Sample records for albumin-free recombinant factor

  1. Antihemophilic factor (recombinant plasma/albumin-free method for the management and prevention of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pipe


    Full Text Available Steven PipeDepartment of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Hemophilia is a rare genetic bleeding disorder that, if not adequately controlled, is associated with life-threatening bleeding events and serious and costly complications, primarily from joint damage. The advent of effective clotting factor replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia is considered one of the foremost medical advances of the 20th century. The last 3 decades of experience in hemophilia care have witnessed the effectiveness of the care of patients with hemophilia within specialized comprehensive care centers, advances in factor replacement therapies, the benefits of prophylaxis over on-demand replacement therapy, and the role of aggressive management of joint disease to prevent dysfunction. Ongoing challenges, including the management of inhibitors to factor therapies and the consequences of thousands of patients with hemophilia becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in the 1980s from contaminated plasma-derived factor concentrates, have highlighted the need for vigilance with respect to clotting factor product safety, access to care, and a full complement of choice of factor replacement therapies. Advate® (antihemophilic factor [recombinant] plasma/albumin-free method [rAHF-PFM] is the first recombinant factor VIII therapy manufactured without human or animal protein additives to eliminate the risk of pathogen transmission that could be carried by these additives. Preclinical studies established bioequivalence with recombinant antihemophilic factor (Recombinate®, a product with 16 years of clinical experience. Currently licensed in 44 countries worldwide, rAHF-PFM has over 7 years of clinical research within 5 global studies supporting its safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with hemophilia A.Keywords: factor VIII, hemophilia A, recombinant proteins, clinical

  2. Low risk of inhibitor formation in haemophilia A patients following en masse switch in treatment to a third generation full length plasma and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII product (ADVATE®).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, C L


    Previous studies have suggested that development of inhibitors in previously treated patients (PTPs) may be attributable to a switch in factor VIII (FVIII) therapeutic product. Consequently, it is widely recognized that inhibitor development must be assessed in PTPs following the introduction of any new FVIII product. Following a national tender process in 2006, all patients with haemophilia A in Ireland changed their FVIII treatment product en masse to a plasma and albumin-free recombinant full-length FVIII product (ADVATE(®)). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the case records of Irish PTPs to evaluate risk of inhibitor formation following this treatment switch. One hundred and thirteen patients participated in the study. Most patients (89%) had severe haemophilia. Only one of 96 patients with no inhibitor history developed an inhibitor. Prior to the switch in his recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) treatment of choice, this child had only experienced three exposure days (EDs). Consequently, in total he had only received 6 EDs when his inhibitor was first diagnosed. In keeping with this lack of de novo inhibitor development, we observed no evidence of any recurrent inhibitor formation in any of 16 patients with previously documented inhibitors. Similarly, following a previous en masse switch, we have previously reported that changing from a Chinese hamster ovary cell-produced to a baby hamster kidney cell-produced rFVIII was also associated with a low risk of inhibitor formation in PTPs. Our cumulative findings from these two studies clearly emphasizes that the risk of inhibitor development for PTPs following changes in commercial rFVIII product is low, at least in the Irish population.

  3. Antihemophilic factor (recombinant) plasma/albumin-free method for the management and prevention of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A



    Steven PipeDepartment of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Hemophilia is a rare genetic bleeding disorder that, if not adequately controlled, is associated with life-threatening bleeding events and serious and costly complications, primarily from joint damage. The advent of effective clotting factor replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia is considered one of the foremost medical advances of the 20th century. The last 3 decades ...

  4. Prospective surveillance study of haemophilia A patients switching from moroctocog alfa or other factor VIII products to moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) in usual care settings. (United States)

    Parra Lopez, Rafael; Nemes, Laszlo; Jimenez-Yuste, Victor; Rusen, Luminita; Cid, Ana R; Charnigo, Robert J; Baumann, James A; Smith, Lynne; Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Rendo, Pablo


    This prospective, open-label, postauthorisation safety surveillance study assessed clinically significant inhibitor development in patients with severe haemophilia A transitioning from moroctocog alfa or other factor VIII (FVIII) replacement products to reformulated moroctocog alfa (AF-CC). Males aged ≥ 12 years with severe haemophilia A (FVIII:C) 150 exposure days (EDs) to recombinant or plasma-derived FVIII products, and no detectable inhibitor at screening were enrolled. Primary end point was the incidence of clinically significant FVIII inhibitor development. Secondary end points included annualised bleeding rate (ABR), less-than-expected therapeutic effect (LETE), and FVIII recovery. Patients were assigned to one of two cohorts based on whether they were transitioning to moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) from moroctocog alfa (cohort 1; n=146) or from another recombinant or plasma-derived FVIII product (cohort 2; n=62). Mean number of EDs on study was 94 (range, 1-139). Six positive FVIII inhibitor results, as determined by local laboratories, were reported in four patients; none were confirmed by a central laboratory, no inhibitor-related clinical manifestations were reported, and all anti-FVIII antibody assays were negative. Median ABRs were 23.4 and 3.4 in patients categorised at baseline as following on-demand and prophylactic regimens, respectively; 86.5% of bleeding episodes resolved after one infusion. LETE incidence was 0.06% and 0.19% in the on-demand and prophylaxis settings, respectively. FVIII recovery remained constant throughout the study. No new safety concerns were identified. This study found no increased risk of clinically significant FVIII inhibitor development in patients transitioning from moroctocog alfa or other FVIII replacement products to moroctocog alfa (AF-CC).

  5. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;


    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse t......, and vaccine development....... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity...

  6. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;


    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse...... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity......, and vaccine development....

  7. Recombinant expression of placental growth factor in baculovirus expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Arbabi


    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis or formation of new blood vessels is the most important factor in physiological and pathological conditions. Human Placental growth factor (hPLGF protein in is one of the most important proteins which stimulate angiogenesis. Baculovirus expression system has been used successfully to over express eukaryotic proteins in insect cells. This system uses a very strong viral promoter, AcNPV polyhedrin, for high level of protein expression. Methods: hPLGF gene cloned in pFastBac-HT vector and transformed in DH10Bac.The recombinant bacmid was extracted and used in SF9 insect cells and transfected by cellfectin method. Target protein expression was confirmed with Western blot. Results: Transferring of the recombinant vector into Bacmid was successful and the PLGF gene sequence was confirmed. PLGF and recombinant protein expression by Western blotting was confirmed. Conclusion: Baculovirus protein expression system expresses PLGF strongly and recombinant protein can be used in different tests.

  8. Activity of recombinant factor VIIa under different conditions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen


    Recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark) is an effective drug for treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B and inhibitors. Little is known about physiological conditions influencing the efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII. We......, 33, 37, and 40 degrees C, or diluted 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60% with dextran before analysis. Samples were analysed as rotational thromboelastometry in whole blood (clotting time, clot formation time, and maximum clot firmness) with and without Innovin (tissue factor), and as factor VII coagulant...... activity in plasma. Significant effects of pH were observed for clotting time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, and factor VII coagulant activity in the direction of longer clot formation times and less firm clots with decreasing pH. Temperature had significant effects on clotting time, clot...

  9. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vanoli


    Full Text Available Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different

  10. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII. (United States)

    Zakas, Philip M; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Almeida-Porada, Graca; Porada, Christopher D; Spencer, H Trent; Doering, Christopher B


    Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII) to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD) ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate the maintenance of

  11. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Zakas

    Full Text Available Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate

  12. Disulfide isoforms of recombinant glia maturation factor beta. (United States)

    Zaheer, A; Lim, R


    Recombinant human glia maturation factor beta (r-hGMF-beta) is a single-chain polypeptide (141 amino acid residues) containing three cysteines, at positions 7, 86 and 95. Nascent r-hGMF-beta exists in the reduced state and has no biological activity. The protein can be activated through oxidative refolding by incubation with a mixture of reduced and oxidized glutathione. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the refolded r-hGMF-beta shows the presence of four peaks, corresponding to the reduced form plus three newly generated intrachain disulfide-containing isoforms predicted from the number of cysteine residues. Only one isoform shows biological activity when tested for growth suppression on C6 glioma cells. We infer from the HPLC elution pattern that the active form contains the disulfide bridge Cys86-Cys95.

  13. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee


    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  14. Use of recombinant factor VIIa for emergency reversal of anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingerslev J


    Full Text Available Context: There is limited data regarding the use of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa in anticoagulated patients requiring reversal. Aims: To identify and describe characteristics of subjects who received rFVIIa as part of emergency treatment aimed at improving hemostasis. Settings and Design: Data was obtained from an international peer-reviewed registry This registry contains data reported by physicians, who had elected to use rFVIIa to control bleeding in an emergency clinical situation. The contributors′ approval for inclusion in the study was obtained and they were requested to validate and update information. Materials and Methods: Database review of cases receiving rFVIIa to manage bleeding coherent with the use of anticoagulant therapy. Statistical Analysis: The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare requirements for blood products and crystalloids/colloids during the 24h preceding and following rFVIIa administration, as well as changes in the levels of clotting factors during that period. Results: Eighteen patients were treated with rFVIIa (median dose: 87.35 µg/kg; range: 20.0-106.0 µg/kg for bleeding. Anticoagulants requiring reversal included low-molecular-weight heparin (n = 6, unfractionated heparin (n =8, coumarin (n =3 and warfarin (n=1. All patients had failed to respond to traditional antidotes and blood products. Following administration, bleeding stopped in 10, markedly decreased in five and slowed in the remaining three. Amongst 12/16 patients, a response was observed within 2.0 h of first administration. The requirement for blood products and crystalloids/colloids decreased ( P < 0.05 after rFVIIa administration. rFVIIa was well tolerated. Conclusions: rFVIIa may play a role in control of untoward bleeding in subjects receiving anticoagulation therapy.

  15. Mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I). (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L


    Growth hormone (GH) exercises its growth effects by stimulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) synthesis in the liver (endocrine IGF-I) and by inducing chondrocyte differentiation/replication and local production of IGF-I (paracrine/autocrine IGF-I). Injectable recombinant human (rh)IGF-I (mecasermin) has been available for nearly 20 years for treatment of the rare instances of GH insensitivity caused by GH receptor defects or GH-inhibiting antibodies. Full restoration of normal growth, as occurs with rhGH replacement of GH deficiency, is not seen, presumably because only the endocrine deficiency is addressed. RhIGF-I has also been effective as an insulin-sensitizing agent in severe insulin-resistant conditions. Although the insulin-sensitizing effect may benefit both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there are no ongoing clinical trials because of concern about risk of retinopathy and other complications. Promotion of rhIGF-I for treatment of idiopathic short stature has been intensive, with neither data nor rationale suggesting that there might be a better response than has been documented with rhGH. Other applications that have either been considered or are undergoing clinical trial are based on the ubiquitous tissue-building properties of IGF-I and include chronic liver disease, cystic fibrosis, wound healing, AIDS muscle wasting, burns, osteoporosis, Crohn's disease, anorexia nervosa, Werner syndrome, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, Alzheimer's disease, muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hearing loss prevention, spinal cord injury, cardiovascular protection, and prevention of retinopathy of prematurity. The most frequent side effect is hypoglycemia, which is readily controlled by administration with meals. Other common adverse effects involve hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue, which may require tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, accumulation of body fat, and coarsening of facies. The anti-apoptotic properties of IGF-I are implicated in cancer

  16. Factors influencing recombination frequency and distribution in a human meiotic crossover hotspot. (United States)

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita


    Little is known about the factors that influence the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination events within human crossover hotspots. We now describe the detailed analysis of sperm recombination in the NID1 hotspot. Like the neighbouring MS32 hotspot, the NID1 hotspot is associated with a minisatellite, suggesting that hotspots predispose DNA to tandem repetition. Unlike MS32, crossover resolution breakpoints in NID1 avoid the minisatellite, producing a cold spot within the hotspot. This avoidance may be related to the palindromic nature of the minisatellite interfering with the generation and/or processing of recombination intermediates. The NID1 hotspot also contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) close to the centre, which appears to directly influence the frequency of crossover initiation. Quantitative gene conversion assays show that this SNP affects the frequency of gene conversion and crossover to a very similar extent, providing evidence that conversions and crossovers are triggered by the same recombination initiating events. The recombination-suppressing allele is over-transmitted to recombinant progeny, and provides the most dramatic example to date of recombination-mediated meiotic drive, of a magnitude sufficient to virtually guarantee that the recombination suppressor will eventually replace the more active allele in human populations.

  17. Recombinant factor XIII and congenital factor XIII deficiency: an update from human and animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal A


    Full Text Available Aida InbalThrombosis and Hemostasis Unit, Hematology Institute, Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Factor XIII (FXIII is a protransglutaminase composed of two catalytic A subunits and two carrier B subunits. An intracellular form of FXIII is present in monocytes/macrophages and platelets as a homodimer of two A subunits. Following activation by thrombin, FXIII becomes plasma transglutaminase, which crosslinks γ-glutamyl-ε-lysine residues of fibrin chains and thereby stabilizes the fibrin clot. FXIII deficiency results in a moderate to severe hemorrhagic disorder, abnormal wound healing in about 30% of patients, and recurrent abortion in homozygous females. More than 800 cases of FXIII deficiency have been reported, most of them due to mutation in the FXIII-A gene, resulting in FXIII-A deficiency. Among mutations causing FXIII-A deficiency, 50% are missense mutations. Only 16 mutations in the FXIII-B gene have been published. Routine laboratory tests are normal in patients with FXIII deficiency, and the diagnosis is established by demonstration of decreased FXIII activity and antigen. Plasma-derived, virus-inactivated factor XIII concentrate is the treatment of choice. The low plasma levels of FXIII (about 5% required to control bleeding and its long half-life make monthly prophylactic therapy feasible. Recently, recombinant FXIII concentrate with a half-life similar to that of native FXIII has been developed and tested in a multinational clinical study. This new product appears to be safe and appropriate for lifelong prophylactic treatment of patients with FXIII-A deficiency.Keywords: recombinant FXIII concentrate, FXIII deficiency

  18. Efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa administered by continuous infusion to haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Koopman, MMW; Goede-Bolder, ADE; Leebeek, FWG; Van der Meer, J; Kooij, GMV; Van der Linden, PWG


    We have prospectively monitored treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors by recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to obtain more insight in the underlying factors of the clinical efficacy of this administration method. At present, 43 treatment episodes of 14 d

  19. Recombinant factor Vlla in orthotopic liver transplantation : influence on parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K; Hendriks, HGD; de Wolf, JTM; Klompmaker, IJ; Lisman, T; Hagenaars, AAM; Slooff, MJH; Porte, RJ; van der Meer, J


    The effect of recombinant factor Vila (rFVIIa) on blood loss was evaluated in cirrhotic patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. In the present study, we explored the effect of rFVIIa on coagulation and fibrinolysis during orthotopic liver transplantation. Coagulation factors, parameter

  20. Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa in US Military Casualties for a Five-Year Period (United States)


    Recombinant factor VIIa as adjunctive therapy for bleeding control in severely injured trauma patients: two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled...particularly Factor VII level, in order that all of us could help learn the ideal plasma to red cell ratio by science rather than by some gestalt ? Dr. Slate

  1. Recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Fan, Bo-Sheng; Lou, Ji-Yu


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is required for the differentiation and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. In the present study, the recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-β) gene in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) was undertaken. Recombinant vector containing hNGF-β was constructed and transferred into rMSCs, the expressions of the exogenous in rMSCs were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), ELISA and Western blot, whereas the biological activity of recombinant hNGF-β was confirmed using PC12 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. The results showed that the hNGF-β gene expressed successfully in the rMSCs, a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa was detected. The maximal expression level of recombinant hNGF-β in rMSCs reached 126.8012 pg/10(6) cells, the mean concentration was 96.4473 pg/10(6) cells. The recombinant hNGF-β in the rMSCs showed full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-β.

  2. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.;


    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas...... as substrate, Complexes of these proteinase with BSZx resisted boiling in SDS, and amino acid sequencing showed that cleavage in the reactive center loop only occurred after P-1 Arg. Activated protein C and leukocyte elastase were slowly inhibited by BSZx (k(ass) = 1-2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) whereas factor XIIa......, urokinase and tissue type plasminogen activator, plasmin and pancreas kallikrein and elastase were not or only weakly affected, The inhibition pattern with mammalian proteinases reveal a specificity of BSZx similar to that of antithrombin III. Trypsin from Fusarium was not inhibited while interaction...

  3. Development and characterization of lipidic cochleate containing recombinant factor VIII (United States)

    Miclea, Razvan D.; Varma, Prashant R.; Peng, Aaron; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.


    Hemophilia A, a life threatening bleeding disorder is caused by deficiency of Factor VIII (FVIII). Replacement therapy using rFVIII is the first line therapy for hemophilia A. However, 15-30% of patients develop neutralizing antibody, mainly against the C2, A3 and A2 domains. It has been reported that PS-FVIII complex reduced total and neutralizing anti-rFVIII antibody titers in hemophilia A murine models. Here, we developed FVIII – containing cochleate cylinders, utilizing PS-Ca2+ interactions and characterized these particles for optimal in vivo properties using biophysical and biochemical techniques. Approximately 75% of the protein was associated with cochleate cylinders. Sandwich ELISA, acrylamide quenching and enzymatic digestion studies established that rFVIII was shielded from the bulk aqueous phase by the lipidic structures, possibly leading to improved in vivo stability. Freeze – thawing and rate limiting diffusion studies revealed that small cochleate cylinders with a particles size of 500 nm or less could be generated. The release kinetics and in vivo experiments suggested that there is slow and sustained release of FVIII from the complex upon systemic exposure. In vivo studies using tail clip method indicated that FVIII-cochleate complex is effective and protects hemophilic mice from bleeding. Based on these studies, we speculate that the molecular interaction between FVIII and PS may provide a basis for the design of novel FVIII lipidic structures for delivery applications. PMID:17936245

  4. Limits on the Fill Factor in Organic Photovoltaics: Distinguishing Nongeminate and Geminate Recombination Mechanisms. (United States)

    Dibb, George F A; Jamieson, Fiona C; Maurano, Andrea; Nelson, Jenny; Durrant, James R


    In this Letter, we present transient optoelectronic experimental studies of the recombination processes limiting the fill factor (FF) in three conjugated polymer:fullerene systems, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and two lower-band-gap polymers that exhibit lower FFs poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) and poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-3). Using transient absorption spectroscopy, charge extraction, and transient photovoltage experiments, we show that the lower FF observed for the PCPDTBT-based device results from enhanced nongeminate recombination even at short circuit, In contrast, we show that for APFO-3 devices, the FF is primarily limited by a voltage-dependent free charge generation, which we assign to a geminate recombination process.

  5. Reconstitution of the yeast RNA polymerase III transcription system with all recombinant factors. (United States)

    Ducrot, Cécile; Lefebvre, Olivier; Landrieux, Emilie; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Sentenac, André; Acker, Joel


    Transcription factor TFIIIC is a multisubunit complex required for promoter recognition and transcriptional activation of class III genes. We describe here the reconstitution of complete recombinant yeast TFIIIC and the molecular characterization of its two DNA-binding domains, tauA and tauB, using the baculovirus expression system. The B block-binding module, rtauB, was reconstituted with rtau138, rtau91, and rtau60 subunits. rtau131, rtau95, and rtau55 formed also a stable complex, rtauA, that displayed nonspecific DNA binding activity. Recombinant rTFIIIC was functionally equivalent to purified yeast TFIIIC, suggesting that the six recombinant subunits are necessary and sufficient to reconstitute a transcriptionally active TFIIIC complex. The formation and the properties of rTFIIIC-DNA complexes were affected by dephosphorylation treatments. The combination of complete recombinant rTFIIIC and rTFIIIB directed a low level of basal transcription, much weaker than with the crude B'' fraction, suggesting the existence of auxiliary factors that could modulate the yeast RNA polymerase III transcription system.

  6. Immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic studies of recombinant Factor VIII containing lipid cochleates


    Kosloski, Matthew P.; Peng, Aaron; Varma, Prashant R.; Fathallah, Anas M.; MICLEA, RAZVAN D.; Mager, Donald E.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.


    Replacement therapy using recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is currently the most common therapy for hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency of FVIII. However, 15–30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies against administered rFVIII which complicates the therapy. Encapsulation or association of protein with lipidic structures can reduce this immune response. Previously, we developed and characterized rFVIII-containing phosphatidylserine (PS) cochleate cylinders using bio...

  7. Influence of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on the Interaction of Recombinant Factor VIIa with Activated Platelets


    Kjalke, Marianne; Runge, Marx; Rojkjaer, Rasmus; Steinbruchel, Daniel; Johansson, Pär I


    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) interacts preferentially with coated platelets characterized by a high exposure of phosphatidyl serine (PS), FV, FVIII, FIX, and FX binding, and fibrinogen. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair platelet function. In this study, the influence of CPB on formation of coated platelets and the interaction of rFVIIa with the platelets were studied. Blood was either exposed to a closed CPB circuit or obtained from patients undergoing CPB-assisted cardiac s...

  8. Dabigatran and its reversal with recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølbeck, Sacha; Nilsson, Caroline U; Engström, Martin;


    OBJECTIVE: Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. No specific antidote exists in the event of hemorrhage, but prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) are suggested therapies. Sonoclot is a bedside viscoelastic instrument for monitoring...... of the PCC and rFVIIa in our study. Clinical studies of dabigatran-treated patients with severe bleeding are called for, as well as the continued development of specific antidotes and monitoring techniques....

  9. Tumour necrosis factor production and natural killer cell activity in peripheral blood during treatment with recombinant tumour necrosis factor


    Männel, Daniela N.; Kist, A.; Ho, A D; Räth, U.; Reichardt, P; Wiedenmann, B; Schlick, E.; Kirchner, H.


    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) has been found to be an important immunomodulator. Among other functions TNF activates natural killer (NK) cells and stimulates monocytes/macrophages in an autocrine fashion. TNF production and NK activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined in a clinical phase I study in which recombinant human (rh) TNF was administered as a continuous infusion weekly for a period of 8 weeks. Even though TNF production and NK activity were significantly reduced ...

  10. Application of a novel affinity adsorbent for the capture and purification of recombinant factor VIII compounds. (United States)

    McCue, Justin T; Selvitelli, Keith; Walker, Joshua


    Recombinant Factor VIII (FVIII) therapies have been created to provide treatment for Hemophilia A, an inherited bleeding disorder caused by mutation in the FVIII gene. A major challenge in the purification of recombinant FVIII molecules is the development of an affinity chromatography step. Such a step must be highly specific and selective for the FVIII molecule, but also must be designed appropriately to ensure the FVIII molecule can be effectively recovered without resorting to harsh elution conditions which may be harmful to the product. Additionally, it is desirable to have affinity adsorbents designed to be reusable over a large number of column cycles while maintaining consistent purification performance. In this work, we describe the use of VIIISelect, a commercially available affinity adsorbent designed specifically for the purification of FVIII compounds. The VIIISelect adsorbent consists of a 13kDa recombinant protein ligand attached to a cross-linked agarose base matrix. The structure of the recombinant ligand is based upon Camelid-derived single domain antibody fragments. The VIIISelect adsorbent is produced using a process free of animal-derived raw materials, which is a highly desirable attribute for adsorbents used in the purification processes of recombinant protein therapeutics. The VIIISelect adsorbent was used as the initial capture column to purify a FVIII compound directly from clarified cell culture fluid prior to further downstream purification. The purification performance of the VIIISelect was evaluated, which included measurement of the static binding capacity, dynamic binding capacity, product recovery, impurity clearance, and adsorbent reuse. Following laboratory-scale process development, the VIIISelect adsorbent was scaled up and used in the large scale manufacturing of a FVIII compound.

  11. Angiogenic Type I Collagen Extracellular Matrix Integrated with Recombinant Bacteriophages Displaying Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors. (United States)

    Yoon, Junghyo; Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Seok


    Here, a growth-factor-integrated natural extracellular matrix of type I collagen is presented that induces angiogenesis. The developed matrix adapts type I collagen nanofibers integrated with synthetic colloidal particles of recombinant bacteriophages that display vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The integration is achieved during or after gelation of the type I collagen and the matrix enables spatial delivery of VEGF into a desired region. Endothelial cells that contact the VEGF are found to invade into the matrix to form tube-like structures both in vitro and in vivo, proving the angiogenic potential of the matrix.

  12. A new recombinant factor VIII: from genetics to clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santagostino E


    Full Text Available Elena Santagostino Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Advances in recombinant technology and knowledge about coagulation factor VIII (FVIII are building a platform for new therapeutic options in patients with hemophilia A. The development of turoctocog alfa, a novel, high-purity, third-generation, B-domain truncated recombinant FVIII, has been produced and formulated without the use of animal-derived or human serum-derived components, in the wake of understanding of the new biochemical characteristics of FVIII, namely its protein structure, and glycosylation and sulfating patterns. Culture conditions and a five-step purification process have been developed to optimize the safety of turoctocog alfa. The results of two pilot clinical trials using turoctocog alfa confirmed high safety levels, with no patient developing inhibitors during the period of observation. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the molecular and biological properties of turoctocog alfa, together with details of its clinical development, with emphasis on the needs of patients with hemophilia A. Keywords: hemophilia A, recombinant factor VIII, turoctocog alfa, purification, inhibitor, safety

  13. Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. (United States)

    Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T


    Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.

  14. Plasma-derived versus recombinant factor concentrates in PUPs: a never ending debate? (United States)

    Berntorp, Erik


    Inhibitor development in haemophilia is a serious complication to treatment with factor concentrates. Since the advent of more pure products, especially developed using recombinant DNA technology, some studies have shown an increased incidence of inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) receiving recombinant products whereas plasma-derived concentrates sometimes have been claimed to have a protective role, probably due to the content of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In fact, experiments indicate that the VWF may block uptake of factor VIII into macrophages for further processing to the immune system. Also, a competition between VWF and inhibitor binding to the C2 domain of factor VIII has been suggested. Recently, large cohort and surveillance studies have created a vigorous debate about the role of product class for inhibitor development as results have been conflicting. The only randomised prospective study, the SIPPET study, was published in 2016, and substantiated previous reports claiming that plasma derived concentrates give less inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A, previously not exposed to factor VIII. The debate will continue.

  15. Combination of recombinant factor VIIa and fibrinogen corrects clot formation in primary immune thrombocytopenia at very low platelet counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole H; Stentoft, Jesper; Radia, Deepti


    Haemostatic treatment modalities alternative to platelet transfusion are desirable to control serious acute bleeds in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This study challenged the hypothesis that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) combined with fibrinogen concentrate may correct whole b...

  16. Determination of ion recombination correction factors for a liquid ionization chamber in megavoltage photon beams (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum-Bae; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seonghoon; Huh, Hyun Do


    The aim of this study is to determine the ion recombination correction factor for a liquid ionization chamber in a high energy photon beam by using our experimental method. The ion recombination correction factors were determined by using our experimental method and were compared with theoretical and experimental methods proposed by using the theoretical method (Greening, Johansson) and the two-dose rate method in a cobalt beam and a high energy photon beam. In order to apply the liquid ionization chamber in a reference and small field dosimetry, we acquired the absorbed dose to water correction coefficient, the beam quality correction factor, and the influence quantities for the microLion chamber according to the TRS-398 protocol and applied the results to a high energy photon beam used in clinical fields. As a result, our experimental method for ion recombination in a cobalt beam agreed with the results from the heoretical method (Greening theory) better than it did with the results from the two-dose rate method. For high energy photon beams, the two-dose rate and our experimental methods were in good agreement, less than 2% deviation, while the theoretical general collection efficiency (Johansson et al.) deviated greatly from the experimental values. When we applied the factors for the absorbed dose to water measurement, the absorbed dose to water for the microLion chamber was in good agreement, within 1%, compared with the values for the PTW 30013 chamber in 6 and 10 MV Clinac iX and 6 and 15 MV Oncor impression. With these results, not only can the microLion ionization chamber be used to measure the absorbed dose to water in a reference condition, it can also be used to a the chamber for small, non-standard field dosimetry.

  17. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga


    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  18. Recombinant factor VIII in the management of hemophilia A: current use and future promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S Powell


    Full Text Available Jerry S PowellDivision of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Hemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder due to mutation of the gene that encodes the coagulation protein factor VIII. Historically, prior to the availability of treatment with factor VIII preparations, most boys died from uncontrolled bleeding, either spontaneous bleeding or after injury, before reaching 20 years of age. One of the most impressive triumphs of modern medicine is that with current recombinant factor VIII replacement therapy, a boy born in the 21st century with severe hemophilia A can anticipate a normal life expectancy with essentially no permanent complications from bleeding. For severe hemophilia A, current optimal treatment should have two goals: first, to provide sufficient factor VIII to prevent spontaneous bleeding, and second, to provide sufficient factor VIII to have normal coagulation function after any trauma. However, the replacement therapy requires tremendous resources for effective use, and remains extraordinarily expensive. Thus there are opportunities for further advances in therapy for hemophilia A. Two major concerns continue to trouble current optimal treatment approaches: some patients will develop neutralizing antibodies during the first 50 infusions of therapeutic factor VIII, and second, to administer therapeutic factor VIII every other day in young boys often requires placement of a central venous access device, and such use carries the life-threatening risks of infection and thrombosis. Because of the effectiveness of current therapy, any new developments in treatment will require significant concerns for safety, both immediate and in the long term. A number of research groups seek to prolong the biological efficacy of infused recombinant factor VIII. Currently, one such promising development is in the advanced stages of clinical trial. The goals will be to improve

  19. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink. (United States)

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F


    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration.

  20. Cloning and Expression of Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor in Escherichia coli for Recombinant Drug Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF is a member of fibroblast growth factor (FGF family which induces proliferation and differentiation in a wide variety of epithelial tissues. KGF plays an important role in protection, repair of various types of epithelial cells, and re-epithelialization of wounds. Therefore, in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving high doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment with KGF decreases the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis. Objectives The aim of this study was to express the recombinant form of human keratinocyte growth factor in Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods KGF gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the expression vector pET28a(+. The recombinant vectors were transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3 as expression host and expression of the desired protein was induced by IPTG. The expression was evaluated at RNA and protein levels by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE analyses, respectively and the expressed protein was confirmed through western blotting. Results Cloning was confirmed by PCR and restriction digestion. RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE represented expression of KGF in E. coli. The optimized expression was achieved 16 hours after induction with 0.3 mM IPTG at 37°C in luria broth (LB containing kanamycin. The 18 kDa protein was confirmed by western blotting, using anti-His antibodies. Conclusions The result of the present study indicated that E. coli expression system was suitable for overexpression of recombinant human KGF and the expressed protein can be considered as a homemade product.

  1. Intraarticular Sprifermin (Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 18) in Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmander, L. S.; Hellot, S.; Dreher, D.


    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraarticular sprifermin (recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. Intraarticular...... in joint space width (JSW) seen on radiographs, and pain scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Results. One hundred ninety-two patients were randomized and evaluated for safety, 180 completed the trial, and 168 were evaluated for the primary efficacy end...

  2. Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jaime; Thabut, Dominique; Albillos, Agustín;


    A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal...... events, were comparable between groups. CONCLUSION: Treatment with rFVIIa had no significant effect on the primary composite endpoint compared with placebo. Therefore, decision on the use of this hemostatic agent in acute variceal bleeding should be carefully considered, because results of this study do...

  3. Reduction of Factor VIII Inhibitor Titers During Immune Tolerance Induction With Recombinant Factor VIII-Fc Fusion Protein. (United States)

    Groomes, Charles L; Gianferante, David M; Crouch, Gary D; Parekh, Dina S; Scott, David W; Lieuw, Kenneth


    The development of inhibitors toward factor VIII (FVIII) is a common and serious complication of hemophilia A (HA) therapy. Patients with hemophilia who develop inhibitors often undergo time- and resource-intensive immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. We report a 15-month-old male with severe HA and a high-titer inhibitor that occurred while receiving prophylactic treatment with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), in whom significant inhibitor titer reduction was achieved with thrice weekly infusions of a new, prolonged half-life rFVIII-Fc fusion protein product (trade name Eloctate). Further studies are warranted to explore the potential of Eloctate in ITI protocols.

  4. Designing ternary blend bulk heterojunction solar cells with reduced carrier recombination and a fill factor of 77% (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Jiao, Xuechen; Heumueller, Thomas; Baran, Derya; Matt, Gebhard J.; Fladischer, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Ade, Harald; Brabec, Christoph J.; Ameri, Tayebeh


    In recent years the concept of ternary blend bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on organic semiconductors has been widely used to achieve a better match to the solar irradiance spectrum, and power conversion efficiencies beyond 10% have been reported. However, the fill factor of organic solar cells is still limited by the competition between recombination and extraction of free charges. Here, we design advanced material composites leading to a high fill factor of 77% in ternary blends, thus demonstrating how the recombination thresholds can be overcome. Extending beyond the typical sensitization concept, we add a highly ordered polymer that, in addition to enhanced absorption, overcomes limits predicted by classical recombination models. An effective charge transfer from the disordered host system onto the highly ordered sensitizer effectively avoids traps of the host matrix and features an almost ideal recombination behaviour.

  5. Potential role of a new PEGylated recombinant factor VIII for hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn TT


    Full Text Available Tung Thanh Wynn,1 Burak Gumuscu,2,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Bon Secours Health System, St. Mary’s Hospital, Richmond, VA, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia A, a deficiency in the activity of coagulation factor (F VIII, is an X-linked bleeding disorder with an approximate incidence of one in 5,000 male infants. Bleeding-related complications often result in greater severity of disease, poor quality of life, surgical interventions for severe joint destruction, and shortened life span. With the availability of plasma-derived and recombinant FVIII products, the benefits of primary prophylaxis were demonstrated and is now the standard of care for patients with severe factor deficiencies. Current hemophilia research is focusing on the creation of new factor replacement therapies with longer half-lives; accessing alternative mechanisms to achieve desired hemostasis and enhance bypassing ­activity; and limiting the immunogenicity of the protein. PEGylation involves the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG to a protein, peptide, or a small molecule drug. PEG effectively increases the molecular weight and size of the protein by creating a hydrophilic cloud around the molecule. This molecular change may reduce susceptibility of the molecule to proteolytic activity and degradation. It is also believed that PEGylation changes the surface charge of the protein that ultimately interferes with some receptor-mediated clearance processes. The half-life of PEGylated factor is more prolonged when compared to non-PEGylated full-length recombinant FVIII. The dawn of a new era in the care of hemophilia patients is upon us with the release of recombinant FVIII products with extended half-lives, and products with even more extended half

  6. Purification and characterisation of recombinant human eukaryotic elongation factor 1 gamma. (United States)

    Achilonu, Ikechukwu; Siganunu, Thendo P; Dirr, Heini W


    The eukaryotic elongation factor 1 gamma (eEF1γ) is a multi-domain protein, which consist of a glutathione transferase (GST)-like N-terminus domain. In association with α, β and δ subunits, eEF1γ forms part of the eukaryotic elongation factor complex, which is mainly involved in protein biosynthesis. The N-terminus GST domain of eEF1γ interacts with the β subunit. eEF1γ subunit is over-expressed in human carcinoma. The role of human eEF1γ (heEF1γ) is poorly understood. A successful purification of recombinant heEF1γ is the first step towards determining unknown properties of the protein, including putative GST-like activities and the structure of the protein. This paper describes the over-expression, purification and characterisation of recombinant full-length, and the N- and C-terminus domains of heEF1γ. All three recombinant heEF1γ constructs over-expressed in the soluble Escherichia coli cell fraction and were purified to homogeneity. Secondary structure analysis indicates that the heEF1γ constructs have high α-helical structural character. The full-length and N-terminus domain are dimeric, while the C-terminus is monomeric. Both full-length and N-terminus domain interact with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) with KD=70.0 (±5.7) μM and with reduced glutathione (GSH). Glutathione sulfonate displaced ANS bound to hydrophobic binding sites in the recombinant N-terminus domain. Using the standard GSH-1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene conjugation assay, the N-domain showed some enzyme activity (0.03μmolmin(-1) mg(-1) protein), while the full-length heEF1γ did not catalyse the GSH-CDNB conjugation. Consequently, we hypothesize the presence of a presumed GST-like active site structure in the heEF1γ, which comprises a glutathione binding site and a hydrophobic substrate binding site.

  7. Failure of Recombinant Activated Factor VII in Treatment of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Khoulani


    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is a serious complication of the small vessel vasculitis syndromes and carries a high mortality. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa is used to treat bleeding in patients with hemophilia and antibodies to factor VIII or IX. It is increasingly being used in life-threatening hemorrhage in a variety of other settings in which conventional therapy is unsuccessful. Randomized controlled trials of rFVIIa in DAH are lacking. However, several case reports have described a complete or sustained control of DAH using rFVIIa after patients failed to respond to medical treatment. There are no case reports in the literature describing the use or the failure of rFVIIa in DAH associated with cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. We here report the failure of rFVIIa to control DAH in a patient with CD5+ B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

  8. Effect of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor on angiogenesis during mandible fracture healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚振宇; 周树夏; 顾晓明; 李涤尘; 孙明林


    Objective: To investigate the effect of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) on angiogenesis during mandible fracture healing in rabbit. Methods: Fifty adult white rabbits were used for animal model and randomly divided into a control group (25 rabbits) and an experimental group (25 rabbits). The membranous complex of rhbFGF and bovine type I collagen was prepared and implanted into the rabbit mandible fracture site under periosteum. The animals were sacrificed on 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days respectively after operation and the whole mandibles were harvested. The expression of factor VIII related antigen (F8-RA) in callus was examined with immunohistochemical staining. Results: The amounts of microvascular formation in calluses in the rhbFGF-treating group on days 7, 14, 28 and 56 were more than those of the control group (P<0.01).Conclusions: The results indicated that rhbFGF could stimulate microvascular formation during mandible fracture healing in rabbits.

  9. Anti-apoptotic effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in focal cerebral ischemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yuan; Shiming Zhang; Wanli Dong; Qi Fang


    The neuroprotective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury are currently contentious. The present study examined the effects of subcutaneous injection of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (50 μg/kg) over 5 days in a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion with intraluminal filament occlusion in rats. The results indicated that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reduced brain infarct volume following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, down-regulated the expression of caspase-3 mRNA (a key protease for apoptosis in the cerebral ischemia zone), lowered the rate of neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral ischemia zone, and notably ameliorated neurological function. These results indicate that recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has anti-apoptotic effects on neurons following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and exerts neuroprotective effects.

  10. Evidence supporting the use of recombinant activated factor VII in congenital bleeding disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär I Johansson


    Full Text Available Pär I Johansson, Sisse R OstrowskiCapital Region Blood Bank, Section for Transfusion Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven® was introduced in 1996 for the treatment of hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factor VIII or IX.Objective: To review the evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa for the treatment of patients with congenital bleeding disorders.Patients and methods: English-language databases were searched in September 2009 for reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating the ability of rFVIIa to restore hemostasis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders.Results: Eight RCTs involving 256 hemophilic patients with antibodies against coagulation factors, also known as inhibitors, were identified. The evidence supporting the use of rFVIIa in these patients was weak with regard to dose, clinical setting, mode of administration, efficacy, and adverse events, given the limited sample size of each RCT and the heterogeneity of the studies.Conclusion: The authors suggest that rFVIIa therapy in hemophilic patients with inhibitors should be based on the individual’s ability to generate thrombin and form a clot, and not on the patient’s weight alone. Therefore, assays for thrombin generation, such as whole-blood thromboelastography, have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of these patients.Keywords: hemophilia, inhibitors, coagulation factor VIII, coagulation factor IX, rFVIIa, NovoSeven, FEIBA, hemostasis, RCT

  11. Off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of haemorrhage: results from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar


    Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is used for haemophilic patients with inhibitors against coagulation factor VIII or IX, but there is also an off-label use of rFVIIa for patients with massive bleeding. The aim of the present study was to review the randomized clinical trials (RCT...

  12. Anion-exchange purification of recombinant factor IX from cell culture supernatant using different chromatography supports. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Passos, Douglas F; Ferraz, Helen C; Castilho, Leda R


    Both recombinant and plasma-derived factor IX concentrates are used in replacement therapies for the treatment of haemophilia B. In the present work, the capture step for a recombinant FIX (rFIX) purification process was investigated. Different strong anion-exchange chromatography media (the resins Q Sepharose(®) FF and Fractogel(®) TMAE, the monolith CIM(®) QA and the membrane adsorber Sartobind(®) Q) were tested for their rFIX binding capacity under dynamic conditions. In these experiments, crude supernatant from CHO cells was used, thus in the presence of supernatant contaminants and mimicking process conditions. The highest dynamic binding capacity was obtained for the monolith, which was then further investigated. To study pseudoaffinity elution of functional rFIX with Ca(2+) ions, a design of experiments to evaluate the effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl2 on yield and purification factor was carried out. The effect of pH was not statistically significant, and a combination of no NaCl and 45mM CaCl2 yielded a good purification factor combined with a high yield of active rFIX. Under these conditions, activity yield of rFIX was higher than the mass yield, confirming selective elution of functional, γ-carboxylated rFIX. Scaling-up of this process 8 fold resulted in very similar process performance. Monitoring of the undesired activated FIX (FIXa) revealed that the FIXa/FIX ratio (1.94%) was higher in the eluate than in the loaded sample, but was still within an acceptable range. HCP and DNA clearances were high (1256 and 7182 fold, respectively), indicating that the proposed process is adequate for the intended rFIX capture step.

  13. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou


    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  14. Expression of a Functional Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor from Transgenic Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichang Yang


    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 is an important member of the FGF gene family. It is widely used in clinical applications for scald and wound healing in order to stimulate cell proliferation. Further it is applied for inhibiting stem cell differentiation in cultures. Due to a shortage of plasma and low expression levels of recombinant rbFGF in conventional gene expression systems, we explored the production of recombinant rbFGF in rice grains (Oryza sativa bFGF, OsrbFGF. An expression level of up to 185.66 mg/kg in brown rice was obtained. A simple purification protocol was established with final recovery of 4.49% and resulting in a yield of OsrbFGF reaching up to 8.33 mg/kg OsrbFGF. The functional assay of OsrbFGF indicated that the stimulating cell proliferation activity on NIH/3T3 was the same as with commercialized rbFGF. Wound healing in vivo of OsrbFGF is equivalent to commercialized rbFGF. Our results indicate that rice endosperm is capable of expressing small molecular mass proteins, such as bFGF. This again demonstrates that rice endosperm is a promising system to express various biopharmaceutical proteins.

  15. Employing libraries of zinc finger artificial transcription factors to screen for homologous recombination mutants in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Lindhout, Beatrice I; Pinas, Johan E; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J


    A library of genes for zinc finger artificial transcription factors (ZF-ATF) was generated by fusion of DNA sequences encoding three-finger Cys(2)His(2) ZF domains to the VP16 activation domain under the control of the promoter of the ribosomal protein gene RPS5A from Arabidopsis thaliana. After introduction of this library into an Arabidopsis homologous recombination (HR) indicator line, we selected primary transformants exhibiting multiple somatic recombination events. After PCR-mediated rescue of ZF sequences, reconstituted ZF-ATFs were re-introduced in the target line. In this manner, a ZF-ATF was identified that led to a 200-1000-fold increase in somatic HR (replicated in an independent second target line). A mutant plant line expressing the HR-inducing ZF-ATF exhibited increased resistance to the DNA-damaging agent bleomycin and was more sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a combination of traits not described previously. Our results demonstrate that the use of ZF-ATF pools is highly rewarding when screening for novel dominant phenotypes in Arabidopsis.

  16. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human and murine milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8. (United States)

    Castellanos, Erick R; Ciferri, Claudio; Phung, Wilson; Sandoval, Wendy; Matsumoto, Marissa L


    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), as its name suggests, is a major glycoprotein component of milk fat globules secreted by the mammary epithelium. Although its role in milk fat production is unclear, MFG-E8 has been shown to act as a bridge linking apoptotic cells to phagocytes for removal of these dying cells. MFG-E8 is capable of bridging these two very different cell types via interactions through both its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain(s) and its lectin-type C domains. The EGF-like domain interacts with αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins on the surface of phagocytes, whereas the C domains bind phosphatidylserine found on the surface of apoptotic cells. In an attempt to purify full-length, recombinant MFG-E8 expressed in either insect cells or CHO cells, we find that it is highly aggregated. Systematic truncation of the domain architecture of MFG-E8 indicates that the C domains are mainly responsible for the aggregation propensity. Addition of Triton X-100 to the conditioned cell culture media allowed partial recovery of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. A more comprehensive detergent screen identified CHAPS as a stabilizer of MFG-E8 and allowed purification of a significant portion of non-aggregated, full-length protein. The CHAPS-stabilized recombinant MFG-E8 retained its natural ability to bind both αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and phosphatidylserine suggesting that it is properly folded and active. Herein we describe an efficient purification method for production of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8.

  17. Effect of recombinant Factor VIIa on outcome of acute variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; D'Amico, Gennaro; Rusch, Ea;


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Two randomized controlled studies have evaluated the effect of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) on variceal bleeding in cirrhosis without showing significant benefit. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of the two trials on individual patient data...... vasoactive drug infusion and Child-Pugh score >8. RESULTS: 497 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis; 308 (62%) had active variceal bleeding at endoscopy (oozing or spurting) and 283 of these had a Child-Pugh score >8. Analysis on the composite endpoint in all patients with bleeding from oesophageal...... varices did not show any beneficial treatment effect. However, failure rate for the primary composite end-point was significantly lower in treated patients with active bleeding at endoscopy (17%) compared to placebo (26%, p=0.049). This difference was highly significant in patients with Child-Pugh score...

  18. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection. (United States)

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F


    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  19. DNase I-hypersensitive sites and transcription factor-binding motifs within the mouse E beta meiotic recombination hot spot. (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Shen, M H; Arnheim, N


    The second intron of the E beta gene in the mouse major histocompatibility complex is the site of a meiotic recombination hot spot. We detected two DNase I-hypersensitive sites in this intron in meiotic cells isolated from mouse testes. One site appears to be constitutive and is found in other tissues regardless of whether or not they express the E beta gene. Near this hypersensitive site are potential binding motifs for H2TF1/KBF1, NF kappa B, and octamer transcription factors. Gel retardation studies with mouse lymphoma cell nuclear extracts confirmed that each of these motifs is capable of binding protein. The binding of transcription factors may contribute to the enhancement of recombination potential by altering chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of the DNA to the recombination machinery.

  20. A macroporous bioreactor super activated by the recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo eRipamonti


    Full Text Available Macroporous single-phase hydroxyapatite (HA and biphasic HA/β-tricalcium phosphate with 33% post-sinter hydroxyapatite (HA/β-TCP were combined with 25 or 125 µg recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3 (hTGF-β3 to engineer a super activated bioreactor implanted in orthotopic calvarial and heterotopic rectus abdominis muscle sites and harvested on day 30 and 90. Coral-derived calcium carbonate fully converted (100% and partially converted to 5% and 13% hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate (HA/CC preloaded with 125 and 250 µg hTGF-β3, and 1:5 and 5:1 binary applications of hTGF-β3: hOP-1 by weight, were implanted in the rectus abdominis and harvested on day 20 and 30, respectively, to monitor spatial/temporal morphogenesis by high doses of hTGF-β3. Bone formation was assessed on decalcified paraffin-embedded sections by measuring the fractional volume of newly-formed bone. On day 30 and 90, single phase HA implants showed greater amounts of bone when compared to biphasic specimens; 5 % and 13 % HA/CC pre-loaded with 125 and 250 µg hTGF-β3 showed substantial induction of bone formation; 250 µg hTGF-β3 induced as yet unreported massive induction of bone formation as early as 20 days prominently outside the profile of the macroporous constructs. The induction of bone formation is controlled by the implanted ratio of the recombinant morphogens, i.e. the 1:5 hTGF-β3:hOP-1 ratio by weight was greater than the inverse ratio. The unprecedented tissue induction by single doses of 250 µg hTGF-β3 resulting in rapid bone morphogenesis of vast mineralized ossicles with multiple trabeculations surfaced by contiguous secreting osteoblasts is the novel molecular and morphological frontier for the induction of bone formation in clinical contexts.

  1. Overexpression of the transcription factor Yap1 modifies intracellular redox conditions and enhances recombinant protein secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizela Delic


    Full Text Available Oxidative folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a redox active process, which also impacts the redox conditions in the cytosol. As the transcription factor Yap1 is involved in the transcriptional response to oxidative stress, we investigate its role upon the production of secretory proteins, using the yeast Pichia pastoris as model, and report a novel important role of Yap1 during oxidative protein folding. Yap1 is needed for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by increased oxidative protein folding. Constitutive co-overexpression of PpYAP1 leads to increased levels of secreted recombinant protein, while a lowered Yap1 function leads to accumulation of ROS and strong flocculation. Transcriptional analysis revealed that more than 150 genes were affected by overexpression of YAP1, in particular genes coding for antioxidant enzymes or involved in oxidation-reduction processes. By monitoring intracellular redox conditions within the cytosol and the ER using redox-sensitive roGFP1 variants, we could show that overexpression of YAP1 restores cellular redox conditions of protein-secreting P. pastoris by reoxidizing the cytosolic redox state to the levels of the wild type. These alterations are also reflected by increased levels of oxidized intracellular glutathione (GSSG in the YAP1 co-overexpressing strain. Taken together, these data indicate a strong impact of intracellular redox balance on the secretion of (recombinant proteins without affecting protein folding per se. Re-establishing suitable redox conditions by tuning the antioxidant capacity of the cell reduces metabolic load and cell stress caused by high oxidative protein folding load, thereby increasing the secretion capacity.

