjoon; Perret, Florent; Coleman, Anthony W

    2013-05-21

    The anionic calixarenes para-sulphonatocalix[4]arene and 1,3-di-O-phosphonatocalix[ 4]arene, have been used to cap silver nanoparticles. The binding of these functional particles with regard to various serum albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, porcine serum albumin and sheep serum albumin) has been studied by variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching of the fluorescence of the proteins was shown to vary as a function of the anionic calixarene capping molecule and also as a function of the origin of the serum albumin. It is thus possible to discriminate between the different species.

  16. Renal catabolism of albumin – current views and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gburek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the main protein of blood plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. The protein assists in many important body functions, including maintenance of proper colloidal osmotic pressure, transport of important metabolites and antioxidant action. Synthesis of albumin takes place mainly in the liver, and its catabolism occurs mostly in vascular endothelium of muscle, skin and liver as well as in the kidney tubular epithelium. Renal catabolism of albumin consists of glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. The tubular processes include endocytosis via the multiligand scavenger receptor tandem megalin and cubilin-amnionless complex. Possible ways of further catabolism of this protein are lysosomal proteolysis to amino acids and short peptides, recycling of degradation products into the bloodstream and tubular lumen or transcytosis of whole molecules. The article discusses the molecular aspects of these processes and presents the controversies arising in the light of the last decade of research.

  17. On-Chip Immunoassay for Determination of Urinary Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisorn Tuantranont

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve was linear up to 10 mg L–1 (r2 = 0.993, with a detection limit of 0.81 mg L–1 (S/N = 3. The proposed system showed good precision, with relative standard deviations (RSDs of 5.1%, when evaluated with 10 mg L–1 albumin (n = 10. Determination of urinary albumin with the proposed system gave results highly similar to those determined by the conventional spectrophotometric method using immunoturbidimetric detection (r2 = 0.995; n = 15.

  18. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  19. Effect of a Combination of Extract of Centella asiaticaL. Leaves and Extract of Green Coffee (Coffea canephora robusta P.) Beans in a Cream Preparation for Grade 1-3 Cellulite and Slimming

    OpenAIRE

    Riska Febriadne Primastuti; Wong Lip Wih; Abdul Mun’im

    2013-01-01

    An accumulation of fat in the subcutaneous tissue causes cellulite and dimpling on the surface of the skin. Although not related to obesity, obesity worsens cellulite. There are abundant topical anticellulite creams on the market, but the efficacy of these creams has not been scientifically proven. A combination of Centella asiaticaL. leaves extract and green coffee (Coffea canephora robustaP.) bean extract in a cream preparation was clinically tested in 30 women for 84 days in the absence of...

  20. 454-pyrosequencing of Coffea arabica leaves infected by the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix reveals in planta-expressed pathogen-secreted proteins and plant functions in a late compatible plant-rust interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Diana; Tisserant, E.; Talhinhas, P.; Azinheira, H; Vieira, A.; Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Loureiro, A.; Poulain, J.; Da Silva, C; Silva, M. D. C.; Duplessis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.), one of the key export and cash crops in tropical and subtropical countries, suffers severe losses from the rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. The transcriptome of H. vastatrix was analysed during a compatible interaction with coffee to obtain an exhaustive repertoire of the genes expressed during infection and to identify potential effector genes. Large-scale sequencing (454-GS-FLEX Titanium) of mixed coffee and rust cDNAs obtained from 21-day rust-infected leaves gen...

  1. Genetics of Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  2. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  3. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  4. Radiation-modified albumin in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Gorbenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes mellitus has been one of the most crippling diseases that man has seen, and its prevalence has risen dramatically over the past two decades. Currently, there are over 150 million diabetics worldwide and this number is likely to increase to 300 million or more by the year 2025. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of many disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the molecular properties of diabetic progression is a big challenge in the system biology era. The aim of this study is to determine association in albumin modifications between Chernobyl clean-up workers with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed in Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. In this study several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with diabetes mellitus in relation to the group of workers without diabetes mellitus and people having no professional contact with radioactivity were determined. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 effective and total albumin concentration in blood plasma; and (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence. Results: Screening of individuals with diabetes mellitus 25-26 years after their work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional properties of membrane. The revealed structural modifications of membrane are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. Conclusion: ABM is a sensitive probe of albumin alterations; it can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between the control group (donors and that of diabetics and non

  5. Preparation and characterization of 125 I labeled bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ashwitha Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ( 125 I-BSA with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125 I-BSA with high integrity.

  6. Recent Topics in Chemical and Clinical Research on Glycated Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The p...

  7. Stabilization of Tyrosinase-Bovine Serum Albumin Crystals by Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Norouzian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase and bovine serum albumin were co-crystallized by saturated ammonium sulfate solution(65% and 20% polyethylene glycol ( PEG 6000 and n-propanol as co-solvents .The obtained crystals were cross linked by glutaraldehyde solution(1% v/v.Polyethylene glycol 6000 was found to be better co-solvent than n-propanol. The developed biocatalyst could be recycled 6 times without further loss of tyrosinase activity. No loss of activity of cross linked tyrosinase -bovine serum albumin crystals was observed upon storage of the developed CLECs at refrigerator for six months.

  8. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  9. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

  10. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  11. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  12. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  13. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  14. Water-phase palmitate concentrations in equilibrium with albumin-bound palmitate in a biological system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1992-01-01

    Biokemi, erythrocyte ghosts, pamitate, bovine serum albumin, long-chain fatty acids, equilibrium constants......Biokemi, erythrocyte ghosts, pamitate, bovine serum albumin, long-chain fatty acids, equilibrium constants...

  15. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, María R; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2013-01-09

    Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins. Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%). Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.

  16. Conjugation of Chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min WANG; Jing Feng SONG; Yu Feng HE; Juan Juan MAO; Yan LI

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil (COS-5FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that an energy transfer between COS-5FU and BSA had been occurred. The binding constants were calculated,between the donor and acceptor, the distance between BSA and COS-5FU was determined.

  17. Binding of straight-chain saturated dicarboxylic acids to albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsgard, J H; Mendelson, S A; Meredith, S C

    1988-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are prominent features of several diseases, including Reye's syndrome. Long-chain dicarboxylic acids have profound effects on the function and structure of isolated mitochondria, suggesting that they could contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction in Reye's syndrome. Binding of fatty acids to albumin and the intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins is important in regulating the transport and metabolism of fatty acids and protects against the toxic effects of unbound fatty acids. We studied the binding of dicarboxylic acids to defatted albumin using equilibrium dialysis to assess to what extent dicarboxylic acids are likely to be bound in the plasma of patients. Dicarboxylic acids bind weakly to albumin in a molar ratio of 3.8, 4.2, 1.6, 0.8, and 0.7 to 1 for octadecanedioic, hexadecanedioic, tetradecanedioic, dodecanedioic, and decanedioic acid, respectively. The dissociation constants for long-chain dicarboxylic acids are 100-1,000-fold larger than those of comparable monocarboxylic acids. Oleate competes with dicarboxylic acid and reduces the moles of dicarboxylic acid bound per mol of albumin to less than 1. Octanoate inhibits dicarboxylic acid binding. Our observations indicate that in Reye's syndrome, substantial concentrations of dicarboxylic acids of patients may be free and potentially toxic to mitochondria and other cellular processes.

  18. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  19. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  20. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dong-Il, Kim; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  1. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, J.; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; McVie, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  2. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  3. A single food bolus stimulates albumin synthesis in growing piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, K; Smolders, HC; Meesterburrie, J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Voorbij, HAM; Okken, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kulik, W

    2000-01-01

    Background: A stable isotope tracer method to quantify the synthesis of proteins of hepatic origin in response to feeding is described. The response of albumin synthesis on one mixed meal in a piglet model was investigated and the intragastric and intravenous administration modes of C-13-valine were

  4. Obtención de suspensiones celulares y embriones somáticos de cafeto (Coffea canephora P. con el empleo de metabolitos bacterianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther González Vega

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining of cell suspensions and somatic embryos of coffee (Coffea canephora P. using of bacterial metabolites  ResumenLa embriogénesis somática es importante como sistema modelo para estudiar el desarrollo de eventos fisiológicos, citológicos y moleculares que sustentan la embriogénesis en plantas, por ser un sistema adecuado para la propagación masiva de especies vegetales y servir de herramienta para el mejoramiento genético, la conservación de germoplasma y la validación de nuevos productos biológicos, y facilitar la producción a gran escala a través del cultivo en medio líquido y su aplicación en biorreactores, proporcionando alta frecuencia de multiplicación, rápido crecimiento del embrión, facilidad de absorción de nutrientes y reducción de la labor de subcultivo. En este trabajo se empleó la embriogénesis somática como vía de multiplicación para evaluar el efecto de metabolitos bacterianos en la inducción de suspensiones celulares y embriones somáticos en tres genotipos de cafeto pertenecientes a Coffea canephora P. variedad Robusta. Para ello se estudiaron densidades de inóculo entre 0,2, 0,5, 1,0 y 3,0 gMF/L-1, y se evaluó el efecto de diferentes medios de cultivo en el desarrollo del proceso. Los resultados mostraron un comportamiento diferenciado en el genotipo M-28, en medios de cultivo suplementados con reguladores de crecimiento convencionales y en los alternativos. Se evidenció una fuerte relación entre la viabilidad celular y el número de células, ante las diferentes condiciones de cultivo y según la densidad de inóculo, se observó un amplio rango de tamaño y forma en las poblaciones de embriones somáticos. Los porcentajes de conversión de ES con el medio MDE-2 evidenciaron mejoras de este indicador para el cultivo del cafeto.Palabras clave: Coffea canephora, Robusta, densidad de inóculo, germinación, conversión.  AbstractThe somatic embryogenesis is important as model system to study

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, M; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    1997-01-01

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  7. Studies on Interactions of Antibiotics with Serum Albumin by Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Characterizing how chemical compounds binding to serum albumin is essential in evaluating drug candidates and is the focus of this study. A surface plasmon resonance biosensor developed in this laboratory was used to determine the binding constants of antibiotics with serum albumin. The binding constants of five antibiotics(azithromycin, spectinomycin, gentamycin, metacycline and kanamycin) with serum albumins were obtained.

  8. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-07

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Effect of 6-BA on nodal explant bud sproutings of Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo Efeito de 6-BA na brotação de gemas de explantes nodais de Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos da Silva Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee plants can be micropropagated by nodal bud sprouting using the 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA hormone. However, literature reports the use of a wide range of 6-BA, from 0.5 to 88.8 µM L-1. So, this study was performed to narrow that range. Nodal explants of Coffea arabica cv Mundo Novo obtained from in vitro plantlets were inoculated on gelled-MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-BA. Two assays were carried out: in the first one, 6-BA was used at concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µM L-1, being evaluated at 43 and 123 days. In the second experiment, dosis of 10, 20 and 30 µM L-1, have evaluated at 65 and 100 days. Treatments with 6-BA induced multiple sprouting from the nodal explants, which were best characterized around 100 days after inoculation. The nodal explants grew taller and showed multiple shoots, whereas the effect of 6-BA at 5 to 25 µM L-1 was similar to that with higher concentrations (50 and 100 µM L-1. Nodal explants yielded from 2.9 to 6.0 buds per node, achieving height of 1.3 to 1.5 cm at 5 to 25 µM L-1 of 6-BA, whereas they yielded from 4.3 to 4.9 buds per node but the sprouting grew about 0.8 cm at 50 and 100 µM L-1 of 6-BA. This study indicated that multiple sprouting of lateral buds can be induced by lower concentrations of 6-BA, for example, from 10 to 30 µM L-1, diminishing possible risks of somaclonal variation due to high levels of hormone concentration.O cafeeiro pode ser micropropagado via brotação de gemas laterais, aplicando o regulador de crescimento 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA. Entretanto, a literatura apresenta ampla variação da dose empregada, desde 0.5 a 88.8 µM L-1. Assim, este estudo visou otimizar doses para explantes nodais do cafeeiro C. arabica cv Mundo Novo. Explantes nodais, obtidos de plântulas cultivadas in vitro, foram inoculados em meio MS geleificado, com adição de diferentes concentrações de 6-BA. Foram feitos dois experimentos: no primeiro, 6-BA foi

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  11. Optimalisasi Pengikatan Tanin Daun Nangka dengan Protein Bovine Serum Albumin (Optimalisation Binding of Jackfruit Leaves Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin Protein)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahidin Teguh Sasongko; Lies Mira Yusiati; Zaenal Bachruddin; (Mugiono), Mugiono

    2012-01-01

    Tannins are high molecular weight polyphenol compounds with ability to bind proteins. Based on the structure, albumin are simple globular molecule protein. Optimalisation binding of jackfruit leave tannins to bovine serum (BSA) albumin was done in two stages. The first stage was to determine levels of tannins and condensed tannins in jackfruit leaves grown in mediterranean soil types. Second research was optimalisation binding of jackfruit leaf tannins with bovine serum albumin. In t...

  12. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Visser, Marco D.; Kays, Roland; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  13. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  14. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  15. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  16. Comportamiento del compuesto orgánico (agrocol y minerales como sustrato en almacigos de café (Coffea arabica L. en Coromoro, Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Alvarado-Gaona

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dado que los efectos de la materia orgánica en la producción de almácigos de café (Coffea arabica L.  es  una  práctica  recomendada  por  sus excelentes  resultados  y  gracias  a  las  diversas fuentes utilizadas y ofertadas en el mercado, se hace  necesaria  la realización  de  estudios tendientes a evaluar dichos productos, en asocio con los cultivadores del grano en el área donde se desarrolla la práctica es así que se llevó a cabo un experimento con el fin de analizar el efecto de dos fuentes de materia orgánica: una extraída de la  finca en donde se desarrolló  la experiencia y otra proveniente del compuesto Orgánico Agrocol y Minerales, sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo de Colinos  de  café  (Coffea  arabica  L.  variedad Colombia, en etapa de almácigo, en dosis del 25%, 50% y 75% del compuesto en el sustrato, del 25% de Pulpa de Café descompuesta en el sustrato y  la mezcla  de  las  dos  fuentes  en  el  sustrato,  en condiciones de campo en el predio Árbol Solo de la  vereda  El Centro, Municipio de  Coromoro (Santander. Como resultado del experimento, se determinó  que  no  existen  diferencias  en  el desarrollo  y  crecimiento  en  los  almácigos  al utilizar dos  fuentes diferentes de materia orgánica, una enriquecida con minerales y otra extraída de la finca, por tanto la  inversión de capital por parte de los caficultores de  la zona en  fuentes de materia orgánica  enriquecida  con minerales  para  la producción de almácigos no es necesaria, pues se cuenta con la fuente adecuada en la zona.