  2. Recombinant factor VIIa improves clot formation but not fibrolytic potential in patients with cirrhosis and during liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, T; Leebeek, FWG; Meijer, K; Van Der Meer, J; Nieuwenhuis, HK; De Groot, PG


    Cirrhosis is associated with a bleeding tendency, which is particularly pronounced during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A novel approach to treating the bleeding diathesis of patients with cirrhosis is administration of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). This study examined whether the effi

  3. Modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H; Hovgaard, D;


    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to inhibit the chemotaxis and enhance the oxidative burst response of human neutrophils in vitro. The present study describes the effect of recombinant GM-CSF on the neutrophil and monocyte function in patients with lymphoma...

  4. Using recombinant CD74 protein to inhibit the activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xinSHAN; Xi-yongYU; Qiu-xiongLIN; Yong-hengFU


    AIM Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, glomerulonephritis, Gram-positive and Gram-negative sepsis, and atherogenesis. Recent studies showed that CD74(antigen-associated invariant chain Ⅱ) is a high-affinity membrane-binding protein for MIF. The purpose of the present study was to express the recombinant human CD74 in E. coli and inhibit the activity of MIF by using recombinant CD74 in vitro.

  5. Construction and identification of recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system for rat vascular endothelial growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyu Yang; Hong Qi; Junjie Zou; Xiwei Zhang


    Objective: To construct the recombinant adenovirus vector carrying rat vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), as preparation for genetic transfection that follows. Methods: Rat VEGF was obtained by using RT-PCR amplification and then cloned into the shutter plasmid pDC316. Subsequently, this newly constructed plasmid pDC316-VEGF, after identification by nuclease digestion analysis and sequencing analysis, was transfected into human embryonic kidney cells HEK293 by Lipofectamine 2000 mediation, together with adenovirus-packaging plasmid pBHGE3. Based on the homologous recombination of the two plasmids within HEK293 cells, the recombinant adenovirus vector carrying VEGF and VDC316-VEGF was created. VDC316-VEGF was subsequently identified using PCR, purified using repeated plaque passages, proliferated using freezing and melting within HEK293 cells, and titrated using 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose(TCID50) assay. Results:The newly constructed recombinant adenovirus was confirmed to carry rat VEGF based on PCR results, and its titration value determined based on TCID50 assay was 3×109 pfu/ml. Conclusion:The recombinant adenovirus carrying rat VEGF was successfully constructed. The newly constructed adenovirus can produce a sufficiently high titration value within HEK293 cells, providing a reliable tool for genetic transfection in further gene therapy researches.

  6. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization II: Recombinations, Clumping Factors, and the Photon Budget for Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    So, Geoffrey C; Reynolds, Daniel R; Harkness, Robert P


    In this first of several application papers, we investigate the mechanics of reionization from stellar sources in high-z galaxies, the utility of various clumping factors on estimating the recombination time in the IGM, and the photon budget required to achieve reionization. We test the accuracy of the static and time-dependent models of Madau et al. as predictors of reionization completion/maintenance. We simulate a WMAP7 LCDM cosmological model in a 20 Mpc comoving cube with 800^3 uniform fluid cells and dark matter particles. By tuning our star formation to approximately match the observed star formation rate density and luminosity function, we created a fully coupled radiation-hydro realization of H reionization which begins to ionize at z~10 and completes at z~5.8. We find that roughly 2 ionizing photons per H atom are required to convert the neutral IGM to a highly ionized state, which supports the "photon starved" scenario discussed by Bolton & Haehnelt. The events during reionization that lead to ...

  7. Immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic studies of recombinant factor VIII containing lipid cochleates. (United States)

    Kosloski, Matthew P; Peng, Aaron; Varma, Prashant R; Fathallah, Anas M; Miclea, Razvan D; Mager, Donald E; Balu-iyer, Sathy V


    Replacement therapy using recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is currently the most common therapy for hemophilia A, a bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency of FVIII. However, 15-30% of patients develop inhibitory antibodies against administered rFVIII, which complicates the therapy. Encapsulation or association of protein with lipidic structures can reduce this immune response. Previous studies developed and characterized rFVIII-containing phosphatidylserine (PS) cochleate cylinders using biophysical techniques. It was hypothesized that these structures may provide a reduction in immunogenicity while avoiding the rapid clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) previously observed with liposomal vesicles of similar composition. This study investigated in vivo behavior of the cochleates containing rFVIII including immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics in hemophilia A mice. The rFVIII-cochleate complex significantly reduced the level of inhibitory antibody developed against rFVIII following intravenous (i.v.) administration. Pharmacokinetic modeling allowed assessment of in vivo release kinetics. Cochleates acted as a delayed release delivery vehicle with an input peak of cochleates showed limited RES uptake and associated rFVIII displayed a similar disposition to the free protein upon release from the structure. Incomplete disassociation from the complex limits systemic availability of the protein. Further formulation efforts are warranted to regulate the rate and extent of release of rFVIII from cochleate complexes.

  8. DNA homologous recombination factor SFR1 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Feng

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ERα. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ERα was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ERα in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ERα and a potential target in breast cancer therapy.

  9. Refolding of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor: effect of cysteine/cystine redox system. (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishnanand; Shebannavar, Sunil; Kattavarapu, Krishna; Pokalwar, Santosh; Mishra, Maheshwari K; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari


    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine which is widely used for treating neutropenia in humans. Evaluation of alternative to expensive components of redox buffer (reduced and oxidized glutathione) is an important step in reducing the cost of production of human biotherapeutic proteins. In the present study, refolding of recombinant human G-CSF expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs) in E. coli was optimized using cysteine and cystine redox agents. The refolding to correct native form of G-CSF was assessed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The optimized concentrations of cysteine and cystine for correct refolding of G-CSF were found to be 2 mM and 1 mM, respectively. The correctly refolded G-CSF was detected as early as 4 h of incubation in renaturation buffer containing optimized concentrations of cysteine (2 mM) and cystine (1 mM) redox agents. Refolding of G-CSF in optimized redox system increased with increase in shuffling time. Overall, the results suggested the use of cysteine/cystine redox pair could be an alternative to the costlier redox pairs for successful refolding of G-CSF and possibly other human biotherapeutic proteins of importance.

  10. Evolution of recombinant factor VIII safety: KOGENATE and Kogenate FS/Bayer. (United States)

    Lusher, Jeanne M; Scharrer, Inge


    The use of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates in the treatment of hemophilia A has raised important safety issues, historically of pathogen transmission and increasingly of inhibitor development to FVIII treatment. While manufacturing processes of current recombinant FVIII products have been shaped entirely around preventing pathogen transmission, the same modifications that afford a greater margin of safety could affect immunogenicity of the product, consequences of which could only be seen through long-term clinical experience. This review summarizes pathogen safety and inhibitor reports from clinical trials, post-marketing surveillance studies, and study reports on KOGENATE and its successor, Kogenate FS/Bayer. Although KOGENATE and Kogenate FS/Bayer are nearly identical products, subtle manufacturing improvements to address the need for greater margins of safety from a pathogen transmission perspective have also led to a potentially improved immunogenicity profile (15% in previously untreated/minimally treated patients with severe hemophilia A for Kogenate FS/Bayer). Notably, there has been no occurrence of pathogen contamination, and minimal de novo inhibitor formation in previously treated patients throughout the use of both products. Overall, KOGENATE and Kogenate FS/Bayer have a long history of safety in a variety of clinical settings, including treatment of bleeding, surgical management, and prophylaxis therapy.

  11. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Recombinant Yeast Proteasome Maturation Factor UMP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebiana Sá-Moura


    Full Text Available Protein degradation is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. The proteasome is the central enzyme responsible for non-lysosomal protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Although proteasome assembly is not yet completely understood, a number of cofactors required for proper assembly and maturation have been identified. Ump1 is a short-lived maturation factor required for the efficient biogenesis of the 20S proteasome. Upon the association of the two precursor complexes, Ump1 is encased and is rapidly degraded after the proteolytic sites in the interior of the nascent proteasome are activated. In order to further understand the mechanisms behind proteasomal maturation, we expressed and purified yeast Ump1 in E. coli for biophysical and structural analysis.We show that recombinant Ump1 is purified as a mixture of different oligomeric species and that oligomerization is mediated by intermolecular disulfide bond formation involving the only cysteine residue present in the protein. Furthermore, a combination of bioinformatics tools, biochemical and structural analysis revealed that Ump1 shows characteristics of an intrinsically disordered protein, which might become structured only upon interaction with the proteasome subunits.

  12. Recombinant modular transporters on the basis of epidermal growth factor for targeted intracellular delivery of photosensitizers (United States)

    Gilyazova, Dinara G.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Gulak, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Grin, Mikhail A.; Mironov, Andrey F.; Rubin, Andrey B.; Sobolev, Alexander S.


    The search for new pharmaceuticals has raised interest in locally-acting drugs which act over short distances within the cell, and for which different cell compartments have different sensitivities. Thus, photosensitizers used in anti-cancer therapy should be transported to the most sensitive subcellular compartments where their action is most pronounced. Earlier, we described the effects of bacterially expressed modular recombinant transporters for photosensitizers comprising a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as an internalizable, cell-specific ligand, an optimized nuclear localization sequence, an Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein as a carrier, and an endosomolytic amphipathic polypeptide. These transporters delivered photosensitizers into the murine melanoma cells nuclei to result in cytotoxic effects 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. Here we describe new transporters possessing the same modules except for a ligand that is replaced with epidermal growth factor specific for other cancer cell types. The new transporter modules retained their functional activities within the chimera, this transporter delivered photosensitizers into the human carcinoma cells nuclei to result in photocytotoxic effects almost 3 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. The obtained results show that ligand modules of such transporters are interchangeable, meaning that they can be tailored for particular applications.

  13. Recombinant factor VIIa in post-partum hemorrhage: A new weapon in obstetrician′s armamentarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon


    Full Text Available Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH is a life-threatening obstetric complication and the leading cause of maternal death. The usual manner for its management includes, first, noninvasive and nonsurgical methods, and, then invasive and surgical methods. However, mortality and morbidity related to PPH still remains unacceptably high, contributing to hysterectomy in at least 50% of cases. Early, effective, and preferably noninvasive treatments that can reduce maternal mortality and morbidity due to this entity are therefore essential. One of the most spectacular advancements in the control of PPH has been the use of recombinant activated factor (rFVIIa, both as initial and a life- and uterus-saving therapy. rFVIIa also reduces costs of therapy and use of blood components in massive PPH. In cases of intractable bleeding with no other obvious indications for hysterectomy, administration of rFVIIa should be considered before surgery. A MEDLINE search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on use of rFVIIa in PPH. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Our experience in a series of three cases of PPH, two of atonic and one of traumatic, successfully managed using rFVIIa is also shared.

  14. Fundamental analysis of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in solution with biophysical methods. (United States)

    Kim, Nam Ah; Lim, Dae Gon; Lim, Jun Yeul; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jeong, Seong Hoon


    Correlation of thermodynamic and secondary structural stability of proteins at various buffer pHs was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR). Recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF) was selected as a model protein at various pHs and in different buffers, including phosphate, histidine, citrate, HEPES and Tris. Particle size and zeta potential of rhEGF at each selected pH of buffer were observed by DLS. Four factors were used to characterize the biophysical stability of rhEGF in solution: temperature at maximum heat flux (Tm), intermolecular β-sheet contents, zeta size and zeta potential. It was possible to predict the apparent isoelectric point (pI) of rhEGF as 4.43 by plotting pH against zeta potential. When the pH of the rhEGF solution increased or decreased from pI, the absolute zeta potential increased indicating a reduced possibility of protein aggregation, since Tm increased and β-sheet contents decreased. The contents of induced intermolecular β-sheet in Tris and HEPES buffers were the lowest. Thermodynamic stability of rhEGF markedly increased when pH is higher than 6.2 in histidine buffer where Tm of first transition was all above 70 °C. Moreover, rhEGF in Tris buffer was more thermodynamically stable than in HEPES with higher zeta potential. Tris buffer at pH 7.2 was concluded to be the most favorable.

  15. Palifermin (recombinant keratinocyte growth factor-1): a pleiotropic growth factor with multiple biological activities in preventing chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced mucositis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Sonis, S.T.


    Oral and intestinal mucositis are among the most significant dose-limiting toxic effects of intensive cancer treatment and are associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Palifermin (Kepivancetrade mark), an N-truncated recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-1, is the first agent t

  16. Purification and characterization of tagless recombinant human elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) expressed in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Abramczyk, Olga; Tavares, Clint D J; Devkota, Ashwini K; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Turk, Benjamin E; Riggs, Austen F; Ozpolat, Bulent; Dalby, Kevin N


    The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) modulates the rate of protein synthesis by impeding the elongation phase of translation by inactivating the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) via phosphorylation. eEF-2K is known to be activated by calcium and calmodulin, whereas the mTOR and MAPK pathways are suggested to negatively regulate kinase activity. Despite its pivotal role in translation regulation and potential role in tumor survival, the structure, function, and regulation of eEF-2K have not been described in detail. This deficiency may result from the difficulty of obtaining the recombinant kinase in a form suitable for biochemical analysis. Here we report the purification and characterization of recombinant human eEF-2K expressed in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta-gami 2(DE3). Successive chromatography steps utilizing Ni-NTA affinity, anion-exchange, and gel filtration columns accomplished purification. Cleavage of the thioredoxin-His(6)-tag from the N-terminus of the expressed kinase with TEV protease yielded 9 mg of recombinant (G-D-I)-eEF-2K per liter of culture. Light scattering shows that eEF-2K is a monomer of ∼85 kDa. In vitro kinetic analysis confirmed that recombinant human eEF-2K is able to phosphorylate wheat germ eEF-2 with kinetic parameters comparable to the mammalian enzyme.

  17. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study) (United States)

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza


    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. Methods: This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients’ demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Results: Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Conclusion: Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs. PMID:27799968

  18. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying


    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  19. Recombinant-activated factor Ⅶ and neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Li; Wei Li; Suju Ding; Jianping Tang; Jing Fang; Benqiang Deng; Tao Wu


    BACKGROUND:Activated clotting factor Ⅶ has been demonstrated to exhibit obvious anti-apoptosis effects.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of activated clotting factor Ⅶ on neuronal apoptosis at different time points following rat intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled,animal experiment was performed at the Neurobiological Laboratory of Second Military Medical University from October 2005 to April 2006.MATERIALS:Recombinant-activated clotting factor Vlla (rFⅧa) was purchased from Danish Novo Nordisk,Denmark.In situ cell death detection kit-POD kit was purchased from Roche,Switzerland.Caspase-3 activity determination kit from Biovision,USA.METHODS:A total of 72 healthy,male,Sprague Dawley rats,aged 5-8 months,were randomly assigned to three groups (n=24):sham-operated,ICH model,and rFⅧa.In the ICH model and rFⅧa groups,80.0 μL autologous non-clotting blood from rat tails was injected into the right caudate putamen to establish the ICH.The empty microinjector was inserted into the caudate putamen in the sham-operated group.The ICH model and rFⅧa groups were subdivided into four subsets separately:6,24,72 hours and 7 clays following ICH.The rats in the rFⅧa group were injected with 160 μg/kg rFⅧa via the dorsal vein of the penis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Apoptotic cells were detected in the right caudate putamen by TUNEL;caspase-3 activity by spectrophotometry;and rat neurological function was evaluated by neurological functional impairment scales.RESULTS:Rat neurological function was deteriorated at 24,72 hours,and 7 days following ICH.The TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in the right caudate putamen was significantly increased in the ICH rats (P<0.05);rFVlla treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in the right caudate putamen (P<0.05),and neurological function was significantly improved (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:rFⅧa was applied within 72 hours after ICH,which reduced

  20. Determination of the ion recombination correction factor for intraoperative electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besheli, Majid Ghorbanpour; Simiantonakis, Ioannis [University Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Physics/Medical Physics; Zink, Klemens [Univ. of Applied Science (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection (IMPS); Budach, Wilfried [University Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology


    The ion recombination correction factor (k{sub s}) is determined for the Advanced Markus chamber exposed to electron beams produced by a dedicated intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) accelerator at medium dose-per-pulse values. The authors evaluate five different methods. Three of them are known as Boag's modified expressions, which are based on the two-voltage-analysis method and include the free-electron component. In the fourth method the IAEA TRS-398 protocol is applied, which uses the same two-voltage-analysis method but ignores the free-electron component, and finally the fifth approach is known as the Jaffe plot. k{sub s} values were obtained in the range of 4 mGy/pulse to 42 mGy/pulse and were compared with k{sub s} values determined by means of radiochromic films, which are independent of the dose rate. It was found that k{sub s} values that resulted from the three Boag's modified expressions and the TRS-398 protocol deviated by on average 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively, from the reference k{sub s} values based on film dosimetry. These results are within the estimated relative uncertainty of ±3%. On the other hand, the absolute deviation of each method depends on the dose-per-pulse value at which the method is investigated. In conclusion, in the medium dose-per-pulse range all Boag's modified expressions could be used for k{sub s} determination. Above a dose-per-pulse value of 35 mGy/pulse, the TRS-398 approach should be avoided. At 27 mGy/pulse and a maximum operation voltage of 300 V the k{sub s} value resulting from the Jaffe plot showed a 0.3% deviation from the reference value. More investigation on the Jaffe plot is necessary at higher dose-per-pulse values.

  1. Chronic Toxicity of a Novel Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xia; Qing-yu Zhang; Yong-ping Jiang


    Objective To assess the severity and reversibility of the chronic toxicity of a novel recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSFa) in rats and the dose-effect relationship. Methods A total of 100 Sprague-Dawley rats (equal numbers of male and female) were randomly divided into five groups (20 rats in each group): four groups were treated with rhG-CSFa at 500, 100,10, 1 μg/kg, respectively, and one group was treated with vehicle only to serve as the control. The rats were received subcutaneous injections of rhG-CSFa or vehicle daily for 13 weeks. During the course of the chronic toxicity study, the physical status, body weight, and food consumption were monitored. Half of the rats in each group (n= 10) were sacrificed after the last rhG-CSFa administration, and the other half were sacrificed at five weeks after the last rhG-CSFa administration. Urinalyses, blood biochemistry, hematological analysis, histopathological examination, and immunological tests were performed for each of the rats. Results The hematological analyses revealed that the mean white blood cells count, neutrophils count, and neutrophils percentage were increased in male rats at the dose of 10 μg/kg or higher, and these were related with the biological activity of rhG-CSFa. Some small abnormalities were observed in the spleen of a few rats when used highest dose (500 μg/kg, a dosage of 200 folds higher than the normal clinical dosage), but these abnormalities were recovered within S-week recovery period. No other rhG-CSFa-related abnormalities were observed in this chronic toxicity study.Conclusion No significant toxicity and immunogenicity are observed with rhG-CSFa administration to rats in the chronic toxicity studies.

  2. The Clinical and Laboratory Response to Recombinant Factor VIIa in Trauma and Surgical Patients with Acquired Coagulopathy (United States)


    triad” of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy poses a significant problem in the care of critically ill surgical patients. The sequential and...coagulopathy. In 1990, recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa, Novoseven; Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) was introduced for the treatment of hemophilia ...No complications were attributable to the administration of rFVIIa. All but 1 patient in this series was determined to be free of continued

  3. Recombination Mutant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Combined with Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXing; ZHANGXiangfu; ZHENGZhiweng; LUHuishan; WUXinyuan; HUANGChangmin; WANGChuan; GUANGuoxian


    Objective: Past studies showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) assisted anti-tumor treatment and intensified the sensitivity of chemotherapy. However its clinical application has been curbed because of its low purity, high dosage, and strong toxicity. The objective of present study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor (rmhTNF) combined with chemotherapy in patients with advanced malignant tumor. Methods: 105 patients with advanced malignant tumor were randomly divided into trial group, 69 patients, and control group, 36 patients.rm hTNF was injected intramuscularly to the trial group at a dose of 4×106 U/m2, from the 1st to 7th days, the llth to 17th days combined with chemotherapy course. The chemotherapy plan was as follows:CAP for patients with the NSCLC; FAM for patients with gastric cancer; FC for patients with colorectal cancer. One treatment cycle lasted for 21 days and two cycles were scheduled. The control group was given only the same chemotherapy as the trial group. Results: In the trial group there was 1 CR case and 12 PR cases, and the response rate was 13/69 (18.84%); in the control group 1 PR case, the response rate 1/36 (2.78%). The response rate in the trial group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=0.022). The response rate for NSCLC in the trial group was 8/17 (47.06%), and 1/6 (16.67%) in the control group. The response rates for gastric cancer and colorectal cancer in the trial groups also were higher than those in the control groups. After the treatment the KPS was 89.00+9.92 in the trial group,and 84.17±8.84 in the control group, with a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.028). The adverse reactions of rmhTNF injection included: pain in the injection area, chill, hardening and swelling and redness in the injection area, fever, ostealgia and myosalgia, and cold-like symptoms. All these adverse reactions were mild and bearable

  4. [Construction of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rh-β-NGF) eukaryotic vector and its expression in HEK293 cells]. (United States)

    Li, Jingchuan; Xue, Bofu; Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Mo; Zhu, Lin; Milburn, Rebecca; Le, Li; Hu, Peizhen; Ye, Jing


    Human nerve growth factor (NGF) is a nerve cell growth regulation factor, which can provide nutrition for the neurons and promote the neurites outgrowth. In order to produce large-scale recombinant human nerve growth factor (rh-beta-NGF), we constructed a plasmid vector, which can stably express the rh-beta-NGF in the HEK293 cell lines. First, the plasmid of pCMV-beta-NGF-IRES-dhfr was constructed and transformed into HEK293 cells. Then MTX pressurized filter and limiting dilution methods were used to obtain monoclonal HEK293 cell lines. After stepwise reducing serum in culture media, the cells eventually adapted to serum-free medium and secreted rh-beta-NGF. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the expression product owned a molecular weight of about 13 kDa and a purity of more than 50%. The peptide mapping sequencing analysis demonstrated the sequences of rh-beta-NGF matched with the theoretical ones. Later we purified this protein by ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatograph. Finally, our experimental results exhibited that the recombinant cell lines can stably express rh-beta-NGF with a high efficiency of more than 20 pg/cell x day. In addition, this protein could successfully induce differentiation of PC12 cells. In summary, our recombinant HEK293 cells can express bio-active rh-beta-NGF with great efficiency and stability, which supply a valid basis to large-scale production of rh-beta-NGF.

  5. Gene therapy for pathological scar with hepatocyte growth factor mediated by recombinant adenovirus vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈小琴; 苑宾; 李元敏; 劳妙芬; 吴祖泽


    A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding human hepatocyte growth factor wasintroduced into a replication-defective type 5 adenovirus (lacking E1, E3 domains) vector by homologous recombination of intracellular plasmid DNA, thus a recombinant vector containing HGF (Ad-HGF) was obtained. Ad-HGF and Ad-GFP (adenovirus vector carrying green fluorescence protein gene) were expanded in 293 cells and purified by cesium chloride gradient centrifugation for large-scale preparation, then were infected to the primarily cultured scar fibroblast of rabbit ear to observe the transfer efficiency and expression level of HGF in vitro. To evaluate the effect of Ad-HGF on established scar Ad-HGF solution was injected into excessively formed scar, which bears some clinical and histologic similarities tohuman hypertrophic scars. The results showed that: (i) the transfer efficiency was 36.8%±14.1% on day 3 in primarily cultured scar fibroblasts treated with Ad-GFP and lasted more than 20 d; (ii) high-level expression of HGF protein was detected by means of ELISA in supernatant of scar fibroblasts treated with Ad-HGF,the amount of expression was 76 ng/4.0×105 cells on day 3; (iii) on day 32 after a single intradermal injection of Ad-HGF at different doses (8.6×109 pfu, 8.6×108 pfu, 8.6×107 pfu, 8.6×106 pfu) per scar, most of the scars in the former two dose groups were dramatically flattened, some were even similar to that ofthe normal skin. The value of HI (hypertrophic index) showed that there was a therapeutic effect of Ad-HGF on scars at the dose of 109 pfu and 108 pfu. Whereasno therapeutic effects were seen at lower dose (107 pfu and 106 pfu of Ad-HGF) groups. In addition, clusters of hair were observed to different extent on healed wound treated with Ad-HGF. Histopathologic examination revealed that in most healed wounds of Ad-HGF treated group, the dermal layer was thinner, the amount of fibrous tissue was much fewer, and hair follicles growth and sebaceous glands were observed

  6. Recombinant soluble betaglycan is a potent and isoform-selective transforming growth factor-beta neutralizing agent. (United States)

    Vilchis-Landeros, M M; Montiel, J L; Mendoza, V; Mendoza-Hernández, G; López-Casillas, F


    Betaglycan is an accessory receptor of members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, which regulates their actions through ligand-dependent interactions with type II receptors. A natural soluble form of betaglycan is found in serum and extracellular matrices. Soluble betaglycan, prepared as a recombinant protein using the baculoviral expression system, inhibits the actions of TGF-beta. Because of its potential use as an anti-TGF-beta therapeutic agent, we have purified and characterized baculoviral recombinant soluble betaglycan. Baculoviral soluble betaglycan is a homodimer formed by two 110 kDa monomers associated by non-covalent interactions. This protein is devoid of glycosaminoglycan chains, although it contains the serine residues, which, in vertebrate cells, are modified by these carbohydrates. On the other hand, mannose-rich carbohydrates account for approximately 20 kDa of the mass of the monomer. End-terminal sequence analysis of the soluble betaglycan showed that Gly(24) is the first residue of the mature protein. Similarly to the natural soluble betaglycan, baculoviral soluble betaglycan has an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of 3.5 nM for TGF-beta1. Ligand competition assays indicate that the relative affinities of recombinant soluble betaglycan for the TGF-beta isoforms are TGF-beta2>TGF-beta3>TGF-beta1. The anti-TGF-beta potency of recombinant soluble betaglycan in vitro is 10-fold higher for TGF-beta2 than for TGF-beta1. Compared with a commercial pan-specific anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody, recombinant soluble betaglycan is more potent against TGF-beta2 and similar against TGF-beta1. These results indicate that baculoviral soluble betaglycan has the biochemical and functional properties that would make it a suitable agent for the treatment of the diseases in which excess TGF-beta plays a central physiopathological role. PMID:11256966

  7. Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis as a Complication of Recombinant Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Therapy in a Heart Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanbattista Ippoliti


    Full Text Available Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF is a myeloid growth factor that is widely used in haematology to recover neutropenia secondary to myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is an acknowledged side effect of the above therapy. Its pathogenesis involves many mechanisms that collectively induce an increase in neutrophil function and a subsequent release of cytokines. Here, we report a case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis proven by skin biopsy, following the use of rG-CSF in a heart transplant patient with leukopenia secondary to immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Cost effectiveness of recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckman Mark H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase I/II placebo-controlled clinical trials of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa suggested that administration of rFVIIa within 4 hours after onset of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is safe, limits ICH growth, and improves outcomes. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of rFVIIa for acute ICH treatment, using published Phase II data. We hypothesized that rFVIIa would have a low marginal cost-effectiveness ratio (mCER given the poor neurologic outcomes after ICH with conventional management. Methods We performed an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the societal perspective, considering conventional management vs. 80 ug/kg rFVIIa treatment for acute ICH cases meeting Phase II inclusion criteria. The time frame for the analysis was 1. 25 years: data from the Phase II trial was used for 90 day outcomes and rFVIIa complications – arterial thromboembolic events (ATE. We assumed no substantial cost differences in care between the two strategies except: 1 cost of rFVIIa (for an 80 mcg/kg dose in an 80 kg patient, assumed cost of $6,408; 2 cost of ATE side effects from rFVIIa (which also decrease quality of life and increase the chance of death; and 3 differential monetary costs of outcomes and their impact on quality of life, including disposition (home vs. nursing home, and outpatient vs. inpatient rehabilitation. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explore uncertainty in parameter estimates, impact of rFVIIa cost, direct cost of neurologic outcomes, probability of ATE, and outcomes after ATE. Results In the "base case", treating ICH with rFVIIa dominates the usual care strategy by being more effective and less costly. rFVIIa maintained a mCER Conclusion Based on data from preliminary trials, treating selected ICH patients with rFVIIa results in lower cost and improved clinical outcomes. This potential cost-effectiveness must be considered in light of the Phase III trial results.

  9. Factors influencing clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yin-hui; ZHUO Shi-tu; CHEN Ya-fang; LI Ming-mei; LIN You-yu; YANG Mei-li; CHEN Zhen-jie


    Background Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has gained international recognition,clinical outcomes following this thrombolytic therapy varied from patient to patient.Factors affecting clinical outcomes have not been well understood yet,so this retrospective case-control study aimed to investigate factors that may influence clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous rt-PA.Methods One hundred and one patients with acute ischemic stroke who received intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis within 4.5 hours from disease onset were included.Patients were divided into good or poor outcome group according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score,good outcome group:mRS score of 0-1; poor outcome group:mRS of 2-6.Stroke characteristics were compared between the two groups.Factors for stroke outcomes were analyzed via univariate analysis and Logistic regression.Results Of the 101 patients studied,patients in good outcome group (n=55) were significantly younger than patients in poor outcome group (n=46,(62.82±14.25) vs.(68.81±9.85) years,P=0.029).Good outcome group had fewer patients with diabetic history (9.09% vs.28.26%,P=0.012),fewer patients with leukoaraiosis (7.27% vs.28.26%,P=0.005) and presented with lower blood glucose level ((5.72±1.76) vs.(6.72±1.32) mmol/L,P=0.012),lower systolic blood pressure level ((135.45±19.36) vs.(148.78±19.39) mmHg,P=0.003),lower baseline NIHSS score (12.02±5.26 vs.15.78±4.98,P=0.002) and shorter onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ((2.38±1.21) vs.(2.57±1.03) hours,P=0.044) than poor outcome group.Logistic regression analysis showed that absence of diabetic history (odds ratio (OR) 0.968 (95% CI 0.941-0.996)),absence of leukoaraiosis (OR 0.835 (95% CI 0.712-0.980)),lower baseline NIHSS score (OR 0.885 (95% CI 0.793-0.989)),lower pre-thrombolysis systolic blood pressure (OR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929-0.997)),and lower blood glucose level (OR 0.699 (95% CI 0.491-0.994)) before


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebiana Sá-Moura


    We show that recombinant Ump1 is purified as a mixture of different oligomeric species and thatoligomerization is mediated by intermolecular disulfide bond formation involving the only cysteine residue present in the protein.Furthermore, a combination of bioinformatic, biochemical and structural analysis revealed that Ump1 shows characteristics of anintrinsically disordered protein, which might become structured only upon interaction with the proteasomesubunits.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于翠娟; 孟艳玲; 桂俊豪; 赵晶; 金明; 王智; 王成济; 杨安钢


    Objective: To obtain the recombinant fusion AIF genes inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector Pires2-EGFP, to observe the expression and location of the fusion AIF genes (3NE: PE(280-358)-AIFΔ1-120, and 4NE: PE(280-364)-AIFΔ1-120), and to detect and compare their apoptosis inducing effects on the transfected HeLa cells. Methods: Full-length human AIF gene was cloned by RT-PCR, and its N-terminal mitochondrial localization sequence (MLS) was replaced by part sequence of Psuedomonas exotoxin A (PE) translocation domain (PEII(280-358/364)), then the recombinant fusion genes were inserted into the Pires2-EGFP eukaryotic expression vector. After these genes were transiently transfected into HeLa cells with LipofectAmine, the expression of the recombinant fusion AIF genes and their effects on HeLa cells were detected by fluorescent microscopy, laser confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Results: The eukaryotic expression vectors containing the recombinant fusion AIF genes (Pires2-EGFP-PEII(280-358/364)- AIFΔ1- 120) were constructed successfully. It was demonstrated that the fusion AIF protein genes were expressed effectively in the transfected cells, with the GFP comco-expressed in cells by indirect immunofluorescence staining analysis. After transfection, expression of the genes could induce HeLa cells to exhibit the typical apoptosis features: such as plasma membrane blebbing and peripheral chromatin condensation. As compared with control groups, the untreated cells and the void vector transfected cells, the living cell number of the AIF gene transfected cells reduced distinctly. Conclusion: Our data prove that the expression of the recombinant human AIF fusion genes could induce apoptosis in transfected HeLa cells, which provides new strategy for cancer killing.

  12. Curative effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene on intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the curative effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) gene on intracerebral

  13. Myeloprotective Action of Combined Application of Ukrainian Recombinant Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (r-GCSF and Enterosorbent С2 in Rats with Malignant Guerin Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor, I.M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze myeloprotective effect of novel enterosorbents alone and in combination with two recombinant granulocyte colony stimulating factors: Neupogen (Switzerland and r- GCSF (Ukraine. It is proven that Ukrainian version of recombinant granulocyte colony stimulating factor r-GCSF does not concede officinal drug Neupogen (Switzerland by its experimental therapeutic action and combined use with enterosorbent C2 significantly increases myeloprotective effect of both GCSF versions.

  14. Expression of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor VII by the Lizard Leishmania Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Mirzaahmadi


    Full Text Available The variety of recombinant protein expression systems have been developed as a resource of FVII gene expression. In the current study, the authors used a novel protein expression system based on the Iranian Lizard Leishmania, a trypanosomatid protozoan as a host for expression of FVII. Plasmid containing cDNA encoding full-length human FVII was introduced into Lizard Leishmania and positive transfectants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, biological activity of purified protein was detected by PT assay. The recombinant strain harboring a construct was analyzed for expression of FVII at the mRNA and protein level. Purified rFVII was obtained and in order to confirm the purified compound was in fact rFVII. Western blot analysis was carried out. Clotting time in PT assay was reduced about 30 seconds with the purified rFVII. In Conclusion, this study has demonstrated, for the first time, that Leishmania cells can be used as an expression system for producing recombinant FVII.

  15. Construction of pPIC9 Recombinant Vector Containing Human Stem Cell Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Farhadi


    Full Text Available Purpose: Various cytokine regulates hematopoesis; they promote number of stages in stem cells biology such as proliferation, differentiation and endurance. Biological effects of SCF, as a hematopoietic cytokine; is triggered by binding to its ligand c-kit. Potential therapeutic applications of SCF include hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, exvivo stem/progenitor cell expansion, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. In this study we tried to construct of pPIC9 recombinant vector containing human SCF. Methods: hSCF cDNA was amplified by PCR and both hSCF cDNA and pPIC9 as yeast expression vector (shuttle vector digested by EcoR I and Xho I restriction enzymes. Subsequent the digestion reaction, ligation reaction was carried out. In order to verifying of pPIC9 recombinant vector containing hSCF, PCR and sequence analysis was performed. Results: The construction of recombinant expression vector of pPIC9 containing hSCF cDNA was confirmed by sequencing method successfully. Conclusion: rhSCF/pPIC9 vector can be transformed into the Picha pastoris yeast as a eukaryotic host in order to produce human SCF at industrial scale.

  16. Expression of human clotting factor Ⅸ mediated by recombinant lentiviral vector in cultured cells and hemophilia B mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Huanzhang; CHEN Xiaoguang; LI Feng; GONG Juli; XUE Jinglun


    To explore the expression of human clotting factor Ⅸ (hFⅨ) cDNA in vitro and the feasibility of gene therapy for hemophilia B mice mediated by recombinant lentiviral vector, a recombinant hFⅨ lentiviral vector driven by ubiquitin-C promoter, FUXW, and by ABP liver specific promoter, FAXW, was constructed respectively. Recombinant lentivirus was harvested from 293T cells by calcium phosphate-mediated transient cotransfection of three plasmids (transgene vector, CMVΔR8.2, VSV-G). hFⅨ expression was detected in supernatant of 293T, BHK and L-02 cells infected with FUXW virus, whereas higher expression of hFⅨ levels (630 ng/106 cells/48 h) was detected only in L-02 cells infected with FAXW virus. Serum hFⅨ antigen was detected in all hemophilia B mice treated with FAXW virus by tail vein injection, an efficiency level of hFⅨ was observed (45 ng/mL, approximately 1% of normal human levels), the expression lasted for more than 60 d. The results indicated that HIV-based lentiviral vectors offer a promising approach to the gene therapy of hemophilia B.

  17. Recombinant human pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF): characterization of PEDF overexpressed and secreted by eukaryotic cells. (United States)

    Stratikos, E.; Alberdi, E.; Gettins, P. G.; Becerra, S. P.


    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a serpin found in the interphotoreceptor matrix of the eye, which, although not a proteinase inhibitor, possesses a number of important biological properties, including promotion of neurite outgrowth and differential expression in quiescent versus senescent states of certain cell types. The low amounts present in the eye, together with the impracticality of using the eye as a source for isolation of the human protein, make it important to establish a system for overexpression of the recombinant protein for biochemical and biological studies. We describe here the expression and secretion of full-length glycosylated human recombinant PEDF at high levels (> 20 micrograms/ mL) into the growth medium of baby hamster kidney cells and characterization of the purified rPEDF by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies and neurite outgrowth assay. By these assays, the recombinant protein behaves as expected for a correctly folded full-length human PEDF. The availability of milligram amounts of PEDF has permitted quantitation of its heparin binding properties and of the effect of reactive center cleavage on the stability of PEDF towards thermal and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. PMID:8976566

  18. Over-expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mesenchymal stem cells transfected with recombinant lentivirus BDNF gene. (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zhu, J; Zhang, K; Liu, T; Zhang, Z


    This study was aimed at investigating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified with recombinant lentivirus bearing BDNF gene. Lentivirus vectors bearing BDNF gene were constructed. MSCs were isolated from rats and cultured. The lentiviral vectors containing BDNF gene were transfected into the MSCs, and BDNF gene and protein expressions were monitored with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure gene and protein expressions, respectibvely in MSCs, MSCs-EGFP and MSCs-EGFP-BDNF groups. Green fluorescence assay confirmed successful transfection of BDNF gene recombinant lentivirus into MSCs. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that BDNF gene and protein expressions in the MSCs-EGFP-BDNF group were significantly higher than that in MSCs group and MSCs-EGFP group. There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression between MSCs and MSCs-EGFP groups. MSCs can over-express BDNF when transfected with recombinant lentivirus bearing BDNF gene.

  19. High-level expression and purification of soluble bioactive recombinant human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Khalili, Mostafa; Soleyman, Mohammad Reza; Baazm, Maryam; Beyer, Cordian


    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of highly conserved superfamily of proteins that has potential mitogenic activity and stimulates differentiation and migration of various cell types. Since HB-EGF has three intra-molecular disulfide bonds, a high expression pattern of active HB-EGF in an E. coli expression system was not successfully established. The aim of this study was to increase production of soluble bioactive recombinant human HB-EGF in E. coli by modifying growth conditions and codon optimization. The open reading frame codons of human HB-EGF were optimized to achieve high level expression in E. coli. The optimized codon was amplified, cloned into plasmid pET-32a, and transformed into E. coli BL21 for further expression. The cultivation parameters (temperature and inducer) were optimized to produce a high yield of soluble HB-EGF. The fusion protein was purified by Nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. Amethylthiazole tetrazolium assay was used to evaluate the bioactivity of the produced recombinant protein. After codon optimization, the codon adaptation index (CAI) was increased from 0.255 in native gene to 0.829 using the optimized sequence. By lowering the temperature to 22°C and the inducer to 0.4 μM, we obtained 35% soluble expression of recombinant and biologically active human HB-EGF. Our data demonstrate that codon optimization increases the yield of HB-EGF in an E. coli expression system. Furthermore, the chosen modifications in cell culturing increase the solubility of recombinant human HB-EGF.

  20. Recombinant factor IX (BAX326) in previously treated paediatric patients with haemophilia B: a prospective clinical trial. (United States)

    Urasinski, T; Stasyshyn, O; Andreeva, T; Rusen, L; Perina, F G; Oh, M S; Chapman, M; Pavlova, B G; Valenta-Singer, B; Abbuehl, B E


    A newly developed recombinant factor IX (BAX326(1) ) was investigated for prophylactic use in paediatric patients aged 96% of bleeds (100% of minor, 88.9% of moderate and 100% of major bleeds); the majority (88.5%) resolved after 1-2 infusions. Longer T1/2 and lower IR were observed in younger children (<6 years) compared to those aged 6 to 12 years. BAX326 administered as prophylactic treatment as well as for controlling bleeds is efficacious and safe in paediatric patients aged <12 years with haemophilia B.

  1. In vivo incisional wound healing augmented by platelet-derived growth factor and recombinant c-sis gene homodimeric proteins



    Human platelet-derived growth factor (hPDGF) is likely to be important in stimulating tissue repair, based upon its in vivo chemotactic and stimulatory activities for inflammatory cells and fibroblasts and upon the presence of PDGF and related proteins in platelets, macrophages, and activated fibroblasts, cell types that make up the milieu of the healing wound. Recombinant human c-sis (rPDGF-B), homodimers of the B chain of PDGF, were compared with hPDGF in vitro. rPDGF-B was immunologically ...

  2. Refolding with Simultaneous Purification of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor from Escherichia coli Using Strong Anion Exchange Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhan WANG; Jiang Feng LIU; Xin Du GENG


    The urea denatured recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhGCSF) which was expressed in Escheriachia coli (E. coli) was refolded with simultaneous purification by strong anion exchange chromatography (SAX) in the presence of low concentration of urea. The effect of urea concentration on this refolding process was investigated. The obtained refolded rhG-CSF has a high specific activity of 2.3×108 U/mg, demonstrating that the proteins were completely refolded during the chromatographic process. With only one step by SAX in 40 min, purity and mass recovery of the refolded and purified rhG-CSF were 97% and43%, respectively.

  3. A New Protocol for Solubilization, Refolding and Purification of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor in Inclusion Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Hua LIU; Chao Zhan WANG; Xin Du GENG


    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in inclusion bodies was solubilized by 8 mol/L urea solution and subsequently precipitated by acetone to improve its purity. After that, the precipitates were solubilized by sodium hydroxide solution containing 2 mol/L urea. Then the solubilized rhG-CSF was passed through a size exclusion chromatography for refolding and extensive purification, and further purified by a weak anion exchange chromatography. The purity and mass recovery of refolded rhG-CSF were 96.5% and 75.6%, respectively. The bioactivity was 8.4×107 IU/mg.

  4. Cloning of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cDNA and expression of recombinant soluble TNF-binding protein.


    Gray, P W; Barrett, K; Chantry, D; Turner, M.; Feldmann, M


    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNF alpha with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surf...

  5. The effect of recombinant erythropoietin on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Hoejman, Pernille


    UNLABELLED: The study aims to investigate the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with affective disorders. In total, 83 patients were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment......-resistant depression (TRD) (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17) score >17) (study 1) and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ≤ 14) (study 2). In both studies, patients were randomised to receive eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU...

  6. The multi-factor recombination and processes superimposition model for hydrocarbon accumulation: application to the Silurian in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingyang; Pang Xiongqi; Gao Jianbo


    The multi-factor recombination and processes superimposition model for hydrocarbon accumulation is put forward in view of the hydrocarbon geological characteristics of multiple episodes of structural evolution, multiple sets of source-reservoir-seal assemblage, multiple cycles of hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple episodes of readjustment and reconstruction in the complex superimposed basins in China. It is a system including theories and methods that can help to predict favorable exploration regions. According to this model, the basic discipline for hydrocarbon generation, evolution and distribution in the superimposed basins can be summarized in multi-factor recombination, processes superimposition, multiple stages of oil filling and latest stage preservation. With the Silurian of the Tarim basin as an example, based on the reconstruction of the evolution history of the four factors (paleo-anticline,source rock, regional cap rock and kinematic equilibrium belt) controlling hydrocarbon accumulation,this model was adopted to predict favorable hydrocarbon accumulation areas and favorable exploration regions following structural destruction in three stages of oil filling, to provide guidance for further exploration of oil and gas in the Silurian of the Tarim basin.

  7. The Potential Role of Recombinant Hematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors in Preventing Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rusthoven


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors coordinate the proliferation and maturation of bone marrow and peripheral blood cells during normal hematopoiesis. Most of these factors are now available as recombinant human colony-stimulating factors, and preclinical and clinical testing is proceeding rapidly. Granulocyte and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors have been the most extensively studied to date. In human clinical trials, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves neutrophil counts and function, reduces episodes of febrile neutropenia, improves neutrophil recovery after disease- or treatment-induced myelosuppression, and reduces the number of serious infections in several neutropenic disease states. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor has similar biological properties but may also improve eosinophil proliferation and function, and platelet cell recovery after myelotoxic bone marrow injury, Interleukin-1 boosts the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also may promote the resolution of established infections in conjunction with antibiotics. The therapeutic realities and future therapeutic implications of these agents for the therapy of infections, cancer and hemopoietic disorders are discussed.

  8. Recombinant factor VIII Fc (rFVIIIFc) fusion protein reduces immunogenicity and induces tolerance in hemophilia A mice. (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Liu, Tongyao; Drager, Douglas; Patarroyo-White, Susannah; Chhabra, Ekta Seth; Peters, Robert; Josephson, Neil; Lillicrap, David; Blumberg, Richard S; Pierce, Glenn F; Jiang, Haiyan


    Anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies is a major complication of FVIII replacement therapy for hemophilia A. We investigated the immune response to recombinant human factor VIII Fc (rFVIIIFc) in comparison to BDD-rFVIII and full-length rFVIII (FL-rFVIII) in hemophilia A mice. Repeated administration of therapeutically relevant doses of rFVIIIFc in these mice resulted in significantly lower antibody responses to rFVIII compared to BDD-rFVIII and FL-rFVIII and reduced antibody production upon subsequent challenge with high doses of rFVIIIFc. The induction of a tolerogenic response by rFVIIIFc was associated with higher percentage of regulatory T-cells, a lower percentage of pro-inflammatory splenic T-cells, and up-regulation of tolerogenic cytokines and markers. Disruption of Fc interactions with either FcRn or Fcγ receptors diminished tolerance induction, suggesting the involvement of these pathways. These results indicate that rFVIIIFc reduces immunogenicity and imparts tolerance to rFVIII demonstrating that recombinant therapeutic proteins may be modified to influence immunogenicity and facilitate tolerance.

  9. Recombinant B domain deleted porcine factor VIII for the treatment of bleeding episodes in adults with acquired hemophilia A. (United States)

    Gomperts, Edward


    Hemophilia A is an inherited deficiency of clotting factor VIII (FVIII) often complicated by inhibitor development (CHAWI) in which neutralizing antibodies block the therapeutic benefit of replacement therapy. Inhibitors to FVIII can also be seen in an auto-immune disease known as acquired hemophilia A (AHA). 'Bypassing' therapies have been shown to provide hemostasis but dosing must be done empirically because current assays cannot measure objective markers of treatment efficacy and safety. A recombinant porcine sequence factor VIII (r-pFVIII) has been developed for the management of AHA. Preclinical, Phase I and Phase II clinical research studies in CHAWI subjects showed therapeutic potential and safety of this agent. A Phase II/III study in AHA with serious bleeding episodes shows a positive response in all subjects after administration. Based on current preclinical and clinical trial data, r-pFVIII should become the first line of treatment in the management of hemorrhage in patients with AHA.

  10. Renaturation of heterodimeric platelet-derived growth factor from inclusion bodies of recombinant Escherichia coli using size-exclusion chromatography. (United States)

    Müller, C; Rinas, U


    A procedure for renaturation of heterodimeric platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB) from inclusion bodies of recombinant Escherichia coli using size-exclusion chromatography is described. Either prepurified or crude PDGF-AB inclusion bodies solubilized with guanidinium hydrochloride were subjected to buffer exchange from denaturing to renaturing conditions during chromatography. Renaturation of PDGF-AB involves folding of the solubilized and unfolded molecules into dimerization competent monomers during size-exclusion chromatography and subsequent dimerization of folded monomers into the biologically active heterodimeric growth factor. Optimized conditions result in an overall yield of 75% active PDGF-AB with respect to size-exclusion chromatography and subsequent dimerization. The described approach allows renaturation at high protein concentrations and circumvents aggregation which is observed when refolding is carried out by dilution.

  11. The role of Candida albicans homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in DNA damage sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Theodore C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently seen in immune suppressed patients, and resistance to one of the most widely used antifungals, fluconazole (FLC, can evolve rapidly. In recent years it has become clear that plasticity of the Candida albicans genome contributes to drug resistance through loss of heterozygosity (LOH at resistance genes and gross chromosomal rearrangements that amplify gene copy number of resistance associated genes. This study addresses the role of the homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in cell growth, DNA damage and FLC resistance in Candida albicans. Results The data presented here support a role for homologous recombination in cell growth and DNA damage sensitivity, as Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants were hypersensitive to MMS and menadione, and had an aberrant cell and nuclear morphology. The Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutant was defective in invasion of Spider agar, presumably due to the altered cellular morphology. In contrast, mutation of the related gene RDH54 did not contribute significantly to DNA damage resistance and cell growth, and deletion of either Candida albicans RAD54 or Candida albicans RDH54 did not alter FLC susceptibility. Conclusions Together, these results support a role for homologous recombination in genome stability under nondamaging conditions. The nuclear morphology defects in the rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants show that Rad54 performs an essential role during mitotic growth and that in its absence, cells arrest in G2. The viability of the single mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ and the inability to construct the double mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ rdh54Δ/rdh54Δ suggests that Rdh54 can partially compensate for Rad54 during mitotic growth.

  12. Effects of recombinant retroviral vector mediated human insulin like growth factor-1 gene transfection on skeletal muscle growth in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-Ling; LU Yong-Xin; LIAO Yu-Hua; WANG Xiao-Lin; GUO He-Ping; CHANG Chao; GAO Yan-Zhang; MI Shao-Hua; Wan Jian-Ping


    Background This study transferred a recombinant gene encoding human insulin like growth factor-1 (hIGF-1)into modified primary skeletal myoblasts with a retroviral vector (pLgXSN) and determined whether the hIGF-1 promoted growth of skeletal muscle in rat.Methods hIGF-lcDNA was amplified in vitro from normal human liver cells by using RT-PCR and cloned into plasmid vector pLgXSN. The recombinant vector pLghIGF-1SN and control vector pLgGFPSN were transfected into packaging cell PT67 and G418 was used to select positive colony. Myoblasts were infected with a high titre viral supernatant and transduction efficiency was evaluated as GFP expression. The expression of hIGF-1 mRNA in myoblasts was investigated by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. MTT assays detected the growth of myoblasts in vitro. Myoblasts transduced with pLghIGF-1SN were injected into hind limb muscles of 10-12 week male SD rats. Formed tissues were harvested 4 weeks later. Myocyte diameter, mean weight of hind limb and body were measured to evaluate the skeletal muscle growth.Results Recombinant retroviral plasmid vector pLghIGF-1SN was constructed successfully. The titre of the packaged recombinant retrovirus was 1 × 106 cfu/ml. The transfection rate of PT67 cells reached 100% after G418 screening. hIGF-1 expression was positive in myoblast-IGF-1. The proliferation rate of myoblast-IGF-1 in vitro was higher than GFP-myoblast or myoblast (P< 0.05). The mean weights of hind limb and body of rats injected myoblast-IGF-1 were higher than those of the rats injected with myoblast-GFP or myoblast (P< 0.05). Myocyte diameter had a significant increase in IGF-1 group compared to GFP group and myoblast group (P< 0.05).Conclusions The transfection of the human IGF- 1 gene mediated by a retroviral vector can promote the growth of skeletal muscle in rats. Genetically modified primary skeletal myoblasts provide a possibly effective approach to treat some skeletal muscle diseases.

  13. Weekly CODE chemotherapy with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for relapsed or refractory small cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Sato, K; Tsuchiya, S; Minato, K; Sunaga, N; Ishihara, S I; Makimoto, T; Naruse, I; Hoshino, H; Watanabe, S; Saitoh, R; Mori, M


    We used cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, and etoposide (CODE) plus recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) weekly for salvage chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We reviewed the medical charts of patients between January 1993 and December 1996 at the National Nishi-Gunma Hospital. Twenty patients were treated with salvage chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 55.0%. The median survival time of extensive disease patients from the start of CODE therapy was 23 weeks and the 1-year survival rate was 21.0%. Toxicities were severe, especially in myelosuppression. CODE could be selected as a salvage therapy for chemotherapy- relapsed SCLC cases.

  14. Tranexamic acid combined with recombinant factor VIII increases clot resistance to accelerated fibrinolysis in severe hemophilia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Hanne Thykjær; Norengaard, Lisbeth


    BACKGROUND: Most patients with severe hemophilia A suffer from a profoundly compromised hemostatic response. In addition to both the delayed and slow development of a clot, previous studies have documented that severe hemophilia A is also associated with reduced clot stability. OBJECTIVES: We...... examined whether the clot stability in hemophiliacs could be improved by treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) in combination with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII). PATIENTS/METHODS: Baseline blood samples were obtained from eight males with severe hemophilia A. Thereafter, a bolus injection of r...... the elasticity curve increased 5-fold after rFVIII and 24-fold after addition of TXA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that simultaneous treatment with TXA and rFVIII significantly improves the clot stability in patients with hemophilia A. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ha; Lee, Seung-Bae; Lee, Sang-Mahn; Oh, Jae-Wook


    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that has multiple roles in hematopoietic cells such as the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe fed-batch culture, refolding, and purification of rhG-CSF. The suitability of urea or sarcosine for solubilizing inclusion bodies (IBs) was tested. It was observed that urea is more efficient for solubilizing and refolding IBs than sarcosine is. The purity of rhG-CSF and the removal percentage of the rhG-CSF isoforms during purification were increased by pH 5.5 precipitation. The purity and the yield of purified rhG-CSF were 99% and 0.5 g of protein per liter culture broth, respectively. Our protocols of recombinant protein purification using ion exchange chromatography and semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography of pH-precipitated refolded solution may be informative to the industrial scale production of biopharmaceuticals.

  16. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor reduces necrosis and enhances hepatocyte regeneration in a mouse model of acetaminophen toxicity. (United States)

    Donahower, Brian C; McCullough, Sandra S; Hennings, Leah; Simpson, Pippa M; Stowe, Cindy D; Saad, Ali G; Kurten, Richard C; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P


    We reported previously that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice and treatment with a VEGF receptor inhibitor reduced hepatocyte regeneration. The effect of human recombinant VEGF (hrVEGF) on APAP toxicity in the mouse was examined. In early toxicity studies, B6C3F1 mice received hrVEGF (50 microg s.c.) or vehicle 30 min before receiving APAP (200 mg/kg i.p.) and were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 h. Toxicity was comparable at 2 and 4 h, but reduced in the APAP/hrVEGF mice at 8 h (p toxicity and increased hepatocyte regeneration in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Attenuation of sinusoidal cell endothelial dysfunction and changes in neutrophil dynamics may be operant mechanisms in the hepatoprotection mediated by hrVEGF in APAP toxicity.

  17. Effects of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor on cell proliferation during mandibular fracture healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To investigate the effects of recombinant human basicfibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) on the cell proliferation during mandibular fracture healing in rabbits.Methods: The complex of rhbFGF and bovine type I collagen was implanted into the mandibular fracture site under periosteum of the animal. The whole mandible was harvested at 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days respectively after operation. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in callus was examined with immunohistochemical staining.Results: PCNA-positive cells in callus in the rhbFGF-treated group on days 7 and 14 were more than that in the control group (P<0.01).Conclusions: It indicates that rhbFGF can stimulate cell proliferation during mandibular fracture healing in rabbits.

  18. A Cell Line Producing Recombinant Nerve Growth Factor Evokes Growth Responses in Intrinsic and Grafted Central Cholinergic Neurons (United States)

    Ernfors, Patrik; Ebendal, Ted; Olson, Lars; Mouton, Peter; Stromberg, Ingrid; Persson, Hakan


    The rat β nerve growth factor (NGF) gene was inserted into a mammalian expression vector and cotransfected with a plasmid conferring resistance to neomycin into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. From this transfection a stable cell line was selected that contains several hundred copies of the rat NGF gene and produces excess levels of recombinant NGF. Such genetically modified cells were implanted into the rat brain as a probe for in vivo effects of NGF on central nervous system neurons. In a model of the cortical cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer disease, we demonstrate a marked increase in the survival of, and fiber outgrowth from, grafts of fetal basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as well as stimulation of fiber formation by intact adult intrinsic cholinergic circuits in the cerebral cortex. Adult cholinergic interneurons in intact striatum also sprout vigorously toward implanted fibroblasts. Our results suggest that this model has implications for future treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Critical appraisal of the role of recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampaiwan Chuansumrit


    Full Text Available Ampaiwan Chuansumrit1, Pantep Angchaisuksiri2, Nongnuch Sirachainan11Departments of Pediatrics and 2Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University,  Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Hemophilia patients with inhibitors faced the constraint of inadequate treatment for several years before the era of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVII. Initially, rFVIIa was used in the compassionate-use programs. After a worldwide license was issued, more than 1.5 million doses were administered. Bleeding of joints and muscles was controlled effectively by means of an early home treatment program, with either a standard dose of 90 μg/kg every 2 to 3 hours for a few doses or a single dose of 270 μg/kg. For more serious bleeding episodes or minor surgery, an initial dose of 90 μg/kg was given every 2 hours for 24 to 48 hours followed by increased intervals of 3 to 6 hours according to the severity of bleeding and efficacy of bleeding control. In cases of major surgery such as orthopedic procedures, the same regimen can be applied except for a higher initial dose of 120 to 180 μg/kg. However, increasing the dose should be considered if there are unexpected bleeding complications since the half-life and clearance of rFVIIa differ between individuals. In addition, prophylaxis is administered to a small number of patients. Finally, the reported thromboembolic events found in hemophilia patients with inhibitors receiving rFVIIa are extremely low, much less than 1%.Keywords: bleeding disorder, hemophilia, inhibitor, NovoSeven, recombinant factor VIIa

  20. Biological insights into the expression of translation initiation factors from recombinant CHOK1SV cell lines and their relationship to enhanced productivity. (United States)

    Mead, Emma J; Masterton, Rosalyn J; Feary, Marc; Obrezanova, Olga; Zhang, Lin; Young, Robert; Smales, C Mark


    Translation initiation is on the critical pathway for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by mammalian cells. Formation of a closed loop structure comprised of mRNA, a number of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and ribosomal proteins has been proposed to aid re-initiation of translation and therefore increase global translational efficiency. We have determined mRNA and protein levels of the key components of the closed loop, eIFs (eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3h, eIF3i and eIF4G1), poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) 1 and PABP-interacting protein 1 (PAIP1), across a panel of 30 recombinant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines with a broad range of growth characteristics and production levels of a model recombinant mAb. We have used a multi-level statistical approach to investigate the relationship between key performance indicators (cell growth and recombinant antibody productivity) and the intracellular amounts of target translation initiation factor proteins and the mRNAs encoding them. We show that high-producing cell lines maintain amounts of the translation initiation factors involved in the formation of the closed loop mRNA, maintaining these proteins at appropriate levels to deliver enhanced recombinant protein production. We then utilize knowledge of the amounts of these factors to build predictive models for and use cluster analysis to identify, high-producing cell lines. The present study therefore defines the translation initiation factor amounts that are associated with highly productive recombinant GS-CHOK1SV cell lines that may be targets for screening highly productive cell lines or to engineer new host cell lines with the potential for enhanced recombinant antibody productivity.

  1. Expression and Purification of Active Recombinant Human Nerve Growth Factor from Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction Nerve growth factor (NGF) was first discovered and purified by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in the 1950s[1,2]. It represents the first cellular growth factor ever discovered and involved in the growth, survival, and differentiation of specific nerve cell populations[3]. Although animal tests and phase-Ⅱ clinical trials indicate that rhNGF could be an effective treatment for diabetic[4] and HIV-related neuropathies[5] , a large-scale phase-Ⅲ clinical trial has failed to give similar result[6].

  2. Thromboembolic risks of recombinant factor VIIa Use in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-Y Chou Sherry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa may be used for rapid hemostasis in life-threatening hemorrhage. In warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH, FVIIa use is controversial and may carry significant thromboembolic risks. We compared incidence of baseline thromboembolic risk factors and thromboembolism rates in wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa to those treated with standard therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and vitamin K alone. Methods We identified 45 consecutive wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa over 5-year period, and 34 consecutive wICH patients treated with standard therapy alone as comparison group. We compared the incidence of post-hemorrhage cardiac and extra-cardiac thromboembolic complications between two treatment groups, and used logistic regression to adjust for significant confounders such as baseline thromboembolic risk factors. We performed secondary analysis comparing the quantity of FFP transfused between two treatment cohorts. Results Both rFVIIa-treated and standard therapy-treated wICH patients had a high prevalence of pre-existing thromboembolic diseases including atrial fibrillation (73% vs 68%, deep venous thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE (22% vs 18%, coronary artery disease (CAD (38% vs 32%, and abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG (78% vs 85%. Troponin elevation following wICH was prevalent in both groups (47% vs 41%. Clinically significant myocardial infarction (MI, defined as troponin > 1.0 ng/dL, occurred in 13% of rFVIIa-treated and 6% of standard therapy-treated patients (p=0.52. Past history of CAD (p=0.0061 and baseline abnormal EKG (p=0.02 were independently associated with clinically significant MI following wICH while rFVIIa use was not. The incidences of DVT/PE (2% vs 9%; p=0.18 and ischemic stroke (2% vs 0%; p=0.38 were similar between two treatment groups. Recombinant FVIIa-treated patients had lower mean INR at 3 (p=0.0001 and 6 hours (p Conclusions Pre

  3. Generation of recombinant single-chain antibodies neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin, the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleckaityte Milda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is identified as the predominant colonist of the vaginal tract in women with bacterial vaginosis. Vaginolysin (VLY is a protein toxin released by G. vaginalis. VLY possesses cytolytic activity and is considered as a main virulence factor of G. vaginalis. Inhibition of VLY-mediated cell lysis by antibodies may have important physiological relevance. Results Single-chain variable fragments of immunoglobulins (scFvs were cloned from two hybridoma cell lines producing neutralizing antibodies against VLY and expressed as active proteins in E. coli. For each hybridoma, two variants of anti-VLY scFv consisting of either VL-VH or VH-VL linked with a 20 aa-long linker sequence (G4S4 were constructed. Recovery of scFvs from inclusion bodies with subsequent purification by metal-chelate chromatography resulted in VLY-binding proteins that were predominantly monomeric. The antigen-binding activity of purified scFvs was verified by an indirect ELISA. The neutralizing activity was investigated by in vitro hemolytic assay and cytolytic assay using HeLa cell line. Calculated apparent Kd values and neutralizing potency of scFvs were in agreement with those of parental full-length antibodies. VH-VL and VL-VH variants of scFvs showed similar affinity and neutralizing potency. The anti-VLY scFvs derived from hybridoma clone 9B4 exhibited high VLY-neutralizing activity both on human erythrocytes and cervical epithelial HeLa cells. Conclusions Hybridoma-derived scFvs with VLY-binding activity were expressed in E. coli. Recombinant anti-VLY scFvs inhibited VLY-mediated cell lysis. The monovalent scFvs showed reduced affinity and neutralizing potency as compared to the respective full-length antibodies. The loss of avidity could be restored by generating scFv constructs with multivalent binding properties. Generated scFvs is the first example of recombinant single-chain antibodies with VLY-neutralizing activity produced in

  4. Potential role of a new PEGylated recombinant factor VIII for hemophilia A



    Tung Thanh Wynn,1 Burak Gumuscu,2,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 2Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Bon Secours Health System, St. Mary’s Hospital, Richmond, VA, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia A, a deficiency in the activity of coagulation factor (F) VIII, is an X-linked bleeding disorder with an ap...

  5. Beyond stopping the bleed: short-term episodic prophylaxis with recombinant activated factor FVII in haemophilia patients with inhibitors (United States)

    Šalek, Silva Zupančić; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Dolan, Gerry; Duffy, Anne; Hermans, Cedric; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Santagostino, Elena; Lambert, Thierry


    Preventing haemarthroses and arthropathy is a major challenge in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors, as treatment options are limited. One potential strategy is short-term episodic prophylaxis, which extends bypassing agent therapy beyond the resolution of bleeding to include the post-bleed inflammatory phase. At the 13th Zürich Haemophilia Forum, an expert panel reviewed the rationale behind this strategy, explored its current use with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and considered treatment monitoring and optimisation. Two protocols are currently used for short-term episodic prophylaxis, both of which stipulate on-demand rFVIIa until resolution of bleeding, followed by daily dosing for ≥3 days to prevent re-bleeds. Short-term episodic prophylaxis should be individualised to optimise outcomes, perhaps through early treatment initiation or by combining rFVIIa with other treatments (e.g. factor VIII, tranexamic acid). Encouraging treatment compliance can also improve outcomes. Additionally, there is a need to develop objective clinical outcome measures, biomarkers and imaging protocols that can monitor treatment outcomes and joint disease in patients with inhibitors. A proactive approach incorporating a systematic package of care is needed. Currently, short-term episodic prophylaxis with rFVIIa may be an alternative treatment option to on-demand treatment for patients with inhibitors. PMID:26674816

  6. Secretory expression and efficient purification of recombinant anthrax toxin lethal factor with full biological activity in E. coli. (United States)

    Liu, Ju; Cai, Chenguang; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Dayong; Li, Guanlin; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei


    Lethal factor (LF), a virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, plays key roles in anthrax pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. The detailed mechanisms by which LF contributes to infection are still under investigation. While these studies require pure, homogeneous and reliable LF preparations, most methods reported for production of recombinant LF (rLF) in B. anthracis or Escherichia coli either are complicated or add extra residues to the protein. In this work, we modified our previous method by codon optimization and chromatograph workflow refinement and developed an improved strategy for efficient production of rLF from the periplasm of E. coli. We were able to obtain fully functional rLF with a purity above 95% and with a considerable yield of 5 mg/L. The preparation was characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and N-terminal sequencing, and the activity was validated by intoxication of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. Our final product is suitable for most research involving drug development and mechanism analysis of anthrax pathogenesis.

  7. Cloning of Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor cDNA and Expression of Recombinant Soluble TNF-Binding Protein (United States)

    Gray, Patrick W.; Barrett, Kathy; Chantry, David; Turner, Martin; Feldmann, Marc


    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extra-cellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10-9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ).

  8. Preferential response of acute myeloid leukemias with translocation involving chromosome 17 to human recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. (United States)

    Pébusque, M J; Lafage, M; Lopez, M; Mannoni, P


    Induction of proliferation and differentiation in response to the addition of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was studied by both suspension and semisolid cultures in a series of acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Induction of proliferation by G-CSF alone was observed in six of 27 cases of AML. All acute promyelocytic leukemias with the specific chromosomal translocation t(15;17) and one case of myelomonocytic leukemia with balanced chromosomal translocation involving chromosome 17 at band q12q21 were induced to proliferate strongly by the G-CSF. However, contrary to the long-term proliferative effect observed with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), G-CSF activity can be characterized by its capability to initiate and promote the growth of responding AML cells but not to sustain long-term proliferation. Finally, no terminal differentiation was found, as assessed by morphology, cytochemistry, and cell surface marker analysis. These results indicate that G-CSF may be sufficient to provide a specific signal for induction of a transient proliferation in AML without induction of terminal differentiation. The cells with the highest response are clonal leukemia cells, all bearing a translocation involving the chromosome region 17q12q21 in which the G-CSF gene has been recently located.

  9. Effect of recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with or without fluoroquinolone therapy on mixed-infection abscesses in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.T. Stearne (Lorna); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); B.J. Kullberg (Bart Jan); I.C. Gyssens (Inge)


    textabstractThe aim of the study was to determine if immunomodulation of host defense with recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves the efficacy of trovafloxacin or moxifloxacin in abscesses containing Bacillus fragilis ATCC 23745 and different Escherichia coli strai

  10. Excision of the Shigella Resistance Locus Pathogenicity Island in Shigella flexneri Is Stimulated by a Member of a New Subgroup of Recombination Directionality Factors (United States)

    Luck, Shelley N.; Turner, Sally A.; Rajakumar, Kumar; Adler, Ben; Sakellaris, Harry


    Pathogenicity islands are capable of excision and insertion within bacterial chromosomes. We describe a protein, Rox, that stimulates excision of the Shigella resistance locus pathogenicity island in Shigella flexneri. Sequence analysis suggests that Rox belongs to a new subfamily of recombination directionality factors, which includes proteins from P4, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Yersinia pestis. PMID:15292162

  11. Predicting erythroid response to recombinant erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy following a single subcutaneous bolus in patients with myelodysplasia. (United States)

    Bowen, David; Hyslop, Ann; Keenan, Norene; Groves, Michael; Culligan, Dominic; Johnson, Peter; Shaw, Ann; Geddes, Fiona; Evans, Patricia; Porter, John; Cavill, Ivor


    We randomized 21 patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to receive a single subcutaneous bolus of recombinant erythropoietin (epoietin) +/- granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), or placebo and monitored erythropoietic response over 7 days. In this small study, the reticulocyte response at day 7 was highly predictive of subsequent response to a therapeutic trial of epoietin + G-CSF.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We hereby report profound effects of long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration on murine erythropoiesis. Recombinant human (rh)G-CSF (150-mu-g/kg body weight/day) was administered over 24 days to female C57B1 mice. Marrow erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E) and erythr

  13. Treatment of intra-abdominal abscesses caused by Candida albicans with antifungal agents and recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.G.; Netea, M.G.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Verweij, P.E.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.


    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of immunomodulation of host defense with recombinant murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rmG-CSF) on intra-abdominal abscesses caused by Candida albicans. Mice received prophylaxis or therapy with 1 microg of rmG-CSF/day in the prese

  14. Once-weekly prophylactic dosing of recombinant factor IX improves adherence in hemophilia B (United States)

    Djambas Khayat, Claudia


    Regular prophylactic treatment in severe hemophilia should be considered an optimal treatment. There is no general agreement on the optimal prophylaxis regimen, and adherence to prophylaxis is a main challenge due to medical, psychosocial, and cost controversies. Improved approaches in prophylaxis regimen of hemophilia B are needed to make patients’ lives easier. There is some evidence to support the efficacy of once-weekly prophylaxis. Longer sampling schedules are required for the determination of pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of factor IX (FIX). The half-life of FIX seems to be longer than previously described and is expected to be 34 hours. The clinical significance of maintaining a 1% trough level is widely debated in hemophilia B. The overall relationship between factor concentrate levels and incidence of joint bleeding was found to be very weak. Data also indicate that the distribution of FIX into an extravascular FIX compartment may contribute to hemostasis independently of circulating plasma FIX levels. Clinical assessment of the frequency and severity of bleeds remain an important measure of the efficacy of treatment. Role of PK-guided therapy remains to be established. Two prospective randomized studies had evaluated the efficacy and safety of 100 IU/kg once-weekly prophylaxis with nonacog alfa, and this prophylaxis regimen was found to be associated with lower annual bleeding rate compared with on-demand treatment in adolescents and adults with moderately severe-to-severe hemophilia B. Secondary prophylaxis therapy with 100 IU/kg nonacog alfa once weekly reduced annual bleeding rate by 89.4% relative to on-demand treatment. Residual FIX may be supportive of effectiveness. Once-weekly prophylaxis was well tolerated in the two studies, with a safety profile similar to that reported during the on-demand treatment period. To individually tailor treatment to clinical response and to minimize costs of factor concentrate, it would be of interest to

  15. [Purification of recombinant proteins with an example of tumor necrosis factor thymosin-alpha1]. (United States)

    Fedorov, T V; Korobov, V I; Nazarov, V G; Smolkina, A E; Shmelev, V A


    Hybrid protein, cancer necrosis factor thymosin-alpha1 (CNF-T), when synthesizing in strain-producer of Escherichia coli SG200-50 with plasmid pThy315, was a part of "inclusion bodies" mostly in the form of a high-molecular complex with other proteins due to the S-S bonds formation. An approach of purification of CNF-T has been proposed, which is based on the destruction of the complex in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (DDS-NA) and dithiotreitol (DDT) followed by gel-filtration on Sephadex G-100 and renaturation by ultrafiltration on hollow fibers. The method allows the isolation of electrophoretically homogeneous CNF-T containing no DDS-Na and having high cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of mouse adenocarcinome L-929. The yield of CNF-T achieved 80% relative its content in biomass and 30% relative the total protein.

  16. The therapeutic effect of recombinant human trefoil factor 3 on hypoxia-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in immature rat. (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Hong; Yu, Hong-Gang; Sheng, Zhi-Xiang; Luo, He-Sheng; Yu, Jie-Ping


    Trefoil peptides are a new class of regulatory peptides involved in mucosal protection and repair in the gastrointestinal tract. Among them, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) (intestinal trefoil factor) is known to be cytoprotective in the gut. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of recombinant human trefoil factor 3 (rhTFF3) on hypoxia-induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in immature rats. In the present study, thirty-two 1-day-old Wistar rat pups were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as nonhypoxic controls. Group 2 rats were subjected to hypoxia reoxygenation (H/O) and then were returned to their mothers. Groups 3 and 4 rats were subjected to H/O, were returned to their mothers, and were treated with rhTFF3 intraperitoneally (0.5 mg) and subcutaneously (0.2 mg), respectively, for the next 3 days. All animals were killed on day 4, and intestine specimens were obtained to determine the histological changes, tissue level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tromboxane B2 (TXB2), and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, the effects of rhTFF3 on abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were also investigated. In neonatal NEC (group 2), necrosis of villi and crypts and, in some cases, transmural necrosis was observed under light microscopy. Tissue level of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, prostaglandin E2, tromboxane B2, and nitric oxide were significantly higher than group 1. In addition, abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 was markedly increased. In groups 3 and 4, only very slight intestinal injury was observed. The tissue level of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, prostaglandin E2, tromboxane B2, and nitric oxide were significantly decreased in comparison to the group 2. Meanwhile, the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase

  17. Effect of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (Regranex) on wound closure in genetically diabetic mice. (United States)

    Chan, Rodney K; Liu, Perry H; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Ibrahim, Shahrul I; Hechtman, Herbert B; Orgill, Dennis P


    Burns, especially those involving large surface areas, represent a complex wound healing problem. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is released by activated platelets to recruit inflammatory cells toward the wound bed. It has effects on promoting angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation. However, the effectiveness of topical PDGF on wound closure is variable, ranging from little improvement observed in pig models to dramatic improvement reported in a diabetic mouse model. Here, we sought to determine the effectiveness of commercially sold PDGF-BB (Regranex) on wound closure in genetically diabetic mice. C57BL/KsJ db+/db+ mice and its host strain bearing dorsal 1.5-cm wounds were divided into groups (n = 8 in each group) receiving topical application of either Regranex (10 microg/wound) or vehicle for 5 consecutive days after wounding. The rate of wound closure was analyzed using computerized planimetry. The amount of granulation tissue was determined histologically. Our data indicate that diabetic mice exhibit a significant delay in wound closure when compared with their host strain. Topical application of Regranex did not improve the time to wound closure but did significantly increase the amount of granulation tissue. Our current study using commercially available Regranex failed to reproduce the previously reported finding that PDGF improved wound closure in healing impaired genetically diabetic mice.

  18. Expression, refolding, and characterization of recombinant thrombopoietin/stem cell factor fusion protein in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Zang, Yuhui; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Haoran; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Junchuan


    Thrombopoietin/stem cell factor (TPO/SCF) is a novel fusion protein that combines the complementary biological effects of TPO and SCF into a single molecule. In this study, TPO/SCF gene was cloned into pET32a and expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein with a C-terminal 6His-tag in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) under the control of T7 promoter. Trx-TPO/SCF protein approximately accounted for 20% of the total bacterial proteins and was found to accumulate in inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were separated from cellular debris, washed with buffer containing 2 M urea, and solubilized with 8 M urea. The refolding of Trx-TPO/SCF was then carried out by an on-column method. Soluble Trx-TPO/SCF was characterized for its dose-dependent effects on promoting cells proliferation in both TF1 and Mo7e cell lines. rhTPO/SCF was released by thrombin digestion and further purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis confirmed the identities of Trx-TPO/SCF and rhTPO/SCF.

  19. Repair effect of diabetic ulcers with recombinant human epidermal growth factor loaded by sustained-release microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this study the w/o/w extraction–evaporation technique was adopted to prepare poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loading recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). The micro-spheres were characterized for morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size distribution. The release performances, the proliferation effects and therapeutic effects of rhEGF-loaded PLGA microspheres were all studied. The results showed that these spherical micro-spheres had a narrow size distribution and a high drug encapsulation efficiency (85.6%). RhEGF-loaded microspheres enhanced the growth rate of fibroblasts and wound healing more efficiently than pure rhEGF. The number of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the epidermis layer with the mi-crosphere treatment was significantly larger than those of the control groups. Overall locally sustained delivery of rhEGF from biodegradable PLGA microspheres may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic ulcer repair.

  20. Modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with lymphoma. (United States)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H; Hovgaard, D; Borregaard, N; Nissen, N I


    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to inhibit the chemotaxis and enhance the oxidative burst response of human neutrophils in vitro. The present study describes the effect of recombinant GM-CSF on the neutrophil and monocyte function in patients with lymphoma undergoing GM-CSF treatment. Patients with either Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with various dosages (2-16 micrograms kg-1 body weight per day for 5 days) of rhGM-CSF by intravenous or subcutaneous route. Prior to and on day 5 of rhGM-CSF treatment, neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence responses to f-Met-Leu-Phe, zymosan activated serum (ZAS) and opsonized zymosan (OZ) were determined. It was observed that chemotactic response of neutrophils to f-Met-Leu-Phe and ZAS was reduced, whereas the chemiluminescence response of both cell types to f-Met-Leu-Phe and zymosan was enhanced by up to 43-fold. rhGM-CSF treatment did not affect degranulation of the neutrophils as measured by release of vitamin B12 binding protein. Degree of modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by rhGM-CSF was independent of rhGM-CSF dosages administered. These data suggest that phagocytic defence system may be enhanced by GM-CSF treatment and that this cytokine may be a useful therapeutic adjunct in compromised patients.

  1. Anti-adjuvant arthritis of recombinant human endostatin in rats via inhibition of angiogenesis and proinflammatory factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li YUE; Hua WANG; Li-hua LIU; Yu-xian SHEN; Wei WEI


    AIM: To investigate the profile of endostatin on adjuvant arthritis (AA) and angiogenesis blockade in synovitis.METHODS: The model of rat AA was induced by injection of intradermal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Hind paw volume of rat was measured by volume meter and the activities of interleukin- 1 (IL- 1) and IL-2 Were measured by the assay of thymocytes proliferation. IL-1 β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) produced by synoviocytes was estimated with radioimmunoassay. The number of new blood vessels in knee joint synovium was counted under microscope by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. RESULTS: The secondary inflammation of AA rats appeared on the 10th day after injection of CFA. The therapeutic administration of endostatin (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5secondary paw swelling and the number of new blood vessels in the synovium of AA rats. Endostatin significantly decreased the production of IL-1 derived from both peritoneal macrophages and synoviocytes and IL-2 from splenocytes, especially at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg. This effect of endostatin also was seen on TNF-α produced by synoviocytes. CONCLUSION: The recombinant human endostatin had an inhibitory effect on rat AA, which was related to its anti-angiogenesis and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司晓辉; 刘正


    Objective To evaluate the effects of transforming growth factor β(TGF-β) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts ( HPDLFs ). Methods HPDLFs were done primary culture to detect the distinct concentrations of TGF-β and rhBMP2 on its proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin ( OC) synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules, respectively. Results TGF-β(5~100ng /ml) significantly stimulated the proliferation of HPDLFs. The ALP activity of HPDLFs was evaluated evidently by 5ng /ml TGF-β. TGF-β(0.5~100ng /ml) had no effects on OC synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules of HPDLFs. rhBMP2 (0.25~2mg/ ml) had no rernarkable effect on the proliferation of HPDLFs. The ALP activity, OC synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules of HPDLFs were significantly stimulated by 0.5~2mg/ml rhBMP2. Conclusion The effects of TGF-β and rhBMP2 on HPDLFs are dose-dependent. TGF-β can stimulate HPDLFs to express the early marker of osteoblastic phenotype , and it lacks the ability to promote maturation of the osteogenic phenotype. rhBMP2 can not only stimulate the expression but also promote the maturation of osteoblastic phenotype of HPDLFs.

  3. Peripheral blood morphologic changes after high-dose antineoplastic chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration. (United States)

    Kerrigan, D P; Castillo, A; Foucar, K; Townsend, K; Neidhart, J


    The peripheral blood morphologic findings in 17 patients with cancer who had received high-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy followed by recombinant human-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-GCSF) were reviewed and compared with a control group of patients who received only high-dose chemotherapy. Both groups showed dysmyelopoiesis (abnormal granulation and nuclear lobulation) in the granulocytic series during the period of bone marrow recovery that followed the cytotoxic chemotherapy. Most of these morphologic abnormalities were more prominent in the rh-GCSF-treated group. Monocytic cells in both groups showed prominent vacuolation and immature nuclei. The percentages and absolute numbers of large granular lymphocytes were increased in the rh-GCSF group compared with the control group. No quantitative or qualitative abnormalities of eosinophilic or basophilic granulocytes were detected in either group. Both groups showed nonspecific red blood cell abnormalities, and large platelets were present in half of the control group smears. This report provides the first detailed peripheral blood morphologic description in patients treated with rh-GCSF and high-dose chemotherapy.

  4. Facile purification of Escherichia coli expressed tag-free recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha from supernatant. (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhao, Dawei; Li, Xiunan; Yu, Rong; Su, Zhiguo


    Fusing affinity tag at N-terminus was reported to decrease the biological activity of the recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although preparation of tag-free rhTNF-α has already been achieved, the processes were yet laborious, especially in large scale. In this paper, tag-free rhTNF-α was almost equally synthesized by Escherichia coli in both soluble and insoluble forms. A two-step ion exchange chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose combined with CM-Sepharose, was developed to purify the soluble specie from supernatant after cell lysis. Native PAGE and HP-SEC showed the rhTNF-α extracted from supernatant existed in a homogeneous form. HP-SAX and SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated the purity of the final fraction was over 98% with a very high recovery of 75%. Circular dichroism spectrum demonstrated that β-sheet structure was dominant and fluorescence analysis suggested no dramatic exposure of aromatic amino acid residues on the protein surface. Bioassay indicated that purified rhTNF-α was biologically active with a specific activity of approximately 2.0×10(7)U/mg. All these results suggested that this two-step ion exchange chromatography is efficient for preparation of biologically active tag-free rhTNF-α from supernatant.

  5. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary characterization of the mRNA export factor MEX67 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Chhetri, Gaurav; Pandey, Tripti; Kumar, Bijay; Akhtar, Md Sohail; Tripathi, Timir


    The nuclear export of macromolecules is facilitated by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), embedded in the nuclear envelope and consists of multi-protein complexes. MEX67 is one of the nuclear export factor responsible for the transport of the majority of cellular mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The mechanism of mRNA transport through NPCs is unclear due to the unavailability of structures and the known interacting partners of MEX67. The mex67 gene was cloned in pQE30A and was expressed in Escherichia coli. A strategy has been developed to purify the insoluble MEX67 using a nickel affinity column with chelating Sepharose fast flow media, after solubilizing with sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (Sarkosyl). The IMAC purified recombinant MEX67 was further purified using SEC to apparent homogeneity (∼8 mg/L). Following SEC, MEX67 was stable and observed to be a 67 kDa monomeric protein as determined by PAGE and the size exclusion chromatography. The availability of large quantities of the protein will help in its biochemical and biophysical characterization, which may lead to the identification of new interaction partners of MEX67 or MEX67 complex.

  6. Simplified in vitro refolding and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor using protein folding cation exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Dedaniya, Akshay; Thunuguntla, Rahul; Mallu, Maheswara Reddy; Parupudi, Pavani; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy


    Protein folding-strong cation exchange chromatography (PF-SCX) has been employed for efficient refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). To acquire a soluble form of renatured and purified rhG-CSF, various chromatographic conditions, including the mobile phase composition and pH was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of additives such as urea, amino acids, polyols, sugars, oxidizing agents and their amalgamations were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, rhG-CSF was efficaciously solubilized, refolded and simultaneously purified by SCX in a single step. The experimental results using ribose (2.0M) and arginine (0.6M) combination were found to be satisfactory with mass yield, purity and specific activity of 71%, ≥99% and 2.6×10(8)IU/mg respectively. Through this investigation, we concluded that the SCX refolding method was more efficient than conventional methods which has immense potential for the large-scale production of purified rhG-CSF.

  7. Recombinant expression, purification and dimerization of the neurotrophic growth factor Artemin for in vitro and in vivo use. (United States)

    Bruinzeel, Wouter; Masure, Stefan


    Artemin (ARTN) is a neurotrophic growth factor of the GDNF ligand family that signals through the specific GFRα-3 coreceptor/cRet tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling cascade. Its expression and signaling action in adults are restricted to nociceptive sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. Consequently, Artemin supports survival and growth of sensory neurons and has been studied as a possible treatment for neuropathic pain paradigms. In this paper, we describe the development of an efficient method for the recombinant bacterial production of large quantities of highly pure, biologically active ARTN for in vitro and in vivo studies. Using Escherichia coli expression of an NH(2)-terminal SUMO-Artemin fusion protein and subsequent refolding from inclusion bodies followed by cleavage of the SUMO fusion part, mature Artemin with a native NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained at high purity (>99%). Experiments using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) demonstrated that the intermolecular disulphide bridge in the cysteine knot is dispensable for dimerization of stable ARTN monomers. Our production method could facilitate in vitro and in vivo experimentation for the possible development of Artemin as a therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain.

  8. Simplified large-scale refolding, purification, and characterization of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF is a pleiotropic cytokine that stimulates the development of committed hematopoietic progenitor cells and enhances the functional activity of mature cells. Here, we report a simplified method for fed-batch culture as well as the purification of recombinant human (rh G-CSF. The new system for rhG-CSF purification was performed using not only temperature shift strategy without isopropyl-l-thio-β-d-galactoside (IPTG induction but also the purification method by a single step of prep-HPLC after the pH precipitation of the refolded samples. Through these processes, the final cell density and overall yield of homogenous rhG-CSF were obtained 42.8 g as dry cell weights, 1.75 g as purified active proteins, from 1 L culture broth, respectively. The purity of rhG-CSF was finally 99% since the isoforms of rhG-CSF could be separated through the prep-HPLC step. The result of biological activity indicated that purified rhG-CSF has a similar profile to the World Health Organization (WHO 2(nd International Standard for G-CSF. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the simple purification through a single step of prep-HPLC may be valuable for the industrial-scale production of biologically active proteins.

  9. Repair effect of diabetic ulcers with recombinant human epidermal growth factor loaded by sustained-release microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG XiaoQing; XU Jun; WANG WeiCai; Luo Hao; LIANG XiaoFei; Zhang Lei; Wang HanJie; Wang PengHua; CHANG Jin


    In this study the w/o/w extraction-evaporation technique was adopted to prepare poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loading recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). The micro-spheres were characterized for morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size distribution. The release performances, the proliferation effects and therapeutic effects of rhEGF-Ioaded PLGA microspheres were all studied. The results showed that these spherical micro-spheres had a narrow size distribution and a high drug encapsulation efficiency (85.6%). RhEGF-ioaded microspheres enhanced the growth rate of fibroblasts and wound healing more efficiently than pure rhEGF. The number of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the epidermis layer with the mi-crosphere treatment was significantly larger than those of the control groups. Overall locally sustained delivery of rhEGF from biodegradable PLGA microspheres may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic ulcer repair.

  10. Targeting c-kit receptor in neuroblastomas and colorectal cancers using stem cell factor (SCF)-based recombinant bacterial toxins. (United States)

    Choudhary, Swati; Pardo, Alessa; Rosinke, Reinhard; Batra, Janendra K; Barth, Stefan; Verma, Rama S


    Autocrine activation of c-kit (KIT receptor tyrosine kinase) has been postulated to be a potent oncogenic driver in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma (NB), and poorly differentiated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Although targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate is highly effective for gastrointestinal stromal tumor carrying V560G c-kit mutation, it does not show much potential for targeting wild-type KIT (WT-KIT). Our study demonstrates the role of stem cell factor (SCF)-based toxin conjugates for targeting WT-KIT-overexpressing malignancies such as NBs and CRCs. We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. Efficient targeting was achieved in all receptor-positive neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and SHSY5Y) and colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HCT 116, and DLD-1) but not in receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) thereby proving specificity. While dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines, COLO 320DM and HCT 116 cells, only an anti-proliferative effect was observed in DLD-1 cells. We prove that these novel targeting agents have promising potential as KIT receptor tyrosine kinase targeting system.

  11. Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein. (United States)

    McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D


    Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc.

  12. Clinical efficacy and safety of Tevagrastim® (XM02, a biosimilar recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagalagel A


    , granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant proteins

  13. Examination of alternate codon bias solutions for expression and purification of recombinant mechano-growth factor in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Feng, Jianguo; Wan, Rongxue; Yi, Qian; He, Ling; Yang, Li; Tang, Liling


    Mechano-growth factor (MGF), an alternative splicing variant of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene, promotes cell proliferation and inhibits cell differentiation. It also plays an important role in tumor development. It is important to optimize the production process and achieve MGF protein because there is no commercial MGF protein available. In this study, the human MGF gene is cloned into pGEX-4T-1 and the recombinant human MGF (rhMGF) protein could be expressed in Rosetta (DE3) by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction but not in BL21 (DE3). Mutation from rare codons to Escherichia coli preferred ones is performed. We obtain MGF(Mut54-56) and MGF(Mut-total) fragments through site-directed mutagenesis and overlapping PCR. Both pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut54-56)- and pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut-total)-transformed BL21 (DE3) can be induced to express rhMGF protein. To optimize the production technology, expression and purification of rhMGF are analyzed and compared in Rosetta (DE3) and BL21 (DE3). Results indicate that rhMGF expression in BL21 (DE3) is significantly higher than that in Rosetta (DE3). The protein yield of pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut-total) in BL21 (DE3) is higher than that of pGEX-4T-1/MGF(Mut54-56). We test the biological activity of MGF protein purified by affinity chromatography in C2C12 cell line and find that rhMGF promotes cell proliferation significantly. In conclusion, we establish a method to produce rhMGF economically with high biological activity in BL21 (DE3).

  14. Long-Acting Recombinant Fusion Protein Linking Coagulation Factor IX with Albumin (rIX-FP) in Children (United States)

    Chambost, Hervé; Male, Christoph; Lambert, Thierry; Halimeh, Susan; Chernova, Tatiana; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Curtin, Julie; Voigt, Christine; Li, Yanyan; Jacobs, Iris; Santagostino, Elena


    Summary A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of a recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 27 previously treated male children (1–11 years) with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2 IU/dl). All patients received routine prophylaxis once every seven days for up to 77 weeks, and treated any bleeding episodes on-demand. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 91.4 hours (h), 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment and clearance was 1.11 ml/h/kg, 6.4-fold slower than previous FIX treatment. The median (Q1, Q3) annualised spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (0.00, 0.91) and was similar between the <6 years and ≥6 years age groups, with a weekly median prophylactic dose of 46 IU/kg. In addition, patients maintained a median trough level of 13.4 IU/dl FIX activity on weekly prophylaxis. Overall, 97.2% of bleeding episodes were successfully treated with one or two injections of rIX-FP (95% CI: 92% to 99%), 88.7% with one injection, and 96% of the treatments were rated effective (excellent or good) by the Investigator. No patient developed FIX inhibitors and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate that rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia B with weekly prophylaxis. Routine prophylaxis with rIX-FP at treatment intervals of up to 14 days are currently being investigated in children with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B. (NCT01662531) PMID:27583313

  15. Clinical efficacy and safety of Zarzio® (EP2006, a biosimilar recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharmarajah S


    Full Text Available Soba Tharmarajah,1,2 Abdulaziz Mohammed,3,4 Alaa Bagalagel,3,4 Karen MacDonald,2 Ivo Abraham2,3,5 1College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Matrix45, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: This second review of biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors approved by the European Medicines Agency evaluates the evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of prophylaxis of (febrile neutropenia with Zarzio® in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients relative to the originator product filgrastim (Neupogen®. Source documents include: publicly available documents of the European Medicines Agency; a published article reviewing the (preapproval clinical development of EP2006 (Zarzio®; and published (postapproval single-center experience reports on prophylaxis with Zarzio®, including two reports in the cancer setting and one in the setting of autologous peripheral blood stem cell mobilization. Also included is: a pooled analysis of these and other postapproval studies in the cancer setting that includes (interim data from the two single cancer center reports; one additional single-center experience study; one completed study; and one ongoing multicenter postapproval study. Based on the available therapeutic equivalence and safety data, the clinical and safety outcomes of Zarzio® are likely to be similar to those of Neupogen®. Thus, Zarzio® and Neupogen® may be assumed interchangeable. Keywords: biosimilars, biosimilar pharmaceuticals, efficacy, safety, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, recombinant proteins

  16. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor in rabbits and mice serum and rabbits aqueous humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi ZHANG; Guang-ji WANG; Jian-guo SUN


    AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) in rabbits and mice after iv and postocular administration, and the changes of rhbFGF in rabbits aqueous humor after postocular administration. METHODS: After iv or postocular administration three doses of rhbFGF in rabbits and mice,rhbFGF concentration in serum and rabbit aqueous humor was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent .assay. RESULTS: Serum concentration-time data of rabbits after iv administration of rhbFGF 1, 2, and 4 μg/kg were fitted to bi-exponential equations with half-lives of 0.9, 0.9, and 0.6 min for T1/2α and 7, 8, and 4.7 min for T1/2β.Plasma concentration-time data of mice after iv administration of rhbFGF 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/kg were fitted to biexponential equations with half-lives of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.9 min for T1/2α and 6, 5, and 7 min for T1/2β. The AUCs were linearly correlated to doses in both cases (rrabbit=0.997, rmouse=0.999). The serum concentrations of rhbFGF were very low, near to the background after postocular administration of 2 or 5 μg/kg, in both rabbits and mice. The rhbFGF levels in rabbits aqueous humor were higher than control 8 h postdose (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: rhbFGF within the examined doses had a linear pharmacokinetics in rabbits and mice. High concentration of rhbFGF was found in rabbits aqueous humor after postocular administration.

  17. Recombinant human nerve growth factor is biologically active and labels novel high-affinity binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altar, C.A.; Burton, L.E.; Bennett, G.L.; Dugich-Djordjevic, M. (Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (USA))


    Iodinated recombinant human nerve growth factor (125I-rhNGF) stimulated neurite formation in PC12 cell cultures with a half-maximal potency of 35-49 pg/ml, compared with 39-52 pg/ml for rhNGF. In quantitative ligand autoradiography, the in vitro equilibrium binding of 125I-rhNGF to brain sections showed a 10-fold regional variation in density and was saturable, reversible, and specifically displaced by up to 74% with rhNGF or murine NGF (muNGF). At equilibrium, 125I-rhNGF bound to these sites with high affinity and low capacity (Bmax less than or equal to 13.2 fmol/mg of protein). Calculation of 125I-rhNGF binding affinity by kinetic methods gave average Kd values of 24 and 31 pM. Computer-generated maps revealed binding in brain regions not identified previously with 125I-muNGF, including hippocampus; dentate gyrus; amygdala; paraventricular thalamus; frontal, parietal, occipital, and cingulate cortices; nucleus accumbens; olfactory tubercle; subiculum; pineal gland; and medial geniculate nucleus. NGF binding sites were distributed in a 2-fold increasing medial-lateral gradient in the caudate-putamen and a 2-fold lateral-medial gradient in the nucleus accumbens. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were also found in most areas labeled by 125I-muNGF, including the interpedunucular nucleus, cerebellum, forebrain cholinergic nuclei, caudoventral caudate-putamen, and trigeminal nerve nucleus. 125I-rhNGF binding sites were absent from areas replete with low-affinity NGF binding sites, including circumventricular organs, myelinated fiber bundles, and choroid plexus. The present analysis provides an anatomical differentiation of high-affinity 125I-rhNGF binding sites and greatly expands the number of brain structures that may respond to endogenous NGF or exogenously administered rhNGF.

  18. The unsialylated subpopulation of recombinant activated factor VII binds to the asialo-glycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) on primary rat hepatocytes. (United States)

    Seested, Torben; Nielsen, Hanne M; Christensen, Erik I; Appa, Rupa S


    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven®) is a heterogeneously glycosylated serine protease used for treatment of haemophiliacs with inhibitors. The drug substance contains a subpopulation consisting of ~20% of rFVIIa molecules which are unsialylated and consists of carbohydrate moieties with terminally exposed galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). Recently, data from an in situ perfused liver model showed that a subpopulation of rFVIIa, appearing to be unsialylated rFVIIa, was cleared by the liver, thus suggesting a carbohydrate-moiety mediated mechanism. The parenchymal cells of the liver, hepatocytes, are known to abundantly express functional carbohydrate-specific receptors and in this study we therefore used primary rat hepatocytes to study binding and intracellular fate of rFVIIa at a cellular level. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that rFVIIa was distributed into distinct intracellular vesicles and electron microscopic autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated rFVIIa distributed only into cytoplasmic free vesicles resembling endosomes and lysosomes. These findings suggest that endocytosis of rFVIIa in hepatocytes could be partly mediated via initial membrane binding to a receptor. Quantitative binding studies showed that the presence of excess unlabelled asialo-orosomucoid, asialo-rFVIIa and GalNAc significantly decreased binding of 125I-rFVIIa. An antibody which specifically binds to the carbohydrate recognition domain of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) significantly decreased binding of asialo-rFVIIa by ~36% and rFVIIa by ~19%. Together our data showed that a receptor-mediated mechanism involving the ASGPR is able to bind a subpopulation of unsialylated rFVIIa, while a hepatic mechanism for binding and clearing sialylated rFVIIa is still unknown.