  17. Zonificación agroecológica del Coffea arabica en el municipio Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Antonio González González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas agroecológicas del Coffea arabica son aquellas que presentan las condiciones y características del potencial biofísico favorables para su producción con óptimos rendimientos. El análisis de las condiciones geomorfológicas, del régimen hidrotérmico y de la cobertura edáfica en el municipio Atoyac de Álvarez, estado de Guerrero, México, y su representación cartográfica, mediante plataformas SIG, permitió identificar las áreas con potencialidades diferenciadas para el cultivo del Coffea arabica con vistas al establecimiento de su zonificación agroecológica. El enfoque sistémico y el procesamiento automatizado de la información propició la identificación de las áreas con potencial óptimo, medio, bajo y muy bajo. Los potenciales con una aptitud natural óptima se localizan en las zonas de montañas bajas, entre 1 100 a 1 500 msnm, con pendientes entre 1.1° hasta 18°, considerándose pendientes suaves y moderadas; con precipitaciones entre los 1 500 a 2 000 mm, en zonas semicálidas con espectro térmico de 18 °C a 22 °C y sobre suelos Acrisoles y con una clave jerarquizada Ah+Bh+Hh/2, con unidad primaria Acrisol. En el municipio la superficie de potenciales óptimos alcanza las 7 163.47 ha; la de medio, las 28 143.75 ha; la de bajo, las 62 130.65 ha, y la de potencial muy bajo unas 58 411.38 ha. Por su contenido, este enfoque y metodología pueden ser implementados en cualquier marco geográfico, adecuándose a las escalas cartográficas y evaluando las distintas apreciaciones agroecológicas, como aportación a las políticas y decisiones gubernamentales o empresariales para la planeación y el fomento de las áreas cafetaleras.

  18. Transferência do fator caturra para o cultivar Mundo Novo de Coffea arabica Transfer of the CT gene to Mundo Novo cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatados os estudos realizados visando à introdução do gene Ct (caturra que contribui para reduzir a altura da planta, no cultivar Mundo" Novo de Coffea arabica.Estudaram-se, em ensaios de produtividade, as populações Fv F.,, F3 e F4. Nessas populações e principalmente entre os descendentes dos "caféeiros H 2077-2-5 e H 2077-2-12, foram selecionadas plantas homozigotas para os alelos Ct e também para os alelos responsáveis pela cor do fruto xc ou Xc. Essas combinações foram denominadas 'Catuaí Amarelo' e 'Catuaí Vermelho', respectivamente, e suas características são apresentadas. Os novos cultivares vêm-se mostrando de interesse econômico para as regiões cafeeiras não somente pelo porte pequeno, mas também pela produtividade, pelo vigor vegetativo e pela precocidade.The successful transfer of the Ct gene for short internode to the tall cultivar of Coffea arábica'Mundo Novo' is reported. Individual selections were carried out in the F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations. It was found that early selection in the F2 generation was quite effective. A remarkably good correlation was found between productitivity of F2 plants and the yield of the F3 and F4 generations. Plants of the F4 generation have shown reasonable uniformity and high yield in several trials. The new selections showed to be early producers. Two new cultivars were released namely 'Catuaí Amarelo' and 'Catuaí Vermelho'. The former has yellow fruits whereas the latter has red fruits. The plants are much shorter that the ones of Mundo Novo. The new cultivars have a very strong secondary and tertiary branching. Because of these characteristics Catuaí Amarelo and Catuaí Vermelho are being planted in large scale replacing the tall cultivars.

  19. Quantitation of the residual DNA from rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Dai, Huixia; Liu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Liping; Pang, Jianlei; Ou, Jiquan; Yang, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    Residual DNA in recombinant protein pharmaceuticals can potentially cause safety issues in clinical applications; thus, maximum residual limit has been established by drug safety authorities. Assays for residual DNA in Escherichia coli, yeast, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression systems have been established, but no rice residual DNA assay for rice expression systems has been designed. To develop an assay for the quantification of residual DNA that is produced from rice seed, we established a sensitive assay using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We found that a 40-cycle qPCR exhibited a linear response when the template concentration was in the range of 2×10(4) to 0.2pg of DNA per reaction in TaqMan and SYBR Green I assays. The amplification efficiency was 103 to 104%, and the amount of residual DNA from recombinant human serum albumin from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) was less than 3.8ng per dosage, which was lower than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results indicate that the current purification protocol could efficiently remove residual DNA during manufacturing and processing. Furthermore, this protocol could be viable in other cereal crop endosperm expression systems for developing a residual DNA quantitation assay using the highly conserved 5S rRNA gene of the crops.

  20. Study of Aging and Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seeds in Albino Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa Khan; SH Ansari; ZABhat; Feroz ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to investigate in liver of rats from 8-12 weeks old to 20 weeks old, the age dependent changes, carbon tetrachloride mediated changes, and the hepatoprotective effect shown by the seeds of Vitis vinifera L. Method: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of 100 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of grape seeds on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats and results were compared with those of the aged group results. Results: 100 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera seeds produced highly significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin levels and significant decrease in the TSP levels compared to the toxic group levels. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin in aged control rats were found to be significantly higher than the levels in young control animals. MDA levels were slightly higher while GSH levels were lower in aged control rats as compared to young control rats. MDA levels in the toxic group showed highly significant increase compared to the young control levels. Ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera significantly lowered the MDA levels. Histopathology results reveal that 100mg/kg/day dose of ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cured the hepatic damage to a great extent which was induced by CCl4. Conclusions: Aging leads to the changes in the hepatic structure which are comparable to the changes induced by low doses of a hepatotoxin and the ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes exposed to free radical attack, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological observations.

  1. Use of electrophoretic techniques in determining the composition of seed storage proteins in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Bewley, J D

    1988-11-01

    Holoprotein molecular weights and polypeptide composition can be determined for complex mixtures of oligomeric proteins using two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. The variety of two-dimensional analyses presented here is a reflection of the general usefulness of each method for the identification and characterization of the different classes of seed storage proteins in alfalfa. These techniques can be applied to studies of storage proteins in other seeds as well as non-seed storage proteins. The major seed storage proteins in alfalfa are medicagin (a legumin-like globulin), alfin (a vicilin-like globulin) and a family of lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3). These comprise 30%, 10%, and 20%, respectively, of the total extractable protein from cotyledons of mature seeds. Alfin is a heterogeneous oligomeric protein (Mr approximately 150,000) composed of polypeptides ranging in size from Mr 14,000 to 50,000 (alpha 1-alpha 6; 50,000, 38,000, 32,000, 20,000, 16,000 and 14,000, respectively). Medicagin is also a high molecular weight oligomeric protein, but requires high concentrations of salt for solubilisation. It is comprised of a family of individually distinct subunits, each composed of an acidic polypeptide (A1-A9; Mr 49,000 to 39,000) linked via disulphide bond(s) to a basic polypeptide (B1, B2, B3; Mr 24,000, 23,000 and 20,000, respectively). This pairing is highly specific and two families are recognizable on the basis of the B polypeptide (B3 or B1/B2). Subunits (Mr approximately 50,000-65,000) are assembled as trimers (8S) or larger oligomers (12S-15S) in mature seeds. The lower molecular weight albumins (LMW1-3) are acidic (pI less than 6), and consist of sets of disulphide-bonded polypeptides (Mr 15,000 and 11,000).

  2. Binding of diazepam, salicylic acid and digitoxin to albumin isolated from fetal and adult serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The binding of diazepam (1 microM), salicylic acid (2 mM) and digitoxin (6 nM) to albumin (40 g/l) was measured by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C. The unbound fraction (mean +/- SD) for fetal and adult albumin of diazepam was 1.86 +/- 0.24 and 1.82 +/- 0.15% (NS), that of digitoxin was 3.18 +/- 0.27 and 3.36 +/- 0.04% (NS) and that of salicylic acid was 11.65 +/- 0.99 and 9.47 +/- 0.75% (p less than 0.05), respectively. With both fetal and adult albumin, a single class of binding sites was observed for diazepam and digitoxin, whereas two classes of binding sites were observed for salicylic acid. The number of binding sites (n, moles of drug per mole of albumin) for fetal and adult albumin was 0.83 and 1.02 for diazepam and 0.014 and 0.018 for digitoxin, respectively. For salicylic acid, n was 1.45 (fetal albumin) and 1.55 (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 3.06 (fetal albumin) and 3.27 (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. The association constant (Ka, M-1) for diazepam was 1.36 x 10(5) (fetal albumin) and 1.00 x 10(5) (adult albumin) and that for digitoxin was 4.12 x 10(6) (fetal albumin) and 2.7 x 10(6) (adult albumin). For salicylic acid, Ka was 38.4 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 35.8 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 2.7 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 4.3 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. This work shows that fetal and adult albumin have similar binding properties and corroborates our previous findings with furosemide.

  3. [Excess mortality in critically ill patients after treatment with human albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, M; Gemke, R J; Henny, C P

    1998-08-15

    According to the results of a systematic review of randomized clinical studies administration of human albumin to critically ill patients is associated with excess mortality, compared with withholding albumin or administration of crystalloid fluids. The study appears to be well done. Also, there are various explanatory pathophysiological mechanisms supporting the association. However, a favourable effect of albumin in certain patient groups cannot be excluded. Alternatives to albumin are available in most clinical situations, but unfortunately, they are not completely without drawbacks. The use of albumin has to be limited; it might only be abolished when a better effect of other fluids, such as synthetic solutions, is demonstrated.

  4. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  5. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sob influência do sombreamento por Acacia mangium Willd Morphophysiological alterations in leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' shaded by Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Angélica Cordeiro Gomes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na disponibilidade de radiação podem causar modificações na estrutura e função das folhas do cafeeiro, que podem responder de maneira diferencial à radiação por alterações morfológicas, anatômicas, de crescimento e na taxa fotossintética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características morfofisiológicas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sombreados por acácia (Acacia mangium Willd. na época seca e chuvosa no sul de Minas Gerais. As maiores taxas fotossintéticas e maiores espessuras da epiderme adaxial foram observadas na estação chuvosa nas linhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol. O sombreamento influenciou em menor espessura das folhas e em espaços intercelulares maiores no tecido esponjoso. Foi também verificada mudança na forma dos cloroplastos, os quais apresentaram-se mais alongados em folhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol quando relacionados aos arborizados.Light availability is one of the most important environmental factors affecting leaf structure and functions in coffee plants that can respond differently to radiation by changes in leaf anatomy, morphology, growth and photosynthetic rate. The objective of this research was evaluate some morphophysiological aspects in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' cropped under shelter trees in the south of Minas Gerais during the rainy and dry season. The shade caused lower leaves thickness and higher intercellular spaces in spongious tissue. There was also verified a change in chloroplast shape, which showed more elongated in coffee tree kept at full sunlight in relation to that ones maintained on shading.

  6. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  7. Eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de cálcio, magnésio e enxofre por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica Efficiency of uptake, translocation and use of calcium, magnesium and sulphur in young Coffea arabica plants under the influence of the rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tomaz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da eficiência nutricional de plantas enxertadas de cafeeiro é importante para a seleção de combinações enxerto/porta-enxerto, visando ao desenvolvimento e produção máximos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em cultivo hidropônico, a eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de Ca, Mg e S por mudas enxertadas de Coffea arabica L., influenciada pelo porta-enxerto. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação por um período de 170 dias, em vasos que continham areia, como substrato, e solução nutritiva circulante. Utilizaram-se, como enxerto, quatro genótipos de Coffea arabica L.: as variedades Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15 e Oeiras MG 6851 e as linhagens H 419-10-3-1-5 e H 514-5-5-3, e, como porta-enxerto, três genótipos de C. canephora Pierre et Froenher: Apoatã LC 2258, Conillon Muriaé-1, Robustão Capixaba (EMCAPA 8141 e um genótipo de Coffea arabica L.: Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, além da utilização de quatro pés-francos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os contrastes entre médias compararam as mudas de pé-franco com as associações enxerto/porta-enxerto. A eficiência de absorção, translocação e uso de Ca, Mg e S por mudas enxertadas de cafeeiro variou de acordo com a combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. Somente a eficiência de translocação de Ca não foi alterada pela combinação enxerto/porta-enxerto. A linhagem H 514-5-5-3 foi beneficiada na eficiência de uso de Mg e produção de matéria seca pelos porta-enxertos Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 e Apoatã LC 2258, e na eficiência de uso de Ca e S apenas pelo Mundo Novo IAC 376-4.Studies into the nutritional efficiency of grafted coffee plants is essential for the selection of graft/rootstock combinations for a maximum development and production. Our objective was the evaluation of the influence of rootstocks on the efficiency of uptake, translocation and use of Ca, Mg, and S in young

  8. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  9. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  11. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  12. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression.

  13. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  14. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  15. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  16. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  17. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  18. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    . The human body, however, possesses several natural transport mechanisms for active transport of molecules. Amongst these is albumin, which is the most abundant plasma protein and has a circulatory half-life of ~21 days, partially due to engagement and recycling by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Albumin......The recent development of protein, peptide and nucleotide therapeutics is an important step towards the successful treatment of many severe diseases caused by altered gene expression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used for regulation of cellular gene expression to revert pathologic states...... vehicle. This proof of concept silencing showed that siRNA can be used for therapeutic purposes without the use of non-biocompatible polymer or lipid materials. This work, therefore, provides a novel technology platform for the safe delivery of siRNA therapeutics....

  19. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S; Brandt, Nikolay N; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Chikishev, Andrey Yu

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND–protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  20. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S.; Brandt, Nikolay N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Chikishev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND-protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  1. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    interaction is critical for the long term stability of a pharmaceutical. Protein complex formation is important for extended half-life in vivo and is essential to cellular communication such as the induction of the insulin response. This thesis focuses on human serum albumin (HSA) as a central player...... approach to half-life extension is conjugation of molecules to HSA. In this part of the thesis, novel GLP-1-albumin conjugates developed by Albumedix A/S where examined by a combined approach of pharmacokinetic studies and solution structure determination with SAXS. GLP-1 was conjugated to Cys34...... of recombinant HSA (rHSA) and two rHSA variants with lower (NB) and higher binding (HB) affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Binding kinetics showed that the conjugation had limited effect on the binding properties of the conjugates to FcRn compared to the respective rHSA variants. Increased in-vivo half...

  2. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery.