  19. A better anti-diabetic recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21 (rhFGF21 modified with polyethylene glycol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Huang

    Full Text Available As one of fibroblast growth factor (FGF family members, FGF21 has been extensively investigated for its potential as a drug candidate to combat metabolic diseases. In the present study, recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation in order to increase its in vivo biostabilities and therapeutic potency. At N-terminal residue rhFGF21 was site-selectively PEGylated with mPEG20 kDa-butyraldehyde. The PEGylated rhFGF21 was purified to near homogeneity by Q Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography. The general structural and biochemical features as well as anti-diabetic effects of PEGylated rhFGF21 in a type 2 diabetic rat model were evaluated. By N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we confirmed that PEG molecule was conjugated only to the N-terminus of rhFGF21. The mono-PEGylated rhFGF21 retained the secondary structure, consistent with the native rhFGF21, but its biostabilities, including the resistance to physiological temperature and trypsinization, were significantly enhanced. The in vivo immunogenicity of PEGylated rhFGF21 was significantly decreased, and in vivo half-life time was significantly elongated. Compared to the native form, the PEGylated rhFGF21 had a similar capacity of stimulating glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, but afforded a significantly long effect on reducing blood glucose and triglyceride levels in the type 2 diabetic animals. These results suggest that the PEGylated rhFGF21 is a better and more effective anti-diabetic drug candidate than the native rhFGF21 currently available. Therefore, the PEGylated rhFGF21 may be potentially applied in clinics to improve the metabolic syndrome for type 2 diabetic patients.

  20. Patient condition affects the collection of peripheral blood progenitors after priming with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. (United States)

    Chabannon, C; Le Coroller, A G; Faucher, C; Novakovitch, G; Blaise, D; Moatti, J P; Maraninchi, D; Mannoni, P


    A total of 258 aphereses were performed in 79 patients with nonmyeloid malignancies after mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Apheresis products were examined for viable mononuclear cell (VMC), CD34+ cell, and clonogenic cell contents. The number of progenitors in aphereses differs in subgroups of patients with different diagnoses. However, the number of CD34+ or clonogenic cells is dependent on age and amount of chemotherapy delivered to patients before collection rather than on the nature of the disease itself. In addition, the actual dose of rhG-CSF used to mobilize PBSC and the number of VMC in aphereses influenced the clonogenicity of CD34+ cells, although the daily dose of rhG-CSF seems to play little role on the number of clonogenic cells in each individual apheresis product. CD34+ cell and CFU-C (or CFU-GM) numbers are related parameters, and the relation can be described as linear. However, the linear relation varies in different patient groups, and most of the linearity is induced by the highest sets of values. We conclude that mobilization with low doses of rhG-CSF alone is feasible and that the probability of collecting a high number of peripheral blood progenitors is increased in young patients undergoing apheresis early in the course of the disease. Although the relationship between CD34+ cells and CFUs can be described as linear in well-defined situations, its relevance may be limited because it is not a universal finding.

  1. Successful Off-Label Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa and Coil Embolization in an Adolescent with Massive Hemoptysis Due to Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Gürlek Gökçebay


    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have turned out to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with malignant disorders. Massive hemoptysis, a rare complication of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, may threaten the lives of patients, usually during the resolution of neutropenia. In this report, we describe a patient with massive hemoptysis due to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis whose bleeding was controlled successfully with off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa and subsequent coil embolization of the right pulmonary artery.

  2. Successful Control of Massive Bleeding in a Child with Burkitt’s Lymphoma via a Biosimilar Recombinant Activated Factor VII (AryoSeven™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Goudarzi Pour


    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 4-year-old girl with Burkitt’s lymphoma, who suffered from a massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage 3 days after chemotherapy. In spite of applying the common practice in correction of coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia persisted and bleeding became life-threatening. In the present case report, we report a successful control of bleeding with a single-dose administration of a biosimilar recombinant activated human factor VII (AryoSeven.

  3. Excision dynamics of Vibrio pathogenicity island-2 from Vibrio cholerae: role of a recombination directionality factor VefA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano Michael G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2 is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758 that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. IntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate. Results We determined the conditions and the factors that affect excision of VPI-2 in V. cholerae N16961. We demonstrate that excision from chromosome 1 is induced at low temperature and after sublethal UV-light irradiation treatment. In addition, after UV-light irradiation compared to untreated cells, cells showed increased expression of three genes, intV2 (VC1758, and two putative recombination directionality factors (RDFs, vefA (VC1785 and vefB (VC1809 encoded within VPI-2. We demonstrate that along with IntV2, the RDF VefA is essential for excision. We constructed a knockout mutant of vefA in V. cholerae N16961, and found that no excision of VPI-2 occurred, indicating that a functional vefA gene is required for excision. Deletion of the second RDF encoded by vefB did not result in a loss of excision. Among Vibrio species in the genome database, we identified 27 putative RDFs within regions that also encoded IntV2 homologues. Within each species the RDFs and their cognate IntV2 proteins were associated with different island regions suggesting that this pairing is widespread. Conclusions We demonstrate that excision of VPI-2 is induced under some environmental stress conditions and we show for the first time that an RDF encoded within a pathogenicity island in V. cholerae is required for excision of the

  4. High plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations and a sepsis-like syndrome in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with recombinant TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma, and melphalan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, JH; Maring, JK; Clarke, FL; vanGinkel, RJ; Limburg, PC; Hoekstra, HJ; Girbes, ARJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.


    Objectives: To describe the postoperative course of patients who underwent hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and melphalan after pretreat ment with recombinant interferon-gamma as treatment for recurrent melanoma, primary nonresectable soft-tissu

  5. Murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector has differential integration patterns in human cell lines used to produce recombinant factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Correa de Freitas


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK. Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K.METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones.RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins.

  6. Sustained in vivo activity of recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rbG-CSF) using HEPES buffer. (United States)

    Kasraian, K; Kuzniar, A; Earley, D; Kamicker, B J; Wilson, G; Manion, T; Hong, J; Reiber, C; Canning, P


    The purpose of this study was to develop a long-acting injectable formulation of bG-CSF for veterinary use. However, in order to achieve sustained in vivo activity it was first necessary to stabilize the protein at the injection site. Preformulation studies, as well as literature, suggest that bG-CSF aggregates at neutral pH ranges (i.e., pH 6-8) and at temperatures of approximately 40 degrees C. Therefore, bG-CSF will not retain its activity for an extended period of time at the injection site. During this study we determined that HEPES buffer has a very significant impact on protein stability as well as on biological performance. Recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rbG-CSF) was formulated in 1 M HEPES buffer for subcutaneous injection into cows. bG-CSF formulated in 1 M HEPES buffer resulted in sustained in vivo activity of bG-CSF compared to the "control" formulation (control formulation: 5% mannitol, 10 mM acetate buffer, 0.004% tween-80, pH 4). White blood cell (WBC) count was used as a marker to evaluate in vivo activity of the formulation. WBC numbers remained above a threshold value for only 24-30 h for the control formula. However, when bG-CSF was formulated in 1 M HEPES, the WBC remained above threshold for 3 days or 72 h. Formulating bG-CSF in 1 M HEPES at pH 7.5 also resulted in greater solution stability. This was surprising since bG-CSF is intrinsically not stable at neutral pH. The effect of 1 M HEPES on the T(M) (temperature at maximum heat flow on calorimetry scan) of bG-CSF was determined by microcalorimetry. In the absence of 1 M HEPES buffer the T(M) was 48 degrees C (onset approximately 40 degrees C), while bG-CSF formulated in 1 M HEPES buffer has a T(M) of 59 degrees C (onset approximately 50 degrees C). Similar organic buffers, such as MOPS, HEPPS, TES, and tricine, also resulted in improved solution stability as well as in sustained in vivo activity. The dramatic effect of these buffers on stability and biological

  7. Use of activated recombinant factor VII for severe coagulopathy post ventricular assist device or orthotopic heart transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotis George J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventricular assist devices(VAD implantation/removal is a complex surgical procedure with perioperative bleeding complications occurring in nearly half of the cases. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa has been used off-label to control severe hemorrhage in surgery and trauma. We report here our experience with rFVIIa as a rescue therapy to achieve hemostasis in patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplant (OHT and/or VAD implantation. Methods A retrospective review was conducted from Jan 03 to Aug 05 for patients who received rFVIIa for the management of intractable bleeding unresponsive to standard hemostatic blood component therapy. Blood loss and the quantity of blood products, prior to, and for at least 12 hours after, administration of rFVIIa were recorded. Results Mean patient age was 53, (38–64 yrs, mean dose of rFVIIa administered was 78.3 μg/kg (24–189 μg/kg in 1–3 doses. All patients received the drug either intraoperatively or within 6 hours of arrival in ICU. Mean transfusion requirements and blood loss were significantly reduced after rFVIIa administration (PRBC's; 16.9 ± 13.3 to 7.1 ± 6.9 units, FFP; 13.1 ± 8.2 to 4.1 ± 4.9 units, platelets; 4.0 ± 2.8 to 2.1 ± 2.2 units, p Conclusion In this review, there was a significant decrease in transfusion requirement and blood loss after rFVIIa administration. Although, 5/17 developed thromboembolic complications, these patients may have been at higher risk based on the multiple modality therapy used to manage intractable bleeding. Nevertheless, the exact role of rFVIIa with respect to development of thromboembolic complications cannot be clearly determined. Further investigation is needed to determine rFVIIa's safety and its effectiveness in improving postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  8. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA prime-protein boost strategy to enhance efficacy of a recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-tian LI; Yong-zhang ZHU; Jia-you CHU; Ke DONG; Ping HE; Chun-yan FENG; Bao-yu HU; Shu-min ZHANG; Xiao-kui GUO


    Aim: To investigate a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of a recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine. The strategy is co-injection with cytokine plasmids as prime, and boosted with purified homologous proteins. Method: A recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine containing the pertussis toxin subunit 1 (PTS1), fragments of the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) gene and pertactin (PRN) gene encoding filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin were constructed. Balb/c mice were immunized with several DNA vaccines and antigen-specific antibodies anti-PTSl, anti-PRN, anti-FHA, cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-oc, and spleno-cyte-proliferation assay were used to describe immune responses. Results: The recombinant DNA vaccine could elicit similar immune responses in mice as that of separate plasmids encoding the 3 fragments, respectively. Mice immunized with DNA and boosted with the corresponding protein elicited more antibodies than those that received DNA as boost. In particular, when the mice were co-immunized with murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plasmids and boosted with proteins, all 4 cytokines and the 3 antigen-specific antibodies were significantly increased compared to the pVAXl group. Anti-PTSl, anti-FHA, IL-4 and TNF-α elicited in the colony stimulating factor (CSF) prime-protein boost group showed significant increase compared to all the other groups. Conclusion: This prime and boost strategy has proven to be very useful in improving the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines against pertussis.

  9. Ion recombination correction factors (P(ion)) for Varian TrueBeam high-dose-rate therapy beams. (United States)

    Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Molineu, Andrea; Followill, David S


    Ion recombination is approximately corrected for in the Task Group 51 protocol by Pion, which is calculated by a two-voltage measurement. This measurement approach may be a poor estimate of the true recombination, particularly if Pion is large (greater than 1.05). Concern exists that Pion in high-dose-per-pulse beams, such as flattening filter free (FFF) beams, may be unacceptably high, rendering the two-voltage measurement technique inappropriate. Therefore, Pion was measured for flattened beams of 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for FFF beams of 6 and 10 MV. The values for the FFF beams were verified with 1/V versus 1/Q curves (Jaffé plots). Pion was also measured for electron beams of 6, 12, 16, 18, and 20 MeV on a traditional accelerator, as well as on the high-dose-rate Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The measurements were made at a range of depths and with PTW, NEL, and Exradin Farmer-type chambers. Consistent with the increased dose per pulse, Pion was higher for FFF beams than for flattening filter beams. However, for all beams, measurement locations, and chambers examined, Pion never exceeded 1.018. Additionally, Pion was always within 0.3% of the recombination calculated from the Jaffé plots. We conclude that ion recombination can be adequately accounted for in high-dose-rate FFF beams using Pion determined with the standard two-voltage technique.

  10. High level of expression of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic rice cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho;


    this problem, we sought an expression system in which heterologous gene expression could be induced at high levels. We selected a rice amylase expression system in which the promoter Ramy3D is induced to express recombinant protein by sucrose starvation. This induction system was found to give good yield...

  11. Recombination instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.


    A recombination instability is considered which may arise in a plasma if the temperature dependence of the volume recombination coefficient, alpha, is sufficiently strong. Two cases are analyzed: (a) a steady-state plasma produced in a neutral gas by X-rays or high energy electrons; and (b) an af...

  12. [Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (filgrastim): optimization of conditions of isolation and purification from inclusion body]. (United States)

    Kononova, N V; Iakovlev, A V; Zhuravko, A M; Pankeev, N N; Minaev, S V; Bobruskin, A I; Mart'ianov, V A


    We developed a unified process platform for two recombinant human GCSF medicines--one with the non-prolonged and the other with prolonged action. This unified technology led to a simpler and cheaper production while introduction of the additional pegylation stage to the technological line eased obtaining of the medicines with different action and allowed to standardize technological process documenting according to GMP requirements.

  13. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines


    JIAN, YUAN; Chen, Yuling; GENG, CHUANYING; Liu, Nian; YANG, GUANGZHONG; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; CHEN, WENMING


    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially ex...

  14. Over-expression and purification strategies for recombinant multi-protein oligomers: a case study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis σ/anti-σ factor protein complexes. (United States)

    Thakur, Krishan Gopal; Jaiswal, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Jinal K; Praveena, T; Gopal, B


    The function of a protein in a cell often involves coordinated interactions with one or several regulatory partners. It is thus imperative to characterize a protein both in isolation as well as in the context of its complex with an interacting partner. High resolution structural information determined by X-ray crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance offer the best route to characterize protein complexes. These techniques, however, require highly purified and homogenous protein samples at high concentration. This requirement often presents a major hurdle for structural studies. Here we present a strategy based on co-expression and co-purification to obtain recombinant multi-protein complexes in the quantity and concentration range that can enable hitherto intractable structural projects. The feasibility of this strategy was examined using the σ factor/anti-σ factor protein complexes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The approach was successful across a wide range of σ factors and their cognate interacting partners. It thus appears likely that the analysis of these complexes based on variations in expression constructs and procedures for the purification and characterization of these recombinant protein samples would be widely applicable for other multi-protein systems.

  15. Elective surgery on factor VIII inhibitor patients using continuous infusion of recombinant activated factor VII: plasma factor VII activity of 10 IU/ml is associated with an increased incidence of bleeding. (United States)

    Smith, M P; Ludlam, C A; Collins, P W; Hay, C R; Wilde, J T; Grigeri, A; Melsen, T; Savidge, G F


    We examined recombinant activated factor VII (rVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to eight patients with inhibitors to factor VIII, undergoing elective surgery. rVIIa was infused at a fixed rate of 16.5 microg/kg/h for a median of 13.5 days (range 1-26). There was effective haemostasis at this infusion rate in only one of two minor procedures and two of six major operations. Three patients experienced excessive bleeding despite plasma factor VII activity around 10 IU/ml. Serious bleeding occurred in two other patients caused by procedural errors unrelated to rVIIa and required re-operation. The median rVIIa clearance on day 1 was 57 ml/h/kg (range 18-100) and on day 3 was 100 ml/h/kg (range 61-200). Clearance on the final infusion day was not significantly different from day 3. The infusion did not induce pathological activation of the coagulation mechanism. The only thrombotic adverse events were two episodes of superficial thrombophlebitis of the infused vein in one subject. In conclusion, the 16.5 microg/kg/h infusion rate reliably achieves plasma factor VII activity levels of 10 IU/ml, but this level does not provide reliable haemostasis.

  16. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  17. Systemic delivery of recombinant brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Giampà, Carmela; Montagna, Elena; Dato, Clemente; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Bernardi, Giorgio; Fusco, Francesca Romana


    Loss of huntingtin-mediated BDNF gene transcription has been shown to occur in HD and thus contribute to the degeneration of the striatum. Several studies have indicated that an increase in BDNF levels is associated with neuroprotection and amelioration of neurological signs in animal models of HD. In a recent study, an increase in BDNF mRNA and protein levels was recorded in mice administered recombinant BDNF peripherally. Chronic, indwelling osmotic mini-pumps containing either recombinant BDNF or saline were surgically placed in R6/2 or wild-type mice from 4 weeks of age until euthanasia. Neurological evaluation (paw clasping, rotarod performance, locomotor activity in an open field) was performed. After transcardial perfusion, histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed. We found that BDNF- treated R6/2 mice survived longer and displayed less severe signs of neurological dysfunction than the vehicle treated ones. Primary outcome measures such as brain volume, striatal atrophy, size and morphology of striatal neurons, neuronal intranuclear inclusions and microglial reaction confirmed a neuroprotective effect of the compound. BDNF was effective in increasing significantly the levels of activated CREB and of BDNF the striatal spiny neurons. Moreover, systemically administered BDNF increased the synthesis of BDNF as demonstrated by RT-PCR, and this might account for the beneficial effects observed in this model.

  18. Utility of intersystem extrapolation factors in early reaction phenotyping and the quantitative extrapolation of human liver microsomal intrinsic clearance using recombinant cytochromes P450. (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Liling; Nguyen, Khanh; Fretland, Adrian J


    Reaction phenotyping using recombinant human cytochromes P450 (P450) has great utility in early discovery. However, to fully realize the advantages of using recombinant expressed P450s, the extrapolation of data from recombinant systems to human liver microsomes (HLM) is required. In this study, intersystem extrapolation factors (ISEFs) were established for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 using 11 probe substrates, based on substrate depletion and/or metabolite formation kinetics. The ISEF values for CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 determined using multiple substrates were similar across substrates. When enzyme kinetics of metabolite formation for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were used, the ISEFs determined were generally within 2-fold of that determined on the basis of substrate depletion. Validation of ISEFs was conducted using 10 marketed drugs by comparing the extrapolated data with published data. The major isoforms responsible for the metabolism were identified, and the contribution of the predominant P450s was similar to that of previously reported data. In addition, phenotyping data from internal compounds, extrapolated using the rhP450-ISEF method, were comparable to those obtained using an HLM-based inhibition assay approach. Moreover, the intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) calculated from extrapolated rhP450 data correlated well with measured HLM CL(int). The ISEF method established in our laboratory provides a convenient tool in early reaction phenotyping for situations in which the HLM-based inhibition approach is limited by low turnover and/or unavailable metabolite formation. Furthermore, this method allows for quantitative extrapolation of HLM intrinsic clearance from rhP450 phenotyping data simultaneously to obtaining the participating metabolizing enzymes.

  19. One-step refolding and purification of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) using ion-exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Wenxuan; Gao, Dong; Wang, Lili; Yang, Ying; Bai, Quan


    Protein refolding is a key step for the production of recombinant proteins, especially at large scales, and usually their yields are very low. Chromatographic-based protein refolding techniques have proven to be superior to conventional dilution refolding methods. High refolding yield can be achieved using these methods compared with dilution refolding of proteins. In this work, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli was renatured with simultaneous purification by ion exchange chromatography with a DEAE Sepharose FF column. Several chromatographic parameters influencing the refolding yield of the denatured/reduced rhTNF-α, such as the urea concentration, pH value and concentration ratio of glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the mobile phase, were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, rhTNF-α can be renatured and purified simultaneously within 30 min by one step. Specific bioactivity of 2.18 × 10(8) IU/mg, purity of 95.2% and mass recovery of 76.8% of refolded rhTNF-α were achieved. Compared with the usual dilution method, the ion exchange chromatography method developed here is simple and more effective for rhTNF-α refolding in terms of specific bioactivity and mass recovery.

  20. 111Indium Labelling of Recombinant Activated Coagulation Factor VII: In Vitro and Preliminary In Vivo Studies in Healthy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnadh Nalla


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether 111Indium-labelled recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa could be a potential radiopharmaceutical for localization of bleeding sources. DTPA-conjugated rFVIIa was radiolabelled with 111In chloride. In vitro binding efficiency of 111In-DTPA-rFVIIa to F1A2-Mab-sepharose was 99% in buffer, while it was 88–82% in serum. The binding efficiency of 111In-DTPA-rFVIIa to TF (1–209-sepharose was 48% in buffer whereas 39%–36% in serum, respectively. In vivo experiment was conducted in healthy rats, and gamma camera images were taken immediately after iv. administration of 1.6–1.8 MBq 111In-DTPA-rFVIIa up to 120–130 min. Five min after administration of 111In-DTPA-rFVIIa, percentage of 111In activity was 6.0% in the cardiac region and 24.5% in the liver region. After 2 hours activity was decreased to 3.3% in heart while it had increased to 42.0% in the liver. The 111In-DTPA-rFVIIa might be a potential radiopharmaceutical for visualisation of tissues with significant TF expression such as acute bleeding lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of wild-type and mutant recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp). (United States)

    Runager, Kasper; García-Castellanos, Raquel; Valnickova, Zuzana; Kristensen, Torsten; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Klintworth, Gordon K; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Enghild, Jan J


    Transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) has been linked to several corneal dystrophies as certain point mutations in the protein may give rise to a progressive accumulation of insoluble protein material in the human cornea. Little is known about the biological functions of this extracellular protein, which is expressed in various tissues throughout the human body. However, it has been found to interact with a number of extracellular matrix macromolecules such as collagens and proteoglycans. Structural information about TGFBIp might prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of its function and its role in corneal dystrophies caused by mutations in the TGFBI gene. A simple method for the purification of wild-type and mutant forms of recombinant human TGFBIp from human cells under native conditions is presented here. Moreover, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TGFBIp are reported.

  2. Improvement of pregnancy rate by intrauterine administration of dexamethasone and recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor at the time of embryo transfer in cattle (United States)

    Roh, Sangho; Kim, Se-Woong; Jung, Yeon-Gil


    Bovine embryos (day 5) were cultured to day 10 with or without 100 ng/mL PGF2α in medium supplemented with control; 100 nM Dex; 1,000 U/mL recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor (rhLIF); or Dex+rhLIF. Although the rates to development to the blastocyst were not significantly different among groups, the hatching rate after additional culture with Dex +/or rhLIF was significantly higher in all supplemented groups than the control (p Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the ET group that received supplemented embryo-loading medium than in the non-supplemented control (p pregnancy rate. PMID:27030197

  3. Zinc finger artificial transcription factor-based nearest inactive analogue/nearest active analogue strategy used for the identification of plant genes controlling homologous recombination. (United States)

    Jia, Qi; van Verk, Marcel C; Pinas, Johan E; Lindhout, Beatrice I; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J


    In previous work, we selected a particular transcription factor, designated VP16-HRU, from a pool of zinc finger artificial transcription factors (ZF-ATFs) used for genome interrogation. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the ribosomal protein S5A promoter, the RPS5A::VP16-HRU construct led to a 200- to 300-fold increase in the frequency of somatic intrachromosomal homologous recombination (iHR). Because the expression of each ZF-ATF leads to a large number of transcriptional changes, we designed a strategy employing a collection of structurally similar ZF-ATFs to filter out the transcriptional changes relevant to the phenotype by deep sequencing. In that manner, 30 transcripts were found to be consistently induced in plants with enhanced homologous recombination (HR). For 25 of the cognate genes, their effect on the HR process was assessed using cDNA/gDNA expression constructs. For three genes, ectopic expression indeed led to enhanced iHR frequencies, albeit much lower than the frequency observed when a HR-inducing ZF-ATF was present. Altogether, our data demonstrate that despite the large number of transcriptional changes brought about by individual ZF-ATFs, causal changes can be identified. In our case, the picture emerged that a natural regulatory switch for iHR does not exist but that ZF-ATFs-like VP16-HRU act as an ectopic master switch, orchestrating the timely expression of a set of plant genes that each by themselves only have modest effects, but when acting together support an extremely high iHR frequency.

  4. Enhanced Mitogenic Activity of Recombinant Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor VEGF121 Expressed in E. coli Origami B (DE3) with Molecular Chaperones (United States)

    Kaplan, Ondřej; Zárubová, Jana; Mikulová, Barbora; Filová, Elena; Bártová, Jiřina; Bačáková, Lucie; Brynda, Eduard


    We describe the production of a highly-active mutant VEGF variant, α2-PI1-8-VEGF121, which contains a substrate sequence for factor XIIIa at the aminoterminus designed for incorporation into a fibrin gel. The α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 gene was synthesized, cloned into a pET-32a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) host cells. To increase the protein folding and the solubility, the resulting thioredoxin-α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 fusion protein was co-expressed with recombinant molecular chaperones GroES/EL encoded by independent plasmid pGro7. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of cytoplasmic proteins using affinity chromatography. After cleavage of the thioredoxin fusion part with thrombin, the target protein was purified by a second round of affinity chromatography. The yield of purified α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 was 1.4 mg per liter of the cell culture. The α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 expressed in this work increased the proliferation of endothelial cells 3.9–8.7 times in comparison with commercially-available recombinant VEGF121. This very high mitogenic activity may be caused by co-expression of the growth factor with molecular chaperones not previously used in VEGF production. At the same time, α2-PI1-8-VEGF121 did not elicit considerable inflammatory activation of human endothelial HUVEC cells and human monocyte-like THP-1 cells. PMID:27716773

  5. Construction of recombinant human nerve growth factor beta adenovirus and evaluation of its function An in vitro and in vivo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Feng Gao; Jong-Ho Lee; Si-Ho Choi; Mi-Ae Sung; Bo-Han Li; Samir Jabaiti; Sang Bae Yoo; Sung-June Kim; Soung-Min Kim; Jeong Won Jahng


    Exogenous delivery of nerve growth factor(NGF)promotes neural regeneration.However,the short half-life limits delivery efficacy.Therefore,a long-term,efficient,local delivery tool or scheme is needed.The purpose of this study was to construct a functioning,recombinant,adenoviral vector carrying human NGF-β(hNGF-β)DNA,and to measure expression of the constructed vector in vitro and in vivo.rhNGF-β adenoviral vector containing full-length hNGF-β cDNA was generated by homologous recombination in Escherichia Coli.The rhNGF-β adenovirus was packaged and amplified in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells.Transformation efficiency,expression and function of rhNGF-β adenovirus for primary Schwann cells,Schwann cell lines,human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells,CRH myoblasts,and NIH3T3 fibroblasts were evaluated.Subsequently,expression of rhNGF-β adenovirus at the peripheral nerve of rat was also assessed.Recombinant adenoviral vector carrying hNGF-β was successfully constructed and confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequence analysis.Green fluorescent protein expression was observed in 90% of rhNGF-β adenovirus-infected cells(primary Schwann cells,Schwann cell line,human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells,CRH myoblasts,and NIH3T3 fibroblasts)compared with non-infected cells.Total mRNA isolated from rhNGF-β adenovirus-infected cells exhibited strong expression.Maximum NGF release was induced by primary cultured Schwann cells at 4 days after infection,which steadily continued for 14 days.PC-12 cells exposed to media conditioned with rhNGF-β adenovirus-infected Schwann cells exhibited increased neurite extension.In vivo experiment revealed that the injected rhNGF-β adenovirus was transfected into the cells at the injected site and promoted expression of NGF,p75NTR and brain derived neurotrophic factor at the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia.

  6. Pretreatment with recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor virus replication and inflammation in a perinatal lamb model of RSV infection (United States)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increasingly recognized as a perinatal regulator of lung maturation and surfactant protein expression. Innate immune components including surfactant proteins A and D, and beta defensins have putative antimicrobial activity against pulmonary pathogens inc...

  7. Production of functional human insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) using recombinant expression in HEK293 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Anne Sofie Molsted; Williamson, Michael; Ebersole, Tasja Wainani;


    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) display many functions in humans including regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway. The various roles of human IGFBPs make them attractive protein candidates in drug discovery. Structural and functional knowledge...... such as full-length human IGFBPs, still remains a challenge. Here we present a mammalian HEK293 expression method suitable for over-expression of secretory full-length human IGFBP-1 to -7. Protein purification of full-length human IGFBP-1, -2, -3 and -5 was conducted using a two-step chromatography procedure...

  8. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver


    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  9. BAY 81-8973, a full-length recombinant factor VIII: Human heat shock protein 70 improves the manufacturing process without affecting clinical safety. (United States)

    Maas Enriquez, Monika; Thrift, John; Garger, Stephen; Katterle, Yvonne


    BAY 81-8973 is a full-length, unmodified recombinant human factor VIII (FVIII) approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. BAY 81-8973 has the same amino acid sequence as the currently marketed sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII (rFVIII-FS) product and is produced using additional advanced manufacturing technologies. One of the key manufacturing advances for BAY 81-8973 is introduction of the gene for human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the rFVIII-FS cell line. HSP70 facilitates proper folding of proteins, enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and potentially impacts rFVIII glycosylation. HSP70 expression in the BAY 81-8973 cell line along with other manufacturing advances resulted in a higher-producing cell line and improvements in the pharmacokinetics of the final product as determined in clinical studies. HSP70 protein is not detected in the harvest or in the final BAY 81-8973 product. However, because this is a new process, clinical trial safety assessments included monitoring for anti-HSP70 antibodies. Most patients, across all age groups, had low levels of anti-HSP70 antibodies before exposure to the investigational product. During BAY 81-8973 treatment, 5% of patients had sporadic increases in anti-HSP70 antibody levels above a predefined threshold (cutoff value, 239 ng/mL). No clinical symptoms related to anti-HSP70 antibody development occurred. In conclusion, addition of HSP70 to the BAY 81-8973 cell line is an innovative technology for manufacturing rFVIII aimed at improving protein folding and expression. Improved pharmacokinetics and no effect on safety of BAY 81-8973 were observed in clinical trials in patients with hemophilia A.

  10. Increase in Bacterial Colony Formation from a Permafrost Ice Wedge Dosed with a Tomitella biformata Recombinant Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Protein. (United States)

    Puspita, Indun Dewi; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H


    Resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) is a protein that has been found in a number of different Actinobacteria species and has been shown to promote the growth of active cells and resuscitate dormant (non-dividing) cells. We previously reported the biological activity of an Rpf protein in Tomitella biformata AHU 1821(T), an Actinobacteria isolated from a permafrost ice wedge. This protein is excreted outside the cell; however, few studies have investigated its contribution in environmental samples to the growth or resuscitation of bacteria other than the original host. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether Rpf from T. biformata impacted the cultivation of other bacteria from the permafrost ice wedge from which it was originally isolated. All experiments used recombinant Rpf proteins produced using a Rhodococcus erythropolis expression system. Dilutions of melted surface sterilized ice wedge samples mixed with different doses of the purified recombinant Rpf (rRpf) protein indicated that the highest concentration tested, 1250 pM, had a significantly (p <0.05) higher number of CFUs on agar plates after 8 d, approximately 14-fold higher than that on control plates without rRpf. 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that all the colonies on plates were mainly related to Brevibacterium antiquum strain VKM Ac-2118 (AY243344), with 98-99% sequence identity. This species is also a member of the phylum Actinobacteria and was originally isolated from Siberian permafrost sediments. The results of the present study demonstrated that rRpf not only promoted the growth of T. biformata from which it was isolated, but also enhanced colony formation by another Actinobacteria in an environmental sample.

  11. Expression of bioactive soluble human stem cell factor (SCF) from recombinant Escherichia coli by coproduction of thioredoxin and efficient purification using arginine in affinity chromatography. (United States)

    Akuta, Teruo; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Imaizumi, Keitaro; Oshikane, Hiroyuki; Nakaki, Toshio; Okada, Yoko; Sultana, Sara; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Ono, Yasuo


    Stem cell factor (SCF) known as the c-kit ligand is a two disulfide bridge-containing cytokine in the regulation of the development and function of hematopoietic cell lineages and other cells such as mast cells, germ cells, and melanocytes. The secreted soluble form of SCF exists as noncovalently associated homodimer and exerts its activity by signaling through the c-Kit receptor. In this report, we present the high level expression of a soluble recombinant human SCF (rhSCF) in Escherichia coli. A codon-optimized Profinity eXact™-tagged hSCF cDNA was cloned into pET3b vector, and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) harboring a bacterial thioredoxin coexpression vector. The recombinant protein was purified via an affinity chromatography processed by cleavage with sodium fluoride, resulting in the complete proteolytic removal the N-terminal tag. Although almost none of the soluble fusion protein bound to the resin in standard protocol using 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2), the use of binding buffer containing 0.5M l-arginine for protein stabilization dramatically enhanced binding to resin and recovery of the protein beyond expectation. Also pretreatment by Triton X-114 for removing endotoxin was effective for affinity chromatography. In chromatography performance, l-arginine was more effective than Triton X-114 treatment. Following Mono Q anion exchange chromatography, the target protein was isolated in high purity. The rhSCF protein specifically enhanced the viability of human myeloid leukemia cell line TF-1 and the proliferation and maturation of human mast cell line LAD2 cell. This novel protocol for the production of rhSCF is a simple, suitable, and efficient method.

  12. Improving the soluble expression and purification of recombinant human stem cell factor (SCF) in endotoxin-free Escherichia coli by disulfide shuffling with persulfide. (United States)

    Ueda, Takafumi; Akuta, Teruo; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Imaizumi, Keitaro; Ono, Yasuo


    We here present a new method for the expression and purification of recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF(164)) in endotoxin-free ClearColi(®) BL21(DE3) cells harboring codon-optimized Profinity eXact™-tagged hSCF cDNA. Previously, we demonstrated that co-expression with thioredoxin increased the solubility of rhSCF in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and addition of l-arginine enhanced chromatography performance by removing the endotoxin-masked surface of rhSCF. Initially, we tried to express rhSCF in an endotoxin-free strain using a thioredoxin co-expression system, which resulted in significantly lower expression, possibly due to the stress imposed by overexpressed thioredoxin or antibiotics susceptibility. Therefore, we developed a new expression system without thioredoxin. External redox coupling was tested using persulfides such as glutathione persulfide or cysteine persulfide for the in vivo-folding of hSCF in the cytoplasm. Persulfides improved the protein solubility by accelerating disulfide-exchange reactions for incorrectdisulfides during folding in E. coli. Furthermore, the persulfides enhanced the expression level, likely due to upregulation of the enzymatic activity of T7 RNA polymerase. The recombinant protein was purified via affinity chromatography followed by cleavage with sodium fluoride, resulting in complete proteolytic removal of the N-terminal tag. The endotoxin-free fusion protein from ClearColi(®) BL21(DE3) could bind to the resin in the standard protocol using sodium phosphate (pH 7.2). Furthermore, purified rhSCF enhanced the proliferation and maturation of the human mast cell line LAD2. Thus, we conclude that use of the protein expression system employing E. coli by disulfide shuffling with persulfide addition could be a very useful method for efficient protein production.

  13. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture. (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena


    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins.

  14. Bimolecular recombination in organic photovoltaics. (United States)

    Lakhwani, Girish; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H


    The recombination of electrons and holes is a major loss mechanism in photovoltaic devices that controls their performance. We review scientific literature on bimolecular recombination (BR) in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices to bring forward existing ideas on the origin and nature of BR and highlight both experimental and theoretical work done to quantify its extent. For these systems, Langevin theory fails to explain BR, and recombination dynamics turns out to be dependent on mobility, temperature, electric field, charge carrier concentration, and trapped charges. Relationships among the photocurrent, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and morphology are discussed. Finally, we highlight the recent emergence of a molecular-level picture of recombination, taking into account the spin and delocalization of charges. Together with the macroscopic picture of recombination, these new insights allow for a comprehensive understanding of BR and provide design principles for future materials and devices.

  15. Recombinant Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A with N-terminal Mitochondrial Transduction Domain Increases Respiration and Mitochondrial Gene Expression


    Iyer, Shilpa; Thomas, Ravindar R.; Portell, Francisco R.; Dunham, Lisa D.; Quigley, Caitlin K.; Bennett, James P


    We developed a scalable procedure to produce human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) modified with an N-terminal protein transduction domain (PTD) and mitochondrial localization signal (MLS) that allow it to cross membranes and enter mitochondria through its “mitochondrial transduction domain” (MTD=PTD+MLS). Alexa488-labeled MTD-TFAM rapidly entered the mitochondrial compartment of cybrid cells carrying the G11778A LHON mutation. MTD-TFAM reversibly increased respiration and levels ...

  16. Preclinical Toxicology Studies of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Either Alone or in Combination with Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate and Type I Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan S. Young


    Full Text Available Human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (hPDGF-BB is a basic polypeptide growth factor released from platelets at the injury site. It is a multifunctional molecule that regulates DNA synthesis and cell division and induces biological effects that are implicated in tissue repair, atherosclerosis, inflammatory responses, and neoplastic diseases. This paper is an overview of the toxicology data generated from a broad testing platform to determine bone, soft tissue, and systemic responses following administration of rhPDGF-BB. Moreover, the systemic and local toxicity of recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB in combination with either beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or collagen combined with β-TCP was studied to determine dermal sensitization, irritation, intramuscular tissue responses, pyrogenicity, genotoxicity, and hemolytic properties. All data strongly suggest that rhPDGF-BB either alone or in combination with β-TCP or collagen with β-TCP is biocompatible and has neither systemic nor local toxicity, supporting its safe use in enhancing wound healing in patients.

  17. A novel supplemental approach to capturing post-marketing safety information on recombinant factor VIIa in acquired hemophilia: the Acquired Hemophilia Surveillance project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentz SR


    Full Text Available Steven R Lentz,1 Anand Tandra,2 Robert Z Gut,3 David L Cooper31Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Hematology, Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Clinical, Medical, and Regulatory Affairs, Novo Nordisk, Inc, Princeton, NJ, USAAcquired hemophilia (AH is a rare (incidence is 1 per 1.5 million but often severe bleeding disorder characterized by autoantibodies to coagulation factor VIII (FVIII. It is associated with life-threatening bleeding and ∼20% mortality.1,2 Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa; NovoSeven® RT, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark received an indication from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in October 2006 for the treatment of bleeding episodes and the prevention of bleeding in surgical interventions or invasive procedures in patients with AH.3View original paper by Collins and colleagues.

  18. Secretory expression and characterization of a recombinant deleted variant of human hepatocyte growth factor in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Min Liu; Hong-Liang Zhao; Chong Xue; Bing-Bing Deng; Wei Zhang; Xiang-Hua Xiong; Bing-Fen Yang; Xue-Qin Yao


    AIM: To study the secretory expression of human hepatocyte growth factor (hdHGF) gene in Pichia pastoris.METHODS: The full-length gene of human cDNA encoding the deleted variant of hdHGF was cloned by RT-PCR and overlapping-fragment PCR technique using mRNA of human placenta as a template. The cloned hdHGF cDNA was inserted into the Escherichia coliyeast shuttle vector of pPIC9. The constructed plasmid,pPIC9-hdHGF, was transformed into the GS115 cells of the methylotrophic yeast, P pastoris, using a chemical method. The Mut+ transformants were screened to obtain high-expression strains by the test and analysis of expressed products of shake-flask culture. A secretory form of rhdHGF was made with the aid of the leader peptide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor.RESULTS: The expressed products, which showed a band of molecular mass of about 80 ku, were observed on 15% SDS-PAGE and identified by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. In the high cell density culture of 5 L fermentor by fed-batch culture protocol, the cell biomass was reached at approximately 135 g (DCW)/L. The productivity of secreted total supernant protein concentration attained a high-level expression of more than 8.0 g/L and the ratio of rhdHGF band area was about 12.3% of the total band area scanned by SDS-PAGE analysis, which estimated that the product of rhdHGF was 500-900 mg/L.CONCLUSION: The P pastoris system represents an attractive tool of generating large quantities of hdHGF for both research and industrial purposes.

  19. Statistical optimization of medium composition and culture condition for the production of recombinant antilipopolysaccharide factor of Eriocheir sinensis in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shan; LIU Mei; WANG Baojie; JIANG Keyong; WANG Lei


    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are important antimicrobial peptides that are isolated from some aquatic species.In a previous study,we isolated ALF genes from Chinese mitten crab,Eriocheir sinensis.In this study,we optimized the production of a recombinant ALF by expressing E.sinensis ALF genes in Escherichia coli maintained in shake-flasks.In particular,we focused on optimization of both the medium composition and the culture condition.Various medium components were analyzed by the Plackett-Burman design,and two significant screened factors,(NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4,were further optimized via the central composite design (CCD).Based on the CCD analysis,we investigated the induction start-up time,the isopropylthio-D-galactoside (IPTG) concentration,the post-induction time,and the temperature by response surface methodology.We found that the highest level of ALF fusion protein was achieved in the medium containing 1.89g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 3.18 g/L KH2PO4,with a cell optical density of 0.8 at 600 nm before induction,an IPTG concentration of 0.5 mmol/L,a post-induction temperature of 32.7℃,and a post-induction time of 4 h.Applying the whole optimization strategy using all optimal factors improved the target protein content from 6.1% (without optimization) to 13.2%.We further applied the optimized medium and conditions in high cell density cultivation,and determined that the soluble target protein constituted 10.5% of the total protein.Our identification of the economic medium composition,optimal culture conditions,and details of the fermentation process should facilitate the potential application of ALF for further research.

  20. Statistical optimization of medium composition and culture condition for the production of recombinant anti-lipopolysaccharide factor of Eriocheir sinensis in Escherichia coli (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Lei


    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are important antimicrobial peptides that are isolated from some aquatic species. In a previous study, we isolated ALF genes from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we optimized the production of a recombinant ALF by expressing E. sinensis ALF genes in Escherichia coli maintained in shake-flasks. In particular, we focused on optimization of both the medium composition and the culture condition. Various medium components were analyzed by the Plackett-Burman design, and two significant screened factors, (NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4, were further optimized via the central composite design (CCD). Based on the CCD analysis, we investigated the induction start-up time, the isopropylthio-D-galactoside (IPTG) concentration, the post-induction time, and the temperature by response surface methodology. We found that the highest level of ALF fusion protein was achieved in the medium containing 1.89 g/L (NH4)2SO4 and 3.18 g/L KH2PO4, with a cell optical density of 0.8 at 600 nm before induction, an IPTG concentration of 0.5 mmol/L, a post-induction temperature of 32.7°C, and a post-induction time of 4 h. Applying the whole optimization strategy using all optimal factors improved the target protein content from 6.1% (without optimization) to 13.2%. We further applied the optimized medium and conditions in high cell density cultivation, and determined that the soluble target protein constituted 10.5% of the total protein. Our identification of the economic medium composition, optimal culture conditions, and details of the fermentation process should facilitate the potential application of ALF for further research.

  1. Recombinant hybrid protein, Shiga toxin and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor effectively induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Saeid Bouzari; Yoshikazu Kuwahara; Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh; Mana Oloomi; Manabu Fukumoto


    AIM: To investigate the selective cytotoxic effect of constructed hybrid protein on cells expressing granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor.METHODS: HepG2 (human hepatoma) and LS174T (coIon carcinoma) were used in this study. The fused gene was induced with 0.02% of arabinose for 4 h and the expressed protein was detected by Western blotting. The chimeric protein expressed in E. coli was checked for its cytotoxic activity on these cells and apoptosis was measured by comet assay and nuclear staining. RESULTS: The chimeric protein was found to be cytotoxic to the colon cancer cell line expressing GM-CSFRs,but not to HepG2 lacking these receptors. Maximum activity was observed at the concentration of 40 ng/mL after 24 h incubation. The IC50 was 20±3.5 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: Selective cytotoxic effect of the hybrid protein on the colon cancer cell line expressing GMCSF receptors (GM-CSFRs) receptor and apoptosis can be observed in this cell line. The hybrid protein can be considered as a therapeutic agent.

  2. Immunization with Dendritic Cells Pulsed ex vivo with Recombinant Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Induces Protective Immunity Against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard eArulanandam


    Full Text Available We have shown that immunization with soluble recombinant (r chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF and a T helper (Th 1 type adjuvant can induce significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and protection against Chlamydia–induced pathological sequelae in the genital tract. In this study, we investigated the use of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs pulsed ex vivo with rCPAF+CpG in an adoptive subcutaneous immunization for the ability to induce protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection. We found that BMDCs pulsed with rCPAF+CpG efficiently up-regulated the expression of activation markers CD86, CD80, CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II, and secreted interleukin-12, but not IL-10 and IL-4. Mice adoptively immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs produced elevated levels of antigen-specific IFN- and enhanced IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Moreover, mice immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs exhibited significantly reduced genital Chlamydia shedding, accelerated resolution of infection, and reduced oviduct pathology when compared to infected mock-immunized animals. These results suggest that adoptive subcutaneous immunization with ex vivo rCPAF-pulsed BMDCs is an effective approach, comparable to that induced by UV-EB-BMDCs, for inducing robust anti-Chlamydia immunity.

  3. Effect of recombinant growth hormone on expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor mRNA and serum level of leptin in growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Qingfu; (胥清富); ZHAO; Zhihui; (赵志辉); NI; Yingdong; (倪迎冬); ZHAO; Ruqian; (赵茹茜); CHEN; Jie; (陈杰)


    Sixteen Large White × Landrace castrated male pigs were allotted into treatment and control group. The treatment group was injected intramuscularly with recombinant porcine growth hormone (rpGH, 4 mg@d-1) and the control group with vehicle for 28 days. Animals were slaughtered 4 h after final injection for liver, longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and blood sampling. Serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and leptin were determined by RIA. The total RNA was extracted from tissues to measure the abundance of growth hormone receptor (GHR), IGF-I mRNA by RT-PCR with 18S rRNA internal standard. Results showed that rpGH enhanced the average daily weight gain by 26.1% (P 0.05) and IGF-I mRNA (P > 0.05) in LD between GH treated and control group was found. These results suggest that rpGH can up-regulate hepatic GHR and IGF-I gene expression and improve animal growth. However the effect of rpGH on GHR and IGF-I gene expression are tissue-specific.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of single-dose administration of mammalian and bacterially-derived recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (United States)

    Hovgaard, D; Mortensen, B T; Schifter, S; Nissen, N I


    Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human non-glycosylated bacterially-synthesized (E. coli) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were studied following single intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) bolus injection, and compared to equivalent doses of glycosylated mammalian-derived CHO-GM-CSF. Each route of administration gave a different GM-CSF concentration-time profile. The highest peak serum concentrations (Cmax) were observed following i.v. bolus injection. After i.v. administration, a two-phase decline in concentration was noted for both types of GM-CSF with a significantly shorter t1/2 alpha of 7.8 minutes for the E. coli GM-CSF versus 20.0 min for the CHO-GM-CSF, while no significant difference was observed for the terminal phase. Following s.c. administration of equivalent doses, a higher peak serum concentration was observed in the E. coli-treated patients and, again, a faster elimination where pretreatment serum levels were reached after 16-20 h, versus more than 48 h after administration of CHO-GM-CSF. Although the non-glycosylated E. coli GM-CSF thus seems to undergo a faster elimination that the glycosylated CHO-GM-CSF no significant difference could be demonstrated in the in vivo effect of corresponding doses of the two compounds with respect to stimulation of granulopoiesis--with reservation for small patient numbers and a large individual variations in response.

  5. In-Field Implementation of a Recombinant Factor C Assay for the Detection of Lipopolysaccharide as a Biomarker of Extant Life within Glacial Environments. (United States)

    Barnett, Megan J; Wadham, Jemma L; Jackson, Miriam; Cullen, David C


    The discovery over the past two decades of viable microbial communities within glaciers has promoted interest in the role of glaciers and ice sheets (the cryosphere) as contributors to subglacial erosion, global biodiversity, and in regulating global biogeochemical cycles. In situ or in-field detection and characterisation of microbial communities is becoming recognised as an important approach to improve our understanding of such communities. Within this context we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to detect Gram-negative bacteria in glacial field-environments (including subglacial environments) via the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS); an important component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls. In-field measurements were performed using the recently commercialised PyroGene® recombinant Factor C (rFC) endotoxin detection system and used in conjunction with a handheld fluorometer to measure the fluorescent endpoint of the assay. Twenty-seven glacial samples were collected from the surface, bed and terminus of a low-biomass Arctic valley glacier (Engabreen, Northern Norway), and were analysed in a field laboratory using the rFC assay. Sixteen of these samples returned positive LPS detection. This work demonstrates that LPS detection via rFC assay is a viable in-field method and is expected to be a useful proxy for microbial cell concentrations in low biomass environments.

  6. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha does not potentiate cell killing after photodynamic therapy with a silicon phthalocyanine in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Azizuddin, K; Kalka, K; Chiu, S M; Ahmad, N; Mukhtar, H; Separovic, D


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel cancer treatment utilizing a photosensitizer, visible light and oxygen. PDT with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a new photosensitizer, is highly effective in cancer cell destruction and tumor ablation. The mechanisms underlying cancer cell killing by PDT are not fully understood. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been implicated in photocytotoxicity. We asked whether recombinant human TNF (rhTNF) affects Pc 4-PDT cytotoxicity in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Co-treatment of A431 cells with various doses of Pc 4-PDT and a sub-lethal rhTNF dose led to a sub-additive reduction in cell survival. In addition, in the presence of Pc 4-PDT or rhTNF, caspase-3 activity and apoptosis were induced. The combined treatment, however, did not potentiate either caspase-3 activity or apoptosis. Similar to previous findings we observed that Pc 4-PDT initiated a time-dependent extracellular TNF accumulation. The data suggest that: a) PDT and rhTNF induce cancer cell killing through different mechanisms; and b) Pc 4-PDT-induced TNF production is a stress response that may not directly affect photocytotoxicity.

  7. The Effect of Recombinant Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on Oral and Periodontal Manifestations in a Patient with Cyclic Neutropenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Matarasso


    Full Text Available Cyclic Neutropenia (CN is characterized by recurrent infections, fever, oral ulcerations, and severe periodontitis as result of the reduced host defences. The previous studies have established the effectiveness of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF to increase the number and the function of neutrophils in the peripheral blood in this disease. In a 20-year-old Caucasian female with a diagnosis of cyclic neutropenia, oral clinical examination revealed multiple painful ulcerations of the oral mucosa, poor oral hygiene conditions, marginal gingivitis, and moderate periodontitis. The patient received a treatment with G-CSF (Pegfilgrastim, 6 mg/month in order to improve her immunological status. Once a month nonsurgical periodontal treatment was carefully performed when absolute neutrophil count (ANC was ≥500/L. The treatment with G-CSF resulted in a rapid increase of circulating neutrophils that, despite its short duration, leaded to a reduction in infection related events and the resolution of the multiple oral ulcerations. The disappearance of oral pain allowed an efficacy nonsurgical treatment and a normal tooth brushing that determined a reduction of probing depth (PD≤4 mm and an improvement of the oral hygiene conditions recorded at 6-month follow-up.

  8. A massive transfusion protocol incorporating a higher FFP/RBC ratio is associated with decreased use of recombinant activated factor VII in trauma patients. (United States)

    Tan, Josenia N M; Burke, Peter A; Agarwal, Suresh K; Mantilla-Rey, Nelson; Quillen, Karen


    We implemented a protocol incorporating a higher fresh frozen plasma (FFP)/RBC ratio for the management of trauma patients requiring massive transfusion in 2007. This study aims to identify issues that affected the effective deployment of the massive transfusion protocol (MTP) and compare outcome variables with a historic cohort. Data from 49 trauma patients who received at least 10 units of packed RBCs within 24 hours were analyzed and compared with a historic massively transfused cohort who had received recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). Of the patients, 28 received an FFP/RBC ratio of 1:1 to 1:2; 12 received a lower ratio of 1:2 to 1:4; 3 received more than 1:1 and 6 had less than 1:4. Compared with the historic cohort, the 1:1-1:2 group received significantly fewer blood components and did not require rescue rFVIIa. An MTP incorporating a higher FFP/RBC ratio of 1:1 to 1:2 is associated with decreased use of blood components and may obviate the need for rFVII.

  9. Feasibility and Safety of Local Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in a Rat Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florry E van den Boogaard

    Full Text Available Pulmonary coagulopathy is intrinsic to pulmonary injury including pneumonia. Anticoagulant strategies could benefit patients with pneumonia, but systemic administration of anticoagulant agents may lead to suboptimal local levels and may cause systemic hemorrhage. We hypothesized nebulization to provide a safer and more effective route for local administration of anticoagulants. Therefore, we aimed to examine feasibility and safety of nebulization of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI in a well-established rat model of Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Thirty minutes before and every 6 hours after intratracheal instillation of S. pneumonia causing pneumonia, rats were subjected to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo, and sacrificed after 42 hours. Pneumonia was associated with local as well as systemic activation of coagulation. Nebulization of rh-TFPI resulted in high levels of rh-TFPI in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was accompanied by an attenuation of pulmonary coagulation. Systemic rh-TFPI levels remained undetectable, and systemic TFPI activity and systemic coagulation were not affected. Histopathology revealed no bleeding in the lungs. We conclude that nebulization of rh-TFPI seems feasible and safe; local anticoagulant treatment with rh-TFPI attenuates pulmonary coagulation, while not affecting systemic coagulation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  10. Feasibility and Safety of Local Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in a Rat Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia. (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; Hofstra, Jorrit J; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J


    Pulmonary coagulopathy is intrinsic to pulmonary injury including pneumonia. Anticoagulant strategies could benefit patients with pneumonia, but systemic administration of anticoagulant agents may lead to suboptimal local levels and may cause systemic hemorrhage. We hypothesized nebulization to provide a safer and more effective route for local administration of anticoagulants. Therefore, we aimed to examine feasibility and safety of nebulization of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI) in a well-established rat model of Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae pneumonia. Thirty minutes before and every 6 hours after intratracheal instillation of S. pneumonia causing pneumonia, rats were subjected to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo, and sacrificed after 42 hours. Pneumonia was associated with local as well as systemic activation of coagulation. Nebulization of rh-TFPI resulted in high levels of rh-TFPI in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was accompanied by an attenuation of pulmonary coagulation. Systemic rh-TFPI levels remained undetectable, and systemic TFPI activity and systemic coagulation were not affected. Histopathology revealed no bleeding in the lungs. We conclude that nebulization of rh-TFPI seems feasible and safe; local anticoagulant treatment with rh-TFPI attenuates pulmonary coagulation, while not affecting systemic coagulation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  11. In-Field Implementation of a Recombinant Factor C Assay for the Detection of Lipopolysaccharide as a Biomarker of Extant Life within Glacial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Cullen


    Full Text Available The discovery over the past two decades of viable microbial communities within glaciers has promoted interest in the role of glaciers and ice sheets (the cryosphere as contributors to subglacial erosion, global biodiversity, and in regulating global biogeochemical cycles. In situ or in-field detection and characterisation of microbial communities is becoming recognised as an important approach to improve our understanding of such communities. Within this context we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to detect Gram-negative bacteria in glacial field-environments (including subglacial environments via the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; an important component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls. In-field measurements were performed using the recently commercialised PyroGene® recombinant Factor C (rFC endotoxin detection system and used in conjunction with a handheld fluorometer to measure the fluorescent endpoint of the assay. Twenty-seven glacial samples were collected from the surface, bed and terminus of a low-biomass Arctic valley glacier (Engabreen, Northern Norway, and were analysed in a field laboratory using the rFC assay. Sixteen of these samples returned positive LPS detection. This work demonstrates that LPS detection via rFC assay is a viable in-field method and is expected to be a useful proxy for microbial cell concentrations in low biomass environments.

  12. Recombinant factor C (rFC) assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of endotoxin variability in four agricultural dusts. (United States)

    Saito, Rena; Cranmer, Brian K; Tessari, John D; Larsson, Lennart; Mehaffy, John M; Keefe, Thomas J; Reynolds, Stephen J


    Endotoxin exposure is a significant concern in agricultural environments due to relatively high exposure levels. The goals of this study were to determine patterns of 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) distribution in dusts from four types of agricultural environments (dairy, cattle feedlot, grain elevator, and corn farm) and to evaluate correlations between the results of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis (total endotoxin) and biological recombinant factor C (rFC) assay (free bioactive endotoxin). An existing GC/MS-MS method (for house dust) was modified to reduce sample handling and optimized for small amount (rFC assay and the modified GC/EI-MS results was feedlot (0.72) > dairy (0.53) > corn farm (0.33) > grain elevator (0.11). In livestock environments, both odd- and even-numbered carbon chain length 3-OHFAs correlated with rFC assay response. The GC/EI-MS method should be especially useful for identification of specific 3-OHFAs for endotoxins from various agricultural environments and may provide useful information for evaluating the relationship between bacterial exposure and respiratory disease among agricultural workers.

  13. Downregulation of homologous recombination DNA repair genes by HDAC inhibition in prostate cancer is mediated through the E2F1 transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant K Kachhap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis re-express silenced tumor suppressor genes and are currently undergoing clinical trials. Although HDACis have been known to induce gene expression, an equal number of genes are downregulated upon HDAC inhibition. The mechanism behind this downregulation remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that several DNA repair genes are downregulated by HDAC inhibition and provide a mechanism involving the E2F1 transcription factor in the process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Applying Analysis of Functional Annotation (AFA on microarray data of prostate cancer cells treated with HDACis, we found a number of genes of the DNA damage response and repair pathways are downregulated by HDACis. AFA revealed enrichment of homologous recombination (HR DNA repair genes of the BRCA1 pathway, as well as genes regulated by the E2F1 transcription factor. Prostate cancer cells demonstrated a decreased DNA repair capacity and an increased sensitization to chemical- and radio-DNA damaging agents upon HDAC inhibition. Recruitment of key HR repair proteins to the site of DNA damage, as well as HR repair capacity was compromised upon HDACi treatment. Based on our AFA data, we hypothesized that the E2F transcription factors may play a role in the downregulation of key repair genes upon HDAC inhibition in prostate cancer cells. ChIP analysis and luciferase assays reveal that the downregulation of key repair genes is mediated through decreased recruitment of the E2F1 transcription factor and not through active repression by repressive E2Fs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that several genes in the DNA repair pathway are affected upon HDAC inhibition. Downregulation of the repair genes is on account of a decrease in amount and promoter recruitment of the E2F1 transcription factor. Since HDAC inhibition affects several pathways that could potentially have an impact on DNA repair, compromised DNA repair upon HDAC

  14. Construction of recombinant adenovirus co-expression vector carrying the human transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor genes and its effect on anterior cruciate ligament fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xue-lei; LIN Lin; HOU Yu; FU Xin; ZHANG Ji-ying; MAO Ze-bin; YU Chang-long


    Background Remodeling of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft usually takes longer than expected. Gene therapy offers a radical different approach to remodeling of the graft. In this study, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence was used to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which permits co-expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) genes (named Ad-VEGF165-1RES-TGFβ1). We investigated the effects of the new adenovirus on the migration of and matrix synthesis by ACL fibroblasts.Methods Adenoviral vector containing TGFβ1 and VEGF165 genes was constructed. ACL fibroblasts were obtained from New Zealand white rabbits. After ACL fibroblasts were exposed to Ad-VEGF165-1RES-TGFβ1, the expression of VEGF165 and TGFβ1 proteins were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting analysis. Bioassay of VEGF165 and TGFβ1 proteins were assessed by Western blotting analysis. Proliferation and migration of ACL fibroblasts were assessed by in vitro wound closure assay. Gene expression of collagen type I, collagen type Ⅲ, and fibronectin mRNA among matrix markers were assessed by real-time PCR.Results The results showed the successful construction of a recombinant co-expression adenovirus vector containing TGFβI and VEGF165 genes. Co-expression of TGFβ1 and VEGF165 can induce relatively rapid and continuous proliferation of ACL fibroblasts and high gene expression of collagen type Ⅰ, collagen typeⅢ, and fibronectin mRNA among matrix markers.Conclusion Co-expression of TGFβ1 and VEGF165 genes has more powerful and efficient effects on the migration of and matrix synthesis by ACL fibroblasts.

  15. The effect of recombinant erythropoietin on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with affective disorders: a randomised controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Vinberg

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in patients with affective disorders. In total, 83 patients were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17 score >17 (study 1 and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS ≤ 14 (study 2. In both studies, patients were randomised to receive eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU or saline (0.9% NaCl infusions in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel--group design. Plasma BDNF levels were measured at baseline and at weeks 5, 9 and at follow up, week 14. In contrast with our hypothesis, EPO down regulated plasma BDNF levels in patients with TRD (mean reduction at week 9 (95% CI: EPO 10.94 ng/l (4.51-21.41 ng/l; mean increase at week 9: Saline 0.52 ng/l, p=0.04 (-5.88-4.48 ng/l p=0.04, partial ŋ2=0.12. No significant effects were found on BDNF levels in partially remitted patients with BD (p=0.35. The present effects of EPO on BDNF levels in patients with TRD point to a role of neurotrophic factors in the potential effects of EPO seen in TRD and BD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects and the interaction between EPO and peripheral levels on BDNF need to be further elucidated in human studies including a broad range of NCT00916552.

  16. Uso de fator VII recombinante ativado para tratamento e profilaxia de grandes sangramentos Use of recombinant activated factor VII for treatment and prophylaxis of major bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Henriques Vince


    pacientes. Dessa forma, o recente aumento do uso de rFVIIa em situações ainda não aprovadas levou ao crescente questionamento sobre eficácia e segurança desta específica medicação em tais situações.INTRODUCTION: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa is a protein produced by genetic engineering, the structure is very similar to the structure of intrinsic activated factor VII (FVII. Its action is based on knowledge of the coagulation mechanism in vivo by acting in direct activation of factor X independent resulting in formation of thrombin at the injury site and thereby contributing to the formation of stable fibrin clots without the action of factor VIII and factor IX. METHODS: Was conducted extensive review of the literature in order to determine the new findings related to the use of recombinant activated factor VII in patients with severe bleeding. RESULTS: It was found that the use of rFVIIa started in the 80's for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding in patients with a history of hemophilia A or B with inhibitors to factor VIII and IX, factor VII deficiency and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia refractory to replacement platelet. In 1999 its use was expanded to other clinical situations and thus began to be published several studies showing the efficacy of rFVIIa as a pro-hemostatic agent in patients with bleeding disorders or other previously healthy patients with a history of acute bleeding of major consequence. Trauma is the leading cause of mortality worldwide and uncontrolled bleeding the main challenge in caring for these patients. It is common for the association of trauma with coagulopathy, requiring in some cases specific therapy to treat it. At this point in adjuvant therapy with rFVIIa should be considered. Other common causes of bleeding are the heart, gynecologic/obstetric surgeries and diseases involving the liver. The coagulopathy in these cases is deficiency of factors dependent on vitamin K, and the FVII factor with smaller half life. CONCLUSION

  17. Treatment of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A with the proper administration of recombinant activated factor VII: single-center study of 7 cases (United States)

    Saito, Makoto; Kanaya, Minoru; Izumiyama, Koh; Mori, Akio; Irie, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Masanori; Morioka, Masanobu; Ieko, Masahiro


    Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is the bypassing agent used in the first-line hemostatic therapy for acquired hemophilia A (AHA); however, the occurrence of thrombotic complications in rFVIIa-treated AHA patients was recently reported to be 2.9–6.5%. Therefore, the investigation of the proper administration of rFVIIa for AHA is needed. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the clinical features of AHA with regards to the use of rFVIIa (presence or absence of use and total amount) in 7 AHA patients encountered in our department for 7 years between January 2008 and December 2014. Ages were 63–89 years old (median: 79 years old), and there were 5 male and 2 female patients. The coexistence of cardiovascular risk factors and arteriosclerotic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebral infarction were present in 6 patients. Anemia progressed to less than 7 g/dL of hemoglobin and required red blood cell transfusion in 5 patients, showing “severe” hemorrhage. Factor VIII inhibitors were removed by immunological treatments in 6 patients. As a hemostatic therapy, rFVIIa was used in 4 patients. rFVIIa was not administered or was administered at a very low dose (20 mg) to 3 and 1 patient, respectively, and bleeding stopped as inhibitor titers decreased and disappeared in these patients. Inhibitors did not disappear in 1 patient and the control of hemostasis became poor and was accompanied by intestinal hemorrhage. Although a large amount of rFVIIa (265 mg in total) was administered, the patient bled to death. Therefore, bleeding may be stopped without the administration of rFVIIa in some AHA cases, while the dose of rFVIIa is not necessarily related to hemostatic effects in other cases. Since the main aim of AHA treatments is the removal of inhibitors, caution is needed to ensure that more than the necessary amount of rFVIIa is not administered. PMID:27843336

  18. Preparation of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with a mutation of human factor IX in large scale and its expression in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of adeno-associated viral vectors conraining a mutation of human factor IX (hFIXR338A) with different regulation elements were constructed and used to transduce cell lines. The plasmids and the stable transduction cell clones with high expression level of hFIXR338Awere obtained by selecting and optimizing, and then, the recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338Awas prepared via novel rHSV/AAV hybrid virus packaging system on a large scale, which contained the capsid protein genes. A method for producing rAAV-hFIXR338A viral stocks on a large scale and higher fiter was established,which can be used for industrial purpose. The titer of rAAV-hFIXR338A was more than 1.25x1012 particle/mL, and then, a mammalian cell line, C2C12 and the factor IXknock-out mice were transfected with the rAAV-hFIXR338Ain vitro and in vivo. The results show that the high-level expression of rAAV-hFIXR338A was achieved in cell line and hemophilia B mice. It reached at (2551.32±92.14) ng@ (106cells)-1 @ (24 h)-1 in C2C12 cell in vitro and had a peak concentration of 463.28 ng/mL in mice treated with rAAV-hFIX R338A, which was as high as the expression of rAAV-hFIX -wt (2565.76±64.36) ng@ (106 cells)-1@ (24 h)-1 in C2C12 and 453.92 ng/mL in the mice treated with rAAV-hFIX-wt) in vitro and in vivo, there is no any difference between two groups, but the clotting activity of hFIXR338A is about 2.46times higher than that of hFIX-wt. It was first reported that a mutation of human factor IX was used into gene therapy research for hemophilia B, meanwhile, a novel packaging system, rAAV/HSV was used for preparation of rAAV-hFIX R338A on a large scale, which laid the foundation of industrial production for applying rAAV viral stocks to gene therapy clinical trial for hemophilia B mediated with rAAV-hFIX.``

  19. Mechanistic features of recombination in HIV. (United States)

    Galetto, Román; Negroni, Matteo


    The importance of recombination in retroviral evolution has been acknowledged for several decades. Consequently, after the identification of HIV as the etiological agent of AIDS, it was suspected that recombination could also play a central role in the evolution of this virus. However, only recently, extensive epidemiologic studies of HIV infections worldwide have provided an estimate for the occurrence of recombination in vivo, unveiling recombination frequencies that dwarf those initially expected. Nowadays, recombination is regarded as an integral part of the infectious cycle of this retrovirus, which impacts on diagnosis and treatment of infections, especially when genetically distant viruses have been at the origin of the recombinant forms. Retroviral recombination is observed when two genetically divergent genomic RNA molecules are present in the same viral particle, and arises during the reverse transcription step. This review focuses on the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for the occurrence of recombination in retroviruses, from the strand displacement model, according to which recombination occurs during second DNA strand synthesis; to the description of the factors responsible for copy-choice recombination during first DNA strand synthesis, such as the presence of breaks, pause sites, or secondary structures in the genomic RNA. Most of these models have been supported by experimental data obtained from in vitro reconstituted systems or from cell infection studies using academic model sequences. The situation in vivo is expected to be more complex, since several factors come into play when recombination involves relatively distant isolates, as in the case of inter-subtype recombination. At present, it is clear that further studies are needed in order to evaluate whether a prevailing mechanism exists for in vivo recombination, and these studies will also be essential for understanding how the underlying mechanisms of recombination contribute

  20. Analysis of clinical factors for the determination of optimal serum level of thyrotropin after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the optimal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have analyzed the clinical parameters that affected the degree of the increase in serum levels of TSH. We retrospectively analyzed 276 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), post-thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of TSH after rhTSH stimulation and various clinical factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the degree of increase in serum TSH level after rhTSH stimulation. After the rhTSH injections, all subjects achieved TSH levels of >30 μU/mL, with a mean of 203.8 ± 83.4 μU/mL. On univariate analysis, age (r = 0.255) and serum creatinine (r = 0.169) level were positive predictors for higher levels of serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation, while weight (r = –0.239), BMI (r = –0.223), BSA (r = –0.217), and estimated GFR (r = –0.199) were negative predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine was the most powerful independent predictor for serum levels of TSH, followed by age, BSA, and BMI. An increment in serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation was significantly affected by age, BSA, BMI, and creatinine, with creatinine being the most powerful predictor. By understanding the difference in the increased levels of TSH in various subjects, their dose of rhTSH can be adjusted during scheduling for radioiodine ablation, or during follow-up (recurrence surveillance) after surgery and ablation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study effect of recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor on invitro development of 2 cells embryos and isolated blastomeres derived from mouse 2 cell embryos were investigated. Female ICR mice that were between 8 to 10 weeks old received intraperitoneal injection of 7.5 IU of PMSG for super ovulation followed by intraperitoneal administration of 7.5 IU of HCG 48 hours later. The mice were then mated to mature ICR male mice and were checked for vaginal plugs after 13-14 hours. Mice were killed 46-48 hours after HCG injection by cervical dislocation, their oviducts were removed and flushing 2 cell embryos were collected. The zona pellucida of 2 cell embryos were removed by Acid Tyrod solution and blastomeres separated with oocyte preparation pipette and then all embryos and blastomeres were cultured in Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM +Aminoacid (AA different amounts of rhLIF (500IU/ml, 1000IU/ml and 1500IU/ml. Some embryos and individual blastomere also were cultured without rhLIF as control group. All samples were cultured in an incubator at 370C with 0.05 CO2 for 120 hours. The rate of embryo and individual blastomeres which reached to 2 cell, 4 cell, 8 cell and 9-16 cell were the same in all groups. However in further developmental stages, morula and blastocyst between experimental and control groups were significantly different. Therefore it may be concluded that: cultivation of isolated blastomers up to the blastocyst stage with rhLIF has stimulatory effect on the preimplantation stage (morula and blastocyst but it has no stimulatory and inhibitory effects when was added to culture media at the early cleavage stage.

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor effect of recombinant chicken fibroblast growth factor receptor-1-mediated anti-angiogenesis and low-dose gemcitabine in a mouse colon adenocarcinoma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Jiang Zheng; Shao-Ping Zheng; Feng-Ying Huang; Chang-Liang Jiao; Ren-Liang Wu


    AIM: To evaluate whether the combination of recombinant chicken fibroblast growth factor receptor -1(FGFR-1) protein vaccine (cFR-1) combined with low-dose gemcitabine would improve anti-tumor efficacy in a mouse CT26 colon adenocarcinoma (CT26) model.METHODS: The CT26 model was established in BABL/c mice. Seven days after tumor cell injection, mice were randomly divided into four groups: combination therapy,cFR-1 alone, gemcitabine alone, and normal saline groups. Tumor growth, survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, and systemic toxicity were observed. The presence of anti-tumor auto-antibodies was detected by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunospot assay,microvessel density (MVD) of the tumors and tumor cell proliferation were detected by Immunohistochemistry staining, and tumor cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated biotinylated-dUTP nick end label staining.RESULTS: The combination therapy results in apparent decreases in tumor volume, microvessel density and tumor cell proliferation, and an increase in apoptosis without obvious side-effects as compared with either therapy alone or normal control groups. Also, both autoantibodies and the antibody-producing B cells against mouse FGFR-1 were detected in mice immunized with cFR-1 vaccine alone or with combination therapy, but not in non-immunized mice. In addition, the deposition of auto-antibodies on endothelial cells from mice immunized with cFR-1 was observed by immunofluorescent staining, but not on endothelial cells from control groups.Synergistic indexes of tumor volume, MVD, cell apoptosis and proliferation in the combination therapy group were 1.71 vs 1.15 vs 1.11 and 1.04, respectively, 31 d after tumor cell injection.CONCLUSION: The combination of cFR-1-mediated antiangiogenesis and low-dose gemcitabine synergistically enhances the anti-tumor activity without overt toxicity in mice.

  3. A novel solid-phase site-specific PEGylation enhances the in vitro and in vivo biostabilty of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Huang

    Full Text Available Keratinocyte growth factor 1 (KGF-1 has proven useful in the treatment of pathologies associated with dermal adnexae, liver, lung, and the gastrointestinal tract diseases. However, poor stability and short plasma half-life of the protein have restricted its therapeutic applications. While it is possible to improve the stability and extend the circulating half-life of recombinant human KGF-1 (rhKGF-1 using solution-phase PEGylation, such preparations have heterogeneous structures and often low specific activities due to multiple and/or uncontrolled PEGylation. In the present study, a novel solid-phase PEGylation strategy was employed to produce homogenous mono-PEGylated rhKGF-1. RhKGF-1 protein was immobilized on a Heparin-Sepharose column and then a site-selective PEGylation reaction was carried out by a reductive alkylation at the N-terminal amino acid of the protein. The mono-PEGylated rhKGF-1, which accounted for over 40% of the total rhKGF-1 used in the PEGylation reaction, was purified to homogeneity by SP Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography. Our biophysical and biochemical studies demonstrated that the solid-phase PEGylation significantly enhanced the in vitro and in vivo biostability without affecting the over all structure of the protein. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis showed that modified rhKGF-1 had considerably longer plasma half-life than its intact counterpart. Our cell-based analysis showed that, similar to rhKGF-1, PEGylated rhKGF-1 induced proliferation in NIH 3T3 cells through the activation of MAPK/Erk pathway. Notably, PEGylated rhKGF-1 exhibited a greater hepatoprotection against CCl(4-induced injury in rats compared to rhKGF-1.

  4. Multicentre, randomized, open-label study of on-demand treatment with two prophylaxis regimens of recombinant coagulation factor IX in haemophilia B subjects. (United States)

    Valentino, L A; Rusen, L; Elezovic, I; Smith, L M; Korth-Bradley, J M; Rendo, P


    Few randomized studies have reported on the use of factor IX (FIX) for secondary prophylaxis in haemophilia B patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two secondary prophylaxis regimens of recombinant coagulation FIX, nonacog alfa, compared with on-demand therapy. Male subjects aged 6-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B (FIX:C ≤ 2, n = 50) and ≥12 bleeding episodes (including ≥6 haemarthroses episodes) within 12 months of study participation were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open-label, four-period crossover trial. The primary measure was the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) of two prophylactic regimens vs. on-demand therapy. In the intent-to-treat group, mean ABR values were 35.1, 2.6 and 4.6 for the first on-demand period, the 50 IU kg(-1) twice-weekly period, and the 100 IU kg(-1) once-weekly period respectively. Differences in ABR between the first on-demand period and both prophylaxis regimens were significant (P < 0.0001); no significant differences were observed between prophylaxis regimens (P = 0.22). Seven serious adverse events occurred in five subjects, none related to study drug. Results demonstrated that secondary prophylaxis therapy with nonacog alfa 50 IU kg(-1) twice weekly or 100 IU kg(-1) once weekly reduced ABR by 89.4% relative to on-demand treatment. Both prophylaxis regimens demonstrated favourable safety profiles in subjects with haemophilia B.

  5. A bivalent Neisseria meningitidis recombinant lipidated factor H binding protein vaccine in young adults: results of a randomised, controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 trial. (United States)

    Richmond, P C; Nissen, M D; Marshall, H S; Lambert, S B; Roberton, D; Gruber, W C; Jones, T R; Arora, A


    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia, but a broadly-protective vaccine against endemic serogroup B disease is not licensed and available. The conserved, outer-membrane lipoprotein factor H binding protein (fHBP, also known as LP2086) is expressed as one of two subfamily variants in virtually all meningococci. This study investigated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant-expressed bivalent fHBP (r-fHBP) vaccine in healthy adults. Participants (N=103) aged 18-25 years were recruited into three ascending dose level cohorts of 20, 60, and 200μg of a bivalent r-fHBP vaccine formulation and randomised to receive vaccine or placebo at 0, 1, and 6 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) for r-fHBP subfamily-specific IgG antibodies increased 19-168-fold from pre-vaccination to post-dose 2 in a dose level-dependent manner. In addition, robust serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) responses for strains expressing both homologous and heterologous fHBP variants were observed. After three vaccinations, 16-52% of the placebo group and 47-90%, 75-100%, and 88-100%, of the 20, 60, and 200μg dose levels, respectively, had seroprotective (≥ 1:4) hSBA titres against six serogroup B strains. The bivalent r-fHBP vaccine was well tolerated and induced robust bactericidal activity against six diverse serogroup B strains in young adults at the 60 and 200μg dose levels.

  6. A simple method for production and purification of soluble and biologically active recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Noisa, Parinya; Parnpai, Rangsun; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena


    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) rely on a cytokine named leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain their undifferentiated state and pluripotency. However, the progress of mESC research is restricted and limited to highly funded laboratories due to the cost of commercial LIF. Here we presented the homemade hLIF which is biologically active. The hLIF cDNA was cloned into two different vectors in order to produce N-terminal His₆-tag and Trx-His₆-tag hLIF fusion proteins in Origami(DE3) Escherichia coli. The His₆-hLIF fusion protein was not as soluble as the Trx-His₆-hLIF fusion protein. One-step immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) was done to recover high purity (> 95% pure) His₆-hLIF and Trx-His₆-hLIF fusion proteins with the yields of 100 and 200 mg/l of cell culture, respectively. The hLIF fusion proteins were identified by Western blot and verified by mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The hLIF fusion proteins specifically promote the proliferation of TF-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. They also demonstrate the potency to retain the morphology of undifferentiated mESCs, in that they were positive for mESC markers (Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog, SSEA-1 and alkaline phosphatase activity). These results demonstrated that the N-terminal fusion tags of the His₆-hLIF and Trx-His₆-hLIF fusion proteins do not interfere with their biological activity. This expression and purification approach to produce recombinant hLIF is a simple, reliable, cost effective and user-friendly method.

  7. Reversal Effect and Mechanisms of Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-NC Against the Doxorubicin Resistance in Leukemia K562/Doxorubicin Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing-hong; CHEN Bo-hua


    Objective: To explore the reversal effect and mechanisms of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-NC (rhTNF-NC) against the doxorubicin (Dox) resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562/Dox cells. Methods: The chemo-sensitivity of tumor cells dealt with different concentrations of rhTNF-NC to Dox was detected by tetrazolium dye assay (MTT). The intra-cellular Dox accumulation represented by lfuorescence intensity was determined by lfow cytometry (FCM) at the excitation wave length of 488 nm and emission wave length of 550 nm. The expression of multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes and proteins was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays. Results:After being exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of Dox for 10 consecutive months, K562/Dox cells were more resistant to Dox (nearly 132 times) than Dox-sensitive K562 cells. The IC50 of Dox for K562 and K562/Dox cells were (0.04±0.01) and (5.55±0.08) μmol/L, respectively. When K562/Dox cells were treated with rhTNF-NC at 500, 2 500 or 5 000U/mL, the IC50 of Dox was decreased to (2.22±0.34), (1.41±0.13) and (1.04±0.09) μmol/L, respectively. The concentration-response curves were moved upward by the treatment of rhTNF-NC (P Conclusion: rhTNF-NC can effectively augment the drug accumulation in tumor cells. This is due to the up-regulation of TopoIIα and down-regulation of MDR1, MRP and GSTπ at mRNA expression as well as reduction of P-gp and PKCα expression.

  8. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines. (United States)

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Yuling; Geng, Chuanying; Liu, Nian; Yang, Guangzhong; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; Chen, Wenming


    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines were analyzed prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL administration by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed that following TRAIL treatment, 6 apoptosis-related proteins, calpain small subunit 1 (CPNS1), peflin (PEF1), B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 (BAG2) and chromobox protein homolog 3 (CBX3), were upregulated in RPMI 8226 cells while no change was identified in the U266 cells. Furthermore, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 and several other ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related proteins expressed higher levels in TRAIL-resistant cells U266 compared to the RPMI-8226 cells prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL treatment. These results suggested that CPNS1, PEF1, BAP31, ASC, BAG2 and CBX3 were possibly target proteins of rmhTRAIL on RPMI 8226 cells, while UPP may have a vital role in mediating TRAIL-resistance in U266 cells.

  9. The in vivo immunomodulatory effect of recombinant tumour necrosis factor-alpha in guinea pigs vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (United States)

    Kramp, J C; McMurray, D N; Formichella, C; Jeevan, A


    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that treatment in vitro with recombinant guinea pig tumour necrosis factor TNF (rgpTNF)-α-enhanced T cell and macrophage functions. Similarly, injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with anti-TNF-α altered splenic granuloma organization and caused inflammatory changes and reduced the cell-associated mycobacteria in the tuberculous pluritis model. In this study, rgpTNF-α was injected into bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated guinea pigs to modulate immune functions in vivo. Guinea pigs were vaccinated intradermally with BCG, 2 × 103 colony-forming units (CFU) and injected intraperitoneally with either rgpTNF-α (25 µg/animal) or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for a total of 12 injections given every other day. Treatment with rgpTNF-α significantly enhanced the skin test response to purified protein derivative (PPD), reduced the number of CFUs and increased the PPD-induced proliferation in the lymph nodes at 6 weeks after vaccination. The levels of interleukin (IL)-12 mRNA were increased in the lymph node and spleen cells stimulated with PPD. TNF-α treatment induced a decrease in TNF-α, IL-12p40 and IL-10 mRNA levels in peritoneal cells following PPD stimulation while live M. tuberculosis caused an increase in TNF-α mRNA and a decrease in the IL-10 mRNA expression. TNF-α injection also induced an increase in the infiltration of mononuclear cells and in the proportions of CD3+ T cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that rgpTNF-α enhances some aspects of T cell immunity and promotes control of mycobacteria in the tissues. Future studies will address the role of TNF-α in BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs following low-dose pulmonary challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis. PMID:21545584

  10. The in vivo immunomodulatory effect of recombinant tumour necrosis factor-alpha in guinea pigs vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin. (United States)

    Kramp, J C; McMurray, D N; Formichella, C; Jeevan, A


    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that treatment in vitro with recombinant guinea pig tumour necrosis factor TNF (rgpTNF)-α-enhanced T cell and macrophage functions. Similarly, injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with anti-TNF-α altered splenic granuloma organization and caused inflammatory changes and reduced the cell-associated mycobacteria in the tuberculous pluritis model. In this study, rgpTNF-α was injected into bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated guinea pigs to modulate immune functions in vivo. Guinea pigs were vaccinated intradermally with BCG, 2 × 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) and injected intraperitoneally with either rgpTNF-α (25 µg/animal) or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for a total of 12 injections given every other day. Treatment with rgpTNF-α significantly enhanced the skin test response to purified protein derivative (PPD), reduced the number of CFUs and increased the PPD-induced proliferation in the lymph nodes at 6 weeks after vaccination. The levels of interleukin (IL)-12 mRNA were increased in the lymph node and spleen cells stimulated with PPD. TNF-α treatment induced a decrease in TNF-α, IL-12p40 and IL-10 mRNA levels in peritoneal cells following PPD stimulation while live M. tuberculosis caused an increase in TNF-α mRNA and a decrease in the IL-10 mRNA expression. TNF-α injection also induced an increase in the infiltration of mononuclear cells and in the proportions of CD3(+) T cells in the lymph nodes. These results indicate that rgpTNF-α enhances some aspects of T cell immunity and promotes control of mycobacteria in the tissues. Future studies will address the role of TNF-α in BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs following low-dose pulmonary challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis.

  11. 注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗血友病A的护理%The nursing for patients with hemophilia treated with recombinant coagulation factor Ⅷ for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲君; 余菊; 吉承玲


    Objective To explore the nursing methods and points for patients with hemophilia treated by recombinant coagulation factor VI for injection. Methods Seven patients with hemophilia were treated with 31 injections of recombinant coagulation factor VIE, as well as nursing interventions including psychological nursing, drug preparation, observation and health education. Results No adverse response was observed in the treatment of recombinant coagulation factor VBI for the 7 patients with hemophilia. Conclusion In use of recombinant coagulation factor VB for injection, we are able to strengthening the nursing for patients and drugs can help decrease the side effects and improve the patient's compliance and response.%目的 探讨注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ(拜科奇)治疗血友病A的护理方法和要点.方法 通过对7例血友病A患者31次使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ进行治疗时,予心理护理、药物配制、用药观察以及健康教育等护理干预.结果 7例血友病A患者31次使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗,均未见不良反应.结论 在使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗中,加强药物及患者的护理,可减少不良反应,提高患者的治疗依从性与治疗效果.

  12. Role of ubiquitination in meiotic recombination repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Programmed and unprogrammed double-strand breaks (DSBs) often arise from such physiological requirements as meiotic recombination, and exogenous insults, such as ionizing radiation (IR). Due to deleterious impacts on genome stability, DSBs must be appropriately processed and repaired in a regulatory manner. Recent investigations have indicated that ubiquitination is a critical factor in DNA damage response and meiotic recombination repair. This review summarizes the effects of proteins and complexes associated with ubiquitination with regard to homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DSB repair.

  13. Recombinant osteopontin attenuates hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury through inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiangfeng; Liu Fen; Zhu Guangfa; Wang Zengzhi


    Background Exposure of adult mice to more than 95% O2 produces a lethal injury by 72 hours.Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcriptional factor that plays a key role in the modulation of cytokine networks during hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALl).Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein produced principally by macrophages.Studies have reported that exogenous OPN can maintain the integrity of the cerebral microvascular basement membrane and reduce brain damage through inhibiting NF-κB activities in the brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage.However,it is not clear whether OPN can reduce lung injury during ALl by inhibiting transcriptional signal pathways of NF-κB and consequent inhibition of infiammatory cytokines.Thus we examined the effects and mechanisms of recombinant OPN (r-OPN) on ALl.Methods Ninety-six mice were randomly divided into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and r-OPN groups.Mice were put in an oxygen chamber (>95% O2) and assessed for lung injury at 24,48,and 72 hours.Expressions of NF-κB,matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9),and tissue inhibitors of MMP-2 and MMP-9 (TIMP-1,TIMP-2) mRNA in lungs were examined with RT-PCR.Expression and distribution of NF-κB protein in lungs were measured with immunohistochemistry.Results Exposure to hyperoxia for 72 hours induced more severe lung injury in the PBS group compared with the r-OPN group.Expression of NF-κB mRNA in the PBS group exposed to hyperoxia for 48 and 72 hours was significantly higher than the r-OPN group (P <0.05).With 72-hour exposure,expression of TIMP-1 mRNA in the r-OPN group was significantly higher than that of the PBS group (P <0.05).Expression of TIMP-2 mRNA in the r-OPN group at 48 and 72 hours was significantly higher than those in the PBS group (P <0.05).After 72-hour exposure,expression of NF-κB protein in airway epithelium in the PBS group was significantly higher than that in the r-OPN group (P <0.05).Conclusion r-OPN can

  14. Recombinant Technology and Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icy D’Silva


    Full Text Available Recombinant technology has led the way to monumental advances in the development of useful molecules, including the development of safe probiotics. The development of novel approaches using recombinant technology and probiotics that allow accurate targeting of therapeutics to the mucosa is an interesting area of research. The creation and use of recombinant probiotics expressing recombinantovalbumin, recombinant ovalbumin mutants and yet-to-be-designed recombinant hypo/non-allergenic molecules offer the opportunity to further investigate their effects for food, nutrition, environment andhealth. This review highlights advances in native probiotics and recombinant probiotics expressing native and recombinant molecules for food, nutrition, environment and health.

  15. Recombinant Technology and Probiotics


    Icy D’Silva


    Recombinant technology has led the way to monumental advances in the development of useful molecules, including the development of safe probiotics. The development of novel approaches using recombinant technology and probiotics that allow accurate targeting of therapeutics to the mucosa is an interesting area of research. The creation and use of recombinant probiotics expressing recombinantovalbumin, recombinant ovalbumin mutants and yet-to-be-designed recombinant hypo/non-allergenic molecule...

  16. A Recombination Directionality Factor Controls the Cell Type-Specific Activation of σK and the Fidelity of Spore Development in Clostridium difficile (United States)

    Serrano, Mónica; Kint, Nicolas; Pereira, Fátima C.; Saujet, Laure; Boudry, Pierre; Dupuy, Bruno; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle


    The strict anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea, and the oxygen-resistant spores that it forms have a central role in the infectious cycle. The late stages of sporulation require the mother cell regulatory protein σK. In Bacillus subtilis, the onset of σK activity requires both excision of a prophage-like element (skinBs) inserted in the sigK gene and proteolytical removal of an inhibitory pro-sequence. Importantly, the rearrangement is restricted to the mother cell because the skinBs recombinase is produced specifically in this cell. In C. difficile, σK lacks a pro-sequence but a skinCd element is present. The product of the skinCd gene CD1231 shares similarity with large serine recombinases. We show that CD1231 is necessary for sporulation and skinCd excision. However, contrary to B. subtilis, expression of CD1231 is observed in vegetative cells and in both sporangial compartments. Nevertheless, we show that skinCd excision is under the control of mother cell regulatory proteins σE and SpoIIID. We then demonstrate that σE and SpoIIID control the expression of the skinCd gene CD1234, and that this gene is required for sporulation and skinCd excision. CD1231 and CD1234 appear to interact and both proteins are required for skinCd excision while only CD1231 is necessary for skinCd integration. Thus, CD1234 is a recombination directionality factor that delays and restricts skinCd excision to the terminal mother cell. Finally, while the skinCd element is not essential for sporulation, deletion of skinCd results in premature activity of σK and in spores with altered surface layers. Thus, skinCd excision is a key element controlling the onset of σK activity and the fidelity of spore development. PMID:27631621

  17. 重组人睫状神经营养因子的聚乙二醇化修饰%PEGylation of Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁凌宇; 雷清; 高雪峰; 杨军; 应莲芳; 蒋琳


    Objective: To study the PEGylation of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor(rhCNTF), estab-lish the preliminary separation and purification of the polyethylene glycol-modified rhCNTF, and then to detect the biological activity of PEGylation rhCNTF. Methods: Using molecular biology techniques to obtain the mutants CN10 of rhCNTF by point mutation, then to study the conditions of PEG conjugation by design of experiment. The prod-uct of PEGylation rhCNTF were purified by molecular sieve chromatography, finally the biological activity were de-tected by ELISA and the method of weight loss in normal mouse. Results: CN10 can be successfully fixed-point modified by mPEG-MAL, the weight loss in mice experiments showed that the weight increase inhibitory rate of PEGylation CN10 were up to 50% when received an intraperitoneal injection every other day, it was equivalent to inhibitory effect of rhCNTF which injected twice a day. Conclusion: After PEG modification, the biological effect of rhCNTF was significantly prolonged.%目的:研究重组人睫状神经营养因子(rhCNTF)突变体的聚乙二醇(PEG)化修饰,对rhCNTF的PEG化产物进行初步分离纯化及相关生物活性检测。方法:采用分子生物学技术经点突变得到rhCNTF的突变体CN10,通过实验设计研究CN10的最佳PEG化条件;采用分子筛层析方式对偶联产物进行初步纯化,最后用ELISA和小鼠体重增长抑制法检测PEG化后的CN10蛋白的生物活性。结果:能运用mPEG-MAL对CN10进行定点修饰,PEG化后用Superdex 200能够分离CN10;PEG化后的CN10每2 d腹腔注射1次,对小鼠体重的增长抑制率可达50%,与rhCNTF每天注射2次的体重增长抑制作用相当。结论:CN10蛋白在PEG化修饰后,其减重效应持续时间明显延长。

  18. Expression of human nerve growth factor β gene in central nervous system mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viruses type-2 vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 吴勇杰; 吴小兵; 饶春明; 王军志


    Background Neurone atrophy and loss are major causes of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite many pharmacotherapies for neurodegeneration, there are no accepted treatments. We investigated the feasibility of human nerve growth factor β (hNGFβ) gene expression mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viruses type-2 (rAAV-2) vector in the central nervous system (CNS) after blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption.Methods rAAV-2 containing hNGFβ gene was constructed. The ability of hNGFβ gene mediated by rAAV-2 vector (rAAV-2/hNGFβ) to transfect cells in vitro was confirmed by both ELISA and bioassay of hNGFβ in the culture supernatant of BHK-21 cells infected by rAAV-2/hNGFβ. rAAV-2/hNGFβ and rAAV-2/green fluorescence protein (GFP) were administrated separately to rat brains through internal carotid intubation after BBB disruption with hypertonic mannitol. Brain hNGFβ concentration was measured by ELISA and GFP in brain sections was examined by laser scan confocal microscope.Results After 48 hours, hNGFβ content in supernatant was up to (188.0±28.6) pg/ml when BHK-21 cells were infected by rAAV-2/hNGFβ at multiplicity of infection (MOI)1.0×106 vector genome. Neurone fibre outgrowths were obvious in dorsal root ganglion neurone assays by adding serum free culture medium harvested from BHK-21 cells exposed to rAAV-2/hNGFβ. Whole brain hNGFβ content in rAAV-2/hNGFβ transferred group was up to (636.2±140.6) pg/ml. hNGFβ content of BBB disruption in rAAV-2/hNGFβ infused group increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05). GFP expression was clearly observed in brain sections of rAAV-2/GFP transferred group.Conclusion rAAV-2/hNGFβ successfully expresses in the CNS after BBB disruption induced by hypertonic mannitol.

  19. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Huazhong; (


    [1]Chang, J., Jin, J., Lollar, P. et al., Changing residue 338 in human factor IX from arginine to alanine causes an increase in catalytic activity, J. Bio. Chem., 1998, 273 (20): 12089-12094.[2]Lai, L., Chen, L., Zhou, H. et al., Clinical phenotype and genetic stability of factor IX gene knock out mice, J. Fudan Uni., 1999, 38 (4): 435-438.[3]Wu, Z. J., Wu, X. B., Hou, Y. D., Generation of a recombinant herps simplex virus which can provide packaging function for recombinant adeno-associated virus, Chinese Sci. Bull., 1999, 44 (8): 715-719.[4]Snyder, R. O., Miao, C. H., Patijn, G. A. et al., Persistent and therapeutic concentrations of human factor IX in mice after hepatic gene transfer of recombinant AAV vectors, Nat. Genet., 1997, 16 (3): 270-276.[5]Lai, L. H., Chen, L., Wang, J. M. et al., Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor IX rescues factor IX deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer, Science in China, Ser. C, 1999, 42 (6): 628-634.[6]Snyder, R. O., Miao, C., Meuse, L. et al., Correction of hemophilia B in canine and murine models using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, Nat. Med., 1999, 5 (1): 64-70.[7]Kung, S. H., Hagstrom, J. N., Cass, D. et al., Human factor IX corrects the bleeding diathesis of mice with hemophilia B, Blood, 1998, 91(3): 784-790.[8]Hirt, B., Selective extraction of polyoma DNA from infected mouse cell culture, J. Mol. Biol., 1967, 26: 365-369.[9]Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E., Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, 6, 20-21.[10]Chao, H., Samulski, R. J., Bellinger, D. A. et al., Persistent expression of canine factor IX in hemophilia B canines, Gene Ther., 1999, 6: 1695-1704.[11]Kaufman, R. J., Advances toward gene therapy for hemophilia at the millennium, Hum. Gene Ther., 1999, 10 (13): 2091-2107.[12]Lu, D. R., Zhou, J. M., Zheng, B. et al., Stage I clinical trial of gene

  20. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej


    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  1. Applications of λ Red Recombination in Bacteria and Analysis of Influencing Factors%细菌λ Red 重组技术的应用及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付喜爱; 张德显; 周维; 于立辉; 田春莲; 刘明春


    由λ噬菌体的exo、beta、gam 3个基因分别编码的Exo、Beta和Gam蛋白组成λ Red同源重组系统。λRed重组是细菌靶基因置换的有效技术,该技术发展迅速,已广泛应用于大肠埃希菌等细菌染色体DN A的基因敲除、基因整合,可以对任何大小的DN A分子进行精确修饰。利用λ Red重组系统不仅可以构建工程菌,还可以为研究细菌的致病机理和耐药机制提供新的方法。然而,许多应用因重组频率而受到限制,影响重组频率的因素主要有底物浓度、同源片段的长度、内源性核酸酶、错配蛋白等。论文综述了λ Red同源重组技术的应用进展及影响重组的因素,以期为优化重组试验方案及提高实验的成功率提供帮助。%TheλRed homologous recombination system is consisted of Exo ,Beta and Gam protein ,which are encoded by exo ,beta ,gam in theλphage respectively .This system has got an increasing development because of its efficiency in gene replacement of bacteria .It has been widely used in bacterial gene replace‐ment including gene knockout and gene integration in E .coli genomic DNA ,precise modification without consideration of any molecule weight .TheλRed homologus recombination system can not only build engi‐neering bacteria ,but also can provide a new insight for mechanisms of drug resistance and pathogenicity in bacteria .However ,many applications are limited by its low recombination frequency .Reports indicated that many factors contribute to recombination such as concentration of substrate ,length of homologous fragment ,endogenous nucleases ,mismatch protein and so on .In this paper ,the application and factors , which may influenceλRed homologous recombination ,were discussed in detail ,and aimed to optimize pro‐tocol and improve the efficiency in experiments .

  2. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华中; 陈立; 王红卫; 伍志坚; 吴小兵; 王学峰; 王鸿利; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦


    A mutant human factor IX with arginine at 338 residual changed to alanine (hFIXR338A) by site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into AAV vectors, and a recombinant adeno-associ- ated viral vector containing hFIXR338A, prepared by rHSV/AAV hybrid helper virus system, was directly introduced to the hind leg muscle of factor IX knock out mice. The expression and the biological activity of human factor IX mutant, hFIXR338A, and the immune response against it in the treated mice were assayed and detected. The results showed that (i) the high-level expression of human factor IX mutant protein, hFIXR338A, has been detected in rAAV-hFIXR338A treated hemophilia B mice and lasted more than 15 weeks; (ii) the clotting activity of hFIXR338A in plasma is 34.2%± 5.23%, which is remarkably higher than that of (14.27% ± 3.4%) of wild type hFIX treated mice in the activated partial thromboplastin assay; (iii) immune response against factor IX R338A was absent, with no factor IX mutant protein (hFIXR338A) inhibitors development in the treated mice; and (iv) no local or systemic side-effects and toxicity associated with the gene transfer were found. It demonstrated the potential use of treating hemophilia B by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors with mutant hFIXR338A gene, an alternative strategy for hemophilia B gene therapy to wild-type human factor IX.

  3. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray


    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  4. Orientation-dependent perimeter recombination in GaAs diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, T.B.; Melloch, M.R.; Lundstrom, M.S.; Carpenter, M.S.; Pierret, R.F. (School of Electrical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (USA))


    Perimeter recombination currents affect the performance of GaAs-based devices such as solar cells, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and injection lasers. We report that the {ital n}{congruent}2 perimeter recombination current has a strong orientation dependence. More than a factor of five variation in the surface recombination current at mesa-etched edges has been observed. These results suggest that with proper device design, perimeter recombination currents could be substantially reduced.

  5. Orientation-dependent perimeter recombination in GaAs diodes (United States)

    Stellwag, T. B.; Melloch, M. R.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Carpenter, M. S.; Pierret, R. F.


    Perimeter recombination currents affect the performance of GaAs-based devices such as solar cells, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and injection lasers. We report that the n≂2 perimeter recombination current has a strong orientation dependence. More than a factor of five variation in the surface recombination current at mesa-etched edges has been observed. These results suggest that with proper device design, perimeter recombination currents could be substantially reduced.