  3. [Reaction mechanism of cefotaxime with human serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luo-sheng; Wang, Xing-po; Zhao, Quan-qin; Zhang, Yu-yi

    2006-06-01

    The reaction mechanism of cefotaxime with human serum albumin (HSA) and the affinity between cefotaxime and beta-lactamase were investigated by spectrometry and spectrofluorimetry. The interaction dissociation constants of human serum albumin and cefotaxime were determined from a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The binding distance and transfer efficiency between cefotaxime and HSA were also obtained according to the theory of Förster non-radiation energy transfer. The result suggested that the main binding force between cefotaxime and HSA is electrostatic force interaction. The high beta-lactamase stability of cefotaxime may be correlative with its molecular structure. The antibiotic activity and valence are connected with transfer efficiency and dissociation constant. The effect of cefotaxime on the conformation of HSA was also analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectrometry.

  4. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...

  5. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  6. Binding of straight-chain saturated dicarboxylic acids to albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsgard, J H; Mendelson, S A; Meredith, S C

    1988-01-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are prominent features of several diseases, including Reye's syndrome. Long-chain dicarboxylic acids have profound effects on the function and structure of isolated mitochondria, suggesting that they could contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction in Reye's syndrome. Binding of fatty acids to albumin and the intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins is important in regulating the transport and metabolism of fatty acids and protects against the toxic effects of unbound fat...

  7. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of bovine serum albumin powder

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Haet-Nim; Sung, Jun-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Hae-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is present in bovine plasma, is one of the major allergens affecting patients with food allergies induced by milk and meat. It is also commonly used in research laboratories. Although some reports have documented food allergies associated with BSA, BSA-induced occupational asthma has not been reported. We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis in a laboratory worker caused by the inhalation of BSA powder, in which an IgE-mediated response was sugge...

  8. Binding of several benzodiazepines to bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicote, Roberta G.; Pacheco, María E.; Bruzzone, Liliana

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of lorazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters Δ H, Δ G and Δ S were calculated. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were also investigated. The distances between the donor (BSA) and the acceptors (benzodiazepines) were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and conformational changes of BSA were observed from synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  9. Phenylpropanoid enzymes, phenolic polymers and metabolites as chemical defenses to infection of Pratylenchus coffeae in roots of resistant and susceptible bananas (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganan, M Mayil; Ravi, I; Nandakumar, A; Sarumathi, S; Sundararaju, P; Mustaffa, M M

    2014-03-01

    Activity differences of the first (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL) and the last (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD) enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway in the roots of resistant (Yangambi Km5 and Anaikomban) and susceptible (Nendran and Robusta) banana cultivars caused by root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, were investigated. Also, the accumulation of phenolics and deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls in relation to resistance of the banana cultivars to the nematode were analyzed. Compared to the susceptible cultivars, the resistant cultivars had constitutively significantly higher PAL activity and total soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics than in susceptible cultivars. The resistant cultivars responded strongly to the infection of the nematode by induction of several-time higher PAL and CAD enzymes activities, soluble and wall-bound phenolics and enrichment of lignin polymers in cell wall and these biochemical parameters reached maximum at 7th day postinoculation. In addition, profiles of phenolic acid metabolites in roots of Yangambi Km5 and Nendran were analyzed by HPLC to ascertain the underlying biochemical mechanism of bananas resistance to the nematode. Identification and quantification of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids showed six metabolites and only quantitative, no qualitative, differences occurred between the resistant and susceptible cvs. and between constitutive and induced contents. A very prominent increase of p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, which are precursors of monolignols of lignin, in resistant cv. was found. These constitutive and induced biochemical alterations are definitely the chemical defenses of resistant cvs. to the nematode infection.

  10. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  11. Cuantificación de minerales K, Ca, Mg y P en pulpa y pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L. var. Typica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Geovanny Figueroa Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con muestras de café Coffea arabica L., variedad Typica de tres lugares en Ecuador: Palanda, Vilcabamba y El Pangui, seleccionados por su disponibilidad y condiciones geográficas. Se analizó potasio, calcio y magnesio por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; y fósforo por espectrofotometría visible, utilizando en todos los casos la digestión ácida para la preparación de las muestras. Con el objetivo de mantener la trazabilidad de los residuos se realizó el beneficio húmedo del café. Los resultados obtenidos para la pulpa de café expresados en base seca fueron: K 3,1 ± 0,43 %; Ca 0,46 ± 0,06 %; Mg 0,14 ± 0,01 % y P 0,13 ± 0,01 %. Para pergamino de café: K 0,16 ± 0,02 %; Ca 0,14 ± 0,05 %; Mg 0,06 ± 0,01 % y P 0,02 ± 0,01 %. En adición, se determinaron los minerales en el grano de café. Con estos resultados podemos mencionar que la pulpa de café es una buena fuente de potasio (especialmente, magnesio y fósforo. El pergamino pudiera ser considerado como fuente de fósforo.

  12. Characterization and expression of two cDNA encoding 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase isoforms in coffee (Coffea arabica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiski, Iris; Marraccini, Pierre; Pot, David; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2011-10-01

    In higher plants there are two independent pathways for isoprenoid biosynthesis, located in the cytosol (mevalonic acid or MVA pathway) or in the plastids [methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway]. The 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the first committed step in the MVA pathway. Using the information available from the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project, we found 13 ESTs that originated two isoforms, CaHMGR1 and CaHMGR2, for the enzyme HMGR of Coffea arabica. A complementary DNA encoding the isoform CaHMGR1 was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. The full-length cDNA of CaHMGR1 was 2,242 bp containing a 1,812-bp ORF encoding 604 amino acids. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the deduced CaHMGR1 had extensive homology with other plant HMGRs and contained two transmembrane domains and two putative HMGR binding sites and two NADP(H)-binding sites. Under normal growth conditions, transcripts of isoform CaHMRG1 were detected in fruit tissues (pulp, perisperm, and endosperm) only at the initial stages of development, flower buds and leaves. CaHMRG2 was expressed in all tissues and during all fruit development stages examined. These results suggest a constitutive expression of isoform CaHMGR2, while the isoform CaHMGR1 shows temporal and tissue-specific transcriptional activation.

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS Y MECÁNICAS DEL FRUTO DE CAFÉ (COFFEA ARABICA L. VAR. COLOMBIA DURANTE SU DESARROLLO Y MADURACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ JAIME CARVAJAL HERRERA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fuerza necesaria para desprender el fruto de Coffea arabica L, variedad Colombia, dimensiones ortogonales, diámetro característico, masa, contenido de humedad (b.h., fuerza de fractura, firmeza, deformación y energía necesaria para alcanzar la ruptura de la cáscara del fruto fueron investigadas para nueve diferentes estados de desarrollo entre 182 y 238 días después de la antesis. Las propiedades mecánicas se evaluaron con un texturómetro en diferentes planos de aplicación de carga de compresión sobre el fruto utilizando dos diferentes aditamentos (punzón y placas paralelas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las propiedades físicas y mecánicas dependen del estado de desarrollo del café y del plano de medición en el fruto. Las diferentes propiedades evaluadas podrían ser utilizadas para diseñar equipos para la recolección y para el procesamiento poscosecha, con mejor desempeño técnico.

  14. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Setoyama

    Full Text Available The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Leaves, Flowers and Fruits Perisperm of Coffea arabica L. Reveals the Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Raffinose Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Tiago Benedito; de Oliveira, Fernanda Freitas; Pot, David; Leroy, Thierry; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Coffea arabica L. is an important crop in several developing countries. Despite its economic importance, minimal transcriptome data are available for fruit tissues, especially during fruit development where several compounds related to coffee quality are produced. To understand the molecular aspects related to coffee fruit and grain development, we report a large-scale transcriptome analysis of leaf, flower and perisperm fruit tissue development. Illumina sequencing yielded 41,881,572 high-quality filtered reads. De novo assembly generated 65,364 unigenes with an average length of 1,264 bp. A total of 24,548 unigenes were annotated as protein coding genes, including 12,560 full-length sequences. In the annotation process, we identified nine candidate genes related to the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligossacarides (RFOs). These sugars confer osmoprotection and are accumulated during initial fruit development. Four genes from this pathway had their transcriptional pattern validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, we identified ~24,000 putative target sites for microRNAs (miRNAs) and 134 putative transcriptionally active transposable elements (TE) sequences in our dataset. This C. arabica transcriptomic atlas provides an important step for identifying candidate genes related to several coffee metabolic pathways, especially those related to fruit chemical composition and therefore beverage quality. Our results are the starting point for enhancing our knowledge about the coffee genes that are transcribed during the flowering and initial fruit development stages. PMID:28068432

  16. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UNA BIBLIOTECA GENÓMICA DE Coffea Arabica Var. COLOMBIA Y EVALUACIÓN CON UNA SECUENCIA HOMÓLOGA A UBIQUITINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Leonor Álvarez Méndez 1, 2,

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de buscar secuencias de interés en el genoma de Coffea arabica var. Colombia, se construyó una biblioteca genómica en el vector Lambda FIX II (Stratagene con un tamaño promedio de inserto de 15Kb y con un título de 1,33x106 ufp/ml que representa aproximadamente 3,7 veces el genoma haploide.La biblioteca fue evaluada utilizando como sonda un producto de PCR amplificado con la combinación de iniciadores InhF - R631 y que presenta alta homología con secuencias tipo ubiquitinas de Arabidopsis thaliana y Oriza sativa. Se identificaron dos clones recombinantes (cof-ubi1 y cof-ubi2 que hibridizaron con la sonda tipo ubiquitina. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la biblioteca genómica es adecuada para la identificación de secuencias de interés, mapeo genético y estudios sobre regulación de la expresión de genes.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD FOTOSINTÉTICA ASOCIADA CON EL INTERCAMBIO GASEOSO DE DOS VARIEDADES DE Coffea arabica OBTENIDAS POR CULTIVO In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en el Laboratorio de Células y Cultivo de Tejidos del Centro de Bioplantas en julio de 2007, con el objetivo de evaluar la actividad fotosintética de las plántulas de Coffea arabica var. Catuai y Caturra rojo, obtenidas in vitro en fase de multiplicación. Se determinaron la tasa de fotosíntesis neta, transpiración, conductancia estomática y concentración de pigmentos clorofílicos para cada una de las variedades a las ocho semanas de cultivadas; las vitroplantas crecieron en condiciones controladas en un medio MS suplementado con 0,5 ¿mol de AIA y 5 ¿mol de 6-BAP. Los resultados mostraron que ambas variedades desarrolladas in vitro presentaron tasas de fotosíntesis neta similares a las plantas de cafeto adultas cultivadas en condiciones de campo, lo que demostró la capacidad de fotosíntesis de las plántulas, conservando un adecuado equilibrio para el intercambio gaseoso en el proceso fotosintético durante la etapa de multiplicación in vitro.

  18. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemical differences among all cultivars and identify markers characteristic of a particular botanical origin of the coffee. The major fatty acids of coffee were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and arachic acid. Leucine (0.84 g/100 g DW, lysine (0.63 g/100 g DW, and arginine (0.61 g/100 g DW were the predominant essential amino acids (EAAs in the coffee samples. Seventy-nine volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by HS-SPME/GC-MS. PCA of the complete data matrix demonstrated that there were significant differences among all cultivars, HCA supported the results of PCA and achieved a satisfactory classification performance.

  19. Cuantificación de minerales K, Ca, Mg y P en pulpa y pergamino de café (Coffea arabica L. var. Typica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mendoza Abarca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con muestras de café Coffea arabica L., variedad Typica de tres lugares en Ecuador: Palanda, Vilcabamba y El Pangui, seleccionados por su disponibilidad y condiciones geográficas. Se analizó potasio, calcio y magnesio por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; y fósforo por espectrofotometría visible, utilizando en todos los casos la digestión ácida para la preparación de las muestras. Con el objetivo de mantener la trazabilidad de los residuos se realizó el beneficio húmedo del café. Los resultados obtenidos para la pulpa de café expresados en base seca fueron: K 3,1 ± 0,43 %; Ca 0,46 ± 0,06 %; Mg 0,14 ± 0,01 % y P 0,13 ± 0,01 %. Para pergamino de café: K 0,16 ± 0,02 %; Ca 0,14 ± 0,05 %; Mg 0,06 ± 0,01 % y P 0,02 ± 0,01 %. En adición, se determinaron los minerales en el grano de café. Con estos resultados podemos mencionar que la pulpa de café es una buena fuente de potasio (especialmente, magnesio y fósforo. El pergamino pudiera ser considerado como fuente de fósforo.

  20. CONSERVACIÓN DE RECURSOS FITOGENÉTICOS DE CAFETO (COFFEA SPP. POR MÉTODOS BIOTECNOLÓGICOS: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA SU PRESERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Castilla Valdés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad el ritmo de pérdida de la diversidad biológica a nivel mundial supera el acontecido en períodos anteriores. Las especies vegetales sufren los efectos del cambio climático, por lo que también necesitan estar aptas para adaptarse. Específicamente, el cafeto (Coffea spp., género que agrupa algunas de las especies de las cuales se obtiene una de las bebidas más cotizadas a nivel nacional e internacional, no escapa a este reto. Es por ello que diferentes estrategias para su preservación han sido desarrolladas ex situ, a partir de las dificultades que existen en relación con su conservación tradicional. Para conocer más acerca de los diferentes métodos biotecnológicos que facilitan la conservación a mediano y largo plazos de recursos fitogenéticos del cafeto, profundizaremos desde el punto de vista biológico en el presente artículo.

  1. Albumin-bound fatty acids induce mitochondrial oxidant stress and impair antioxidant responses in proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishola, D. A.; Post, J. A.; van Timmeren, M. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koomans, H. A.; Braam, B.; Joles, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Albumin induces oxidative stress and cytokine production in proximal tubular cells (PTECs). Albumin-bound fatty acids (FAs) enhance tubulopathic effects of albumin in vivo. We proposed that FA aggravation of albumin-induced oxidative stress in PTECs might be involved. We hypothesized that mitochondr

  2. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  3. [Sero-ascitic gradient of albumin: usefulness and diagnostic limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, D; Torres, E; Vázquez, J J

    1995-08-01

    The serum-ascites albumin (SAA) gradient has been defined as the serum albumin concentration minus the ascitic fluid albumin concentration. The SAA gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept to classify ascites, being a exact portal hypertension (PH) marker. An elevated SAA gradient (1.1 g/L or greater) correlates with PH, whereas a low gradient indicates no PH. The SAA gradient correlates well with PH in cirrhotic patients. It is also of particular utility to differentiate between congestive heart failure and malignant ascites without liver metastases (both of them with elevated ascites fluid proteins -AFP-). However, a low SAA gradient do not differentiate between tuberculous and malignant ascites. Consequently, there are still need for tests a cytology, culture for mycobacteria or ascites fluid polymorphonuclear cell count in some cases. The level of AFP, apart from the exudate-transudate concept, has some value for certain cases (a low level of AFP implicates a high risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis). The SAA gradient should replace the AFP concentration as the initial test to classify ascites.