  6. 重组人表皮生长因子眼液在白内障术后应用%Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Eye Drops in Cataract Surgery Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the Effects of recombinant human epidermallgrowth factor eye drops after cataract surgery incision healing Effect. Methods:40cases of cataract operation,were randomly divided into two groups,the controllgroup of locallroutine medication,the treatment group added epidermallgrowth factor eye drops with recombinant human,incision healing was observed after cataract surgery. Results:in treatment group,the average healing time was 1.5days shorter than the controllgroup in the 2.5day. Conclusion:the epidermallgrowth factor can accelerate the healing of incision,foreign body friction reduce postoperative scar resulting sense.%目的:观察重组人表皮生长因子眼液在白内障术后切口愈合的效果。方法选择白内障手术40例,随机分成两组,对照组局部常规用药,治疗组加用重组人表皮生长因子眼液,观察白内障术后切口愈合情况。结果治疗组愈合时间平均为1.5d短于对照组2.5d。结论表皮生长因子能加快切口愈合,减轻患者术后切口瘢痕导致的异物摩擦感。

  7. Response to recombinant erythropoietin alpha, without the adjunct of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, is associated with a longer survival in patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes. (United States)

    Musto, Pellegrino; Villani, Oreste; Martorelli, Maria Carmen; Pietrantuono, Giuseppe; Guariglia, Roberto; Mansueto, Giovanna; D'Auria, Fiorella; Grieco, Vitina; Bianchino, Gabriella; Sparano, Anna; Zonno, Antonia; Lerose, Rosa; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Falcone, Antonietta


    This was a retrospective, comparative study focused on the extended follow-up of 192 transfusion-dependent patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated (n. 83) or not treated (n. 109) with recombinant erythropoietin alpha (r-EPO) as single agent during the course of their disease. The results supported the safety of this treatment in the long term and also showed a significant survival advantage (median 52 months vs. 31 months, p<0.0095) in responding patients as compared to non-responding ones or to subjects never treated with r-EPO. At multivariate analysis, response to r-EPO maintained an independent prognostic value on OS.

  8. Recombination analysis of Soybean mosaic virus sequences reveals evidence of RNA recombination between distinct pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Mohan


    Full Text Available Abstract RNA recombination is one of the two major factors that create RNA genome variability. Assessing its incidence in plant RNA viruses helps understand the formation of new isolates and evaluate the effectiveness of crop protection strategies. To search for recombination in Soybean mosaic virus (SMV, the causal agent of a worldwide seed-borne, aphid-transmitted viral soybean disease, we obtained all full-length genome sequences of SMV as well as partial sequences encoding the N-terminal most (P1 protease and the C-terminal most (capsid protein; CP viral protein. The sequences were analyzed for possible recombination events using a variety of automatic and manual recombination detection and verification approaches. Automatic scanning identified 3, 10, and 17 recombination sites in the P1, CP, and full-length sequences, respectively. Manual analyses confirmed 10 recombination sites in three full-length SMV sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first report of recombination between distinct SMV pathotypes. These data imply that different SMV pathotypes can simultaneously infect a host cell and exchange genetic materials through recombination. The high incidence of SMV recombination suggests that recombination plays an important role in SMV evolution. Obtaining additional full-length sequences will help elucidate this role.

  9. The recombinational anatomy of a mouse chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Paigen


    Full Text Available Among mammals, genetic recombination occurs at highly delimited sites known as recombination hotspots. They are typically 1-2 kb long and vary as much as a 1,000-fold or more in recombination activity. Although much is known about the molecular details of the recombination process itself, the factors determining the location and relative activity of hotspots are poorly understood. To further our understanding, we have collected and mapped the locations of 5,472 crossover events along mouse Chromosome 1 arising in 6,028 meioses of male and female reciprocal F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ mice. Crossovers were mapped to a minimum resolution of 225 kb, and those in the telomere-proximal 24.7 Mb were further mapped to resolve individual hotspots. Recombination rates were evolutionarily conserved on a regional scale, but not at the local level. There was a clear negative-exponential relationship between the relative activity and abundance of hotspot activity classes, such that a small number of the most active hotspots account for the majority of recombination. Females had 1.2x higher overall recombination than males did, although the sex ratio showed considerable regional variation. Locally, entirely sex-specific hotspots were rare. The initiation of recombination at the most active hotspot was regulated independently on the two parental chromatids, and analysis of reciprocal crosses indicated that parental imprinting has subtle effects on recombination rates. It appears that the regulation of mammalian recombination is a complex, dynamic process involving multiple factors reflecting species, sex, individual variation within species, and the properties of individual hotspots.

  10. Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment (United States)

    Pastan, Ira; Fitzgerald, David


    Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either growth factor-toxin fusions or antibody-toxin fusions can be chosen, depending on the cellular target.

  11. Novel applications of recombinant erythropoietin. (United States)

    Sharples, Edward J; Thiemermann, Christoph; Yaqoob, Magdi M


    Recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) was introduced into clinical practice after the identification of EPO as the major haemopoietic growth factor determining survival and maturation of erythroid precursors. Advances in our understanding of the novel sites of action of EPO in the vasculature, brain, heart and kidney have opened new avenues of therapeutic potential for EPO, and have led to an increased understanding of the biological roles of EPO and its mechanisms of cell protection.

  12. Construction of Plant Expression Vector for Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (hEGF)%重组人表皮生长因子(hEGF)植物表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉永; 刘东东; 信凯; 姚庆收


    [Objective] This study aimed to construct plant expression vector for recombinant human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and further to provide a basis for the expression of hEGF in peanut hairy root system.[Method] According to the hEGF sequence in GenBank,hEGF was synthesized artificially; subsequently,hEGF gene was ligated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene,and their ligation product was then amplified with primers flanked with corresponding endonuclease cleavage sites,followed by double digestion by Sal I and EcoR I of the amplified products; next,pRI 101 AN DNA was extracted and digested by both Sal I and EcoR I;susequently,the digestion products of hEGF and GFP ligation fragment by Sal I and EcoR I and the digestion products of pRI 101 AN plasmid DNA by Sal I and EcoR I were ligated,and their ligation product was transformed into Escherichia coil XL10-Gold,followed by extraction of DNA from the recombinants exhibiting green fluorescence,which was then identified by enzymatic digestion and PCR,and the verified recombinant plasmid DNA was named pBZG101.[Result] Human epidermal growth factor gene (hEGF) and green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) were successfully ligated,and their ligation fragment was successfully ligated to pRI 101 AN DNA,finally with the acquirement of the plant expression vector for recombinant human epidermal growth factor-(pBZG101).[Conclusion] The plant expression vector for recombinant human epidermal growth factor-(pBZG101)-was successfully constructed in this study.%[目的]构建重组人表皮生长因子的植物用表达载体,为应用花生毛状根表达系统表达人表皮生长因子(hEGF)奠定基础.[方法]在GenBank中找到hEGF基因序列,并人工合成;将含hEGF基因与绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)的基因连接,用加相应接头的引物扩增得到这2个基因的片段,然后用Sal I和EcoR I的进行双酶切并回收;提取质粒pRI 101 AN DNA,并用Sal I和EcoR I对其进行双酶切并回

  13. A novel recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin strain expressing human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis early secretory antigenic target 6 complex augments Th1 immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Yang; Lang Bao; Yihao Deng


    Since Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin strain (BCG) fails to protect adults from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), there is an urgent need for developing a new vaccine. In this study, we constructed a novel recombinant BCG strain (rBCG) expressing human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) of Mycobacteriutn tuberculosis, named rBCG:GE (expressing GMCSFESAT6 complex), and evaluated the immunogenicity of the construct in BALB/c mice. Our results indicated that the rBCG:GE was able to induce higher titer of antibody than the conventional BCG, the rBCG:G (expressing GM-CSF)and the rBCG:E (expressing ESAT6). Moreover, the rBCG:GE also elicited a longer-lasting and stronger Thl cellular immune responses than the other groups, which was confirmed by the incremental proliferation of splenocytes, the increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of spleen, the elevated level of interferon-γ in splenocyte culture after tuberculin-purified protein derivative stimulation, and the increased concentration of GM-CSF in serum. The data presented here suggested the possibility that the recombinant BCG:GE might be a good vaccine candidate to TB.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shu; Ye Qinong


    Objective:To determine the biological activity of rhG-CSF and it's characterization. Methods: The prokaryotic expression vector pG01 containing human GCSF cDNA were constructed with DNA recombination technology. Results: We had achieved high level expression of the human G-CSF in E. Coli, where it represented at least 23.6% of the total protein as determined from SDS-PAGE gels. The human G-CSF was expressed as inclusion bodies in E. Coli. The inclusion bodies were solubilized in a solution containing 7M urea,renatured by dialysis, isolated and purified by DEAEsepharose CL-6B ion exchange and Superdex 75 gel filtration chromatography. The purified rhG-CSF was confirmed by coincidence of biological activity and protein demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. It was homogeneous with respect to mol. Wt (18400). The purity of the rhGCSF might be >90 per cent. Conclusion: The purified rhG-CSF in our laboratory had dramatically the biological activity of regulating proliferation and differentiation of the human G-CSF-dependent cell line NSF-1 and the progenitor cells of granulocytes of human bone marrow.

  15. Zinc finger artificial transcription factor-based nearest inactive analogue/nearest active analogue strategy used for the identification of plant genes controlling homologous recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Qi; van Verk, Marcel C.; Pinas, Johan E.; Lindhout, Beatrice I.; Hooykaas, Paul J.J.; Van der Zaal, Bert J.


    In previous work, we selected a particular transcription factor, designated VP16-HRU, from a pool of zinc finger artificial transcription factors (ZF-ATFs) used for genome interrogation. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the ribosomal protein S5A promoter, the RPS5A::VP16-HRU c

  16. The combined effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor and erythropoietin on full-thickness wound healing in diabetic rat model. (United States)

    Hong, Joon Pio; Park, Sung Woo


    Diabetic wound is a chronic wound in which normal process of wound healing is interrupted. Lack of blood supply, infection and lack of functional growth factors are assumed as some of the conditions that lead to non-healing environment. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) acts primarily to stimulate epithelial cell growth across wound. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a haematopoietic factor, which stimulates the production, differentiation and maturation of erythroid precursor cells. This study hypothesised combining these two factors, non-healing process of diabetic wound will be compensated and eventually lead to acceleration of wound healing compared with single growth factor treatment. A total of 30 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three treatment groups (single treatment of rh-EPO or rh-EGF or combined treatment on a full-thickness skin wound). To assess the wound healing effects of the components, the wound size and the healing time were measured in each treatment groups. The skin histology was examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating markers was performed. The combined treatment with rh-EPO and rh-EGF improved full-thickness wound significantly (P healing time with higher expression of Ki-67 compared with single growth factor-treated groups. The combined treatment failed to accelerate the total healing time when compared with single growth factor treatments. However, the significant improvement were found in wound size reduction in the combined treatment group on day 4 against single growth factor-treated groups (P wound healing possibly through a synergistic action of each growth factor. This application provides further insight into combined growth factor therapy on non-healing diabetic wounds.

  17. 重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子凝胶预防拔牙后干槽症%Recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel prevents dry socket syndrome after toothextraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛令法; 许尧祥; 岳金; 王双义; 肖文林; 张春阳


      背景:重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子是一种多效能的细胞因子,具有促进血管生成,创面愈合和组织修复及促进骨再生的能力,并有具有组织相容性好、易操作的特性,在口腔颌面外科领域应用广泛。  目的:将重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子凝胶植入下颌阻生牙拔除后牙槽窝,评价其预防干槽症的效果。  方法:纳入拔除下颌阻生牙的患者160例,随机数字表法均分成2组,试验组在拔除阻生牙后放入重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子,对照组不放任何材料任其自行愈合,拔牙后3 d,5 d和1周门诊复诊观察干槽症的发生情况,比较两组干槽症的发病率。  结果与结论:试验组有1例干槽症发生,发生率为1.25%。对照组有10例干槽症发生,发生率为12.5%。两组干槽症发生率比较差异有显著性意义(P OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor against dry socket syndrome after tooth extraction. METHODS:A total of 160 patients who had been extracted mandibular third molar were selected and randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group, recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor was put into the sockets after mandibular third molars were extracted, while in the control group, we let the wounds to be healed natural y without any materials. The incidence of dry socket syndrome was observed and compared between two groups at 3 days, 5 days and 1 week after tooth extraction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:One patient had dry socket after operation in the experimental group, and the incidence was 1.25%. In the control group, 10 patients suffered from dry socket, and the incidence was 12.5%. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dry socket between the two groups (P<0.01). There was visible granulation tissue within the tooth socket after tooth extraction in the experimental group

  18. 重组人表皮生长因子对植皮创面成活的影响%Effect of recombinant human epithelium growth factor on livability of skin graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙剑虹; 张明华; 谢庭鸿; 杨兴华; 黄晓元; 周捷


    AIM: To investigate the effects of recombinant human epithelium growth factor (rhEGF) applied to skin graft. METHODS: 96 cases between February 2000 and December 2001, were treated. During the operation, After scar removed and skin grafted, the rhEGF was injected under the skin graft. 80 cases without injection of rhEGF were made as contrast. Ten days later, the area of survived skin was measured and the livability of skin was calculated. RESULTS: The skin livability of cases with injection of rhEGF was (90.67 ± 10.02)% and the skin livability of contrast cases was(76. 85 ± 8.35)%. There axisted evident differences between them( P < 0. 01) . CONCLUSION: The rhEGF was an effective method for increasing livability of skin graft.

  19. Characterization of the tRNA and ribosome-dependent pppGpp-synthesis by recombinant stringent factor from Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Knutsson Jenvert, Rose-Marie; Holmberg Schiavone, Lovisa


    Stringent factor is a ribosome-dependent ATP:GTP pyrophosphoryl transferase that synthesizes (p)ppGpp upon nutrient deprivation. It is activated by unacylated tRNA in the ribosomal amino-acyl site (A-site) but it is unclear how activation occurs. A His-tagged stringent factor was isolated by affinity-chromatography and precipitation. This procedure yielded a protein of high purity that displayed (a) a low endogenous pyrophosphoryl transferase activity that was inhibited by the antibiotic tetracycline; (b) a low ribosome-dependent activity that was inhibited by the A-site specific antibiotics thiostrepton, micrococcin, tetracycline and viomycin; (c) a tRNA- and ribosome-dependent activity amounting to 4500 pmol pppGpp per pmol stringent factor per minute. Footprinting analysis showed that stringent factor interacted with ribosomes that contained tRNAs bound in classical states. Maximal activity was seen when the ribosomal A-site was presaturated with unacylated tRNA. Less tRNA was required to reach maximal activity when stringent factor and unacylated tRNA were added simultaneously to ribosomes, suggesting that stringent factor formed a complex with tRNA in solution that had higher affinity for the ribosomal A-site. However, tRNA-saturation curves, performed at two different ribosome/stringent factor ratios and filter-binding assays, did not support this hypothesis.

  20. Purification optimization for a recombinant single-chain variable fragment against type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) by using design of experiment (DoE). (United States)

    Song, Yong-Hong; Sun, Xue-Wen; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Ji-En; Su, Xian-Hui


    Design of experiment (DoE) is a statistics-based technique for experimental design that could overcome the shortcomings of traditional one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach for protein purification optimization. In this study, a DoE approach was applied for optimizing purification of a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) expressed in Escherichia coli. In first capture step using Capto L, a 2-level fractional factorial analysis and successively a central composite circumscribed (CCC) design were used to identify the optimal elution conditions. Two main effects, pH and trehalose, were identified, and high recovery (above 95%) and low aggregates ratio (below 10%) were achieved at the pH range from 2.9 to 3.0 with 32-35% (w/v) trehalose added. In the second step using cation exchange chromatography, an initial screening of media and elution pH and a following CCC design were performed, whereby the optimal selectivity of the scFv was obtained on Capto S at pH near 6.0, and the optimal conditions for fulfilling high DBC and purity were identified as pH range of 5.9-6.1 and loading conductivity range of 5-12.5 mS/cm. Upon a further gel filtration, the final purified scFv with a purity of 98% was obtained. Finally, the optimized conditions were verified by a 20-fold scale-up experiment. The purities and yields of intermediate and final products all fell within the regions predicted by DoE approach, suggesting the robustness of the optimized conditions. We proposed that the DoE approach described here is also applicable in production of other recombinant antibody constructs.

  1. Recombinant methods and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roizman, B.; Post, L.E.


    This patent describes a method for stably effecting the insertion or deletion of a selected DNA sequence at a specific site in a viral genome. The method consists of: (1) isolating from the genome a linear DNA fragment comprising both (a) the specific site determined for insertion or deletion of selected DNA sequence and (b) flanking DNA sequences normally preceding and following the site; (2) preparing first and second altered genome fragments from the fragment isolated in step (1). (a) the first altered fragment comprising the fragment comprising a thymidine kinase gene in a position intermediate the ends of the fragment, and (b) the second altered fragment comprising the fragment having the selected DNA sequence inserted therein or deleted therefrom; (3) contacting the genome with the first altered fragment under conditions permitting recombination at sites of DNA sequence homology, selecting for a recombinant genome comprising the thymidine kinase gene, and isolating the recombinant genome; and (4) contacting the recombinant genome isolated in step (3) with the second altered fragment under conditions permitting recombination at sites of DNA sequence homology, selecting for a recombinant genome lacking the thymidine kinase gene, and isolating the recombinant genome product.

  2. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy (United States)

    Fox, J. L.


    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  3. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus



    Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this ...

  4. IgG and IgG2 antibodies from cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale recognize the recombinant vaccine candidate antigens VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flábio R Araújo


    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis. Previous studies, with proteomic and genomic approach identified 21 proteins within the outer membrane immunogen in addition to previously characterized major surface protein1a-5 (MSP1a-5. Among the newly described proteins were VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu. VirB9, VirB10 are considered part of the type IV secretion system (TFSS, which mediates secretion or cell-to-cell transfer of macromolecules, proteins, or DNA-protein complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. EF-Tu can be located in the bacterial surface, mediating bacterial attachment to host cells, or in the bacterial cytoplasm for protein synthesis. However, the roles of VirB9, VirB10, and TFSS in A. marginale have not been defined. VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu have not been explored as vaccine antigens. In this study, we demonstrate that sera of cattle infected with A. marginale, with homologous or heterologous isolates recognize recombinant VirB9, VirB10, and EF-Tu. IgG2 from naturally infected cattle also reacts with these proteins. Recognition of epitopes by total IgG and by IgG2 from infected cattle with A. marginale support the inclusion of these proteins in recombinant vaccines against this rickettsia.

  5. Recombinant protein expression plasmids optimized for industrial E. coli fermentation and plant systems produce biologically active human insulin-like growth factor-1 in transgenic rice and tobacco plants. (United States)

    Panahi, Mitra; Alli, Zaman; Cheng, Xiongying; Belbaraka, Loubaba; Belgoudi, Jaafar; Sardana, Ravinder; Phipps, Jenny; Altosaar, Illimar


    Human insulin-like growth factor-1 (hIGF-1) is a growth factor with clinical significance in medicine. The therapeutic potential of recombinant hIGF-1 (rthIGF-1) stems from the fact that hIGF-1 resembles insulin in many aspects of physiology. The expression of hIGF-1 in transgenic tobacco and rice plants using different expression cassettes is reported here. In the present study, two coding sequences were tested, one with the original human sequence, but partially optimized for expression in E. coli and the other with a plant-codon-optimized sequence that was expected to give a higher level of expression in plant systems. Three different hIGF-1 recombinant expression constructs were generated. All expression constructs utilized the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter with or without a signal sequence. Analyses conducted using a hIGF-1 specific ELISA kit showed all transgenic plants produced hIGF-1 and the accumulated hIGF-1 increased from the E. coli codon bias to higher levels when the hIGF-1 coding sequence was codon-optimized to match that of the maize zeamatin protein--the most transcribed gene in maize endosperm suspension cells. Further analyses that compared the functionality of the bacterial signal peptide Lam B in plants showed that this leader peptide led to lower expression levels when compared to transgenic plants that did not contain this sequence. This indicated that this expression construct was functional without removal of the bacterial signal sequence. The maize ubiquitin 1 promoter was found to be more active in rice plants than tobacco plants indicating that in this case, there was a class preference that was biased towards a monocot host. Biological analyses conducted using protein extracts from transgenic plants showed that the rthIGF-1 was effective in stimulating the in vitro growth and proliferation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. This indicated that the plant-produced rthIGF-1 was stable and biologically active. As some plants have been

  6. Optimization of Procedure for Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-21%重组人成纤维细胞生长因子-21的表达及纯化工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宏鑫; 邵明龙; 杨苹; 张耀方; 万晓姗; 孔祥鑫; 王会岩; 李校堃


    Objective To optimize the condition for fermentation of recombinant E. coli with fusion gene of SUMO and human fibroblast growth factor-21(SUMO-rhFGF-21)as well as the procedure for purification of target protein.Methods The temperature and time for induction as well as concentration of inducer of recombinant E.coli was optimized.The recombinant E.coli was fermented under the optimal condition.and the lysate of bacteria was purified by ion exchange,nickel ion affinity and molecular sieve chromatography.The purified target protein was determined for purity by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.Results The optimal temperature and time for induction of recombinant E. coli were 37℃ and 4 h respectively.while the optimal concentration of IPTG as an inducer was 0.5 mmol/L The expression level of target protein reached a peak value of 20.5%under the optimal condition.The yield of bacteria after fermentation reached 66 g/L,and the expression level of target protein was 20.2%.After purification,the purity of target protein was more than 96%.Conclusion The procedure for expression and purification of rhFGF-21 was optimized,which laid a foundation of developing rh FGF-21as a novel drug.%目的 优化重组人成纤维细胞生长因子-21(SUMO-rhFGF-21)融合表达工程菌的表达条件及目的蛋白纯化工艺.方法 对工程菌的诱导温度、时间及诱导剂浓度进行优化,并进行罐发酵,对菌体裂解液进行离子交换层析、Ni离子亲和层析及分子筛层析等.纯化产物经SDS-PAGE和HPLC鉴定纯度.结果 在诱导温度为37℃,诱导时间为4 h,IPTG浓度为0.5 mmol/L时,目的蛋白的表达量最高,达20.5%;罐发酵收菌量可达66 g/L,目的蛋白的表达量达20.2%;纯化后的rhFGF-21纯度达96%以上.结论 优化了rhFGF-21的表达条件及纯化工艺.为rhFGF-21用于新药开发奠定了基础.

  7. Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector of mouse keratinocyte growth factor receptor%小鼠角质化生长因子受体(KGFR)重组腺病毒载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力; 曹春蕾; 李蓓; 周璇; 李银平; 黎檀实


    Objective To construct a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) gene of mouse. Methods KGFR gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from mouse cDNA which had been reverse transcripted from RNA harvested from C57BL/6 mouse, and was then inserted into the plasmid pShuttle-CMV to construct the shuttle plasmid pShuttle-CMV-KGFR (pKGFR). After linearized by restriction enzyme, the plasmid was transformed into Escherichia. coli BJ5183 containing adenovirus backbone. The homologous recombinant pAdeasy-1-pShuttle-CMV-KGFR(pAd-KGFR) was identified, linearized, and then transfected into HEK293 cells using lipofectamineTM 2000 to package the adenovirus, Adeasy-1-pShuttle-CMV-KGFR (Ad-KGFR), followed by further amplification, caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation purification and measurement of virus titer. Results Firstly, the shuttle plasmid pKGFR was proved to be successfully constructed by gene sequencing and restriction enzyme, as well as the recombinant adenovirus plasmid. Then, the cytopathic effects of HEK293 cells ohserved under the microscope suggested the successful duplication of the virus. Finally, the plague titration of on HEK293 cells showed virus titers were 2.25 × 1010 PFU/ml, which was enough concentration for future test in vivo or in vitro.Conclusion The recombinant adenovirus vector of pAd-KGFR is constructed successfully to be used in the future test to investigate the effects of KGFR in pulmonary diseases, and provides attractive therapeutic target in the pulmonary disease.%目的 构建表达小鼠KGFR基因的重组腺病毒.方法 提取小鼠肺组织RNA,RT-PCR获得cDNA后,PCR扩增目的 基因片段.将获得的KGFR基因插入载体质粒pShuttle-CMV,构建穿梭质粒pShuttle-CMV-KGFR(pKGFR).线性化pKGFR后,转化入含Adeasy-1病毒骨架的BJ5183细菌中.筛选正确的同源重组质粒pAdeasy-1-pShuttle-CMV-KGFR(pAd-KGFR),转染HEK293细胞,产生病毒颗粒Adeasy-1

  8. Prokaryotic expression and purification of recombinant glial growth factor 2%重组胶质细胞生长因子2蛋白的原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚军; 赵耀东; 董艳; 蔡如珏; 卢亦成; 楼美清


    目的 通过原核表达的方法得到胶质细胞生长因子2(GGF2)重组蛋白.方法 将不含信号肽编码序列的GGF2基因用亚克隆的方法自PVT-GGF2质粒克隆至PCXJI8质粒,再由PCXJ18-GGF2质粒克隆至pET-32b(+)质粒,构建pET32b(+)-GGF2表达载体.表达载体转染4种宿主菌,筛选合适者.优化表达时程和IPTG诱导剂量.GGF2大量表达后回收包涵体,复性.复性产物利用His Bind树脂进一步纯化.纯化产物用Western blot鉴定.结果 测序鉴定表明,成功构建pET-32b(+)-GGF2表达载体.筛选结果表明Origami B(DE3)为合适宿主菌.适宜的表达条件为30℃诱导前扩增,浓度25 μmol/L IPTG,37℃诱导2h.所表达外源蛋白相对分子质最和预期一致.回收、纯化后得到纯度约为96%的产物.Western blot鉴定表明所获为GGF2重组蛋白.结论 原核表达方法得到足量GGF2重组蛋白.%Objective To produce recombinant glial growth factor 2(GGF2) by prokaryotic expression. Methods The GGF2 gene without signal peptide coding sequence was subcloned from PVT-GGF2 plasmid vector to PCXJ18 vector and then to pET-32b(+) vector. The constructed expression plasmid [pET-32b(+)-GGF2] was then transfected to 4 kinds of E. Coli., including BL21(DE3), BL21 (DE3) pLysS, Origami B(DE3), and Origami B(DE3) plysS to screen for an appropriate expression strain. The optimal dose of expression inductor IPTG and induction time were explored. After expression induction, inclusion bodies were collected for renaturation, and the recombinant GGF2 protein was purified by His Bind resin column and identified by Western blot. Results The pET-32b(+)-GGF2 expression plasmid was successfully constructed. E. Coli. Origami B(DE3) was an appropriate host strain for GGF2 expression. The best expression results were achieved by induction with 25 μmol/L IPTG at 37 ℃ for 2-hour following pre-induction at 301. The purity of isolated recombinant protein was about 96 %. Western blot analysis proved that the

  9. Expression, purification of recombinant human mitochondrial transcription termination factor 3 (hMTERF3) and preparation of polyclonal antibody against hMTERF3. (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Luo, Yonghui; Zhang, Cuixiang; Tan, Deyong; Zuo, Shaoyuan


    In mammalian cells, a family of mitochondrial transcription termination factors (MTERFs) regulates mitochondrial gene expression. Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 3 (MTERF3) is the most conserved member of the MTERF family and a negative regulator of mammalian mitochondrial DNA transcription. To create a specific polyclonal antibody against human MTERF3 (hMTERF3), we first cloned hMTERF3 into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1, and GST-hMTERF3 was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli after induction by IPTG. The expressed GST-tagged hMTERF3 fusion protein was purified by passive electro-elution process and then used to immunize BALB/c mice, we obtained anti-GST-hMTERF3 polyclonal antibody purified by protein A column and determined the sensitivity and specificity of the antibody against human MTERF3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot assay. Furthermore, the full-length hMTERF3 protein expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells was detected by anti-GST-hMTERF3 in western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Taken together, our results demonstrate the functionality of the mouse anti-GST-hMTERF3 polyclonal antibody which will provide a useful tool for further characterization of hMTERF3.

  10. Procedures for monitoring recombinant erythropoietin and analogs in doping. (United States)

    Lamon, Séverine; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial


    Hemoglobin concentration is one of the principal factors of aerobic power and, consequently, of performance in many types of physical activities. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is, therefore, particularly powerful for improving the physical performances of patients, and, more generally, improving their quality of life. This article discusses procedures for monitoring recombinant erythropoietin and its analogues in doping for athletic performance.

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor%重组人睫状神经营养因子脂质体制备及性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高剑坤; 范开; 侯再金; 张兵兵; 杨黎; 胡春兰


    OBJECTIVE To enhance the penetration ability to cross the blood-brain barrier efficiently of recombinant human ciliary reurotrophic factor (rhCNTF) by encapsulated into liposome. METHODS rhCNTF liposomes were prepared by thin film dispersion-sonication method. Encapsulation efficiency was detected by HPLC. Mice were killed 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after i.v. administration of rhCNTF solution, rhCNTF liposomes or saline, and then the content of rhCNTF in brain tissues was analyzed by ELISA. RESULTS rhCNTF liposomes were regular in its morphology with a mean diameter of 85.0 nm. The entrapment efficiency of rhCNTF was 93.14%. rhCNTF in mice brain tissue were different between rhCNTF solution group and rhCNTF liposomes group. CONCLUSION Liposome-encapsulated rhCNTF could efficiently cross the blood brain barrier,which provides a basis for further application and research of rhCNTF.%目的 制备重组人睫状神经营养因子(recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor,rhCNTF),脂质体,提高rhCNTF穿透血脑屏障能力.方法 采用薄膜超声法制备rhCNTF脂质体,测定包封率.分别用rhCNTF原液、rhCNTF脂质体及生理盐水尾静脉注射Balb/C小鼠,0,2,6,12,24 h后测小鼠脑组织中rhCNTF含量.结果 制得的rhCNTF脂质体形态圆整,平均直径为85.0 nm,包封率为93.14%.用ELISA法测定小鼠脑组织中rhCNTF的含量,rhCNTF原液组和rhCNTF脂质体组存在显著差异.结论 制备的rbCNTF脂质体能提高rhCNTF穿越血脑屏障的能力,为rhCNTF的进一步应用和研究提供了依据.

  12. 重组白细胞抑制因子和水蛭肽嵌合蛋白异构体鉴定%Identification of Recombinant Leukocyte Inhibitory Factor and Hirulog Chimeric Protein Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍; 范开


    This paper established the recombinant leukocyte inhibition factor and leech peptide chimeric protein isoforms identification verification method,by using the appropriate quality control detection method,RP-HPLC method through the test,isoelectric focusing,a reduced SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis,non-denaturing PAGE method,activity analysis,anion exchange HPLC analysis of isomers of qualitative and quantitative control.Using the established RP-HPLC method,PAGE method non degeneration,activity analysis examination could not identify isomers,and isoelectric focusing,a reduced SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis to identify isomers,qualitative analysis.Anion exchange HPLC analyzed isomers' percentage quantitatively.Isoelectric focusing,a reduced SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and anion exchange HPLC analysis can be used as recombinant leukocyte inhibition factor and Hirudin Peptide chimeric protein products of isomer in routine test.%提出了重组白细胞抑制因子和水蛭肽嵌合蛋白异构体鉴定检定方法。采用适宜的质控检测方法,通过试验RP-HPLC法、等电聚焦、非还原型SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法、非变性PAGE法、活性分析、阴离子交换HPLC分析法对异构体进行定性和定量控制。结果表明:用建立的RP-HPLC法、非变性PAGE法、活性分析法不能鉴别异构体;等电聚焦、非还原型SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法能鉴别异构体,可定性分析;阴离子交换HPLC分析法能对异构体百分含量进行定量分析。由此表明,等电聚焦、非还原型SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳和阴离子交换HPLC分析法可作为重组白细胞抑制因子和水蛭肽嵌合蛋白产品中异构体的常规检定。

  13. Curative Effect Observation of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor in Breast Cancer Chemotherapy%重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子在乳腺癌化疗中的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐清亮; 房黎亚; 赵春武; 赵学良; 孙伟


    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimula-ting Factor ( rhG-CSF ) in myelosuppression after postoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer .Methods The breast cancer patientswere randomly divided into 2 groups, received the postoperative TE/TEC scheme chemotherapy .Two groups of patients before chemotherapy were given antiemetic therapy , including Dexamethasoneand Palonosetron injec-tion.Then,treatment group was given "recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor",after the Chemothera-py over 24~48h observed 2 groups of patients with blood routine and febrile neutropenia (febrile neutropenia,FN) inci-dence ,and analysed the statistical indicators .Results Total number of white blood cells and neutrophils in chemothera-py treatment group patients were higher than the control group ,FN rate lower than the control group ,the difference was statistically significant(P0 .05 ) .Conclusion RhG-CSF preventive treatment for breast cancer postoperative yew class and anthracycline-based drugs in combination with bone marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy has a good curative effect ,which is safe .%目的 观察重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子( rhG-CSF)对乳腺癌术后化疗骨髓抑制的临床疗效. 方法 将乳腺癌术后行TE/TEC方案化疗的患者,随机分为2组,2组患者行化疗前均给予"地塞米松片"、"帕洛诺司琼注射液",在此基础上,治疗组化疗结束24~48h后给予"重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子"治疗. 观测2组患者血常规及发热性中性粒细胞减少症( febrile neutropenia ,FN)的发生率,并对指标进行统计学分析. 结果 化疗后治疗组患者白细胞总数与中性粒细胞数均高于对照组,FN发生率低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P0.05). 结论 重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子治疗乳腺癌术后行紫杉类和蒽环类药物联合化疗所致的骨髓抑制具有较好疗效,安全性高.

  14. High level expression, efficient purification and bioactivity assay of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor AA dimer (PDGF-AA) from methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoyan; Yang, Song; Hu, Xing; Tang, Xiaofeng; Li, Peng; Li, Shiwu; Yang, Lijun; Jin, Shouguang; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Wu, Donghai


    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important biochemical mediators regulating many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including promotion of the chemotactic recruitment and proliferation of cells involved in wound repair. Previously, homodimers of rhPDGF-AA protein were purified from Escherichia coli. However, eukaryotic proteins often contain posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation, that are required for biological functions. In this study, an efficient method was established to purify a glycosylated rhPDGF-AA dimer from P. pastoris culture media by one step CM Sepharose ion exchange chromatography yielding about 20mg/L of over 95% highly purified rhPDGF-AA. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified rhPDGF-AA displayed a molecular weight (MW) of 27,825.513Da, composed of a subunit with MW of 15,042.945Da and a subunit with MW of 12,904.374Da. The size difference is accounted for by differential glycosylation of the monomers. Biological activity of the rhPDGF-AA was confirmed by its ability to induce NIH/3T3 cells proliferation. The experimental procedure we have developed facilitates production of an active glycosylated rhPDGF-AA in large amounts for further research and drug development.

  15. Recombination experiments at CRYRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, W.; Glans, P.; Zong, W.; Gao, H.; Andler, G.; Justiniano, E.; Saito, M.; Schuch, R


    Recent advances in studies of electron-ion recombination processes at low relative energies with the electron cooler of the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING are shown. Through the use of an adiabatically expanded electron beam, collisions down to 10{sup -4}eV relative energies were measured with highly charged ions stored in the ring at around 15 MeV/amu energies. Examples of recombination measurements for bare ions of D{sup +}, He{sup 2+}, N{sup 7+}, Ne{sup 10+} and Si{sup 14+} are presented. Further on, results of an experiment measuring laser-induced recombination (LIR) into n=3 states of deuterium with polarized laser light are shown.

  16. Recombinant Helicobacter pylori catalase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bai; Ya-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Jin; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang


    AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which highly expresses catalase of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) and assay the activity of H. pylori catalase.METHODS: The catalase DNA was amplified from H. pylori chromosomal DNA with PCR techniques and inserted into the prokaryotie expression vector pET-22b (+), and then was transformed into the BL21 (DE3) E. coli strain which expressed catalase recombinant protein. The activity of H.pylori catalase was assayed by the Beers & Sizers.RESULTS: DNA sequence analysis showed that the sequence of catalase DNA was the same as GenBank's research. The catalase recombinant protein amounted to 24.4 % of the total bacterial protein after induced with IPTG for 3 hours at 37 ℃ and the activity of H. pylori catalase was high in the BL21 (DE3) E. coli strain.CONCLUSION: A clone expressing high activity H. pylori catalase is obtained, laying a good foundation for further studies.

  17. Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize common and unique receptors on human monocytes. (United States)

    Wang, J M; Sherry, B; Fivash, M J; Kelvin, D J; Oppenheim, J J


    The human macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha and -beta (MIP-1 alpha and -beta), which are also known as LD78 and ACT2, respectively, are distinct but highly related members of the chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) family. rMIP-1 alpha and -beta labeled with 125I specifically bind to human peripheral blood monocytes, the monocytic cell line THP-1, peripheral blood T cells, and the YT cell line. Steady state binding experiments revealed approximately 3000 high affinity binding sites/cell for MIP-1 alpha on human monocytes and on THP-1 cells, with Kd values of 383 pM and 450 pM, respectively. Human MIP-1 alpha and -beta had nearly identical affinities for the binding sites and each competed equally well for binding. Human monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), a member of the same chemokine family, consistently displaced about 25% of human MIP-1 alpha and -beta binding on monocytes but not on YT cells, which did not bind MCAF. On the other hand, human rMIP-1 alpha and -beta partially inhibited binding of radiolabeled MCAF to monocytes. Both MIP-1 alpha and -beta were chemotactic for human monocytes. Preincubation of monocytes with human rMIP-1 alpha or -beta markedly reduced cell migration towards the other cytokine, whereas preincubation with human rMCAF only partially desensitized the monocyte chemotaxis response to human rMIP-1 alpha or -beta. These data suggest the existence of three subtypes of receptors, i.e., one unique receptor shared by MIP-1 alpha and -beta, a second unique receptor for MCAF, and a third species that recognizes both MCAF and MIP-1 peptides.

  18. Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor 121 infusion lowers blood pressure and improves renal function in rats with placentalischemia-induced hypertension. (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Verzwyvelt, Joseph; Colson, Drew; Arany, Marietta; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P


    Antagonism of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 occurs during preeclampsia and is proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We reported recently that hypertension associated with chronic reductions in uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) is associated with increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and decreased free VEGF. Whether restoration of circulating VEGF can restore renal function and chronically decrease arterial pressure associated with placental ischemia remains unknown. We hypothesized that chronic infusion of VEGF(121) would attenuate hypertension, increase glomerular filtration rate, and reverse the endothelial dysfunction associated with chronic RUPP. VEGF(121) (at either 90 or 180 microg/kg per day) was administered for 5 days via osmotic minipump placed IP. Mean arterial pressure, renal function, and tissues were obtained on day 19 of pregnancy from RUPP+VEGF, RUPP, and normal pregnant dams. Mean arterial pressure was increased in the RUPP (131+/-3 mm Hg) compared with the normal pregnant (102+/-1 mm Hg) rats, and infusion of VEGF(121) resolved the hypertension (105+/-5 mm Hg). Glomerular filtration rate was decreased in the RUPP dams (1.5+/-0.3 mL/min) and restored to normal pregnant levels (3.1+/-0.5 mL/min) by VEGF(121) treatment (3.1+/-0.4 mL/min). Effective renal plasma flow, decreased by RUPP, was also increased by VEGF(121) infusion. Relaxation to acetylcholine was enhanced by the VEGF treatment (Phigh blood pressure associated with placental ischemia. The present results suggest that VEGF(121) may be a candidate molecule for management of preeclampsia and its related complications.

  19. Using crossover breakpoints in recombinant inbred lines to identify quantitative trait loci controlling the global recombination frequency. (United States)

    Esch, Elisabeth; Szymaniak, Jessica M; Yates, Heather; Pawlowski, Wojciech P; Buckler, Edward S


    Recombination is a crucial component of evolution and breeding, producing new genetic combinations on which selection can act. Rates of recombination vary tremendously, not only between species but also within species and for specific chromosomal segments. In this study, by examining recombination events captured in recombinant inbred mapping populations previously created for maize, wheat, Arabidopsis, and mouse, we demonstrate that substantial variation exists for genomewide crossover rates in both outcrossed and inbred plant and animal species. We also identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control this variation. The method that we developed and employed here holds promise for elucidating factors that regulate meiotic recombination and for creation of hyperrecombinogenic lines, which can help overcome limited recombination that hampers breeding progress.

  20. 重组人粒细胞刺激因子在乳癌治疗中不良反应的分析%Adverse reactions of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in breast cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青青; 蔡君; 聂铮; 张立军; 王茁


    Objective : To analyze the adverse drug reaction in the clinical application of recombinant human granulocyte colony - stimulating factor ( rhG - CSF) .Methods : cases suffered from adverse drug reaction of rhG - CSF from January 2006 to November 2009 were collected and analyzed.Results : Most of adverse drug reactions induced by rhG - CSF manifested as allergic reactions and are not serious.Condusion; More attention should be paid on safety of rhG - CSF.%目的:分析在乳腺癌治疗中重组人粒细胞刺激因子注射液致药物不良反应(ADR) 发生的特点.方法:收集并分析2006年1月至2009年11月我科重组人粒细胞刺激因子注射液致不良反应病例.结果 :重组人粒细胞刺激因子注射液致不良反应,临床表现多数为过敏反应,反应较轻,尚有罕见严重的不良反应.结论:临床应重视重组人粒细胞刺激因子注射液使用的安全性问题.

  1. 冻干重组人三突变型低氧诱导因子-1α腺病毒的制备%Preparation of freeze-dried recombinant adenovirus expressing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha of triple mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶宇; 杨丽; 魏旋; 李明琰; 陈建威; 吴平生


    目的:研制冻干重组人三突变型低氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)腺病毒.方法:将重组人三突变型HIF-1α腺病毒与不同配比的保护剂按适当比例混合,进行冻干,根据冻干后外观、病毒滴度测定、热稳定性试验、PCR、基因测序等结果,筛选冻干保护剂并评价冻干品质量.结果:冻干腺病毒所携带的目的基因信息无丢失或变异;以10%海藻糖、0.5%明胶、3%山梨醇等成分配制的保护剂作用较好,冻干后腺病毒感染性滴度下降0.33 LgPFU/mL;37℃放置3周,滴度下降0.8 LgPFU/mL.结论:以合适的保护剂制备冻干重组人三突变型HIF-1α腺病毒能达到较满意的效果.%Objective To prepare freeze-dried recomhinant adenovirus expressing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-lα) of triple mutant (Ad-HIF-lα-564/402/803). Methods Ad-HIF-Iα-564/402/803 were mixed with different stabilizers in an appropriate proportion and then lyophilized. The optimum stabilizer was selected and the product quality was evaluated according to appearance, virus titer, thermostahility, PCR and DNA sequence analvsis. Results PCR and gene sequence suggested the correct construction of freeze-dried recombinant adenovirus. The protective agent containing 10% trehalose , 0.5% gelatin, 3% sorbitol had better protecting effects. After lyophilization, the infectious titer of adenovirus was decreased by 0.33 LgPFU/mL, the titer of lyophilized adenovirus was decreased by 0.8 LgPFU/mL for 3 weeks at 37℃. Conclusions When prepared with proper stabilizer, the freeze-dried recombinant adenovirus expressing HIF-Iα of triple mutant can have a good performance.

  2. Regulation of Homologous Recombination by SUMOylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions challenging genome integrity. The DNA damage response (DDR) promotes fast and effective detection and repair of the damaged DNA, leading to cell cycle arrest through checkpoint activation and the recruitment of repair...... factors such as the homologous recombination (HR) machinery. HR constitutes the main DSB repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and despite being largely considered an error-free process and essential for genome stability, uncontrolled recombination can lead to loss of heterozygosity, translocations....... In this study I present new insights for the role of SUMOylation in regulating HR by dissecting the role of SUMO in the interaction between the central HR-mediator protein Rad52 and its paralogue Rad59 and the outcome of recombination. This data provides evidence for the importance of SUMO in promoting protein...

  3. Recombineering linear BACs. (United States)

    Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran


    Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells.

  4. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M


    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  5. Recombinant DNA for Teachers. (United States)

    Duvall, James G., III


    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  6. Are there differences in the catalytic activity per unit enzyme of recombinantly expressed and human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9? A systematic investigation into inter-system extrapolation factors. (United States)

    Crewe, H K; Barter, Z E; Yeo, K Rowland; Rostami-Hodjegan, A


    The 'relative activity factor' (RAF) compares the activity per unit of microsomal protein in recombinantly expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (rhCYP) and human liver without separating the potential sources of variation (i.e. abundance of enzyme per mg of protein or variation of activity per unit enzyme). The dimensionless 'inter-system extrapolation factor' (ISEF) dissects differences in activity from those in CYP abundance. Detailed protocols for the determination of this scalar, which is used in population in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), are currently lacking. The present study determined an ISEF for CYP2C9 and, for the first time, systematically evaluated the effects of probe substrate, cytochrome b5 and methods for assessing the intrinsic clearance (CL(int) ). Values of ISEF for S-warfarin, tolbutamide and diclofenac were 0.75 ± 0.18, 0.57 ± 0.07 and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively, using CL(int) values derived from the kinetic values V(max) and K(m) of metabolite formation in rhCYP2C9 + reductase + b5 BD Supersomes™. The ISEF values obtained using rhCYP2C9 + reductase BD Supersomes™ were more variable, with values of 7.16 ± 1.25, 0.89 ± 0.52 and 0.50 ± 0.05 for S-warfarin, tolbutamide and diclofenac, respectively. Although the ISEF values obtained from rhCYP2C9 + reductase + b5 for the three probe substrates were statistically different (p ISEF. Furthermore, as ISEFs have been found to be sensitive to differences in accessory proteins, rhCYP system specific ISEFs are recommended.

  7. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated global anterograde delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor to the spinal cord: comparison of rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts in the rat. (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Flotte, Terence R; Reier, Paul J; Mandel, Ronald J


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive loss of spinal lower motoneurons. Gene delivery is a promising strategy to deliver therapeutic molecules to these vulnerable cells. However, definition of an optimal route of delivery capable of accessing neurons over a considerable extent of the neuraxis represents a significant logistical problem. Intramuscular vector injections are not ideal as this approach would involve hundreds of injections to completely treat an ALS patient and also would be dependent on retrograde transport of the viral platform of choice. Alternatively, upper motoneurons could deliver trophic factors over considerable distances by anterograde transport after a relatively localized intracerebral injection. To test this approach, the present study was designed to compare the corticospinal (CST) and rubrospinal (RST) tracts for their ability to transport recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-derived green fluorescent protein (GFP) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to the spinal cord. Unilateral injections of rAAV5-GFP into the red nucleus (RN) or motor cortex of normal rats produced GFP-positive fibers in the appropriate descending tracts extending to the lumbar spinal cord. For both tracts, GFP-positive axonal projections into the spinal gray matter were consistently observed. GDNF immunohistochemistry demonstrated that confirmed RN injections resulted in GDNF-positive fibers projecting into spinal gray matter as seen in the GFP group. In contrast, confirmed cortical rAAV5-GDNF injections resulted in less evident staining in spinal cord. Spinal cord GDNF levels were elevated at distances up to 72 mm from the injection sites, and confirmed that RST-related GDNF transport to spinal cord surpassed CST-associated delivery.

  8. Sex, not genotype, determines recombination levels in mice. (United States)

    Lynn, Audrey; Schrump, Stefanie; Cherry, Jonathan; Hassold, Terry; Hunt, Patricia


    Recombination, the precise physical breakage and rejoining of DNA between homologous chromosomes, plays a central role in mediating the orderly segregation of meiotic chromosomes in most eukaryotes. Despite its importance, the factors that control the number and placement of recombination events within a cell remain poorly defined. The rate of recombination exhibits remarkable species specificity, and, within a species, recombination is affected by the physical size of the chromosome, chromosomal location, proximity to other recombination events (i.e., chiasma interference), and, intriguingly, the sex of the transmitting parent. To distinguish between simple genetic and nongenetic explanations of sex-specific recombination differences in mammals, we compared recombination in meiocytes from XY sex-reversed and XO females with that in meiocytes from XX female and XY male mice. The rate and pattern of recombination in XY and XO oocytes were virtually identical to those in normal XX females, indicating that sex, not genotype, is the primary determinant of meiotic recombination patterns in mammals.

  9. 重组人胰岛素样生长因子1工程菌的高密度发酵%High cell-density fermentation of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 engineering bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚青; 张建芬; 陈虹; 胡文浪


    BACKGROUND:Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1)is an important cell factor which plays a special role in many disease treatments such as diabetes.The research of engineering bacteria fermentation production technology is great to IGF-1 industrialization and to clinical application.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the high cell-density fermentation and expression condition of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) engineering bacteria.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The enzyme,gene engineering,study was performed at the Biotechnological Laboratory of Zhejiang Shuren University from May 2007 to May 2008.MATERIALS:Recombinant E coli strain for IGF-1 expression as BL21 (DE3)/pET22a-IGF-1 was reserved in the Biotechnological Laboratory of Zhejiang Shuren University.Nutrient feed was composed of:glucose(300 g/L),peptone(40 g/L),yeast powder(10 g/L),Na2HPO4(280 mmol/L),Na2HPO4-2H2O2(120 mmol/L),MgSO4(10 mmol/L),and ampicillin(100 mg/L).METHODS:The strains were activated and then cultured in orbitaI shakers.Parameters such as types of media,isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG)concentration and induction time have been analyzed to explore optimaI fermentation conditions for expressing the recombinant protein.According to the optimal fermentation condition of orbitaI shakers.batch fermentation was carried on with 5 L-autocontroI fermentor.The process contained two stages:batch culture and fed-bafch through pH-stat solution.JPTG was added to jnduce the expression of protein in the middle and latter of the logarithmic growth phase for 4-βhours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Following described parameters were measured:fermentation and protein expression of the recombinant human IGF-1 engineering bacteria,cell concentration,cell dry weigh,objective protein,glucose concentration.RESULTS:Cells were cultured in 2×YT+5 g,L glucose medium,induced by 0.8 mmol/L IPTG for 5 hours.By controlling dissolved oxygen and by pH-stat feeding solution,high cell-density and high protein expression

  10. SUMO Wrestles with Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Krejčí


    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs comprise one of the most toxic DNA lesions, as the failure to repair a single DSB has detrimental consequences on the cell. Homologous recombination (HR constitutes an error-free repair pathway for the repair of DSBs. On the other hand, when uncontrolled, HR can lead to genome rearrangements and needs to be tightly regulated. In recent years, several proteins involved in different steps of HR have been shown to undergo modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO peptide and it has been suggested that deficient sumoylation impairs the progression of HR. This review addresses specific effects of sumoylation on the properties of various HR proteins and describes its importance for the homeostasis of DNA repetitive sequences. The article further illustrates the role of sumoylation in meiotic recombination and the interplay between SUMO and other post-translational modifications.

  11. Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71



    Two human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) isolates were identified from hand, foot and mouth disease patients with genome sequences that had high similarity to HEV71 (>93%) at 5´ UTR, P1, and P2 and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, >85%) at P3 and 3´UTR. Intertypic recombination is likely to have occurred between HEV71 and CV-A16 or an as-yet to be described CV-A16-like virus.

  12. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (Bax326) in previously treated patients with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B undergoing surgical or other invasive procedures: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, multicentre, phase III study. (United States)

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Ghandehari, H; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Wong, W-Y; Pavlova, B G; Abbuehl, B E


    Haemostatic management of haemophilia B patients undergoing surgery is critical to patient safety. The aim of this ongoing prospective trial was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (rFIX) (Bax326) in previously treated subjects (12-65 years, without history of FIX inhibitors) with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B, undergoing surgical, dental or other invasive procedures. Haemostatic efficacy was assessed according to a predefined scale. Blood loss was compared to the average and maximum blood loss predicted preoperatively. Haemostatic FIX levels were achieved peri- and postoperatively in 100% of subjects (n = 14). Haemostasis was 'excellent' intraoperatively in all patients and postoperatively in those without a drain, and 'excellent' or 'good' at the time of drain removal and day of discharge in those with a drain employed. Following the initial dose, the mean FIX activity level rose from 6.55% to 107.58% for major surgeries and from 3.60% to 81.4% for minor surgeries. Actual vs. predicted blood loss matched predicted intraoperative blood loss but was equal to or higher than (but less than 150%) the maximum predicted postoperative blood loss reflecting the severity of procedure and FIX requirements. There were no related adverse events, severe allergic reactions or thrombotic events. There was no evidence that BAX326 increased the risk of inhibitor or binding antibody development to FIX. BAX326 was safe and effective for peri-operative management of 14 subjects with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B.

  13. Assessment of individual dose utilization vs. physician prescribing recommendations for recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in paediatric and adult patients with congenital haemophilia and alloantibody inhibitors (CHwI): the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE). (United States)

    Gruppo, R A; Kessler, C M; Neufeld, E J; Cooper, D L


    Recent data from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia diary study has described home treatment with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in congenital haemophilia with inhibitors (CHwI). The current analysis compares prescribed and patient/caregiver-reported rFVIIa administration in paediatric and adult CHwI patients in this study. Patients with ≥ 4 bleeding episodes within a 3-month period prescribed rFVIIa as first-line therapy for bleeding episodes were eligible. Patients/caregivers completed a diary for ≥ 90 days or until the patient experienced four bleeds. Initial, total and mean rFVIIa doses reported for each bleeding episode were calculated and compared with the physician-prescribed doses. Of 52 enrolled patients (25 children; 27 adults), 39 (75%) completed the study. Children and adults had similar mean durations of bleeding episodes. Both patient groups were administered higher initial rFVIIa doses for joint bleeds than prescribed: median (range) 215.2 (74.1-400.0) mcg kg(-1) vs. 200.0 (61.0-270.0) mcg kg(-1) for children, and 231.3 (59.3-379.7) mcg kg(-1) vs. 123.0 (81.0-289.0) mcg kg(-1) for adults. The median infused dose for joint bleeds was higher in adults than children (175.2 vs. 148.0 mcg kg(-1) ), but children received significantly more doses per joint bleed than adults (median 6.5 vs. 3.0). The median total dose per joint bleed was higher in children than adults (1248.7 vs. 441.6). For children and adults, both initial and additional doses administered for bleeds were higher than prescribed. Children received higher total doses per bleed due to an increased number of infusions per bleed.

  14. Spotlight on the human factor: building a foundation for the future of haemophilia A management: report from a symposium on human recombinant FVIII at the World Federation of Hemophilia World Congress, Melbourne, Australia on 12 May 2014. (United States)

    Kessler, C; Oldenburg, J; Ettingshausen, C Escuriola; Tiede, A; Khair, K; Négrier, C; Klamroth, R


    Inhibitor development is the most serious and challenging complication in the treatment of severe haemophilia A. Up to 38% of such patients develop inhibitors with current recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products produced in hamster cell lines. Human-cl rhFVIII is a new generation fully sulfated B-domain-deleted FVIII coagulant glycoprotein, which is generated from a human cell line. Thus, there are no non-human epitopes which would be potentially immunogenic. This molecule has significantly higher VWF-binding affinity compared with existing full-length rFVIII produced in hamster cell lines. The development aim of Human-cl rhFVIII is to address the challenges of FVIII inhibitors and frequent infusions during prophylaxis. Human-cl rhFVIII's mean half-life is very comparable to some of the newer products which involve modification of the FVIII molecule to extend the circulating half-life. There are promising data concerning the use of a personalized prophylaxis regimen with Human-cl rhFVIII. Preliminary data indicate a median dosing interval of 3.5 days with 66.7% of the patients on a twice per week or fewer infusions schedule combined with a low bleeding rate and no increased FVIII consumption when compared to standard prophylaxis. No product-specific laboratory assay is required to monitor the coagulation activity for Human-cl rhFVIII. The results of registration clinical trials with Human-cl rhFVIII as well as the ongoing studies in previously untreated patients (NuProtect) and personalized prophylaxis study in previously treated patients (NuPreviq), will be discussed. The manufacturer has received marketing authorization for Human-cl rhFVIII in Europe and Canada under the name Nuwiq(®) and plans to launch it in the USA and globally in 2015.

  15. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B. (United States)

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E


    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  16. Effects of priming with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on conditioning regimen for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter randomized controlled study in southwest China. (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wen, Qin; Chen, Xinghua; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Li; Kong, Peiyan; Zhang, Yanqi; Li, Yunlong; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qingyu; Su, Yi; Wang, Chunsen; Wang, Sanbin; Zeng, Yun; Sun, Aihua; Du, Xin; Zeng, Dongfeng; Liu, Hong; Peng, Xiangui; Zhang, Xi


    HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is an effective and immediate treatment for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR-AML) patients lacking matched donors. Relapse remains the leading cause of death for HR-AML patients after haplo-HSCT. Accordingly, the prevention of relapse remains a challenge in the treatment of HR-AML. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial in southwestern China, 178 HR-AML patients received haplo-HSCT with conditioning regimens involving recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) or non-rhG-CSF. The cumulative incidences of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. HR-AML patients who underwent the priming conditioning regimen with rhG-CSF had a lower relapse rate than those who were treated with non-rhG-CSF (38.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.1% to 48.3% versus 60.7%, 95% CI, 50.5% to 70.8%; P priming group and 31 patients in the non-rhG-CSF-priming group were still alive at the median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 24 to 80 months). The 2-year probabilities of LFS and OS in the rhG-CSF-priming and non-rhG-CSF-priming groups were 55.1% (95% CI, 44.7% to 65.4%) versus 32.6% (95% CI, 22.8% to 42.3%) (P priming group (67.4%; 95% CI, 53.8% to 80.9% versus 41.9%; 95% CI, 27.1% to 56.6%; P priming conditioning regimen is an acceptable choice for HR-AML patients, especially for the patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype who achieved CR before transplantation.

  17. 重组人表皮生长因子凝胶联合血竭粉外用外敷对女性面部II度烧伤创面影响观察%Efficacy observation of treating female facial second degree burns with recombinant human epidermal growth factor and dragon’s blood powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春华; 严伟宾


    Objective:To study the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor combined with dragon’s blood powder on the female facial second degree burns. Methods:130 patients of facial burn were randomly divided into two groups. Group A was given recombinant human epidermal growth factor combined with dragon’s blood powder, Group B was treated by recombinant human epidermal growth factor combined with silver sulfadiazine cream. The efficacies in both groups were compared. Results:Pain score of VAS in group A was lower than that in group B, healing time in group A was shorter, and the scar area was smaller, P<0.05, with significant differences. Conclusion:Recombinant human epidermal growth factor combined with dragon's blood powder was effective in the treatment of female facial burn.%  目的:研究重组人表皮生长因子联合血竭粉对女性面部Ⅱ度烧伤的疗效.方法:随机将130例面部 II度烧伤患者分组,A组采用重组人表皮生长因子凝胶联合血竭粉外敷,B组患者采用重组人表皮生长因子联合磺胺嘧啶银霜治疗,比较其治疗效果.结果:A组的疼痛VAS评分明显低于B组,愈合时间短于B组,且愈后瘢痕面积较小,P<0.05,存在显著性差异.结论:重组人表皮生长因子联合血竭粉治疗女性面部II度烧伤疗效肯定.

  18. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor α in Escherichia Coli%重组人TNF-α在大肠杆菌中的表达、纯化及生物学活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪小牛; 陈卫; 张娟; 解伟; 王旻


    Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays a major role in several chronic inflammatory disorders. Anti-TNF-α therapy has been widely employed in clinic. However, the source of natural human TNF-α is so limited that it's difficult to meet the research needs. The purpose of this project is to construct an effective prokaryotic expression system for recombinant human TNF α (rhTNF-α). The sequence of hTNF-α is retrieved from Entrez Gene at NCBI. The whole gene of hTNF-α is optimized, synthezied by a company, inserted into the expression vector pET-28a ( + ) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The N-terminus of hTNF-α contains a His-tag and a TEV protease site. The 10 × His-tag is used to purify the protein by Ni + -NTA,and the TEV protease site is used to remove the His-tag. The soluble expression conditions of hTNF-α were optimized by orthogonal array design. The large-scale fermentation was carried out under optimized conditions. The expressed rhTNF-α protein was purified by Ni+ affinity chromatography. Then, the 10 × His tag was removed by TEV protease treatment and followed though Ni+ column again. The purification effect was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot. The biological activity of rhTNF-α was evaluated by MTT method with L929 cells as target cells. The recombinant cloning and expressing plasmid of rhTNF-α was successfully constructed. The outflow from the Ni column was the purified rhTNF-α,showing single polypeptide band by SDS-PAGE. The productivity of purified rhTNF-α is about 4. 17 mg/L. L929 cell cytotoxicity assay showed IC50 < 10 ng/mL. An effective prokaryotic expression system for rhTNF α was successfully constructed in our study. The application of two-step Ni+ affinity chromatography purification method could produce soluble rhTNF-α protein with high purity and relative bioactivity.%构建有利于人肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)大量表达及有效纯化的原核表达载体,并在大肠杆菌中诱导表

  19. 重组活化Ⅶ因子在严重多发伤凝血功能障碍中的应用%Recombinant activated factor Ⅶ for coagulopathy in patients with severe multiple injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光斌; 王攀; 何平; 胡平


    Objective To evaluate the effect of recombinant activated factor Ⅶ (rⅦa) in treatment of hemorrhagic shock after severe multiple injuries with coagulopathy.Methods Sixteen cases of coagulopathy after severe multiple injuries administered with rⅦa between July 2011 and June 2012 were reviewed.The requirements of blood product and coagulogram variation were comparatively studied before and after rⅦa therapy.Results After rⅦa therapy,bleeding was brought to a halt in 24 hours for nine cases and in 72 hours for seven cases.In the end,13 out of the 16 cases survived in the absence of myocardial infarct,cerebrovascular accident or deep vein thrombosis.Requirements of red blood cells,fresh frozen plasma,cryoprecipitate and platelet (PLT) were decreased at 48 hours after the final therapy as compared with those at 48 hours prior to the primary therapy,but statistical significance only existed in the reduction of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate (P < 0.05).The coagulogram indices including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at 4 hours after the final therapy presented statistical differences from those prior to the primary therapy (P < 0.05).Conclusion rⅦa is an important,effective and safe auxiliary means for surgical hemostasis of coagulopathy after severe multiple injuries.%目的 评价重组活化Ⅶ因子(recombinant activated factorⅦ,rⅦa)治疗严重多发伤失血性休克伴凝血功能障碍的效果. 方法 回顾性分析2011年7月-2012年6月收治的16例严重多发伤凝血功能障碍并使用rⅦa治疗的患者,比较使用rⅦa前后血制品使用量和凝血象变化情况. 结果 用药后9例24 h内出血停止,7例出血减少并在72 h内停止.生存13例,死亡3例.生存患者未见心肌梗死、脑血管意外、深静脉血栓发生.末次给药后48 h较首次给药前48 h输注红细胞、新鲜冰冻血浆、冷沉淀、血小板用量均减少,其中新鲜冰冻血浆及冷

  20. Bacterial Recombineering: Genome Engineering via Phage-Based Homologous Recombination. (United States)

    Pines, Gur; Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Gill, Ryan T


    The ability to specifically modify bacterial genomes in a precise and efficient manner is highly desired in various fields, ranging from molecular genetics to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Much has changed from the initial realization that phage-derived genes may be employed for such tasks to today, where recombineering enables complex genetic edits within a genome or a population. Here, we review the major developments leading to recombineering becoming the method of choice for in situ bacterial genome editing while highlighting the various applications of recombineering in pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology. We also present the current understanding of the mechanism of recombineering. Finally, we discuss in detail issues surrounding recombineering efficiency and future directions for recombineering-based genome editing.

  1. Dielectronic recombination theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGattuta, K.J.


    A theory now in wide use for the calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections ({sigma}{sup DR}) and rate coefficients ({alpha}{sup DR}) was one introduced originally by Feshbach for nuclear physics applications, and then later adapted for atomic scattering problems by Hahn. In the following, we briefly review this theory in a very general form, which allows one to account for the effects of overlapping and interacting resonances, as well as continuum-continuum coupling. An extension of our notation will then also allow for the inclusion of the effects of direct radiative recombination, along with a treatment of the interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination. Other approaches to the calculation of {sigma}{sup DR} have been described by Fano and by Seaton. We will not consider those theories here. Calculations of {alpha}{sup DR} have progressed considerably over the last 25 years, since the early work of Burgess. Advances in the reliability of theoretical predictions have also been promoted recently b a variety of direct laboratory measurements of {sigma}{sup DR}. While the measurements of {sigma}{sup DR} for {delta}n {ne} 0 excitations have tended to agree very well with calculations, the case of {delta}n = 0 has been much problematic. However, by invoking a mechanism originally proposed by Jacobs, which takes into account the effect of stray electric fields on high Rydberg states (HRS) participating in the DR process, new calculations have improved the agreement between theory and experiment for these cases. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies still remain.

  2. The influence of recombination on human genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C A Spencer


    Full Text Available In humans, the rate of recombination, as measured on the megabase scale, is positively associated with the level of genetic variation, as measured at the genic scale. Despite considerable debate, it is not clear whether these factors are causally linked or, if they are, whether this is driven by the repeated action of adaptive evolution or molecular processes such as double-strand break formation and mismatch repair. We introduce three innovations to the analysis of recombination and diversity: fine-scale genetic maps estimated from genotype experiments that identify recombination hotspots at the kilobase scale, analysis of an entire human chromosome, and the use of wavelet techniques to identify correlations acting at different scales. We show that recombination influences genetic diversity only at the level of recombination hotspots. Hotspots are also associated with local increases in GC content and the relative frequency of GC-increasing mutations but have no effect on substitution rates. Broad-scale association between recombination and diversity is explained through covariance of both factors with base composition. To our knowledge, these results are the first evidence of a direct and local influence of recombination hotspots on genetic variation and the fate of individual mutations. However, that hotspots have no influence on substitution rates suggests that they are too ephemeral on an evolutionary time scale to have a strong influence on broader scale patterns of base composition and long-term molecular evolution.

  3. 重组人转化生长因子β3在瘢痕预防中的作用%Effects of recombinant human transforming growth factorβ3 on scarring prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董书侠; 郑谦


    Recombinant human transforming growth factor(TGF)β3 is an important cytokine for formation of healthy skin and healing response of embryos without scarring. In actively growing hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, the expression of TGFβ2 increases and TGFβ3 is low. However, in embryonic scar-free healing, TGFβ3 is high. When TGFβ1, TGFβ2, and TGFβ3 combine with the same receptor complex on the cell surface, TGFβ3 induces the receptor to compete with TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 to reduce their expression and inhibit the formation of scars. In the late period of wound healing, TGFβ3 reduces scar size to reverse the effects of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 by decreasing the aggregates of inflammatory cells and the deposition of connective tissue, ensuring wound healing and preventing excessive scarring. Preclinical safety and toxicology studies suggest that the TGF β family of proteins accumulate mainly in the liver(~60%) and in other tissues, including the kidneys(~20%) and the blood(~10%). In addition, the TGFβfamily of proteins minimally(<10%) accumulates in the lungs, spleen, adrenals, stomach, small intestine, cardiac and skeletal muscles, and cerebral cortex. Safety pharmacology studies investigating i.v. dosing of recombinant human TGFβ3 in rats and dogs have demonstrated the absence of adverse effects on major systems, including the central nervous system and respiratory or cardiovascular functions at doses up to and including 3μg·kg-1 following prolonged(daily for 3 months) administration. Recombinant human TGFβ3 was injected into the skin in the cut edge of adult rats to reduce distinct scars and to improve skin construct.%重组人转化生长因子(TGF)β3是一种健康皮肤形成和胚胎无瘢痕愈合反应的重要的细胞因子。在生长较活跃的增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞中,TGFβ2表达增加,TGFβ3表达较低;而在胚胎期皮肤无瘢痕愈合时,TGFβ3的表达水平较高。TGFβ1、TGFβ2和TGFβ3与同一个细胞表

  4. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney


    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules...... of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect...... as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics...

  5. The robustness of recombination frequency estimates in intercrosses with dominant markers. (United States)

    Säll, T; Nilsson, N O


    The robustness of the maximum likelihood estimates of recombination frequencies has been investigated in double intercrosses with complete dominance at both loci. The robustness was investigated with respect to bias in the recombination frequency estimates due to: (1) limited sample sizes, (2) heterogeneity in recombination frequencies between sexes or among meioses and (3) factors that distort the segregation-misclassification or differential viability. In the coupling phase, the recombination frequency estimates are quite robust with respect to most of the investigated factors. Potentially, the most serious cause of a bias is misclassifications, which tend to increase the recombination frequency estimates. In the repulsion phase, misclassifications are particularly serious, leading to extreme discrepancies between true and observed values. In addition, limited sample size and sex differences in recombination can also bias recombination frequency estimates in repulsion. These effects may pose serious problem in genetic mapping with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers.

  6. Expression of recombinant antibodies. (United States)

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas


    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  7. A comparison of nano-electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization linear time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the characterization of the recombinant coagulation glycoprotein von Willebrand factor. (United States)

    Kemptner, Jasmin; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Müller, Roland; Ivens, Andreas; Turecek, Peter; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Allmaier, Günter


    Von Willebrand factor (VWF), an adhesive glycoprotein with an approximate molecular weight (MW) of the monomer of 260 kDa, circulates in human blood plasma as a series of multimers ranging in size up to 20.000 kDa; thus the determination of the accurate MW of the monomer is of great importance and due to its high MW quite challenging. In this study accurate MW determination of intact recombinant VWF monomer (rVWF) was performed with GEMMA (gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analysis) and MALDI TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization linear time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Three rVWF preparations with differing buffer systems and glycoprotein concentrations were analyzed. First investigations directed towards heterogeneity determination by means of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE)-on-the-chip with a laser-induced fluorescence detector revealed two compounds (MW of 277 kDa (migration time 44.3 s) and 341 kDa (migration time 49.5 s)) present in each sample to varying extents, namely mature and pro-rVWF. MALDI MS analysis in the linear positive ion mode allowed the detection of mature rVWF with an exact MW of 256.1 kDa (+/-0.8%) and pro-rVWF with a MW of 349.8 kDa (+/-0.8%). Two samples containing pro-rVWF in very minor concentration resulted in GEMMA detection of the mature rVWF with a MW of 227.4 kDa (+/-2.5%), derived from the measured globular size of 10.9 nm. For one sample containing both rVWF species in almost equal concentrations no differentiation of the two species was possible with GEMMA. Due to its lower resolution only a peak representing a mixture of both species at 11.8 nm could be observed, yielding a MW of 298.8 kDa (+/-1.6%).

  8. Effects of low-dose recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on insulin sensitivity, growth hormone and glucagon levels in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Acerini, C L; Harris, D A; Matyka, K A; Watts, A P; Umpleby, A M; Russell-Jones, D L; Dunger, D B


    Despite recent interest in the therapeutic potential of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, its mechanism of action is still not defined. We have studied the effects of low-dose bolus subcutaneous rhIGF-I (40 microg/kg and 20 microg/kg) on insulin sensitivity, growth hormone (GH) and glucagon levels in seven young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study design. Each was subjected to a euglycemic clamp (5 mmol/L) protocol consisting of a variable-rate insulin infusion clamp (6:00 PM to 8:00 AM) followed by a two-dose hyperinsulinemic clamp (insulin infusion of 0.75 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) from 8 to 10 AM and 1.5 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) from 10 AM to 12 noon) incorporating [6,6 2H2]glucose tracer for determination of glucose production/utilization rates. Following rhIGF-I administration, the serum IGF-I level (mean +/- SEM) increased (40 microg/kg, 655 +/- 90 ng/mL, P overnight GH level (40 microg/kg, 9.1 +/- 1.4 mU/L, P = .04; 20 microg/kg, 9.6 +/- 2.0 mU/L, P = .12; placebo, 11.3 +/- 1.7 mU/L) and GH pulse amplitude (40 microg/kg, 18.8 +/- 2.9 mU/L, P = .04; 20 microg/kg, 17.0 +/- 3.4 mU/L, P > .05; placebo, 23.0 +/- 3.7 mU/L) were also reduced. No differences in glucagon, IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), acetoacetate, or beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were found. During the hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions, no differences in glucose utilization were noted, whereas hepatic glucose production was reduced by rhIGF-I 40 microg/kg (P = .05). Our data demonstrate that in subjects with IDDM, low-dose subcutaneous rhIGF-I leads to a dose-dependent reduction in the insulin level for euglycemia overnight that parallels the decrease in overnight GH levels, but glucagon and IGFBP-1 levels remain unchanged. The decreases in hepatic glucose production during the hyperinsulinemic clamp study observed the following day are likely related to GH

  9. 重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX的质量研究%Quality control of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 王军志; 饶春明; 吴小兵


    目的研究并建立重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX(recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX,rAAV-2/hFIX)的质量标准.方法采用PCR法确认病毒所携带的重组核酸结构和测定辅助病毒(helper virus)和野生型腺相关病毒(wtAAV)的残留片段.SDS-PAGE电泳测定病毒外壳蛋白分子量及纯度,TSK gel SP-NPR阳离子交换柱系统测定病毒颗粒纯度.以斑点杂交法测定病毒颗粒数.一期法于IX因子基因剔除小鼠体内测定rAAV-2/hFIX生物学活性,并通过ELISA法测定感染BHK-21细胞后hFIX的表达量.结果 PCR法确证病毒的重组核酸结构与构建预期相同;在1×107 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,残留辅助病毒的基因片段数少于1个拷贝;在1×108 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,野生型AAV-2基因片段数少于1个拷贝.病毒颗粒及外壳蛋白纯度均大于98%,病毒颗粒数大于1.0×1015 VG*L-1(virus genome*L-1).IX因子剔除小鼠肌肉注射病毒后21 d,小鼠血液中人凝血因子IX活性达到大于正常人因子IX活性的15%,IX因子的体外表达水平大于20.0 μg*L-1.其他各项检测指标均符合规定.结论建立了rAAV-2/hFIX的质量标准,用于控制产品质量.

  10. Randomized Placebo-Controlled and Controlled Non-Inferiority Phase III Trials Comparing Trafermin, a Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, and Enamel Matrix Derivative in Periodontal Regeneration in Intrabony Defects. (United States)

    Kitamura, Masahiro; Akamatsu, Motoki; Kawanami, Masamitsu; Furuichi, Yasushi; Fujii, Takeo; Mori, Mari; Kunimatsu, Kazushi; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Ogata, Yorimasa; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Sato, Shuichi; Ito, Koichi; Ogasawara, Takefumi; Izumi, Yuichi; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa; Yoshie, Hiromasa; Fukuda, Mitsuo; Noguchi, Toshihide; Takashiba, Shogo; Kurihara, Hidemi; Nagata, Toshihiko; Hamachi, Takafumi; Maeda, Katsumasa; Yokota, Makoto; Sakagami, Ryuji; Hara, Yoshitaka; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Furuuchi, Toshi; Sasano, Takashi; Imai, Enyu; Ohmae, Masatoshi; Koizumi, Hayuru; Watanuki, Mitsuru; Murakami, Shinya


    We investigated the efficacy, safety, and clinical significance of trafermin, a recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF)-2, for periodontal regeneration in intrabony defects in Phase III trials. Study A, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, was conducted at 24 centers. Patients with periodontitis with 4-mm and 3-mm or deeper probing pocket depth and intrabony defects, respectively, were included. A total of 328 patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive 0.3% rhFGF-2 or placebo, and 323 patients received the assigned investigational drug during flap surgery. One of the co-primary endpoints, the percentage of bone fill at 36 weeks after drug administration, was significantly greater in the rhFGF-2 group at 37.131% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.7502 to 41.5123; n = 208) than it was in the placebo group at 21.579% (95% CI, 16.3571 to 26.8011; n = 100; p < 0.001). The other endpoint, the clinical attachment level regained at 36 weeks, was not significantly different between groups. Study B, a multicenter, randomized, blinded (patients and evaluators of radiographs), and active-controlled study was conducted at 15 centers to clarify the clinical significance of rhFGF-2. Patients with 6-mm and 4-mm or deeper probing pocket depth and intrabony defects, respectively, were included. A total of 274 patients were randomly assigned (5:5:2) to receive rhFGF-2, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), or flap surgery alone. A total of 267 patients received the assigned treatment during flap surgery. The primary endpoint, the linear alveolar bone growth at 36 weeks, was 1.927 mm (95% CI, 1.6615 to 2.1920; n = 108) in the rhFGF-2 group and 1.359 mm (95% CI, 1.0683 to 1.6495; n = 109) in the EMD group, showing non-inferiority (a prespecified margin of 0.3 mm) and superiority of rhFGF-2 to EMD. Safety problems were not identified in either study. Therefore, trafermin is an effective and safe treatment for periodontal regeneration in intrabony

  11. A novel partial deletion of the Y chromosome azoospermia factor c region is caused by non-homologous recombination between palindromes and may be associated with increased sperm counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Noordam; S.K.M. van Daalen; S.E. Hovingh; C.M. Korver; F. van der Veen; S. Repping


    BACKGROUND: The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) contains multiple testis-specific genes. Most deletions in the MSY lead to inadequate or absent sperm production. Nearly all deletions occur via homologous recombination between amplicons. Previously, we identified two P5/distal-P1




    The article deals with prospects of using recombinant horseradish peroxidase in analytical biochemistry and biotechnology. Problems of recombinant horseradish peroxidase cloning in different expression systems, possible approaches to their solution, advantages of recombinant recombinant horseradish peroxidase and recombinant horseradish peroxidase-fusion proteins for immunoassays are considered. Possibility for development of mediatorless bienzyme biosensor for peroxide and metabolites, yield...

  13. Recombinant human thrombopoietin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells, increases peripheral blood platelet concentration, and accelerates hematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. (United States)

    Somlo, G; Sniecinski, I; ter Veer, A; Longmate, J; Knutson, G; Vuk-Pavlovic, S; Bhatia, R; Chow, W; Leong, L; Morgan, R; Margolin, K; Raschko, J; Shibata, S; Tetef, M; Yen, Y; Forman, S; Jones, D; Ashby, M; Fyfe, G; Hellmann, S; Doroshow, J H


    Lineage-specific growth factors mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and accelerate hematopoietic recovery after high-dose chemotherapy. Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) may further increase the progenitor-cell content and regenerating potential of PBPC products. We evaluated the safety and activity of rhTPO as a PBPC mobilizer in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in 29 breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by PBPC reinfusion. Initially, patients received escalating single doses of rhTPO intravenously (IV) at 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 micrograms/kg, on day 1. Subsequent patients received rhTPO 0.6 or 0.3 micrograms/kg on days -3, -1, and 1, or 0.6 micrograms/kg on days -1 and 1. G-CSF, 5 micrograms/kg IV or subcutaneously (SC) twice daily, was started on day 3 and continued through aphereses. Twenty comparable, concurrently and identically treated patients (who were eligible and would have been treated on protocol but for the lack of study opening) mobilized with G-CSF alone served as comparisons. CD34(+) cell yields were substantially higher with the first apheresis following rhTPO and G-CSF versus G-CSF alone: 4.1 x 10(6)/kg (range, 1.3 to 17.6) versus 0.8 x 10(6)/ kg (range, 0.3 to 4.2), P =.0003. The targeted minimum yield of 3 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg was procured following a single apheresis procedure in 61% of the rhTPO and G-CSF-mobilized group versus 10% of G-CSF-mobilized patients (P =.001). In rhTPO and G-CSF mobilized patients, granulocyte (day 8 v 9, P =.0001) and platelet recovery (day 9 v 10, P =.07) were accelerated, and fewer erythrocyte (3 v 4, P =.02) and platelet (4 v 5, P =.02) transfusions were needed compared with G-CSF-mobilized patients. Peripheral blood platelet counts, following rhTPO and G-CSF, were increased by greater than 100% and the platelet content of PBPC products by 60% to 110% on the first and second days of aphereses (P rhTPO at 0.6 microgram/kg. rhTPO is

  14. 重组鲨鱼血管生成抑制因子功能活性区蛋白纯化工艺的优化%Optimization of purification procedure for activity domain of recombinant shark angiogenesis inhibition factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雯丹; 罗勇; 陈钧; 王亚玉; 黎美香; 谢秋玲


    目的 优化重组鲨鱼血管生成抑制因子(Shark angiogenesis inhibition factor,SAIF)功能活性区(aSAIF)蛋白的纯化工艺.方法 利用离子交换层析和镍柱亲和层析对带有组氨酸标签的融合蛋白His6-SUMO-aSAIF进行纯化.纯化后的融合蛋白经SUMO蛋白酶切除小分子泛素样修饰蛋白(Small ubiquitin-related modifier,SUMO)标鉴,再经镍柱二次亲和层析获得非融合aSAIF蛋白,采用WST-8法对其进行血管生成抑制活性检测.结果 优化的纯化工艺参数为:离子交换层析采用0.2mol/L的NaCl进行洗脱;亲和层析的洗脱液为20 mmol/L磷酸盐,500 mmol/L NaCl,250 mmol/L咪唑,pH 7.4;SUMO蛋白酶与融合蛋白的最佳酶切比例为1∶480,酶切时间为1h.最终获得的aSAIF蛋白纯度可达95%,具有较好的抑制血管内皮细胞增殖的活性,且呈剂量依赖性.结论 已成功建立了aSAIF的纯化工艺,为后续大规模生产及抑制血管生成机制的研究奠定了基础.%Objective To optimize the purification procedure for activity domain of recombinant shark angiogenesis inhibition factor SAIF),i. e. aSAIF. Methods Fusion protein His6-SUMO-aSAIF with His tag was purified by ion exchange chromatography and nickel ion affinity chromatography,in which the SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) tag was digested with SUMO protease,then further purified by nickel ion affinity chromatography to obtain non-fusion aSAIF which was determined for angiogenesis-inhibit-ing activity by WST-8 method. Results The main parameters of purification procedure were optimized as follows: ion exchange chro-matographic column was eluted with 0. 2 mol/L sodium chloride; affinity chromatographic column was eluted with 20 mmol/L phosphate,500 mmol/L sodium chloride and 250 mmol/L imidazole at pH 7. 4. The optimal ratio of SUMO protease to fusion protein was 1 :480,and the time for digestion was 1 h. The obtained aSAIF reached a purity of 95% and showed dose-dependent activity in

  15. Identification and manipulation of the molecular determinants influencing poliovirus recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Runckel


    Full Text Available The control and prevention of communicable disease is directly impacted by the genetic mutability of the underlying etiological agents. In the case of RNA viruses, genetic recombination may impact public health by facilitating the generation of new viral strains with altered phenotypes and by compromising the genetic stability of live attenuated vaccines. The landscape of homologous recombination within a given RNA viral genome is thought to be influenced by several factors; however, a complete understanding of the genetic determinants of recombination is lacking. Here, we utilize gene synthesis and deep sequencing to create a detailed recombination map of the poliovirus 1 coding region. We identified over 50 thousand breakpoints throughout the genome, and we show the majority of breakpoints to be concentrated in a small number of specific "hotspots," including those associated with known or predicted RNA secondary structures. Nucleotide base composition was also found to be associated with recombination frequency, suggesting that recombination is modulated across the genome by predictable and alterable motifs. We tested the predictive utility of the nucleotide base composition association by generating an artificial hotspot in the poliovirus genome. Our results imply that modification of these motifs could be extended to whole genome re-designs for the development of recombination-deficient, genetically stable live vaccine strains.

  16. Modulating cellular recombination potential through alterations in RecA structure and regulation. (United States)

    Bakhlanova, Irina V; Dudkina, Alexandra V; Baitin, Dima M; Knight, Kendall L; Cox, Michael M; Lanzov, Vladislav A


    The wild-type Escherichia coli RecA protein is a recombinase platform with unrealized recombination potential. We have explored the factors affecting recombination during conjugation with a quantitative assay. Regulatory proteins that affect RecA function have the capacity to increase or decrease recombination frequencies by factors up to sixfold. Autoinhibition by the RecA C-terminus can affect recombination frequency by factors up to fourfold. The greatest changes in recombination frequency measured here are brought about by point mutations in the recA gene. RecA variants can increase recombination frequencies by more than 50-fold. The RecA protein thus possesses an inherently broad functional range. The RecA protein of E. coli (EcRecA) is not optimized for recombination function. Instead, much of the recombination potential of EcRecA is structurally suppressed, probably reflecting cellular requirements. One point mutation in EcRecA with a particularly dramatic effect on recombination frequency, D112R, exhibits an enhanced capacity to load onto SSB-coated ssDNA, overcome the effects of regulatory proteins such as PsiB and RecX, and to pair homologous DNAs. Comparisons of key RecA protein mutants reveal two components to RecA recombination function - filament formation and the inherent DNA pairing activity of the formed filaments.

  17. Advances in recombinant antibody manufacturing. (United States)

    Kunert, Renate; Reinhart, David


    Since the first use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for recombinant protein expression, production processes have steadily improved through numerous advances. In this review, we have highlighted several key milestones that have contributed to the success of CHO cells from the beginning of their use for monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression until today. The main factors influencing the yield of a production process are the time to accumulate a desired amount of biomass, the process duration, and the specific productivity. By comparing maximum cell densities and specific growth rates of various expression systems, we have emphasized the limiting parameters of different cellular systems and comprehensively described scientific approaches and techniques to improve host cell lines. Besides the quantitative evaluation of current systems, the quality-determining properties of a host cell line, namely post-translational modifications, were analyzed and compared to naturally occurring polyclonal immunoglobulin fractions from human plasma. In summary, numerous different expression systems for mAbs are available and also under scientific investigation. However, CHO cells are the most frequently investigated cell lines and remain the workhorse for mAb production until today.

  18. Effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel combined with nano-silver dressing for burn scar%重组人表皮生长因子凝胶联合纳米银敷料对烧伤后瘢痕的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦建强; 李烨; 黄喆; 胡伟光


    BACKGROUND:Recombinant human epidermal growth factor has been shown to promote granulation tissue formation and to accelerate the healing of burn wounds, but the antibacterial effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor is limited. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of nano-silver dressing combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel in treatment of burns and the influence on the scar. METHODS:A total of 76 cases of shal ow II and depth II degree were randomly enrol ed and assigned to two groups. In the study group, recombinant human epidermal growth factor was coated on the surface of the wound, and then covered by nano-silver dressing. In the control group, recombinant human epidermal growth factor was coated on the surface of the wound, and covered by ordinary sterile gauze. The healing time, the positive rate of bacteria, scarring and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The wound healing time and the rate of hypertrophic scars after healing were lower in the study group than in the control group (P0.05). These data confirmed that recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel combined with nano-silver dressing in the treatment of burn has good efficacy and accelerates the wound healing, reduces scar formation, and improves aesthetics.%背景:研究已证实重组人表皮生长因子具有促进肉牙组织形成、加快烧伤创面愈合的作用,但重组人表皮生长因子的抗菌作用有限。目的:观察重组人表皮生长因子凝胶联合纳米银敷料治疗烧伤的效果及对瘢痕的作用。方法:纳入浅Ⅱ度及深Ⅱ度烧伤患者76例,随机均分为两组,研究组将重组人表皮生长因子涂于创面表面,并以纳米银敷料覆盖;对照组将重组人表皮生长因子涂于创面表面,并以普通无菌纱布覆盖。比较两组创面愈合时间、细菌阳性率、瘢痕情况及不良反应。结果与结论:研究组创面愈合

  19. Recombination characteristics of therapeutic ion beams on ion chamber dosimetry (United States)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Matsuyama, Tetsuharu; Sato, Shinji; Kohno, Toshiyuki


    In heavy ion radiotherapy, ionization chambers are regarded as a standard for determining the absorbed dose given to patients. In ion dosimetry, it is necessary to correct the radiation quality, which depends on the initial recombination effect. This study reveals for the radiation quality dependence of the initial recombination in air in ion dosimetry. Ionization charge was measured for the beams of protons at 40-160 MeV, carbon at 21-400 MeV/n, and iron at 23.5-500 MeV/n using two identical parallel-plate ionization chambers placed in series along the beam axis. The downstream chamber was used as a monitor operated with a constant applied voltage, while the other chamber was used for recombination measurement by changing the voltage. The ratio of the ionization charge measured by the two ionization chambers showed a linear relationship with the inverse of the voltage in the high-voltage region. The initial recombination factor was estimated by extrapolating the obtained linear relationship to infinite voltage. The extent of the initial recombination was found to increase with decreasing incident energy or increasing atomic number of the beam. This behavior can be explained with an amorphous track structure model: the increase of ionization density in the core region of the track due to decreasing kinetic energy or increasing atomic number leads to denser initial ion production and results in a higher recombination probability. For therapeutic carbon ion beams, the extent of the initial recombination was not constant but changed by 0.6% even in the target region. This tendency was quantitatively well reproduced with the track-structure based on the initial recombination model; however, the transitional change in the track structure is considered to play an important role in further understanding of the characteristics of the initial recombination.

  20. Analysis of interchromosomal mitotic recombination. (United States)

    McGill, C B; Shafer, B K; Higgins, D R; Strathern, J N


    A novel synthetic locus is described that provides a simple assay system for characterizing mitotic recombinants. The locus consists of the TRP1 and HIS3 genes inserted into chromosome III of S. cerevisiae between the CRY1 and MAT loci. Defined trp1 and his3 alleles have been generated that allow the selection of interchromosomal recombinants in this interval. Trp+ or His+ recombinants can be divided into several classes based on coupling of the other alleles in the interval. The tight linkage of the CRY1 and MAT loci, combined with the drug resistance and cell type phenotypes that they respectively control, facilitates the classification of the recombinants without resorting to tetrad dissection. We present the distribution of spontaneous recombinants among the classes defined by this analysis. The data suggest that the recombination intermediate can have regions of symmetric strand exchange and that co-conversion tracts can extend over 1-3 kb. Continuous conversion tracts are favored over discontinuous tracts. The distribution among the classes defined by this analysis is altered in recombinants induced by UV irradiation.

  1. Effectiveness observation on mepitel accompanied by continuous negative pressure drainage combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor on diabetic patients with pressure ulcer%美皮康辅以持续负压引流联合重组人表皮生长因子对糖尿病患者压疮的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      目的观察美皮康外敷,同时持续负压引流,辅以重组人表皮生长因子进行治疗糖尿病压疮的临床疗效。方法使用美皮康辅以持续负压引流联合重组人表皮生长因子对8处糖尿病患者不同部位压疮进行治疗。结果8处压疮患者有6处治愈,无并发症,2处显效。结论美皮康外敷,同时持续负压引流,辅以重组人表皮生长因子进行治疗糖尿病患者压疮,效果明显。%  Objective To observe Mepitel external, at the same time continuous negative pressure drainage, supplemented with recombinant human epidermal growth factor for treatment of diabetic ulcer clinical curative effect. Methods using the Mepitel accompanied by continuous negative pressure drainage combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor on 8 diabetic patients with pressure ulcers were treated in different parts of. Results 8 patients with pressure ulcers 6 cure, no complications, 2 effective. Conclusion Mepitel external, at the same time continuous negative pressure drainage, supplemented with recombinant human epidermal growth factor for treatment of diabetic patients with pressure ulcers, obvious effect.

  2. 大肠杆菌中可溶性表达重组人成纤维细胞生长因子21及制备%Soluble Expression and Preparation of Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范开; 谭克海; 张淳; 张益


    为在大肠杆菌中高效、非融合、可溶性表达重组人成纤维细胞生长因子21(rhFGF21),研究了纯化方法,以获得具有较高生物活性的rhFGF-21.全基因合成人成纤维细胞生长因子21cDNA序列,克隆进原核表达载体pET-3c,在转化大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)PlysS中进行表达.表达产物经盐析、层析等方法纯化后,利用3T3-L1细胞鉴定其促葡萄糖摄取的生物学活性.结果表明:rhFGF-21在BL21(DE3)PlysS实现了高效、非融合、可溶性表达,目的蛋白占茵体总蛋白的20%左右;表达产物经纯化后,纯度可达95%以上;表达产物能够明显促进3T3-L1细胞对葡萄糖的吸收.该方法成功实现了rhFGF-21在大肠杆菌中高效可溶性表达.%To effectively express human Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in the form of solubility without fusion and purify it from E. Coli,the gene of human FGF-21 was integrated and inserted into pET-3c, and itconstructed the recombinant vector pET-3c-FGF21 which was subsequently transformed into BL21 ( DE3) PlysS. The engineering bacteria was induced by IPTG to express recombinant human FGF-21 . The recombinant protein's biological function of uptake glucose on 3T3-L1 was tested after purifying with centrifugation, salting and chromatography. The recombinant vector pET-3c-FGF21 was successfully constructed,and the human FGF-21 was expressed by soluble pattern in E. Coli,and took more than 20% of total protein. The FGF-21' s purity reached 95% after the process of purifying. The To effectively express human Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in the form of solubility without fusion and purify it from E. Coli,the gene of human FGF-21 was integrated and inserted into pET-3c, and itconstructed the recombinant vector pET-3c-FGF21 which was subsequently transformed into BL21 ( DE3) PlysS. The engineering bacteria was induced by IPTG to express recombinant human FGF-21 . The recombinant protein's biological function of uptake glucose on 3T3-L1 was tested after

  3. Testing for recombinant erythropoietin. (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris R; Bollen, Mathieu; Beullens, Monique


    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells. Recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) is illicitly used to improve performance in endurance sports. Doping in sports is discouraged by the screening of athletes for rhEpo. Both direct tests (indicating the presence of exogeneous Epo isoforms) and indirect tests (indicating hematological changes induced by exogenous Epo administration) can be used for Epo detection. At present, the test adopted by the World Anti Doping Agency is based on a combination of isoelectric focusing and double immunoblotting, and distinguishes between endogenous and rhEpo. However, the adopted monoclonal anti-Epo antibodies are not monospecific. Therefore, the test can occasionally lead to the false-positive detection of rhEpo (epoetin-beta) in post-exercise, protein-rich urine, or in case of contamination of the sample with microorganisms. An improved preanalytical care may counteract a lot of these problems. Adaptation of the criteria may be helpful to further refine direct Epo testing. Indirect tests have the disadvantage that they require blood instead of urine samples, but they can be applied to detect a broader range of performance improving techniques which are illicitly used in sports.

  4. Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.


    This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.

  5. Controlled release from recombinant polymers. (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza


    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  6. Perovskite photovoltaics: Slow recombination unveiled (United States)

    Moser, Jacques-E.


    One of the most salient features of hybrid lead halide perovskites is the extended lifetime of their photogenerated charge carriers. This property has now been shown experimentally to originate from a slow, thermally activated recombination process.

  7. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  8. Three Decades of Recombinant DNA. (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie


    Discusses highlights in the development of genetic engineering, examining techniques with recombinant DNA, legal and ethical issues, GenBank (a national database of nucleic acid sequences), and other topics. (JN)

  9. Heterogeneity in recombinant protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Johanson, Ted; Lundin, Luisa;


    contribute to make a population in a fermenter heterogeneous, resulting in cell-to-cell variation in physiological parameters of the microbial culture. Our study aims at investigating how population heterogeneity and recombinant protein production is affected by environmental gradients in bioreactors...... are simulated in small bioreactors and the population heterogeneity can be visualised by analysing single cells with flow cytometry. This can give new insights to cell physiology and recombinant protein production at the industrial scale....

  10. Inhomogeneous recombinations during cosmic reionization


    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Mesinger, Andrei


    By depleting the ionizing photon budget available to expand cosmic HII regions, recombining systems (or Lyman limit systems) can have a large impact during (and following) cosmic reionization. Unfortunately, directly resolving such structures in large-scale reionization simulations is computationally impractical. Instead, here we implement a sub-grid prescription for tracking inhomogeneous recombinations in the intergalactic medium. Building on previous work parameterizing photo-heating feedb...

  11. Plasmid recombination in Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, D.


    DNA recombination in exponential phase and competent Haemophilus influenzae was measured by an electron microscopic assay that relies on the conversion of plasmid RSF0885 monomers into multimeric forms. Dimer circles were present at a frequency of 2% in plasmid preparations from competent Rd (wild-type) cells; multimers were present at a frequency of 0.2% in preparations from exponential phase cells. Thus, plasmid recombination was stimulated in competent cells. Multimer formation occurred efficiently in cells of the transformation defective mutant rec2, implying that the rec2 gene product is not required for plasmid recombination. However, the absence of multimer plasmids in preparations from competent cells of the transformation defective mutant rec1 suggests that the rec1 gene product is required. Digestion of purified plasmids with restriction endonuclease PvuII, which makes a single cut in the monomer, revealed the presence of recombination intermediates composed of two linear plasmids joined to form two pairs of arms resembling the Greek letter chi. Length measurements of these arms taken from a population of recombination intermediates gave evidence that the plasmids were joined at sites of homology. The distributions of individual DNA strands, at the intersections of the four arms, could be resolved in some recombination intermediates and were of two types. The first type of junction appeared as a single-stranded arm appended to each corner. The second type of junction consisted of a single strand of DNA linking the two linear plasmids at a site of homology. The single-stranded linker was frequently situated at the edge of a short gap on one of the plasmids in the pair. The fine structures of the recombinational joints have been interpreted in terms of previously proposed models of recombination.

  12. Recombinant protein expression in Nicotiana. (United States)

    Matoba, Nobuyuki; Davis, Keith R; Palmer, Kenneth E


    Recombinant protein pharmaceuticals are now widely used in treatment of chronic diseases, and several recombinant protein subunit vaccines are approved for human and veterinary use. With growing demand for complex protein pharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, manufacturing capacity is becoming limited. There is increasing need for safe, scalable, and economical alternatives to mammalian cell culture-based manufacturing systems, which require substantial capital investment for new manufacturing facilities. Since a seminal paper reporting immunoglobulin expression in transgenic plants was published in 1989, there have been many technological advances in plant expression systems to the present time where production of proteins in leaf tissues of nonfood crops such as Nicotiana species is considered a viable alternative. In particular, transient expression systems derived from recombinant plant viral vectors offer opportunities for rapid expression screening, construct optimization, and expression scale-up. Extraction of recombinant proteins from Nicotiana leaf tissues can be achieved by collection of secreted protein fractions, or from a total protein extract after grinding the leaves with buffer. After separation from solids, the major purification challenge is contamination with elements of the photosynthetic complex, which can be solved by application of a variety of facile and proven strategies. In conclusion, the technologies required for safe, efficient, scalable manufacture of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana leaf tissues have matured to the point where several products have already been tested in phase I clinical trials and will soon be followed by a rich pipeline of recombinant vaccines, microbicides, and therapeutic proteins.