  4. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Nicole [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus [Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wajant, Harald, E-mail: harald.wajant@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  5. Hydrophobic interactions of phenoxazine modulators with bovine serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H N Kalpana; B C Channu; Chhabil Dass; P J Houghton; K N Thimmaiah

    2000-02-01

    The interaction of 10-(3’-N-morpholinopropyl)phenoxazine [MPP], 10-(4’-N-morpholinobutyl)phenoxazine [MBP], 10-(3’-N-morpholinopropyl)-2-chlorophenoxazine [MPCP], 10-(3’-N-piperidinopropyl)-2-chlorophenoxazine [PPCP] or 10-(3’-N-morpholinopropyl)-2-trifluoromethylphenoxazine [MPTP] with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by gel filtration and equilibrium dialysis methods. The binding of these modulators, based on dialysis experiments, has been characterized using the following parameters: percentage of bound drug (), the association constant (1), the apparent binding constant () and the free energy change ( °). The binding of phenoxazine derivatives to serum transporter protein, BSA, is correlated with their octanol-water partition coefficient, log10 ~ . In addition, effect of the displacing activities of hydroxyzine and acetylsalicylic acid on the binding of phenoxazine derivatives to albumin has been studied. Results of the displacement experiments show that phenoxazine benzene rings and tertiary amines attached to the side chain of the phenoxazine moiety are bound to a hydrophobic area on the albumin molecule.

  6. Effect of tribology processes on adsorption of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Wang, Linghe; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2016-03-01

    As soon as artificial joint replacements are implanted into patients, the adsorption of proteins can occur. Joint implants operate in a protein-rich and relatively corrosive environment under tribological contact. The contacted area acted as an anodic part and the rest of the surface was more cathodic. Therefore, the adsorption of proteins is different in and outside the wear track. Adsorbed proteins would denature during rubbing and a tribofilm could form. The tribofilm can lubricate the surface and act as a barrier to corrosion damage. However, to observe the adsorption of proteins in situ has always been a challenge. Scanning Kelvin probe force microscope (SKPFM) was used to study the adsorption of albumin on the surface of CoCrMo alloy under simulated tribology movement. Fluorescence microscopy (FM) was employed to reveal the protein molecules in the wear scar. It was found that albumin molecules can decrease the surface potential and accelerate the corrosion process. In the wear track, albumin denatured and changed the surface potential as time progressed.

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  8. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  9. Seed trait and rodent species determine seed dispersal and predation: evidences from semi-natural enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Yi X; Wang Z.; Liu C; Liu G.

    2015-01-01

    Seed traits affect seed dispersal by animals. However, the combined role of seeds and dispersers in determining seed dispersal is not well explored. We attempted to test how seed traits and predators determine seed dispersal and predation interaction in a rodent-mediated seed dispersal system. Semi-natural enclosure experiments were conducted to investigate seed dispersal and predation of five sympatric tree species with different seed traits, Juglans mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Pinus kor...

  10. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelofar, Km; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM) and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed that this type of

  11. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A;

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found betwee...... in the 'lymph-imbalance' theory of ascites formation, whereas a 'fluid equilibrium' theory seems to be too simple, especially with respect to explain protein sequestration in the peritoneal cavity....

  12. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  13. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  14. Albumin Utilization in a Teaching Hospital in Tehran: Time to Revise the Prescribing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokabed Kazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since albumin imposes a relatively high cost to a healthcare system, drug use evaluation for this drug is much more important. This study wants to evaluate pattern of albumin use in a large university affiliated hospital in Tehran, Iran.Methods: A concurrent, cross-sectional study was performed in “Shaheed Rajaei” Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center. All inpatient adults that were prescribed albumin during the study period were evaluated to register the indications for albumin usage according to the evidence-based guidelines.Results: Only for five patients (4% the albumin prescriptions were justifiable. Of these cases, intractable edema was the leading cause of albumin misuse (73 patients; 60.8%. The total 1468 vials of Albumin were prescribed for 120 patients during the study period. The most common reasons to prescribe albumin were acute normovolemic (34%, cardiac failure (0.83%, resistance edema with Albumin>2g/dL (61%, nephrotic syndrome (0.83%, plasmapheresis (1.67%, ascetic (1.67%.Conclusion: These data, together with previous national studies highly suggest a mandatory need for educational measures for practicing physicians along with strict regulations for prescription strategies regarding expensive drugs such as albumin.

  15. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  16. The preparation of albumin as a biological drug from human plasma by fiber filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Hosseini K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, consumption of whole-blood for the treatment of patients has decreased but use of biological plasma-derived medicines such as albumin, immunoglobulin and coagulation factors have increased instead. Paying attention to albumin molecular structure is important for its isolation from human plasma. Albumin is a single-chain protein consisting of about 585 amino acids and a molecular weight of 66500 Daltons. Albumin is a stable molecule and it is spherical in shape. There are different methods for human albumin preparation. Considering the large consumption of this biological drug in clinical settings, methods with fewer steps in production line are of big advantage in saving time and manufacturing more products."n "nMethods: In this project, we prepared human albumin using hollow fiber cartridges in order to omit the rework on fraction V+VI. Human albumin is usually produced by the application of cold ethanol method, where albumin is obtained from fraction V by doing a rework on fraction V+VI to separate fraction V."n "nResults: In the current work, human albumin was prepared from fraction V+VI by the help of hollow fiber cartridges. With a concentration of 20%, the obtained albumin had 96.5% of monomer and 3.5% of polymer and polymer aggregate."n "nConclusion: Comparing the obtained human albumin with a number of commercial human albumin samples by the use of SDS-page, the results were satisfactory regarding the 3.5 percent polymer and aggregate rate for the prepared albumin.

  17. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  18. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  19. The morphological characterization of the dry seeds and reserve mobilization during germination in Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelamaris de Oliveira Paula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information about the morphology, chemical composition and reserve mobilization is important in understanding the establishment of native and exotic species. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, chemical composition, and mobilization of reserves during germination of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.. Biometric and morphological analyzes were performed with 100 randomly selected dried seeds. Other seeds were treated with sulfuric acid PA and soaked in Petri dishes. Collected seeds of five different times of germination were used for cytochemical and chemical analysis. For cytochemical analysis, the cuts of 5μm were submitted to dyes TB at pH 4.0; XP at pH 2.5, reaction of PAS and Sudan IV. The seeds were crushed for chemical analysis with lipids, proteins and soluble sugars extraction that were determined gravimetrically, by the Bradford method and the Antrona method, respectively. The fatty acid composition of the dry seed was determined by gas chromatography. Noni seeds are albuminous and have a thick seed coat, rich in lignin. Lipid and protein bodies were observed inside the endosperm cells, representing 43.50% and 9.15% respectively, while the reservoir of soluble sugars was less than 5%. Linoleic acid was the most prevalent with 68.1%. The lipids were mobilized during germination, suffering a reduction of up to 38% of its total. Proteins, as well as lipids decreased by 25.78% during the germination period observed. The main reserves of noni seeds are lipids and proteins that are mobilized during germination to provide energy and matter to the developing embryo and synthesis of more complex compounds.

  20. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  1. An inhibitor to rubella hemagglutination present in bovine albumin preparations: its removal by treatment with kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J B; Ellins, M L; Tasios, C

    1977-07-18

    Certain commercial preparations of bovine albumin, fraction V, show inhibitory activity in the rubella hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. This does not appear to be due to albumin per se, but instead to a contaminant (or contaminants) with the properties of a lipoprotein. All inhibitory activity can be removed from albumin preparations by treatment with kaolin, gel filtration, or flotation ultracentrifugation. We have found that, even when there was no inhibition of HA titers, kaolin treatment of the albumins prior to their incorporation into the test diluent resulted in more clearly defined agglutination patterns. Reasons for and against including albumin in the test diluent are discussed. It is concluded that, although not essential, it is a worthwhile additive. Our data suggest, however, that each batch of albumin used for this purpose should be checked for the presence of inhibitor, and that treatment with kaolin might be considered as a routine step prior to its incorporation into the test diluent.

  2. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications.

  3. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  4. The evidence for small-volume resuscitation with hyperoncotic albumin in critical illness

    OpenAIRE

    Myburgh, John A

    2008-01-01

    Small-volume resuscitation of critically ill patients with hyperoncotic albumin offers a number of theoretical advantages, such as increasing intravascular volume in excess of the volume of fluid administered and reducing interstitial edema. Whilst iso-oncotic albumin has been shown to be equi-effective to isotonic saline for the resuscitation of critically ill patients without associated traumatic brain injury, the efficacy of hyperoncotic albumin for resuscitation has not been evaluated in ...

  5. Caveolae-dependent and -independent uptake of albumin in cultured rodent pulmonary endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Li

    Full Text Available Although a critical role for caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis in pulmonary endothelium is well established, considerably less is known about caveolae-independent pathways. In this current study, we confirmed that cultured rat pulmonary microvascular (RPMEC and pulmonary artery (RPAEC endothelium endocytosed Alexa488-labeled albumin in a saturable, temperature-sensitive mode and internalization resulted in co-localization by fluorescence microscopy with cholera B toxin and caveolin-1. Although siRNA to caveolin-1 (cav-1 in RPAEC significantly inhibited albumin uptake, a remnant portion of albumin uptake was cav-1-independent, suggesting alternative pathways for albumin uptake. Thus, we isolated and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC from wild type and cav-1(-/- mice and noted that ~ 65% of albumin uptake, as determined by confocal imaging or live cell total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy (TIRF, persisted in total absence of cav-1. Uptake of colloidal gold labeled albumin was evaluated by electron microscopy and demonstrated that albumin uptake in MLEC from cav-1(-/- mice was through caveolae-independent pathway(s including clathrin-coated pits that resulted in endosomal accumulation of albumin. Finally, we noted that albumin uptake in RPMEC was in part sensitive to pharmacological agents (amiloride [sodium transport inhibitor], Gö6976 [protein kinase C inhibitor], and cytochalasin D [inhibitor of actin polymerization] consistent with a macropinocytosis-like process. The amiloride sensitivity accounting for macropinocytosis also exists in albumin uptake by both wild type and cav-1(-/- MLEC. We conclude from these studies that in addition to the well described caveolar-dependent pulmonary endothelial cell endocytosis of albumin, a portion of overall uptake in pulmonary endothelial cells is cav-1 insensitive and appears to involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis-like process.

  6. Importance of albumin in cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañas, R; López-Serrano, M C; Carreira, J; Ventas, P; Polo, F; Caballero, M T; Contreras, J; Barranco, P; Moreno-Ancillo, A

    2000-01-01

    Different allergenic proteins have been involved in cross-reactivity among animals. Albumins seem to be cross-sensitizing allergenic components. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of albumin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. One hundred and seventeen patients sensitized to cat were tested for IgE reactivity using skin prick tests and RAST assays with cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts and their purified albumin extracts. RAST-inhibition studies were carried out to assess cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse and among their purified albumins. It was found that 22% of patients exhibited specific IgE to cat albumin; 41% of patients sensitized to cat were also sensitized to dog and horse. Out of these patients, 21% had IgE to three albumins and 17% to two. Reciprocal inhibitions were observed among cat, dog and horse albumins and also among cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts, using in the latter experiment sera from patients not sensitized to albumins. IgE binding to horse extract was inhibited 30% by its homologous albumin and IgE binding to cat and dog extracts in almost 15% by their respective albumins. It was concluded that albumins from these three animals share some epitopes that account for the cross-reactivity observed in around one-third of patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. Nevertheless, more than 50% of specific IgE that cross-reacts among these three animals is directed to allergens other than albumin.

  7. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  8. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  9. Multivariate analysis of sensory characteristics of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L. in the region of upper Paranaíba = Análise multivariada de características sensoriais de grãos de café de cultivares (Coffea arabica L. na região do alto Paranaíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cláudio Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the sensory characteristics of the grains of 21 cultivars of Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre from the essays of genetic improvement of EPAMIG, located in Patrocínio Municipality, Minas Gerais State, where they were collected through cloths stripping method and washed. Subsequently to dry (11 to 12% moisture b.u., we obtained the coffee designated as “natural”. The evaluated varieties were: Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474; Bourbon Vermelho DATERRA; Catiguá MG 1; Catiguá MG 2; Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62; Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15; H 419-3-1-4-2; H 419- 6-2 -5-2; H 419-6-2-5-3; H 419-6-2-7-3 Vermelho; H 493-1-2-10; H 514-7-10-1 Vermelho; H 514-7-10-6; H 515-4-2-2; H 518-3-6-1; Icatú Amarelo IAC 3282; MundoNovo 379-19; Mundo Novo IAC 376-4; Rubi MG 1192; Sacramento MG 1 and Topázio MG 1190, from 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 seasons. The cultivars according to the first principal component with notes above 80 points, regarded as superior drink according to attributes with the highest scores (flavor, sweetness, balance, acidity, clean drink, andaspect were: Catiguá MG2, Rubi MG 1192, 514-7-10-6 H, H 419-3-1-4-2, H 419-6-2-5-2, 493-1-2-10 H, H 514-7-10-1 Vermelho, Catiguá MG1, Sacramento MG1, 419-6-2-5-3 H, H 515-9-2-2 and Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62.O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as características sensoriais dos grãos de 21 cultivares de (Coffea arabica L. provenientes do ensaio de melhoramento genético da Epamig, Fazenda Experimental dePatrocínio, Estado de Minas Gerais. Posteriormente à secagem (11 a 12% de umidade b.u., obteve-se o café designado como natural. Os frutos avaliados correspondiam às cultivares e progênies Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474; Bourbon Vermelho DATERRA; Catiguá MG 1; Catiguá MG 2; Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62; Catuaí Vermelho IAC 15; H 419-3-1-4-2; H 419-6-2-5-2; H 419-6-2-5-3; H 419-6-2-7-3 Vermelho; H 493-1-2-10; H 514-7-10-1 Vermelho; H 514-7-10-6; H 515-4-2-2; H 518-3-6-1; Icatu Amarelo

  10. Repression of Seed Maturation Genes by a Trihelix Transcriptional Repressor in Arabidopsis Seedlings[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming-Jun; Lydiate, Derek J.; Li, Xiang; Lui, Helen; Gjetvaj, Branimir; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The seed maturation program is repressed during germination and seedling development so that embryonic genes are not expressed in vegetative organs. Here, we describe a regulator that represses the expression of embryonic seed maturation genes in vegetative tissues. ASIL1 (for Arabidopsis 6b-interacting protein 1-like 1) was isolated by its interaction with the Arabidopsis thaliana 2S3 promoter. ASIL1 possesses domains conserved in the plant-specific trihelix family of DNA binding proteins and belongs to a subfamily of 6b-interacting protein 1-like factors. The seedlings of asil1 mutants exhibited a global shift in gene expression to a profile resembling late embryogenesis. LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 were markedly derepressed during early germination, as was a large subset of seed maturation genes, such as those encoding seed storage proteins and oleosins, in seedlings of asil1 mutants. Consistent with this, asil1 seedlings accumulated 2S albumin and oil with a fatty acid composition similar to that of seed-derived lipid. Moreover, ASIL1 specifically recognized a GT element that overlaps the G-box and is in close proximity to the RY repeats of the 2S promoters. We suggest that ASIL1 targets GT-box–containing embryonic genes by competing with the binding of transcriptional activators to this promoter region. PMID:19155348

  11. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  12. Toxicity of Dietary Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed to Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A. H. Al Bahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds after fermentation are commonly known as Furundu with high quality proteins consumed as substitute to meat mainly in the Western part of the country. The raw seed, 10, 15 and 20 % of the standard diet was fed to Wister rats for periods up to 12 weeks. These doses were found to be non-toxic but not lethal to the treated rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed on any of the vital organs, but the main features were depression of growth and diverse pathological changes on the liver, kidneys and intestines which were correlated with highly significant (P<0.001 elevation of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and bilirubin (P<0.01 concentration in addition to a significant decrease (P<0.01 in cholesterol concentration. No change was observed in the total protein, globulin and urea concentrations of the test groups and albumin concentration in Groups 1 and 2 fed on diet containing 10 and 15% H. sabdarrifa seed. These findings were accompanied by leukocytosis and significantly lower red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration. Due to the elevated Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the normal values of the mean corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in all the treatment groups the toxicity of H. Sabdariffa seed to Wistar rats resulted in macrocytic normochromic type of anaemia.

  13. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  14. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  15. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronze-Uhle ES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ES Bronze-Uhle,1 BC Costa,1 VF Ximenes,2 PN Lisboa-Filho1 1Department of Physics, São Paulo State University (Unesp, School of Sciences, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp, School of Sciences, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Bovine serum albumin (BSA is highly water soluble and binds drugs or inorganic substances noncovalently for their effective delivery to various affected areas of the body. Due to the well-defined structure of the protein, containing charged amino acids, albumin nanoparticles (NPs may allow electrostatic adsorption of negatively or positively charged molecules, such that substantial amounts of drug can be incorporated within the particle, due to different albumin-binding sites. During the synthesis procedure, pH changes significantly. This variation modifies the net charge on the surface of the protein, varying the size and behavior of NPs as the drug delivery system. In this study, the synthesis of BSA NPs, by a desolvation process, was studied with salicylic acid (SA as the active agent. SA and salicylates are components of various plants and have been used for medication with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. However, when administered orally to adults (usual dose provided by the manufacturer, there is 50% decomposition of salicylates. Thus, there has been a search for some time to develop new systems to improve the bioavailability of SA and salicylates in the human body. Taking this into account, during synthesis, the pH was varied (5.4, 7.4, and 9 to evaluate its influence on the size and release of SA of the formed NPs. The samples were analyzed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. Through fluorescence, it was possible to analyze the release of SA in vitro in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The results of

  16. Stability, accumulation and cytotoxicity of an albumin-cisplatin adduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charlotte; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 µmol L¿¹ equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any...... significant amount within 24 h incubation. The accumulation and cytotoxicity of HSA-Pt was compared to 10 µmol L¿¹ cisplatin for which a larger accumulation and cytotoxicity were observed in EATC compared to Lettré. The experiment was performed with cell medium exchange every fourth hour as HSA...

  17. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  18. Elucidation of structural and functional properties of albumin bound to gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Dongre, P M

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle-albumin complexes are being designed for targeted drug delivery and imaging. However, the changes in the functional properties of albumin due to adsorption on nanoparticles remain elusive. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate the structural and functional properties of human and bovine serum albumin bound to negatively charged gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Fluorescence data demonstrated static quenching of albumin by GNP with the quenching of buried as well as surface tryptophan in BSA. The binding process was enthalpy and entropy-driven in HSA and BSA, respectively. At lower concentrations of GNP there was a higher affinity for tryptophan, whereas at higher concentrations both tryptophan and tyrosine participated in the interaction. Synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed that the microenvironment of tryptophan in HSA turned more hydrophilic upon exposure to GNP. The α-helical content of albumin was unaltered by GNP. Approximately 37 and 23% reduction in specific activity of HSA and BSA was observed due to GNP binding. In presence of warfarin and ibuprofen the binding constants of albumin-GNP complexes were altered. A very interesting observation not reported so far is the retained antioxidant activity of albumin in presence of GNP i.e. we believe that GNPs did not bind to the free sulfhydryl groups of albumin. However enhanced levels of copper binding were observed. We have also highlighted the differential response in albumin due to gold and silver nanoparticles which could be attributed to differences in the charge of the nanoparticle.

  19. Conformational Transitions and Glycation of Serum Albumin in Patients with Minimal-Change Glomerulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sae Yong; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Jong Oh; Kim, Tae Yeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Cheong, Mi Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cheong, Chae Joon

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of study on the structural changes of serum albumin in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). To determine whether glycation and/or conformational transitions of albumin are involved in the pathogenesis of albuminuria, nine patients with MCD were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study for comparison of these parameters in serum albumin during the remission and relapse of nephrotic syndrome. Methods Circular dichroism measurements were made with purified albumin. Ellipticities at each wavelength were transformed to mean residue ellipticity. Monosaccharide composition was analyzed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results There was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between the sera of control patients and those with nephrotic syndrome. However, the proportion of the random configuration was slightly higher in the plasma albumin of patients in relapse than in those in remission. The proportion of the random configuration was lower in the albumin of the serum than in the urine of patients with nephrotic syndrome, but there was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between their plasma and urine. Conclusion Our results suggest that conformational changes in albumin are involved in albuminuria in patients with MCD. PMID:15481604

  20. Interaction between toxic azo dye C.I. Acid Red 88 and serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveenraj, Selvaraj [Nanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Solomon, Rajadurai Vijay; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Asiri, Abdullah M. [The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21413, P.O. Box 80203 (Saudi Arabia); Anandan, Sambandam, E-mail: sanand@nitt.edu [Nanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Serum albumin-toxic dye interaction studies will be of paramount importance in the field of toxicology due to its relation towards the distribution and transportation of dye in blood. In this regard, the binding between C.I. Acid Red 88 (AR88) and serum albumins (HSA and BSA) was investigated by using combination of spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The fluorescence results revealed that AR88 interact with serum albumins through the combination of static and dynamic quenching mechanism. The distance “r” between serum albumin and AR88 was obtained according to the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory. Synchronous fluorescence and CD spectral results showed alterations in the microenvironment and conformation of serum albumins. The molecular docking method is also employed to understand the interaction of AR88 with serum albumins. All these studies confirm that BSA has more affinity towards AR88 than that of HSA which suggests that AR88 is more easily transported in the body of bovid than human and so it is more hazardous to bovids. -- Highlights: • AR88 interacts with serum albumin through the combination of both static and dynamic quenching mechanism. • The binding site of AR88 in serum albumins is nearer to tryptophan moiety. • Circular Dichroism spectra showed that AR88 alters α-helicity of serum albumin. • This interaction study could be greatly imperative for further investigations in toxicology.

  1. Cellular Specificity of the Blood-CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements...... the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential...

  2. New insights into somatic embryogenesis: leafy cotyledon1, baby boom1 and WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 are epigenetically regulated in Coffea canephora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanny I Nic-Can

    Full Text Available Plant cells have the capacity to generate a new plant without egg fertilization by a process known as somatic embryogenesis (SE, in which differentiated somatic cells can form somatic embryos able to generate a functional plant. Although there have been advances in understanding the genetic basis of SE, the epigenetic mechanism that regulates this process is still unknown. Here, we show that the embryogenic development of Coffea canephora proceeds through a crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modifications during the earliest embryogenic stages of SE. We found that low levels of DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 change according to embryo development. Moreover, the expression of LEAFY cotyledon1 (LEC1 and BABY BOOM1 (BBM1 are only observed after SE induction, whereas WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 (WOX4 decreases its expression during embryo maturation. Using a pharmacological approach, it was found that 5-Azacytidine strongly inhibits the embryogenic response by decreasing both DNA methylation and gene expression of LEC1 and BBM1. Therefore, in order to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated, we used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. It was found that WOX4 is regulated by the repressive mark H3K9me2, while LEC1 and BBM1 are epigenetically regulated by H3K27me3. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays an important role during somatic embryogenic development, and a molecular mechanism for SE is proposed.

  3. Análisis de segregación de marcadores moleculares en una población derivada de Coffea liberica Hiern x C. eugenioides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ariel López Gartner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El café es un cultivo importante para la economía mundial. La producción comercial de café se basa en dos especies, Coffea arabica L. (70% y C. canephora Pierre (30%. La primera es la única alotetraploide (2n = 4x = 44 que tiene su centro primario de diversidad en las tierras altas del suroeste de Etiopía; la segunda es la única cultivada en Colombia y representa un importante valor económico y social. Sin embargo, C. arabica tiene una base genética muy estrecha y por ello es importante el uso de especies diploides en el mejoramiento del café para ampliar su diversidad. En este trabajo fueron evaluados los patrones de segregación genética en una población consistente en 101 plantas híbridas F1 de un cruce entre la especie diploide C. liberica y C. eugenioides utilizando 618 marcadores moleculares, de las cuales 168 SSR y 2 EST exhibieron patrones polimórficos que permitieron el análisis de segregación. Aproximadamente 24% de los loci fueron alelos nulos y la distorsión de la segregación alcanzó 23.5% (α < 0.01. Se observaron un total de cuatro tipos segregantes de entre siete posibilidades diferentes. Se discuten los orígenes de los alelos nulos, posibles causas de distorsión de la segregación, diferentes patrones de segregación y frecuencias de recombinación. El conocimiento derivado de este estudio permite entender mejor el comportamiento de la segregación genética de estos marcadores, con el fin de desarrollar mapas genéticos que tienen aplicaciones importantes para los programas de mejoramiento de café y de otras especies comerciales.

  4. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hindorf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a review of their own research the authors summarize incidences and distributions of the most important fungal diseases in Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance. Ethiopia, as the centre of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. The incidences of diseases are based on observations in the montane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu of Ethiopia. Major diseases are Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix; Coffee Berry Disease (CBD, Colletotrichum kahawae and Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium xylarioides. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all regions with highs between January and March and lows between June and October. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0% and Yayu (26.3%, but less frequent in Harenna (18.6% and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%. CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from 2.4% in Berhane-Kontir to 16.9% in Yayu. CLR has been a serious constraint in all production countries since it became prominent in Ceylon in the late 19th century after leaf infection defoliation affects plants. CBD was first observed in Kenya in 1922. The disease is currently confined to the African continent in all countries that grow Arabica coffee. In the mid-1990s in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania a resurgence of CWD in Robusta coffee and in Ethiopia in Arabica coffee occurred. Over the last 40 years breeding activities have been carried out to combat CLR, CBD and CWD. Breeding for resistance against CLR in Arabica coffee has successfully utilized single or combinations of major genes designated as SH genes. Major gene resistance has also been deployed in breeding for resistance against CBD, whereas in the case of CWD, selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in Ethiopia.

  5. FOTOSÍNTESIS NETA Y CONCENTRACIÓN DE COMPENSACIÓN DE CO2 EN TRES GENOTIPOS DE CAFÉ (Coffea sp., FRÍJOL Y MAÍZ BAJO TRES TEMPERATURA NET PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CO2 COMPENSATION CONCENTRATION IN THREE COFFEE (Coffea sp. GENOTYPES, BEAN AND MAIZE UNDER THREE TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyda Patricia Mosquera Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se expusieron plantas de café Coffea arabica L. de los genotipos Colombia, Caturra e Híbrido de Timor, fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., maíz (Zea mays L., a tres temperaturas ( 15 °C, 25 °C y 35 °C; se midió la fotosíntesis neta (P N y se obtuvo la concentración de compensación de CO2 (GCO2. P N en las hojas de café fueron similares para los tres genotipos a 15 °C [5,0 - 5,3 µmol(CO2 m-2s-1] y 35 °C [4.9 - 5,5 µmol(CO2 m-2s-1] pero más bajas a 25 °C [5,4 - 11,7 µmol(CO2 m-2s-1]. El GCO2 en café y fríjol se incrementó con la temperatura, mientras en maíz no se presentó ningún efecto. Los valores observados P N y de GCO2, en los genotipos de café fueron los típicos de plantas C3.The coffee (Coffea arabica L. genotypes Colombia, Caturra, and Híbrido de Timor, and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and maize (Zea mays L. plants were exposed to three temperatures ( 15°C, 25°C and 35°C, and net photosynthetic rates (P N and CO2 compensation concentrations (GCO2 were measured. P N in coffee leaves was similar for the three genotypes at 15 °C [5,0 - 5,3 µmol(CO2 m-2s-1] and 35 °C [4,9 - 5,5 µmol(CO2 m-2s-1], but lower at 25 °C [5,4 - 11,7 µmol(CO2 m-2s-1]. GCO2 increased with temperature in coffee and bean, while in maize no effect was observed. P N and GCO2 values documented in coffee genotypes were typical for C3 plants.

  6. Effect of mineral salts, vitamins and gelling agents on somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica L. ‘Catuai Influência dos sais minerais, vitaminas e agentes gelificantes, na embriogénese somática de Coffea arabica L. ‘Catuai’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Simões-Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis was induced in leaf explants of Coffea arabica ‘Catuai’. A two steps procedure was followed: explants were first cultured in a callus induction medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine and later transferred to an auxin free embryo induction and conversion medium. The influence of three mineral salt formulations: Schenk & Hildebrandt (1972 full salt solution, Murashige & Skoog (1962 full and half salt solutions; two vitamin mixtures: Gamborg et al. (1968 and Schenk & Hildebrandt (1972 and two gelling agents: agar and gelrite, was assessed. Best embryogenic response was obtained in culture medium with Schenk & Hildebrandt (1972 mineral salts, Gamborg et al. (1968 vitamins and agar. In this medium, somatic embryos were observed after 18 weeks of culture and, six weeks later, 85% of the explants presented an average of 18 somatic embryos per explant.Foi induzida embriogénese somática em explantados foliares de Coffea arabica ‘Catuai’. A metodologia seguida incluiu duas fases: os explantados foram cultivados inicialmente em meio de indução de callus, suplementado com ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético e 6-benzilaminopurina, tendo sido depois transferidos para meio sem auxina, com o objectivo de induzir a formação e o desenvolvimento de embriões. Testou-se a influência de três diferentes composições de sais minerais: sais minerais de Schenk & Hildebrandt (1972, sais minerais (concentração completa e ½ concentração de Murashige & Skoog (1962; duas formulações vitamínicas: Gamborg et al. (1968 e Schenk & Hildebrandt (1972 e dois agentes gelificantes: agar e gelrite. A melhor resposta relativamente à embriogénese somática foi registada em meio de cultura com os sais minerais de Schenk & Hildebrandt (1972, as vitaminas de Gamborg et al. (1968 e agar. Neste meio de cultura verificou-se a presença de embriões somáticos após 18 semanas de cultura e, seis semanas mais tarde

  7. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  8. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  9. Characterizing plasma membrane H+-ATPase in two varieties of coffee leaf (Coffea arabica L.) and its interaction with an elicitor fraction from the orange rust fungus (H. vastatrix Berk and Br.) race II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osses, Luis R; Godoy, César A

    2006-04-01

    Early intercellular signaling in Coffea arabica L.-Hemileia vastatrix host-pathogen interaction was studied, using inside-out plasma membrane from two varieties of coffee leaf and a fungal fraction to determine the plant's biochemical responses. Microsomal pellets (100,000 x g) from the susceptible (Caturra) and resistant (Colombia) coffee leaf varieties were purified by partitioning in two-polymer DEX (6.3% w/w) and PEG (6.3% w/w) system aqueous phase. Fungal material was obtained from orange rust Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Br. race II urediospore germ tubes. Plasma membrane vesicles were preferentially localized to PEG phase, as indicated by its enzyme marker distribution. Both H(+)-ATPase activities displayed similar kinetic and biochemical characteristics, comparable to those described for P-type ATPases. Several enzymes may play pivotal roles in plants regarding early interaction with fungal elicitors. Studies of fungal fractions' effects on H(+)-ATPase and both varieties' proton pumping activities were thus carried out. Concentration as low as 0.1 Gluc eq. ml(-1) fungal fraction induced specific inhibition of H(+)-ATPase and the resistant variety's proton pumping activities. The present work describes characterizing the H(+)-ATPase plasma membrane from two Coffea arabica L. varieties (Caturra and Colombia) for the first time and the race specific inhibitory effect of a crude fungal fraction on both H(+)-ATPase and the resistant variety's proton pumping activities.

  10. Evaluation des critères physiques des fèves de caféier Robusta (Coffea canephora P. introduit dans les zones de basse altitude au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngongang Nono, JC.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of Physical Criteria of Introduced Coffee Robusta (Coffea canephora P. Beans in Low Altitude of Cameroon. A study based on physical criteria of Robusta coffee beans (Coffea canephora P. was performed in two agro-ecological areas of IRAD (Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, at Nkolbisson in the centre and Barombi-Kang in the south west Cameroon. Eight clones (B5, B11 and B42 from the Republic of Central Africa, C5 and C6 from Ivory Coast, J13 and J21 from Java, M5 from Madagascar were the study material. Harvested cherries were evaluated for the rate of caracolis, bean size distribution and weight of one hundred beans. Mean weights of hundred beans are between 19.14 and 10.99 grams. The rate of caracolis at Barombi-Kang is 23.5% for the clone C5 and 10.6% for M5. The rates of the others are minor than 5%. At Nkolbisson, four clones have their rate of caracolis between 35 and 60% (C5, J13, J21 and M5. The results showed a highly significant difference (P< 0.01 among clones for bean size distribution and rate of caracolis. Only one group was found homogenous according to Newman-Keuls test, despite significant difference observed for caracolis rate. The results showed also that globally observed parameters depend nor to location, nor to clone.

  11. Interaction of carbon nanoparticles to serum albumin: elucidation of the extent of perturbation of serum albumin conformations and thermodynamical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Samir [Molecular and Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032 (India); Hossain, Maidul [Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032 (India); Devi, P. Sujatha [Nano-Structured Materials Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh [Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chaudhuri, Keya, E-mail: keya.chaudhuri@gmail.com [Molecular and Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Strong interaction of serum albumins to CNPs and potential toxicity. ► Partial unfolding and alteration of BSA and HSA secondary structure by CNP. ► Significant insight into design of nanoparticles in biomedical applications. -- Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles continuously generated from industries and vehicles due to incomplete combustion of fuels is one of the potent causes of air pollution. The exposure of this polluted air with carbon nanoparticles, introduced into the bloodstream of animals in the course of respiration, motivated us to study their interaction with plasma proteins, bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin. Carbon nanoparticles with very small size and high purity were synthesized by dehydration of D-glucose using concentrated sulphuric acid as dehydrating agent. These were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. Carbon nanoparticles-protein interactions were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. The fluorescence quenching constants and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH°), entropy change (ΔS°) and free energy change (ΔG°) were calculated, which indicated a strong static quenching and primary electrostatic interaction between the carbon nanoparticles and blood proteins. Circular dichroism spectra provided the information about the secondary structure alteration of the proteins in presence of carbon nanoparticles. These findings have shed light towards an understanding of the interactions between carbon nanoparticles and serum proteins which may clarify the potential risks and undesirable health effects of carbon nanoparticles, as well as the related cellular trafficking and systemic translocation.

  12. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  13. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, Helmer; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... (plasma minus ascitic fluid) oncotic pressure (rlin = 0.74, P less than 0.001) but significantly higher than that (P less than 0.005), indicating a 'non-equilibrium' in the splanchnic Starling forces. The results point to a multivariate genesis and perpetuation of cirrhotic ascites as laid down...

  14. Systematic targeted integration to study Albumin gene control elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available To study transcriptional regulation by distant enhancers, we devised a system of easily modified reporter plasmids for integration into single-copy targeting cassettes in clones of HuH7, a human hepatocellular carcinoma. The plasmid constructs tested transcriptional function of a 35-kb region that contained the rat albumin gene and its upstream flanking region. Expression of integrants was analyzed in two orientations, and compared to transient expression of non-integrated plasmids. Enhancers were studied in their natural positions relative to the promoter and localized by deletion. All constructs were also analyzed by transient transfection assays. In addition to the known albumin gene enhancer (E1 at -10 kb, we demonstrated two new enhancers, E2 at -13, and E4 at +1.2 kb. All three enhancers functioned in both transient assays and integrated constructs. However, chromosomal integration demonstrated several differences from transient expression. For example, analysis of E2 showed that enhancer function within the chromosome required a larger gene region than in transient assays. Another conserved region, E3 at -0.7 kb, functioned as an enhancer in transient assays but inhibited the function of E1 and E2 when chromosomally integrated. The enhancers did not show additive or synergistic behavior,an effect consistent with competition for the promoter or inhibitory interactions among enhancers. Growth arrest by serum starvation strongly stimulated the function of some integrated enhancers, consistent with the expected disruption of enhancer-promoter looping during the cell cycle.

  15. Seed dispersal: Size does matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Many small seed-eating rodents bury their food in an erratic manner called scatter-hoarding because they are unable to defend one large hoard. This process has a complicated influence on seed dispersal,as shown in the work by ZHANG Zhibin at the CAS Institute of Zoology and hisco-workers.

  16. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  17. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  18. Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.F.R. Aragão

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae, to which we gave the trivial name of cactin. This protein has a molecular mass of 11.3 kDa and is formed by a light chain (3.67 kDa and a heavy chain (7.63 kDa. This protein was isolated using a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of cactin was determined and found to resemble that of the 2S seed reserve protein from the Brazil nut, a protein remarkable for its high methionine content. The usefulness of cactin as a molecular marker in the taxonomy of the Cactaceae is discussed.

  19. Release of proteins via ion exchange from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Albumin-heparin and albumin microspheres were prepared as ion exchange gels for the controlled release of positively charged polypeptides and proteins. The adsorption isotherms of chicken egg and human lysozyme, as model proteins, on microspheres were obtained. An adsorption isotherm of chicken egg

  20. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU ...

  1. Inhibition of surface induced coagulation by preadsorption of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennink, W.E.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface coatings of the albumin-heparin conjugates were developed to improve the blood compatibility of polymeric materials. Glass, PVC, Biomer and cellulose acetate were coated with albumin-heparin conjugate and its adsorption and desorption behavior on glass in particular was studied using 3H and

  2. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillege, HL; Fidler, [No Value; Diercks, GFH; van Gilst, WH; de Zeeuw, D; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Gans, ROB; Janssen, WMT; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, PE

    2002-01-01

    Background-For the general population, the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. Therefore, we examined the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and all-cause mortality and mortality caused by cardiovascular (CV) disease and non-CV disease in t

  3. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IN PRESENCE OF SOME BISCHALCONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Garg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.

  4. Ionization of tyrosine residues in human serum albumin and in its complexes with bilirubin and laurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1992-01-01

    Spectrophotometric titration of human serum albumin indicates that ionization of the 18 tyrosine residues takes place between pH 9 and 12.7. A Hill plot indicates that protons dissociate co-operatively from tyrosine residues, in pure albumin between pH 11.0 and 11.4 with a Hill coefficient 1.7, a...

  5. Multiple binding of bilirubin to human serum albumin and cobinding with laurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, H; Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1988-01-01

    Numerical analysis of multiple binding of two ligands to one carrier has been accomplished, using the principle of several sets of acceptable binding constants, with bilirubin-laurate-albumin as an example. Binding of bilirubin to defatted human serum albumin was investigated by a spectroscopic m...

  6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE-HYPERBRANCHED MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLE FOR BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IMMOBILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bifeng Pan; Feng Gao; Hongchen Gu

    2004-01-01

    A hyperbranched polyamidoamine polymer was synthesized on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles to enhance bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilization efficiency. The amount of immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA)on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane.

  7. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1986-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate, intravascular mass and outflux of albumin were measured in 75 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The groups were defined as: group 1: normal urinary albumin excretion, less than 30 mg/24 h (n = 21); group 2: microalbuminuria, 30-300 mg/24 h (n = 36); group...

  8. Interaction of graphene oxide with albumins: Effect of size, pH, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimšíková, M

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and the biomolecules is fundamentally essential, especially for disease- and drug-related peptides and proteins. In this study, the interaction between GO and albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, and bovine alpha-lactalbumin) has been performed by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence quenching mechanism between GO and aromatic acids residues with intrinsic fluorescence was determined as mainly static quenching in combination with dynamic quenching. The optimal conditions for the most effective affinity between albumins and GO have been estimated at neutral pH and room temperature. The strong impact of the size of graphene oxide on the interaction between proteins and graphene oxide has been confirmed, as well. The interaction between GO and albumins has been examined as electrostatic and hydrophobic. The electrostatic interaction was confirmed by pH effect, while the hydrophobic interaction was proved by the presence of Poloxamer188. The CD spectra of albumins exhibit decreasing helicity in the secondary structure of albumins upon the addition of GO. However, no significant changes in position and shape of characteristic negative bands have been noted. Mentioned changes indicate the successful interaction between GO and proteins, the predominantly α-helical structure of albumins has been preserved.

  9. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    smaller than 0.05). The previously reported decrease in the intravascular albumin mass in long-term diabetics was thus confirmed by an average of 59.0 g/m2 surface area, compared with a normal value of 71.7 g/m2-(minus18%) (P smaller than 0.005). The albumin metabolic rate was increased, the fractional...

  10. Covalent binding of organophosphorothioates to albumin: A new perspective for OP-pesticide biomonitoring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Zuylen, A. van; Rijssel, E. van; Schans, M.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    We here report on the covalent binding of various organophosphorothioate (OPT) pesticides to albumin at in vitro exposure levels that did not give rise to butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. Adduct formation occurred at the Tyr-411 residue of albumin, as was firmly corroborated by LC-tandem MS analysi

  11. Albuminuria and overall capillary permeability of albumin in acute altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of proteinuria at high altitude is unclear. Renal function and urinary excretion rate of albumin (Ualb) at rest and during submaximal exercise and transcapillary escape rate of 125I-labeled albumin (TERalb) were investigated in 12 normal volunteers at sea level and after rapid and p...

  12. Pharmaceutical aspects of the recombinant human serum albumin dimer: structural characteristics, biological properties, and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2012-09-01

    Human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood. It is clinically used in the treatment of severe hypoalbuminemia and as a plasma expander. The use of albumins as a carrier for drugs is currently being developed, and some are now in the preclinical and clinical trial stages. The main technologies for utilizing an albumin as a drug carrier are protein fusion, polymerization and surface modification, and so on. Among these technologies, albumin dimerization has wide clinical applications as a plasma expander as well as a drug carrier. Despite the fact that many reports have appeared on drugs using an albumin dimer as a carrier, our knowledge of the characteristics of the albumin dimer itself is incomplete. In this review, we summarize the structural characteristics of recombinant albumin dimers produced by two methods, namely, chemical linkage with 1,6-bis(maleimido)hexane and genetically linked with an amino acid linker, and the physicochemical characteristics and biological properties of these preparations. Finally, the potential for pharmaceutical applications of albumin dimers in clinical situations is discussed.

  13. Albumin activates astrocytes and microglia through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Wainwright, Mark S

    2010-02-08

    Following acute brain injury, albumin may gain access to the brain parenchyma. Clinical studies indicate a protective role for albumin in stroke but an increase in mortality associated with albumin administration following traumatic brain injury. We investigated the effects of albumin on astrocyte and microglial activation, and the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these responses. Albumin activated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways in astrocytes, and induced the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, the NO metabolite nitrite, and the chemokine CX3CL1 while reducing the level of S100B. The release of inflammatory markers by astrocytes was partially dependent on p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways, but not JNK. In microglia, albumin exposure activated all three MAPK pathways and produced an increase in IL-1beta and nitrite. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in microglia leads to an increased level of IL1beta, while inhibition of all three MAPKs suppressed the release of nitrite. These results suggest that albumin activates astrocytes and microglia, inducing inflammatory responses involved both in the mechanisms of cellular injury and repair via activation of MAPK pathways, and thereby implicate glial activation in the clinical responses to administration of albumin.

  14. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  15. Expression of renal cubilin and its potential role in tubulointerstitial inflammation induced by albumin overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jurong YANG; Yani HE; Haiying SHEN; Hanlu DING; Kailong LI; Huiming WANG

    2008-01-01

    Sustained proteinuria is an independent risk factor leading to kidney fibrosis and end-stage renal fail-ure. Over-reabsorption of filtered proteins, notably albu-min, has been proved to trigger interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in proteinuric renal disease. Cubilin, an endo-cytic receptor expressed on the renal tubular brush bor-der, is responsible for albumin reabsorption in physiologic condition. However, little is known about whether it is required for activation of tubular cells induced by albu-min overload. In this work, we investigated the change of cubilin expression and its potential role in albumin-induced up-regulation of chemokines synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six patients with nephrotic syndrome were enrolled in this study. Proximal tubule uptake of albumin, expression of apical membrane cubilin and infiltrating cells in kidney interstitium were determined by immunocytochemistry. In vitro, the transcription of cubilin in HK2 cells after exposure to albumin was ana-lyzed by real-time PCR. Endocytosis of albumin in HK2 cells was examined by fluorescent microscope. The influ-ence of inhibition of cubilin on albumin-induced expres-sions of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) was investigated by Western blot. The intensity of luminal cubilin and tubular accu-mulation of albumin were significantly increased in nephrotic kidneys. The expression of MCP-1 and RANTES was up-regulated, and there were spatial rela-tionships in localization between these chemokines and cubilin as well as intracellular albumin in kidney tissues. Infiltration of CD-3 and ED-1-positive cells was predom-inant in tubulointerstitial areas displaying signs of increases of cubilin expression and albumin accumula-tion. In vitro, the transcription of cubilin mRNA in HK2 cells was enhanced after 24 h exposure to albumin in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of endocytosis of albumin by antisense

  16. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  17. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    was diluted at 3 different levels giving 57 data sets. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations were compared using correlation coefficient (r(2)), regression line, and Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Albumin levels covered the clinically interesting range from 8.8 to 53.3 g....../L. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations compared well with r(2) = 0.9, a regression line of albumin-calculated = 1.05 × albumin-measured - 2.25, a small average bias between measured and calculated values of 0.7 g/L, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 10 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: This new method...

  18. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen;

    2007-01-01

    Albumin excretion marks early glomerular injury in hypertension. This study investigated heritability of albumin excretion in twin pairs and its genetic determination by adrenergic pathway polymorphism. Genetic associations used single nucleotide polymorphisms at adrenergic pathway loci spanning...... biosynthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), catabolism (monoamine oxidase A), storage/release (chromogranin A), receptor target (dopamine D1 receptor), and postreceptor signal transduction (sorting nexin 13 and rho kinase). Epistasis (gene-by-gene interaction) occurred between alleles at rho kinase, tyrosine...... hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  19. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin in hypertensive patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1993-01-01

    . The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftriaxone Compared with Cefotaxime in the Presence of Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K Nath

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of serum albumin on the antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and a 1:1 ratio of cefotaxime and its desacetyl metabolite against nonpseudomonal Gram-negative bacilli was determined. Antimicrobial activity of drugs was evaluated by measuring minimum inhibitory (mic and bactericidal (mbc concentrations in broth with and without human serum albumin. The analysis of logarithmically transformed mean mics and mbcs showed that there was a highly significant interaction between drug and serum albumin (P<0.0001. The inhibitory and bactericidal activities were greatest for cefotaxime followed by cefotaxime/desacetylcefotaxime and ceftriaxone (P<0.01. Time-kill kinetics demonstrated that ceftriaxone was less bactericidal than cefotaxime in broth with albumin. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftriaxone compared with that of cefotaxime was significantly diminished in the presence of serum albumin.

  1. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  2. Plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, Arne;

    1993-01-01

    The fractional plasma escape rates of glycated and non-glycated albumin have earlier been measured in groups of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and control subjects. The escape of non-glycated albumin was similar in control subjects and normoalbuminuric patients, but elevated...... in patients with micro or macroalbuminuria. In all groups the escape rate of glycated albumin was lower than that of non-glycated albumin. Glycation increases the anionic charge of albumin. To assay for charge-dependent alterations of transport a selectivity index (non-glycated albumin/glycated albumin...... transport ratio) was determined from the disappearance data. The index was high in control subjects (1.021 +/- 0.0057 (SEM)). This reflects a mean difference between the two escape rates of 2.1% per hour (for comparison the mean of the fractional escape rate of non-glycated albumin of the normal control...

  3. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule.

  4. Megalin mediates transepithelial albumin clearance from the alveolar space of intact rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchäckert, Yasmin; Rummel, Sebastian; Vohwinkel, Christine U; Gabrielli, Nieves M; Grzesik, Benno A; Mayer, Konstantin; Herold, Susanne; Morty, Rory E; Seeger, Werner; Vadász, István

    2012-10-15

    The alveolo-capillary barrier is effectively impermeable to large solutes such as proteins. A hallmark of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is the accumulation of protein-rich oedema fluid in the distal airspaces. Excess protein must be cleared from the alveolar space for recovery; however, the mechanisms of protein clearance remain incompletely understood. In intact rabbit lungs 29.8 ± 2.2% of the radio-labelled alveolar albumin was transported to the vascular compartment at 37°C within 120 min, as assessed by real-time measurement of 125I-albumin clearance from the alveolar space. At 4°C or 22°C significantly lower albumin clearance (3.7 ± 0.4 or 16.2 ± 1.1%, respectively) was observed. Deposition of a 1000-fold molar excess of unlabelled albumin into the alveolar space or inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement or clathrin-dependent endocytosis largely inhibited the transport of 125I-albumin to the vasculature, while administration of unlabelled albumin to the vascular space had no effect on albumin clearance. Furthermore, albumin uptake capacity was measured as about 0.37 mg ml−1 in cultured rat lung epithelial monolayers, further highlighting the (patho)physiological relevance of active alveolar epithelial protein transport. Moreover, gene silencing and pharmacological inhibition of the multi-ligand receptor megalin resulted in significantly decreased albumin binding and uptake in monolayers of primary alveolar type II and type I-like and cultured lung epithelial cells. Our data indicate that clearance of albumin from the distal air spaces is facilitated by an active, high-capacity, megalin-mediated transport process across the alveolar epithelium. Further understanding of this mechanism is of clinical importance, since an inability to clear excess protein from the alveolar space is associated with poor outcome in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  5. Preparation and characterization of PEG-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles intended to treat breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thadakapally

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to prepare novel serum stable long circulating polymeric nanoparticles for curcumin with a modification to the well known and novel nanoparticle albumin bound technology. polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles were prepared using serum albumin and poly ethylene glycol using desolvation technique. Nanoparticles were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and surface morphology. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Physical state of the drug in the formulations was known by differential scanning colorimetry. In vitrorelease and solubility of the drug from nanoparticles were determined. In vivo Drug release, tissue uptake and kupffer cell uptake was determined with optimized nanoformulation in rats after intravenous administration. Cell viability assay was determined using breast cancer cell line MD-MB-231. Entrapment efficiency for prepared nanoparticle was above 95%. The polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited an interesting release profile with small initial burst followed by slower and controlled release. Solubility of the drug from the formulation was increased. A sustained release of drug from nanoparticles was observed for 35 days in both in vitro and in vivo studies with the optimized formulation. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles showed lesser liver and kupffer cell uptake as compared to that of curcumin-albumin nanoparticles suggesting the bestowment of stealthness to nanoparticles with pegylation. Also, the antiproliferative activity of polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticle formulation was more as compared to native curcumin. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles thus developed can be conveniently used in breast cancer with improved efficacy compared to conventional therapies and as an alternate to nanoparticle albumin bound technology which is used in

  6. A comparative study of some physico-chemical properties of human serum albumin samples from different sources--I : Some physico-chemical properties of isoionic human serum albumin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröge, J.H.M.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Wilting, J.

    1982-01-01

    Human serum albumin samples from different sources were investigated. The fatty acid content of the albumin before and after deionization on a mixed bed ion-exchange column varied from sample to sample. When an albumin sample from one source was deionized under standard conditions the amount of fatt

  7. Seed dispersal of desert annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D Lawrence; Flores-Martinez, Arturo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Becerra, Judith X

    2008-08-01

    We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned removal plots (10-30 m diameter). Seedlings were censused along transects crossing the reproductive suppression borders shortly after germination. Dispersal kernels were estimated for Pectocarya recurvata and Schismus barbatus from the change in seedling densities with distance from these borders via inverse modeling. Estimated dispersal distances were short, with most seeds traveling less than a meter. The adhesive seeds of P. recurvata went farther than the small S. barbatus seeds, which have no obvious dispersal adaptation. Seeds dispersed farther downslope than upslope and farther when dispersing into open areas than when dispersing into shrubs. Dispersal distances were short relative to the pattern of spatial heterogeneity created by the shrub and open space mosaic. This suggests that dispersal could contribute to local population buildup, possibly facilitating species coexistence. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that escape in time via delayed germination is likely to be more important for desert annuals than escape in space.

  8. Studies on Reaction Mechanism Between Sparfloxacin and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming; ZOU Jian-wei; YI Ping-gui; SHANG Zhi-cai; HU Gui-xiang; YU Qing-sen

    2004-01-01

    The binding of sparfloxacin and bovine serum albumin(BSA) in aqueous solution was studied by means of fluorescence and absorbance spectra, and the interactions influenced by Fe3+ and Cu2+ were explored. Based on the Scatchard′s site binding model and fluorescence quenching, practical formulas for a small molecule ligand attaching to a bio-macromolecule are proposed. The binding parameters were measured according to the suggested models, and the binding distance, the transfer efficiency of energy between sparfloxacin and BSA were obtained in view of the Frster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The effect of sparfloxacin on the conformation of BSA was analyzed by means of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    in this interaction was studied by modifying exposed and buried lysine residues of HSA with potassium cyanate and studying indomethacin binding with the modified HSA. The data suggest that the interaction takes place via a salt bridge formation between the carboxylate group of indomethacin and a buried lysine residue......, by using a fluorescence quench titration technique. The interaction of indomethacin with human serum albumin has been studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength and pH. The results suggest that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the binding. The possible role of lysine residues...... of HSA. A technique involving fluorescence enhancement of bilirubin upon its interaction with HSA was used to study its displacement by indomethacin. The displacement, although apparently competitive in nature, was not strong suggesting that the primary sites of interaction of bilirubin and indomethacin...

  10. Interaction of aloe-emodin with human serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU JinFeng; LI Ying; ZHANG Qi; YAO XiaoJun

    2007-01-01

    The presence of several high affinity binding sites on human serum albumin (HAS) makes it a possible target for many drugs. This study is designed to examine the effect of aloe-emodin on HAS by fluorescence, CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The results of fluorescence measurements suggested that the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the AE-HAS complex, which was in good agreement with the result of molecular modeling study. And the enthalpy change ΔH0 and the entropy change ΔS0 were calculated to be -7.041 kJ·mol-1 and 76.619 J·mol-1·K-1 according to the Van't Hoff equation. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of AE in aqueous solution were quantitatively calculated from CD spectra, and the content of α-helices obviously increased.

  11. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  12. Albumin microspheres labeled with Ga-67 by chelation: concise communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatowich, D J; Schlegel, P

    1981-07-01

    Albumin microspheres have been synthesized eith EDTA and DTPA chelating groups covalently bound to their surface. The microspheres may be labeled with Ga-67 at high yield (97 +/- 2%) by transcomplexation from a 0.1 M Ga-67 acetate solution. With EDTA microspheres the resulting label dissociates only slightly after no detectable dissociation over this period. By contrast, microspheres without chelating groups lose their label virtually completely under these conditions. Following intravenous administration of sized Ga-67 DTPA microspheres in mice, about (84 +/- 16)% of the activity localizes in the lungs at 5 min, with (60 +/- 7)% remaining after 2 hr. Since labeling is by chelation, the microspheres may also be tagged with other metallic radionuclides

  13. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of interaction between mangiferin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Lan, Jingfeng; Guan, Min; Sheng, Fenling; Zhang, Haixia

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of interaction between mangiferin (MA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence spectra, absorbance spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The binding constants and binding sites of MA to BSA at different reaction times were calculated. And the distance between MA and BSA was estimated to be 5.20 nm based on Föster's theory. In addition, synchronous fluorescence and FT-IR measurements revealed that the secondary structures of the protein changed after the interaction of MA with BSA. As a conclusion, the interaction between the anti-diabetes Chinese medicine MA and BSA may provide some significant information for the mechanism of the traditional chinese medicine MA on the protein level to cure diabetes or other diseases.

  15. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  16. Albumin-genipin solder for laser tissue welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauto, Antonio; Foster, John; Avolio, Albert; Poole-Warren, Laura

    2004-07-01

    Background. Laser tissue soldering (LTS) is an alternative technique to suturing for tissue repair. One of the major drawbacks of LTS is the weak tensile strength of the solder welds when compared to sutures. In this study, the possibility was investigated for a low cytotoxic crosslinker, acting on amino groups, to enhance the bond strength of albumin solders. Materials and Methods. Solder strips were welded onto rectangular sections of sheep small intestine by a diode laser. The laser delivered in continuous mode mode a power of 170 +/- 10 mW at λ=808 nm, through a multimode optical fiber (core size = 200 μm) to achieve a dose of 10.8 +/- 0.5 J/mg. The solder thickness and surface area were kept constant throughout the experiment (thickness = 0.15 +/- 1 mm, area = 12 +/- 1.2 mm2). The solder incorporated 62% bovine serum albumin, 0.38% genipin, 0.25% indocyanin green dye (IG) and water. Tissue welding was also performed with a similar solder, which did not incorporate genipin, as a control group. The repaired tissue was tested for tensile strength by a calibrated tensiometer. Results. The tensile strength of the "genipin" solder was twice as high as the strength of the BSA solder (0.21 +/- 0.04 N and 0.11 +/- 0.04 N respectively; p~10-15 unpaired t-test, N=30). Discussion. Addition of a chemical crosslinking agent, such as genipin, significantly increased the tensile strength of adhesive-tissue bonds. A proposed mechanism for this enhanced bond strength is the synergistic action of mechanical adhesion with chemical crosslinking by genipin.

  17. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GUIFANG YAN; YUFENG HE; GANG LI; YUBING XIONG; PENGFEI SONG; RONG-MIN WANG

    2016-11-01

    Superoxide anion radical (O•−₂ ) is a noxious reactive oxygen species (ROS). Transition metal ion complexes have been generally used as antioxidants to eliminate ROS. In this work, a neoteric watersoluble biopolymer metal complex (BSA-M) was prepared by conjugating the soluble biopolymer bovineserum albumin (BSA) with three transition metal ions (M, M=Cu, Co, Mn). The binding mode and ratio of metal ions bound to albumin were investigated. The BSA-M complexes were characterized by UV-Vis, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). BSA served as polymerscaffold and the metal complex functioned as the catalytic active center. The results demonstrated that the structure of BSA remained unchanged when the binding ratio of transition metal ion complex to BSA was 5:1. Furthermore, the scavenging superoxide anion free radical (O•−₂ ) activity of biopolymer-metal complexes were determined by nitroblue tetrazolium light reduction assay method. The antioxidant capacity of BSA-M has markedly increased. The conjugated BSA-M (M=Cu, Mn) showed preeminent scavenging activity for O•−₂ , and the EC₅₀ value of the BSA-Cu was 0.038±0.0013μmol·L⁻¹, which is comparable to EC₅₀ value (0.041±0.001μmol·L⁻¹) of the natural superoxide dismutase (SOD), the analog quantity reached 107%. As a consequence, it can be considered as a bio-functional mimic of enzyme SOD and has a promising application prospect in antioxidant drug field.

  18. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Kouichi, E-mail: koumno@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Masahiro [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Kanazawa, Shiho [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Kato, Misako [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-{sup 14}C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or

  19. Escala fenológica detalhada da fase reprodutiva de Cooffea arabica Detailed phenological scale of the reproductive phase of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se propõe uma escala fenológica detalhada para identificar e caracterizar visualmente todas as fases de desenvolvimento reprodutivo do cafeeiro. O estudo foi realizado em condições de campo com a cultivar IAPAR 59, no período de maio de 2004 a maio de 2005 em Londrina, PR (23º23' S, 50º11' W, 610 m. Periodicamente, foram realizadas medições de crescimento e caracterização evolutiva da morfologia externa das gemas florais, flores e frutos dos ramos plagiotrópicos, em intervalos variados durante todo o ciclo reprodutivo. Na escala proposta, o desenvolvimento reprodutivo do cafeeiro foi dividido em quatro grandes fases: Desenvolvimento da gema floral (G, Floração (FL, Frutificação (F e Maturação (M. As fases G e F foram subdivididas tendo como parâmetro tamanho das gemas e dos frutos, variando de G1 até G6 e F1 até F6. Para descrever a maturação, os frutos foram classificados pela coloração: M1-verde; M2 - verde-cana; M3 -vermelho-claro (cereja; M4 - vermelho-escuro (passa e M5 - preto (seco. A escala proposta pode subsidiar estudos de crescimento, produtividade e manejo da lavoura cafeeira.In this paper is proposed a detailed phenological scale to identify and characterize the reproductive cycle of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out under field conditions using IAPAR 59 cultivar, from May 2004 to May 2005 in Londrina, state of Parana, Brazil (23º23' S, 50º11' W, 610 m. Periodically measurements of growth and evolution of the external morphology of the floral buds, flowers and fruits of the plagiotropic branches were taken. In the proposed scale, the reproductive development of coffee was divided in four main phases: Floral bud development (G, Flowering (FL, Fructification (F, and Maturation (M. The phases G and F were subdivided based on bud and fruit size, varying from G1 to G6 and F1 to F6. To describe maturation, the fruits were classified according to external color: M1 - green, M2 - yellowish

  20. Microcollinearity in an ethylene receptor coding gene region of the Coffea canephora genome is extensively conserved with Vitis vinifera and other distant dicotyledonous sequenced genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campa Claudine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffea canephora, also called Robusta, belongs to the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm family. This diploid species (2x = 2n = 22 has a fairly small genome size of ≈ 690 Mb and despite its extreme economic importance, particularly for developing countries, knowledge on the genome composition, structure and evolution remain very limited. Here, we report the 160 kb of the first C. canephora Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clone ever sequenced and its fine analysis. Results This clone contains the CcEIN4 gene, encoding an ethylene receptor, and twenty other predicted genes showing a high gene density of one gene per 7.8 kb. Most of them display perfect matches with C. canephora expressed sequence tags or show transcriptional activities through PCR amplifications on cDNA libraries. Twenty-three transposable elements, mainly Class II transposon derivatives, were identified at this locus. Most of these Class II elements are Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITE known to be closely associated with plant genes. This BAC composition gives a pattern similar to those found in gene rich regions of Solanum lycopersicum and Medicago truncatula genomes indicating that the CcEIN4 regions may belong to a gene rich region in the C. canephora genome. Comparative sequence analysis indicated an extensive conservation between C. canephora and most of the reference dicotyledonous genomes studied in this work, such as tomato (S. lycopersicum, grapevine (V. vinifera, barrel medic M. truncatula, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa and Arabidopsis thaliana. The higher degree of microcollinearity was found between C. canephora and V. vinifera, which belong respectively to the Asterids and Rosids, two clades that diverged more than 114 million years ago. Conclusion This study provides a first glimpse of C. canephora genome composition and evolution. Our data revealed a remarkable conservation of the microcollinearity

  1. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin and right atrial pressure in chronic congestive heart failure before and after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B; Parving, H H; Lund-Jacobsen, H;

    1976-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e., the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit of time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labeled human serum albumin during the first 60 minutes after injec...

  2. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Christiansen, Lasse

    1981-01-01

    Overall transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Patients with tense ascites due to liver cirrhos...

  3. Serum albumin protects from cytokine-induced pancreatic beta cell death by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Caroline; Thams, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ) inhibitors LY294002 (25 micromol/l) and wortmannin (1 micromol/l), suggesting that albumin may rescue beta cells from cytokine-induced cell death by activation of PI3K. In accordance, albumin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, a down-stream target for PI3K. In conclusion, it is suggested that albumin may...

  4. Increased extravasation and lymphatic return rate of albumin during diuretic treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schlichting, P

    1981-01-01

    During steady state the overall lymphatic return rate of albumin equals the transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] provided local back-transport is negligible, as previously...

  5. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other...

  6. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H A

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin over time was determined using a diffusion cell. Skin distribution of the nanoparticles and albumin over time was determined by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles acted as enhancers for skin permeation of albumin. Cumulative permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles after 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h, were 0±0, 11.7±3.3, 21.1±3.5, 40.2±3.6 and 40.2±3.6 mg, respectively and in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles were 0±0, 20.9±7.4, 33.8±5.5, 33.8±3.7 and 33.8±3.7 mg, respectively. After 0.5 h, little amount of albumin was permeated in presence of every kind of the nanoparticles. After 0.5 or 1 h, the permeated albumin in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was more than that in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles and after 1.5 h the permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was more than that in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Images of skin distribution of the two nanoparticles over time, were somewhat different and distribution of albumin correlated with the distribution of the nanoparticles alone. The profiles of albumin permeation (in presence of each of the nanoparticles) versus time was delayed and linear for both nanoparticles while the slope for calcium phosphate nanoparticles was higher than zinc oxide nanoparticles. The enhancer effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles was stronger while the enhancer effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was

  7. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  8. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  9. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  10. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  11. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, PA; Bongers, F; Hemerik, L

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size a

  12. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  13. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more...... of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral...... musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva...

  14. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Conrad; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms that are designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes increasingly important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  15. Observações citológicas em Coffea: XII - Uma nova forma tetraplóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. T. Mendes

    1949-01-01

    develop and one frequently encounters empty or only-one-seeded fruits. It is suggested that the sterility of the ovule and pollen grains may be due to the same factors.

  16. The effects of haemodilution with albumin on coagulation in vitro as assessed by rotational thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, S; Wong, G; Williams, P; Yang, K; Kershaw, G; Dunkley, S; Kam, P C A

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the in vitro viscoelastic changes of progressive haemodilution with 4% albumin compared with normal saline (NS) using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®), Pentapharm Co., Munich, Germany). Whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy volunteers were diluted in vitro with 4% albumin or NS by 10%, 20% and 40%. Fibrinogen concentration and ROTEM(®) (EXTEM [screening test for the extrinsic haemostasis system], FIBTEM [EXTEM-based assay for the fibrin part of the clot]) variables including coagulation time, clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, maximum clot firmness and lysis index were measured in the undiluted sample and at each degree of haemodilution. There was no significant difference in fibrinogen concentration at equivalent haemodilutions with normal saline and 4% albumin solutions. Forty percent haemodilution with albumin significantly prolonged coagulation time (EXTEM P=0.007, FIBTEM P=0.0001) and significantly decreased lysis index (FIBTEM P=0.009) compared with NS. A significant decrease in maximum clot firmness from undiluted measurements (P=0.05) was observed at lower haemodilutions with albumin (20% with EXTEM, 10% with FIBTEM) compared with NS (40% with EXTEM and FIBTEM). The adverse effects of large degrees of haemodilution with 4% albumin solution are in excess of what can be explained by haemodilution alone. This study suggests that large degrees of haemodilution with albumin impair fibrinogen activity to a greater extent than equivalent degrees of haemodilution with NS.

  17. Alternative method for measurement of albumin/creatinine ratio using spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siangproh, Weena; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao; Katoh, Shuji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2009-09-15

    A simple, automatic and practical system for successive determination of albumin and creatinine has been developed by combining sequential injection analysis (SIA) and highly sensitive dye-binding assays. Albumin detection was based on the increase in the absorbance due to complex formation between albumin and eosin Y in acidic media. The absorbance of the complex was monitored at 547 nm. For the creatinine assay, the concentration of creatinine was measured by reaction with alkaline picrate to form a colored product which absorbs at 500 nm. The influences of experimental variables such as effects of pH, reagent concentration, standard/sample volume and interferences were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the automated method showed linearity up to 20 mg L(-1) for albumin and 100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The 3 sigma detection limits were 0.6 and 3.5 mg L(-1) for albumin and creatinine, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (n=10) were 2.49% for 20 mg L(-1) albumin, and 3.14% for 20 mg L(-1) creatinine. Application of the proposed method to the direct analysis of urinary samples yielded results which agreed with those obtained from the Bradford protein assay and a creatinine enzymatic assay according to a paired t-test. The results obtained should be a step towards developing a fully automated and reliable analytical system for clinical research, which requires direct determination of albumin and creatinine and/or its ratios.

  18. Correlation between serum albumin, prealbumin and ventilator dependence in patients with COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Miao Wu; Dan-Dan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between the serum albumin, prealbumin and ventilator dependence in patients with COPD.Methods: Serum albumin and prealbumin of 44 COPD patients using breathing machine>48 h were tested at admission, 1 week, 2 weeks treatment. According to the existence of ventilator dependence, divided the patients into the ventilator dependence group and the ventilator independence group, compare the albumin, prealbumin average of two groups, evaluate the correlation between the serum albumin, prealbumin and ventilator dependence in patients with COPD.Results: Albumin levels reduced in both groups after 1 week treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference. Albumin levels reduced in both groups after 2 weeks treatment, but more significantly in the ventilator dependence group, the difference had statistical significance. Prealbumin levels in the ventilator independence group after 1 week treatment didn’t reduced, but reduced in the ventilator dependence group, the difference was statistically significant. Prealbumin levels reduced in both groups after 2 weeks treatment, but more significant in the ventilator dependence group, the difference had statistical significance.Conclusion:Serum albumin and prealbumin levels were correlation with the ventilator dependence in patients with COPD. But prealbumin can more sensitively and more early predict the ventilator dependence in patients with COPD suffered from malnutrition.

  19. Calmodulin Involvement in Stress-Activated Nuclear Localization of Albumin in JB6 Epithelial Cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas J.; Negash, Sewite; Smallwood, Heather S.; Ramos, Kenneth S.; Thrall, Brian D.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2004-06-15

    We report that in response to oxidative stress, albumin is translocated to the nucleus where it binds in concert with known transcription factors to an antioxidant response element (ARE), which controls the expression of glutathione-S-transferase and other antioxidant enzymes, functioning to mediate adaptive cellular responses. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this adaptive cell response, we have identified linkages between calcium signaling and the nuclear translocation of albumin in JB6 epithelial cells. Under resting conditions, albumin and the calcium regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM), co-immunoprecipitate using antibodies against either protein, indicating a tight association. Calcium activation of CaM disrupts the association between CaM and albumin, suggesting that transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels function to mobilize intracellular albumin to facilitate its translocation into the nucleus. Likewise, nuclear translocation of albumin is induced by exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide or a phorbol ester, indicating a functional linkage between reactive oxygen species, calcium, and PKC-signaling pathways. Inclusion of an antioxidant enzyme (i.e., superoxide dismutase) blocks nuclear translocation, suggesting that the oxidation of sensitive proteins functions to coordinate the adaptive cellular response. These results suggest that elevated calcium transients, and associated increases in reactive oxygen species, contribute to adaptive cellular responses through the mobilization and nuclear translocation of cellular albumin to mediate the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant responsive elements.

  20. In vivo biocompatibility, clearance, and biodistribution of albumin vehicles for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, A; Patel, A; Spina, D; Riffo-Vasquez, Y; Babin-Morgan, A; de Rosales, R T M; Sunassee, K; Clark, S; Collins, H; Bruce, K; Dailey, L A; Forbes, B

    2015-07-28

    The development of clinically acceptable albumin-based nanoparticle formulations for use in pulmonary drug delivery has been hindered by concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials in the lungs combined with a lack of information on albumin nanoparticle clearance kinetics and biodistribution. In this study, the in vivo biocompatibility of albumin nanoparticles was investigated following a single administration of 2, 20, and 390μg/mouse, showing no inflammatory response (TNF-α and IL-6, cellular infiltration and protein concentration) compared to vehicle controls at the two lower doses, but elevated mononucleocytes and a mild inflammatory effect at the highest dose tested. The biodistribution and clearance of (111)In labelled albumin solution and nanoparticles over 48h following a single pulmonary administration to mice was investigated by single photon emission computed tomography and X-ray computed tomography imaging and terminal biodistribution studies. (111)In labelled albumin nanoparticles were cleared more slowly from the mouse lung than (111)In albumin solution (64.1±8.5% vs 40.6±3.3% at t=48h, respectively), with significantly higher (P24h indicating that small amounts of activity were cleared from the lungs both by translocation across the lung mucosal barrier, as well as mucociliary clearance. This study provides important information on the fate of albumin vehicles in the lungs, which may be used to direct future formulation design of inhaled nanomedicines.