  13. The evolution of sex and recombination in response to abiotic or coevolutionary fluctuations in epistasis. (United States)

    Gandon, Sylvain; Otto, Sarah P


    Evolutionary biologists have identified several factors that could explain the widespread phenomena of sex and recombination. One hypothesis is that host-parasite interactions favor sex and recombination because they favor the production of rare genotypes. A problem with many of the early models of this so-called Red Queen hypothesis is that several factors are acting together: directional selection, fluctuating epistasis, and drift. It is thus difficult to identify what exactly is selecting for sex in these models. Is one factor more important than the others or is it the synergistic action of these different factors that really matters? Here we focus on the analysis of a simple model with a single mechanism that might select for sex: fluctuating epistasis. We first analyze the evolution of sex and recombination when the temporal fluctuations are driven by the abiotic environment. We then analyze the evolution of sex and recombination in a two-species coevolutionary model, where directional selection is absent (allele frequencies remain fixed) and temporal variation in epistasis is induced by coevolution with the antagonist species. In both cases we contrast situations with weak and strong selection and derive the evolutionarily stable (ES) recombination rate. The ES recombination rate is most sensitive to the period of the cycles, which in turn depends on the strength of epistasis. In particular, more virulent parasites cause more rapid cycles and consequently increase the ES recombination rate of the host. Although the ES strategy is maximized at an intermediate period, some recombination is favored even when fluctuations are very slow. By contrast, the amplitude of the cycles has no effect on the ES level of sex and recombination, unless sex and recombination are costly, in which case higher-amplitude cycles allow the evolution of higher rates of sex and recombination. In the coevolutionary model, the amount of recombination in the interacting species also has

  14. Homologous recombination in DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Wolf-Dietrich Heyer


    Homologous recombination (HR) comprises a series of interrelated pathways that function in the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). In addition, recombination provides critical sup-port for DNA replication in the recovery of stalled or broken replication forks, contributing to tolerance of DNA damage. A central core of proteins, most critically the RecA homolog Rad51, catalyzes the key reactions that typify HR: homology search and DNA strand invasion. The diverse functions of recombination are reflected in the need for context-specific factors that perform supplemental functions in conjunction with the core proteins. The inability to properly repair complex DNA damage and resolve DNA replication stress leads to genomic instability and contributes to cancer etiology. Mutations in the BRCA2 recombination gene cause predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer as well as Fanconi anemia, a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by a defect in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The cellular functions of recombination are also germane to DNA-based treatment modaUties of cancer, which target replicating cells by the direct or indirect induction of DNA lesions that are substrates for recombination pathways. This review focuses on mechanistic aspects of HR relating to DSB and ICL repair as well as replication fork support.

  15. Characterization of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression by FT-IR spectroscopy: Studies on thermal induction and media formulation on the stability of the protein secondary structure. (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Vemula, Sushma; Dedaniya, Akshay; Kante, Rajesh Kumar; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy


    The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic approach has been employed to understand the recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) protein accumulation, secondary structure, and thermal stability in Escherichia coli grown under a temperature shift strategy (37 and 28°C) in various media formulations. The choline + sodium pyruvate (37°C) and sodium pyruvate (28°C) formulations have shown the highest inclusion body (IB) accumulation of 0.41 and 0.46 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, insights on the structure of the rhG-CSF within IBs and intact cells have been investigated through secondary structure analysis. Thermal stability experiments were also carried out to explain the pattern of the second derivative structure of rhG-CSF. The studies showed that choline + sodium pyruvate formulation has preserved the protein secondary structure even at 82°C. Overall, the FT-IR spectroscopic technique can also be adopted to accelerate the characterization of other recombinant therapeutic proteins of E. coli origin.

  16. Expression, purification, and functional characterization of recombinant PTD-SARA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huang; Rui Du; Peng Zhang; Hua Meng; Huiwei Jia; Yang Song; Man Li; Yingqi Zhang; Shiren Sun


    The Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein is a binding partner for Smad2/3 that plays an important role in the fibrotic promoting signaling pathway initiated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). The C-terminal 665-750 aa of SARA comprises the Smad-binding domain (SBD). By direct interaction through the SBD, SARA inhibits Smad2/3 phosphorylation and blocks the interaction between Smad2/3 and Smad4, thereby restrains the process of fibrosis.In this study, we constructed a SARA peptide aptamer based on the SBD sequence. The recombinant SARA aptamer,fused with a protein transduction domain (PTD-SARA), was cloned, purified from E. coli, and characterized for the first time. The full-length PTD-SARA coding sequence, created with E. coli favored codons, was cloned into a pQE-30 vector,and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into an M15 strain. After Isopropyl β-D-1-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction and Ni2+ affinity purification, recombinant PTD-SARA was further identified by immunobiotting and protein N-terminal sequencing. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that the recombinant PTD-SARA was transferred into the cytoplasm and nucleus more efficiently than SARA.Moreover, the recombinant PTD-SARA was found to up-regulate the level of E-cadherin and down-regulate the levels of α-SMA and phospho-Smad3 more efficiently than SARA (P< 0.05). Our work explored a method to obtain recombinant PTD-SARA protein. The recombinant PTDSARA fusion protein could enter HK2 cells (an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line) more efficiently than the SARA protein and reverse the renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation process that was induced by TGF-β1 more effectively than the SARA protein. Recombinant PDT-SARA is likely to be a potential candidate for clinical prevention and treatment of renal fibrosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.M. Egorov


    Full Text Available The article deals with prospects of using recombinant horseradish peroxidase in analytical biochemistry and biotechnology. Problems of recombinant horseradish peroxidase cloning in different expression systems, possible approaches to their solution, advantages of recombinant recombinant horseradish peroxidase and recombinant horseradish peroxidase-fusion proteins for immunoassays are considered. Possibility for development of mediatorless bienzyme biosensor for peroxide and metabolites, yielding hydrogen peroxide during their transformations, based on co-adsorption of recombinant horseradish peroxidase and the appropriate oxidase was demonstrated. The possibility to produce a fully active recombinant conjugate of recombinant horseradish peroxidase with human heart-type fatty acid binding protein, which may be used in competitive immunoassay for clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, and recombinant conjugates (N- and C-terminus of recombinant horseradish peroxidase with Fab-fragments of the antibody against atrazine, which may be applied for atrazine pesticides detection, are demonstra ted for the first time.

  18. A universal BMV-based RNA recombination system--how to search for general rules in RNA recombination. (United States)

    Alejska, Magdalena; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Malinowska, Nelli; Urbanowicz, Anna; Figlerowicz, Marek


    At present, there is no doubt that RNA recombination is one of the major factors responsible for the generation of new RNA viruses and retroviruses. Numerous experimental systems have been created to investigate this complex phenomenon. Consequently, specific RNA structural motifs mediating recombination have been identified in several viruses. Unfortunately, up till now a unified model of genetic RNA recombination has not been formulated, mainly due to difficulties with the direct comparison of data obtained for different RNA-based viruses. To solve this problem, we have attempted to construct a universal system in which the recombination activity of various RNA sequences could be tested. To this end, we have used brome mosaic virus, a model (+)RNA virus of plants, for which the structural requirements of RNA recombination are well defined. The effectiveness of the new homomolecular system has been proven in an experiment involving two RNA sequences derived from the hepatitis C virus genome. In addition, comparison of the data obtained with the homomolecular system with those generated earlier using the heteromolecular one has provided new evidence that the mechanisms of homologous and non-homologous recombination are different and depend on the virus' mode of replication.

  19. Conservation of recombination hotspots in yeast


    Tsai, Isheng J.; Burt, Austin; Koufopanou, Vassiliki


    Meiotic recombination does not occur randomly along a chromosome, but instead tends to be concentrated in small regions, known as “recombination hotspots.” Recombination hotspots are thought to be short-lived in evolutionary time due to their self-destructive nature, as gene conversion favors recombination-suppressing alleles over recombination-promoting alleles during double-strand repair. Consistent with this expectation, hotspots in humans are highly dynamic, with little correspondence in ...

  20. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  1. Similarity of recombinant human perlecan domain 1 by alternative expression systems bioactive heterogenous recombinant human perlecan D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, April L; Pan, Wensheng; Yang, Guang


    BACKGROUND: Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are diverse components of certain proteoglycans and are known to interact with growth factors as a co-receptor necessary to induce signalling and growth factor activity. In this report we characterize heterogeneously glycosylated recombinant human...... perlecan domain 1 (HSPG2 abbreviated as rhPln.D1) synthesized in either HEK 293 cells or HUVECs by transient gene delivery using either adenoviral or expression plasmid technology. RESULTS: By SDS-PAGE analysis following anion exchange chromatography, the recombinant proteoglycans appeared to possess...... glycosaminoglycan chains ranging, in total, from 6 kDa to >90 kDa per recombinant. Immunoblot analysis of enzyme-digested high Mr rhPln.D1 demonstrated that the rhPln.D1 was synthesized as either a chondroitin sulfate or heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in an approximately 2:1 ratio, with negligible hybrids. Secondary...

  2. Recombination Phenotypes of Escherichia coli greA Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poteete Anthony R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elongation factor GreA binds to RNA polymerase and modulates transcriptional pausing. Some recent research suggests that the primary role of GreA may not be to regulate gene expression, but rather, to promote the progression of replication forks which collide with RNA polymerase, and which might otherwise collapse. Replication fork collapse is known to generate dsDNA breaks, which can be recombinogenic. It follows that GreA malfunction could have consequences affecting homologous recombination. Results Escherichia coli mutants bearing substitutions of the active site acidic residues of the transcription elongation factor GreA, D41N and E44K, were isolated as suppressors of growth inhibition by a toxic variant of the bacteriophage lambda Red-beta recombination protein. These mutants, as well as a D41A greA mutant and a greA deletion, were tested for proficiency in recombination events. The mutations were found to increase the efficiency of RecA-RecBCD-mediated and RecA-Red-mediated recombination, which are replication-independent, and to decrease the efficiency of replication-dependent Red-mediated recombination. Conclusion These observations provide new evidence for a role of GreA in resolving conflicts between replication and transcription.

  3. In vivo importance of homologous recombination DNA repair for mouse neural stem and progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rousseau (Laure); O. Etienne (Olivier); T. Roque (Telma); C. Desmaze (Chantal); C. Haton (Céline); M.-A. Mouthon (Marc-André.); J. Bernardino-Sgherri (Jacqueline); J. Essers (Jeroen); R. Kanaar (Roland); F.D. Boussin (François)


    textabstractWe characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical developm

  4. Recombinant allergens for pollen immunotherapy. (United States)

    Wallner, Michael; Pichler, Ulrike; Ferreira, Fatima


    Specific immunotherapy (IT) represents the only potentially curative therapeutic intervention of allergic diseases capable of suppressing allergy-associated symptoms not only during treatment, but also after its cessation. Presently, IT is performed with allergen extracts, which represent a heterogeneous mixture of allergenic, as well as nonallergenic, compounds of a given allergen source. To overcome many of the problems associated with extract-based IT, strategies based on the use of recombinant allergens or derivatives thereof have been developed. This review focuses on recombinant technologies to produce allergy therapeuticals, especially for allergies caused by tree, grass and weed pollen, as they are among the most prevalent allergic disorders affecting the population of industrialized societies. The reduction of IgE-binding of recombinant allergen derivatives appears to be mandatory to increase the safety profile of vaccine candidates. Moreover, increased immunogenicity is expected to reduce the dosage regimes of the presently cumbersome treatment. In this regard, it has been convincingly demonstrated in animal models that hypoallergenic molecules can be engineered to harbor inherent antiallergenic immunologic properties. Thus, strategies to modulate the allergenic and immunogenic properties of recombinant allergens will be discussed in detail. In recent years, several successful clinical studies using recombinant wild-type or hypoallergens as active ingredients have been published and, currently, novel treatment forms with higher safety and efficacy profiles are under investigation in clinical trials. These recent developments are summarized and discussed.

  5. Clinical evaluation of glycoPEGylated recombinant FVIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangrande, Paul; Andreeva, Tatiana; Chowdary, Pratima


    Turoctocog alfa pegol (N8-GP) is a novel glycoPEGylated extended half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) product developed for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with haemophilia A, to enable higher activity levels with less frequent injections compared with standard FVIII products...

  6. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.


    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of which DNA

  7. Genetic recombination in Escherichia coli : II. Calculation of incorporation frequency and relative map distance by recombinant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, P.G. de; Verhoef, C.


    In this paper a mathematical analysis based on the physical exchange of genetic material is presented for a four-factor cross. The incorporation frequency of donor markers and the relative map distances may be accurately estimated from the frequencies of the eight recombinant classes. The results ob

  8. A ring-shaped recombination chamber for hadron therapy dosimetry. (United States)

    Jakubowska, E; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A; Krzemiński, Ł


    An innovative recombination chamber has been designed for estimation of stray radiation doses and quality factors in hadron therapy. The chamber allows for determination of absorbed dose and recombination index of radiation quality in phantoms at small distances from simulated organs. The chamber body and electrodes are ring shaped, so the beam may be directed through the empty centre of the ring. The ionisation of the filling gas is caused by secondary or scattered radiation and can be related to the dose absorbed in the tissues close to the irradiated target volume.

  9. 外用重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞刺激因子凝胶治疗儿童烧伤创面效果观察%Effect observation of topical recombinant human granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor hydro-gel in treating child burn wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓峰; 张宝林


    目的:探讨外用重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞刺激因子凝胶治疗儿童烧伤创面的临床疗效。方法选取2013年5月至2015年10月我院收治的烧伤患儿80例,将其随机分成两组,每组患儿40例,观察组采用外用重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞刺激因子凝胶治疗,对照组采用传统药物磺胺嘧啶银霜治疗,观察两组患儿的治疗效果。结果两组的创面愈合时间和愈合率差异明显(P<0.05),有统计学意义。结论给予烧伤患儿进行外用重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞刺激因子凝胶治疗,能够缩短愈合时间,提升其愈合率,治疗效果显著。%Objective to investigate clinical effect of topical recombinant human granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor hydro-gel in treating child burn wound.Methods choose a total of 80 cases burnt children treated in our hospital from May 2013 to Oct 2015 and randomly divided them into two groups, 40 cases in each. Observation group was treated with topical recombinant human granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor hydro-gel, and control group with traditional medicine silver sulfadiazine cream, observe curative effect of two groups.Results there was significant difference for wound healing time and healing rate between two groups (P<0.05) with statistical significance.Conclusion treating child burn wound by topical recombinant human granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor hydro-gel can shorten healing time, improve healing rate with significant treatment effect.

  10. Taxing the Rich: Recombinations and Bubble Growth During Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Furlanetto, S R; Furlanetto, Steven R.


    Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present an analytic model for the evolving topology of reionization that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers. As a result, reionization resembles "punctuated equilibrium," with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles stop growing when recombinations balan...

  11. Recombination methods in the dosimetry of mixed radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    The work describes the state of art of recombination methods developed for the dosimetry of mixed radiation fields. The existing theories of initial recombination of ions in gases is given. Recombination methods developed in IAE are reviewed in detail. The methods described here can be applied in mixed radiation fields of poorly known composition and practically unlimited energy range. Main dosimetric parameters such as absorbed dose, photon component to the absorbed dose, radiation quality factor, dose equivalent, ambient dose equivalent and some other quantities can be determined in single instrument. A novel method has been developed for determination of the energy loss distribution in the nanometric region. Experimental tests showed that the method is promising not only for radiation protection but also for radiobiological investigations. (author). 166 refs, 62 figs, 16 tabs.

  12. Decreased affinity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL) D269H/E195R to osteoprotegerin (OPG) overcomes TRAIL resistance mediated by the bone microenvironment. (United States)

    Bosman, Matthieu C J; Reis, Carlos R; Schuringa, Jan J; Vellenga, Edo; Quax, Wim J


    The bone marrow microenvironment provides important signals for the survival and proliferation of hematopoietic and malignant cells. In multiple myeloma, plasma cells are surrounded by stromal cells including osteoblasts. These stromal cells protect multiple myeloma cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble receptor of the cytokine TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is secreted by osteoblasts and has been implicated in the prevention of cell death induced by TRAIL in malignant cells. Previously, we have designed death receptor-specific TRAIL variants that induce apoptosis exclusively via one of its death receptors. Here, we have studied in detail the interaction between recombinant human (rhTRAIL) variants and OPG. We show that a DR5-specific variant (rhTRAIL D269H/E195R) displays a significantly decreased affinity to OPG. Furthermore, this rhTRAIL variant shows a much higher activity when compared with rhTRAIL WT and retains its effectiveness in inducing cell death in multiple myeloma cell lines, in the presence of OPG secreted by stromal cells. We also demonstrate that stromal cells are largely insensitive to high concentrations of this rhTRAIL variant. In conclusion, rhTRAIL D269H/E195R is a potential therapy for multiple myeloma due to its high effectiveness and diminished binding to OPG.

  13. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of recombinant DNA polymerase beta of the Trypanosoma cruzi TcI lineage: requirement of additional factors and detection of phosphorylation of the native form. (United States)

    Maldonado, Edio; Rojas, Diego A; Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Urbina, Fabiola; Miralles, Vicente J; Solari, Aldo; Venegas, Juan


    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major parasitic disease that affects millions of people in America. However, despite the high impact of this disease on human health, no effective and safe treatment has been found that eliminates the infecting parasite from human patients. Among the possible chemotherapeutic targets that could be considered for study in T. cruzi are the DNA polymerases, in particular DNA polymerase beta (polß), which previous studies have shown to be involved in kinetoplast DNA replication and repair. In this paper, we describe the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of the Miranda clone polß, corresponding to lineage T. cruzi I (TcI). The recombinant enzyme purified to homogeneity displayed specific activity in the range described for a highly purified mammalian polß. However, the trypanosome enzyme exhibited important differences in biochemical properties compared to the mammalian enzymes, specifically an almost absolute dependency on KCl, high sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and low sensitivity to ddTTP. Immuno-affinity purification of T. cruzi polymerase beta (Tcpolß) from epimastigote extracts showed that the native enzyme was phosphorylated. In addition, it was demonstrated that Tcpolß interacts with some proteins in a group of about 15 proteins which are required to repair 1-6 bases of gaps of a double strand damaged DNA. It is possible that these proteins form part of a DNA repair complex, analogous to that described in mammals and some trypanosomatids.

  14. 重组人β-神经生长因子在昆虫细胞中的表达、纯化及其生物学活性%Expression of recombinant human β-nerve growth factor in insect cells and purification and biological activity of expressed product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳楠; 王玲; 吕新凯; 吴红梅; 汤华东


    Objective To express recombinant human B nerve growth factor (rhB-NGF) in insect cells, purify the expressed product and determine its biological activity. Methods Recombinant plasmid Bacmid + [rhβ-NGF] was constructed and transfected to insect cell line Sf9 in mediation of liposome cellfection Ⅱ. Sf9 cells were repeatedly infected with the supernatant of transfected cells, of which the culture supernatant containing target protein was collected in a large quantity. The rhB-NGF was purified by ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatography, identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and determined for biological activity by chick embryo dorsal root nervous ganglion culture method. Results Restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid Bacmid + [rhB-NGF] was constructed correctly. The rhB-NGF was expressed in Sf9 cells infected with recombinant virus, which showed a single band with relative molecular mass of about 14 200 on SDS-PAGE profile and reached a purity of more than 98% after purification. The expressed protein showed specific binding to rabbit anti-human monoclonal antibody against NGF and stimulated the growth of nerve ganglion process, of which the specific activity was about 600 000 AU / mg. Conclusion The rhB-NGF with biological activity was expressed successfully in insect cells, which laid a foundation of preparation of rhB-NGF in a large quantity.%目的 在昆虫细胞中表达重组人β-神经生长因子(Recombinant human β nerve growth factor,rhβ-NGF),并对表达产物进行纯化和生物学活性鉴定.方法 构建rhβ-NGF杆状病毒表达质粒Bacmid+[rhβ-NGF],利用脂质体cellfectionⅡ将质粒转染至昆虫细胞Sf9中,用转染细胞的上清反复感染Sf9细胞,大量收获含目的蛋白的培养上清,利用离子交换层析和分子筛层析纯化rhβ-NGF,纯化产物经SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析,并通过鸡胚背根神经节培养法检测rhβ-NGF的生物学活性.结果

  15. Recombinant DNA: History of the Controversy. (United States)

    Vigue, Charles L.; Stanziale, William G.


    The hazards associated with recombinant DNA research are presented along with some social implications and the development of recombinant DNA research guidelines by the National Institutes of Health. (SA)

  16. Homology requirements for recombination in Escherichia coli.


    Watt, V M; Ingles, C J; Urdea, M S; Rutter, W J


    The DNA sequence homology required for recombination in Escherichia coli has been determined by measuring the recombination frequency between insulin DNA in a miniplasmid pi VX and a homologous sequence in a bacteriophage lambda vector. A minimum of approximately equal to 20 base pairs in a completely homologous segment is required for significant recombination. There is an exponential increase in the frequency of recombination when the length of homologous DNA is increased from 20 base pairs...

  17. Extended recombinant bacterial ghost system. (United States)

    Lubitz, W; Witte, A; Eko, F O; Kamal, M; Jechlinger, W; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Haidinger, W; Huter, V; Felnerova, D; Stralis-Alves, N; Lechleitner, S; Melzer, H; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Kuen, B; Mayr, B; Mayrhofer, P; Geretschläger, R; Haslberger, A; Hensel, A


    Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts from a variety of bacteria are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extends the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying foreign epitopes further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts have inherent adjuvant properties, they can be used as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Subunits or other ligands can also be coupled to matrixes like dextran which are used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in this production. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. The endotoxic component of the outer membrane does not limit the use of ghosts as vaccine candidates but triggers the release of several potent immunoregulatory cytokines. As carriers, there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens that can be inserted in the membrane and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, peri

  18. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Julian Bujarski


    Full Text Available RNA recombination is one of the driving forces of genetic variability in (+-strand RNA viruses. Various types of RNA-RNA crossovers were described including crosses between the same or different viral RNAs or between viral and cellular RNAs. Likewise, a variety of molecular mechanisms are known to support RNA recombination, such as replicative events (based on internal or end-to-end replicase switchings along with nonreplicative joining among RNA fragments of viral and/or cellular origin. Such mechanisms as RNA decay or RNA interference are responsible for RNA fragmentation and trans-esterification reactions which are likely accountable for ligation of RNA fragments. Numerous host factors were found to affect the profiles of viral RNA recombinants and significant differences in recombination frequency were observed among various RNA viruses. Comparative analyses of viral sequences allowed for the development of evolutionary models in order to explain adaptive phenotypic changes and co-evolving sites. Many questions remain to be answered by forthcoming RNA recombination research. (i How various factors modulate the ability of viral replicase to switch templates, (ii What is the intracellular location of RNA-RNA template switchings, (iii Mechanisms and factors responsible for non-replicative RNA recombination, (iv Mechanisms of integration of RNA viral sequences with cellular genomic DNA, and (v What is the role of RNA splicing and ribozyme activity. From an evolutionary stand point, it is not known how RNA viruses parasitize new host species via recombination, nor is it obvious what the contribution of RNA recombination is among other RNA modification pathways. We do not understand why the frequency of RNA recombination varies so much among RNA viruses and the status of RNA recombination as a form of sex is not well documented.

  19. Recombinant human thrombopoietin: basic biology and evaluation of clinical studies. (United States)

    Kuter, David J; Begley, C Glenn


    Thrombocytopenia is a common medical problem for which the main treatment is platelet transfusion. Given the increasing use of platelets and the declining donor population, identification of a safe and effective platelet growth factor could improve the management of thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin (TPO), the c-Mpl ligand, is the primary physiologic regulator of megakaryocyte and platelet development. Since the purification of TPO in 1994, 2 recombinant forms of the c-Mpl ligand--recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF)--have undergone extensive clinical investigation. Both have been shown to be potent stimulators of megakaryocyte growth and platelet production and are biologically active in reducing the thrombocytopenia of nonmyeloablative chemotherapy. However, neither TPO has demonstrated benefit in stem cell transplantation or leukemia chemotherapy. Other clinical studies have investigated the use of TPO in treating chronic nonchemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia due to human immunodeficiency virus, and liver disease. Based solely on animal studies, TPO may be effective in reducing surgical thrombocytopenia and bleeding, ex vivo expansion of pluripotent stem cells, and as a radioprotectant. Ongoing and future studies will help define the clinical role of recombinant TPO and TPO mimetics in the treatment of chemotherapy- and nonchemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.

  20. [DNA homologous recombination repair in mammalian cells]. (United States)

    Popławski, Tomasz; Błasiak, Janusz


    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most serious DNA damage. Due to a great variety of factors causing DSBs, the efficacy of their repair is crucial for the cell's functioning and prevents DNA fragmentation, chromosomal translocation and deletion. In mammalian cells DSBs can be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HRR) and single strand annealing (SSA). HRR can be divided into the first and second phase. The first phase is initiated by sensor proteins belonging to the MRN complex, that activate the ATM protein which target HRR proteins to obtain the second response phase--repair. HRR is precise because it utilizes a non-damaged homologous DNA fragment as a template. The key players of HRR in mammalian cells are MRN, RPA, Rad51 and its paralogs, Rad52 and Rad54.

  1. Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar


    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs, which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization.

  2. Recombinant protein production in bacterial hosts. (United States)

    Overton, Tim W


    The production of recombinant proteins is crucial for both the development of new protein drugs and the structural determination of drug targets. As such, recombinant protein production has a major role in drug development. Bacterial hosts are commonly used for the production of recombinant proteins, accounting for approximately 30% of current biopharmaceuticals on the market. In this review, I introduce fundamental concepts in recombinant protein production in bacteria, from drug development to production scales. Recombinant protein production processes can often fail, but how can this failure be minimised to rapidly deliver maximum yields of high-quality protein and so accelerate drug discovery?

  3. Homologous recombination in Leishmania enriettii.



    We have used derivatives of the recently developed stable transfection vector pALT-Neo to formally demonstrate that Leishmania enriettii contains the enzymatic machinery necessary for homologous recombination. This observation has implications for gene regulation, gene amplification, genetic diversity, and the maintenance of tandemly repeated gene families in the Leishmania genome as well as in closely related organisms, including Trypanosoma brucei. Two plasmids containing nonoverlapping del...

  4. Recombinant house dust mite allergens



    House dust mites (HDM) are a globally important source of allergen responsible for the sensitization of more than 50% of allergic patients. Specific immunotherapy with HDM extracts is effective but allergen extracts cannot be fully standardized and severe side-effects can occur during the protracted course of treatment. The introduction of molecular biological techniques into allergy research allowed the indentification of more than 20 groups of HDM allergens. Recombinant HDM allergens can be...

  5. 人血管内皮生长因子与绿色荧光蛋白标记双基因共表达AAV载体的构建及鉴定%Construction and identification of recombinant adeno- associated virus vector co-expressing human vascular endothelial growth factor and green fluorescent protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄向辉; 时志斌; 王坤正; 党晓谦; 杨佩; 余鹏博


    取重组病毒基因组成功扩增出外源目的基因片段hVEGF165,证实重组病毒rAAV-VEGF165-GFP包装成功.结论:成功构建带有绿色荧光蛋白标记并携带hVEGF165基因的无致病性重组腺相关病毒rAAV-VEGF165-GFP.收获的病毒具有较高滴度和感染活性.%BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can specifically promote the division and proliferation of endothelial cells and the revascularization, finally induce angiopoiesis. Recently, VEGF-based gene therapy has been gradually used in clinical trials, but some limits on usually used vectors deserve further studies, including the low transfection efficiency of plasmid vector, the immunogenicity of adnovirus vector to host cells and the potential risk of infection. OBJECTIVE: To construct the non-pathogenic recombinant adeno-associated vires (AAV) co-expressing human vascular endethelial growth factor 165 (hVEGF165) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) label and measure the virus titer and assess its biological activity.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The open experiment was performed at the Vitrus Laboratory of Shanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention from March to September 2007.MATERIALS: AAV-293 virus packaging cell line, AAV HT-1080 cells were purchased from Swatagene, USA. E.coli DH5α was a stocked strain from Shanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. AAV Helper Free System (pAAV-IRES-GFP vector containing GFP label) was purchased from Stratagene, USA. Plasmid pUC18-hVEGF165 was constructed previously by Dr.Shi from Department of Orthopaedics of Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University.METHODS: The hVEGF165 gone from plasmid pUC18-hVEGF165 was amplified and inserted into plasmid pAAV-IRES-hrGFP. Then recombinant plasmid pAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP, pAAV-RC and pAAV-Helper were co-transfected into AAV-293 cells to complete rAAV-hVEGF165-IRES-hrGFP packaging through homologous recombination. The efficiency of A

  6. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server


    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  7. Nondisjunction of chromosome 15: Origin and recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A.; Mutirangura, A.; Ledbetter, D.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Langlois, S. (Univ. of Britisch Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Morris, M.A.; Malcolm, S.


    Thirty-two cases of uniparental disomy (UPD), ascertained from Prader-Willi syndrome patients (N=27) and Angelman syndrome patients (N-5), are used to investigate the pattern of recombination associated with nondisjunction of chromosome 15. In addition, the meiotic stage of nondisjunction is inferred by using markers mapping near the centromere. Two basic approaches to the analysis of recombination in specific pairwise intervals along the chromosome. This method shows a significant reduction in recombination for two of five intervals examined. Second, the observed frequency of each recombinant class (i.e., zero, one, two, three, or more observable crossovers) is compared with expected values. This is useful for testing whether the reduction in recombination can be attributed solely to a proportion of cases with no recombination at all (because of asynapsis), with the remaining groups showing normal recombination (or even excess recombination), or whether recombination is uniformly reduced. Analysis of maternal UPD(15) data shows a slight reduction in the multiple-recombinant classes, with a corresponding increase in both the zero- and one-recombinant classes over expected values. The majority, more than 82%, of the extra chromosomes in maternal UPD(15) cases are due to meiotic I nondisjunction events. In contrast, more paternal UPD(15) cases so far examined appear to have a postzygotic origin of the extra paternal chromosome. 33 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Band gap narrowing models tested on low recombination phosphorus laser doped silicon (United States)

    Dahlinger, Morris; Carstens, Kai


    This manuscript discusses bandgap narrowing models for highly phosphorus doped silicon. We simulate the recombination current pre-factor J0,phos in PC1Dmod 6.2 of measured doping profiles and apply the theoretical band gap narrowing model of Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684 (1998)] and an empirical band gap narrowing model of Yan and Cuevas [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 044508 (2013)]. The recombination current pre-factor of unpassivated and passivated samples measured by the photo conductance measurement and simulated J0,phos agrees well, when the band gap narrowing model of Yan and Cuevas is applied. With the band gap narrowing model of Schenk, the simulation cannot reproduce the measured J0,phos. Furthermore, the recombination current pre-factor of our phosphorus laser doped silicon samples are comparable with furnace diffused samples. There is no indication of recombination active defects, thus no laser induced defects in the diffused volume.

  9. Consequences of recombination on traditional phylogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Hein, J


    We investigate the shape of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed from sequences evolving under the coalescent with recombination. The motivation is that evolutionary inferences are often made from phylogenetic trees reconstructed from population data even though recombination may well occur (mtDNA...... or viral sequences) or does occur (nuclear sequences). We investigate the size and direction of biases when a single tree is reconstructed ignoring recombination. Standard software (PHYLIP) was used to construct the best phylogenetic tree from sequences simulated under the coalescent with recombination....... With recombination present, the length of terminal branches and the total branch length are larger, and the time to the most recent common ancestor smaller, than for a tree reconstructed from sequences evolving with no recombination. The effects are pronounced even for small levels of recombination that may...

  10. Dissection of a circumscribed recombination hot spot in HIV-1 after a single infectious cycle. (United States)

    Galetto, Román; Giacomoni, Véronique; Véron, Michel; Negroni, Matteo


    Recombination is a major source of genetic heterogeneity in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) population. The main mechanism responsible for the generation of recombinant viruses is a process of copy choice between the two copies of genomic RNA during reverse transcription. We previously identified, after a single cycle of infection of cells in culture, a recombination hot spot within the gp120 gene, corresponding to the top portion of a RNA hairpin. Here, we determine that the hot region is circumscribed to 18 nucleotides located in the descending strand of the stem, following the sense of reverse transcription. Three factors appeared to be important, albeit at different extents, for the high rate of recombination observed in this region. The position of the hot sequence in the context of the RNA structure appears crucial, because changing its location within this structure triggered differences in recombination up to 20-fold. Another pivotal factor is the presence of a perfectly identical sequence between donor and acceptor RNA in the region of transfer, because single or double nucleotide differences in the hot spot were sufficient to almost completely abolish recombination in the region. Last, the primary structure of the hot region also influenced recombination, although with effects only in the 2-3-fold range. Altogether, these results provide the first molecular dissection of a hot spot in infected cells and indicate that several factors contribute to the generation of a site of preferential copy choice.

  11. Antagonistic roles of ubiquitin ligase HEI10 and SUMO ligase RNF212 regulate meiotic recombination. (United States)

    Qiao, Huanyu; Prasada Rao, H B D; Yang, Ye; Fong, Jared H; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Deacon, Dekker C; Nagel, Kathryn E; Swartz, Rebecca K; Strong, Edward; Holloway, J Kim; Cohen, Paula E; Schimenti, John; Ward, Jeremy; Hunter, Neil


    Crossover recombination facilitates the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. In mammals, poorly characterized regulatory processes ensure that every pair of chromosomes obtains at least one crossover, even though most recombination sites yield non-crossovers. Designation of crossovers involves selective localization of the SUMO ligase RNF212 to a minority of recombination sites, where it stabilizes pertinent factors such as MutSγ (ref. 4). Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase HEI10 (also called CCNB1IP1) is essential for this crossover/non-crossover differentiation process. In HEI10-deficient mice, RNF212 localizes to most recombination sites, and dissociation of both RNF212 and MutSγ from chromosomes is blocked. Consequently, recombination is impeded, and crossing over fails. In wild-type mice, HEI10 accumulates at designated crossover sites, suggesting that it also has a late role in implementing crossing over. As with RNF212, dosage sensitivity for HEI10 indicates that it is a limiting factor for crossing over. We suggest that SUMO and ubiquitin have antagonistic roles during meiotic recombination that are balanced to effect differential stabilization of recombination factors at crossover and non-crossover sites.

  12. Effects of perimeter recombination on GaAs-based solar cells (United States)

    Stellwag, T. B.; Dodd, P. E.; Carpenter, M. S.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Pierret, R. F.

    Perimeter recombination currents have been experimentally characterized on GaAs p/n heteroface diodes and solar cells with areas ranging from 2.5 x 10 to the -5th to 0.25 sq cm. Under 1-sun operation at the maximum power point, measurements show that the n = roughly 2 perimeter recombination current component degrades the cell's fill factor but does not greatly affect the open-circuit voltage. The n = roughly 2 perimeter recombination currents are examined theoretically on small-area cells using a two-dimensional drift-diffusion device simulator, PUPHS2D. This model verifies the importance and origin of perimeter recombination in heteroface GaAs-based solar cells. Two methods of reducing the n = roughly 2 perimeter recombination are explored.

  13. An examination of the relationship between hotspots and recombination associated with chromosome 21 nondisjunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Renee Oliver

    Full Text Available Trisomy 21, resulting in Down Syndrome (DS, is the most common autosomal trisomy among live-born infants and is caused mainly by nondisjunction of chromosome 21 within oocytes. Risk factors for nondisjunction depend on the parental origin and type of meiotic error. For errors in the oocyte, increased maternal age and altered patterns of recombination are highly associated with nondisjunction. Studies of normal meiotic events in humans have shown that recombination clusters in regions referred to as hotspots. In addition, GC content, CpG fraction, Poly(A/Poly(T fraction and gene density have been found to be significant predictors of the placement of sex-averaged recombination in the human genome. These observations led us to ask whether the altered patterns of recombination associated with maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21 could be explained by differences in the relationship between recombination placement and recombination-related genomic features (i.e., GC content, CpG fraction, Poly(A/Poly(T fraction or gene density on 21q or differential hot-spot usage along the nondisjoined chromosome 21. We found several significant associations between our genomic features of interest and recombination, interestingly, these results were not consistent among recombination types (single and double proximal or distal events. We also found statistically significant relationships between the frequency of hotspots and the distribution of recombination along nondisjoined chromosomes. Collectively, these findings suggest that factors that affect the accessibility of a specific chromosome region to recombination may be altered in at least a proportion of oocytes with MI and MII errors.

  14. Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa labelled with the fac-99 mTc(CO)3-core: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a putative new radiopharmaceutical for imaging in acute bleeding lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Christensen, Jesper B.; Olsen, Ole H.;


    Coagulation in blood is initiated when coagulation factor VII (FVII) binds to exposed TF and is activated to FVIIa, and the TF/ FVIIa complex may therefore provide a marker of vascular injury potentially applicable in diagnostic imaging of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods: Recombinan...... for stabilizing the 99mTc(CO)3 1-ligand structure in FVIIa were identified. Conclusion: Radiolabelled rFVIIa derivatives may represent a novel tool for the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding lesions....

  15. Value of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in corneal wound repair after corneal foreign body elimination%重组人表皮生长因子修复角膜异物剔除后角膜创面的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨重组人表皮生长因子( recombinant human epidermal growth factor ,rhEGF)对角膜异物剔除后角膜创面的修复效果。方法:选取2012-01/2013-01来我院就诊的角膜异物患者102例188眼为研究对象,根据随机数字表法分为治疗组和对照组。两组患者均于裂隙灯下剔除角膜异物,术后治疗组患眼应用重组人表皮生长因子衍生物滴眼液联合妥布霉素进行治疗,对照组患眼仅应用妥布霉素治疗。比较两组治疗3d后的疗效。结果:治疗后3d,治疗组的治愈率(93.7%)明显高于对照组治愈率(76.6%),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组荧光素染色阴性率为90.4%,高于对照组的46.8%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:rhEGF能够特异性和角膜上皮细胞受体结合,缩短损伤的角膜上皮的创伤愈合时间,加速愈合,是一种治疗外伤性角膜上皮缺损的有效方法。%AIM: To investigate the repair efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on corneal epithelium after corneal foreign body eliminating operation. METHODS:There were 102 patients with corneal foreign body ( 188 affected eyes ) chosen for the study. All patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table. Both groups received corneal foreign body elimination by slit lamp.Postoperatively, the treatment group was given eye drops containing epidermal growth factor ( JinYinShu) combined with tobramycin while the control group was only administrated with tobramycin. Treatment effects were compared 3d after treatment. RESULTS: Three days after treatment, the cure rate in the treatment group ( 93.7%), was significantly higher than that in the control group (76.6%) (P<0.05).In the treatment group, fluorescein staining was negative in 90.4%of the cases, significantly higher than that in the control group (46.8%) (P<0

  16. Genetic linkage in the horse. II. Distribution of male recombination estimates and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination frequency. (United States)

    Andersson, L; Sandberg, K


    In the present study an extensive amount of data, comprising more than 30,000 offspring in total, was analyzed to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the recombination frequency in the K-PGD segment of the equine linkage group (LG) I and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination in the Al-Es segment of LG II. A highly significant sex difference is reported for both segments. Male and female recombination values in the K-PGD segment were estimated at 25.8 +/- 0.8 and 33.3 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Similarly, recombination was less frequent in the male (36.6 +/- 0.7%) than in the female (46.6 +/- 1.2%) in the Al-Es segment. Comparison of data from two Swedish horse breeds revealed no significant breed differences in either sex for recombination in the Al-Es segment. No evidence of an age effect was found in any segment or sex. The distribution of individual male recombination estimates was also investigated, and a significant heterogeneity among stallions was revealed in the K-PGD segment. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies on factors affecting recombination in mammals.

  17. Bacteriophage recombination systems and biotechnical applications. (United States)

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick


    Bacteriophage recombination systems have been widely used in biotechnology for modifying prokaryotic species, for creating transgenic animals and plants, and more recently, for human cell gene manipulation. In contrast to homologous recombination, which benefits from the endogenous recombination machinery of the cell, site-specific recombination requires an exogenous source of recombinase in mammalian cells. The mechanism of bacteriophage evolution and their coexistence with bacterial cells has become a point of interest ever since bacterial viruses' life cycles were first explored. Phage recombinases have already been exploited as valuable genetic tools and new phage enzymes, and their potential application to genetic engineering and genome manipulation, vectorology, and generation of new transgene delivery vectors, and cell therapy are attractive areas of research that continue to be investigated. The significance and role of phage recombination systems in biotechnology is reviewed in this paper, with specific focus on homologous and site-specific recombination conferred by the coli phages, λ, and N15, the integrase from the Streptomyces phage, ΦC31, the recombination system of phage P1, and the recently characterized recombination functions of Yersinia phage, PY54. Key steps of the molecular mechanisms involving phage recombination functions and their application to molecular engineering, our novel exploitations of the PY54-derived recombination system, and its application to the development of new DNA vectors are discussed.

  18. Current trends of HIV recombination worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Lau


    Full Text Available One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O, as well as inter- and intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs and unique recombinant forms (URFs, requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and co-circulation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes.

  19. Dielectronic recombination of Fe^{13+}: benchmarking the M-shell

    CERN Document Server

    Badnell, N R


    We have carried-out a series of multi-configuration Breit-Pauli AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations for the dielectronic recombination of Fe^{13+}. We present a detailed comparison of the results with the high-energy resolution measurements reported recently from the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring by Schmidt et al. Many Rydberg series contribute significantly from this initial 3s^2 3p M-shell ion, resulting in a complex recombination `spectrum'. While there is much close agreement between theory and experiment, differences of typically 50% in the summed resonance strengths over 0.1-10 eV result in the experimentally based total Maxwellian recombination rate coefficient being a factor of 1.52-1.38 larger than theory over 10^4-10^5 K, which is a typical temperature range of peak abundance for Fe^{13+} in a photoionized plasma. Nevertheless, this theoretical recombination rate coefficient is an order of magnitude larger than that used by modellers to-date. This may help explain the discrepancy between the iron M-shell ioni...

  20. CRMAGE: CRISPR Optimized MAGE Recombineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander


    A bottleneck in metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches is the lack of efficient genome engineering technologies. Here, we combine CRISPR/Cas9 and λ Red recombineering based MAGE technology (CRMAGE) to create a highly efficient and fast method for genome engineering of Escherichia coli...... that are assembled by a USER-cloning approach enabling quick and cost efficient gRNA replacement. CRMAGE furthermore utilizes CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient plasmid curing, thereby enabling multiple engineering rounds per day. To facilitate the design process, a web-based tool was developed to predict both the λ Red...

  1. Recombinant DNA technology in apple. (United States)

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea


    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  2. Topological Data Analysis Generates High-Resolution, Genome-wide Maps of Human Recombination. (United States)

    Camara, Pablo G; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Emmett, Kevin J; Levine, Arnold J; Rabadan, Raul


    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process driving diversity in eukaryotes. In mammals, recombination is known to occur preferentially at specific genomic regions. Using topological data analysis (TDA), a branch of applied topology that extracts global features from large data sets, we developed an efficient method for mapping recombination at fine scales. When compared to standard linkage-based methods, TDA can deal with a larger number of SNPs and genomes without incurring prohibitive computational costs. We applied TDA to 1,000 Genomes Project data and constructed high-resolution whole-genome recombination maps of seven human populations. Our analysis shows that recombination is generally under-represented within transcription start sites. However, the binding sites of specific transcription factors are enriched for sites of recombination. These include transcription factors that regulate the expression of meiosis- and gametogenesis-specific genes, cell cycle progression, and differentiation blockage. Additionally, our analysis identifies an enrichment for sites of recombination at repeat-derived loci matched by piwi-interacting RNAs.

  3. Construction of membrane-bound macrophage colony-stimulating factor and recombinant retroviral expression vector of spliceosome%mM-CSF 及其剪切体重组逆转录病毒表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翠花; 廖金凤; 王大刚; 刘淑艳; 任倩; 郑国光


    目的:构建膜结合型M-CSF( mM-CSF)及其胞内区截短30个氨基酸的剪切体( mM-CSF-Δ)重组逆转录病毒表达载体。方法用DNA重组技术构建并鉴定mM-CSF和mM-CSF-Δ的重组逆转录病毒表达载体MSCV-PGK-GFP-mM-CSF、MSCV-PGK-GFP-mM-CSF-Δ,与空载体对照MSCV-PGK-GFP分别转染Phoenix细胞包装病毒,并感染HEK293细胞,通过流式分选术获得3种阳性细胞。结果经Phoenix包装的重组及对照逆转录病毒成功感染HEK293细胞,获得了稳定表达细胞株HEK293-M、HEK293-M-Δ和对照细胞株HEK293-V。 RT-PCR以及West-ern blotting法检测发现HEK293细胞中有mM-CSF和mM-CSF-Δ的表达,HEK293-M细胞和HEK293-M-Δ细胞经流式抗体标记后均能检测到膜蛋白的表达。结论成功构建了mM-CSF及其剪切体的重组逆转录病毒表达载体。%Objective To construct membrane-bound macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( mM-CSF) and recombi-nant retroviral expression vector of brachytmema mutation of 30 amino acide located in the intracellular region of mM-CSF ( mM-CSF-Δ) .Methods The retroviral vectors MSCV-PGK-GFP-mM-CSF and MSCV-PGK-GFP-mM-CSF-Δwere con-structed and identified by DNA recombinant techniques.Recombinant and empty vectors were used to transfect the packa-ging Phoenix cells.HEK293 cells were infected by the viral supernatants.After being sorted by flow cytometry, three posi-tive cell lines were obtained.Results HEK293 cells were successfully infected by retroviruses in packaging Phoenix cells and control retrovirus.Stable expressing cell lines, HEK293-M and HEK293-M-Δas well as control cell line HEK293-V, were established.The expression of mM-SCF and mM-CSF-Δwas detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HEK293 cells and its membrane protein expression was also detected by flow cytometry.Conclusion The mM-CSF and recombinant retroviral expression vector of spliceosome were successfully constructed.

  4. Application of Recombinant Fish Growth Factor Protein in Aquaculture%重组鱼类促生长因子蛋白在水产养殖应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟鸿干; 姜巨峰


    鱼类的生长主要靠生长激素/胰岛素样生长因子轴(growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors,GH/IGFs)所调控,而生长激素(Growth hormone,GH)和类胰岛素样生长因子-I(insulin-like growth factor -Ⅰ,IGF-Ⅰ)是G H/IGFs中两种最重要生长调控因子.体外重组表达的GH和IGF-Ⅰ蛋白都具有增强食欲、提高饲料转化率,加速鱼体生长的活性,可以作为高效生物饲料添加剂,在水产养殖具有广泛的适用性.本文从重组表达鱼类促生长因子蛋白研制的必要性、作用机理、表达情况以及在水产养殖应用情况方面进行总结,以期为重组表达鱼类促生长因子蛋白的工厂化制备提供参考.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Dressing on Facial Skin after Q -switched Alexandrite Laser Therapy for Nevus Fusco -Caeruleus Zygomaticus%重组人表皮生长因子面膜护理颧部褐青色痣激光术后创面的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 严蕾; 王芳


    目的:评估重组人表皮生长因子(EGF)面膜对颧部褐青色痣激光术后皮肤创面修复能力的临床疗效和安全性。方法:选择56例接受颧部褐青色痣激光治疗的患者,随机分为两组,实验组29例,激光术后即刻使用 EGF 面膜冷敷,并于治疗后隔1天敷1次,连续使用10天,每次20分钟;对照组27例,治疗后即刻用冰敷20分钟,并在术后10天内,常规使用红霉素软膏作为创面护理。分别于治疗后即刻,冷敷20分钟后、治疗后第1、3、5天及第9天,记录两组患者的症状、体征及创面愈合脱痂情况。结果:实验组29例患者经过 EGF 面膜冷敷后,术后的主观症状,如刺痛、灼热及紧绷感等得到明显缓解,结痂时间及痂壳脱落时间缩短,且脱落后创面光滑无红肿,整个过程无不良反应。结论:EGF 面膜用于颧部褐青色痣激光术后,可以改善术后的主观症状,减轻红斑、水肿等不良反应,促进皮肤创面快速修复。%Objective To evaluate the clinical curative ef ect and safety of recombinant human epidermal growth factor dressings applied after laser therapy for Nevus Fusco -Caeruleus Zy-gomaticus.Methods Altogether 56 patients with Nevus Fusco -Caeruleus Zygomaticus were enrol ed in this clinical trial.After the treatment with Q -switched Alexandrite Laser,the patients were randomly divided into two groups.The 29 patients in the experimental group were smeared with recombinant human epidermal growth factor dressings on the face for 20 minutes immediately after laser therapy,and then once every 2 days for 10 days,While 27 patients in the control group were treated by Erythromycin ointment.Symptoms,physical signs and wound healing of two groups were recorded immediately,20 minutes,1,3,5 and 9 days after treatment respectively.Results Compared with the control group,the experimental group showed a bet er improvement of acute inflammatory responses

  6. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on serum levels of insulin like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in children with idiopathic short stature%重组人生长激素对特发性矮小患儿症血清胰岛素样生长因子1与胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干冬梅; 石小军


    目的:探讨重组人生长激素对特发性矮小症患儿血清胰岛素样生长因子1(insulin-like growth factor-1,IGF-1)与胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3(insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3,IGFBP-3)水平的影响。方法收集宁波市妇女儿童医院儿5科收治的特发性矮小症患儿48例,随机分为对照组和实验组,每组各24例,对照组患儿给予营养治疗,实验组在对照组基础上给予重组人生长激素治疗,均治疗12个月。治疗结束后,对所有患儿的血清胰岛素样生长因子1、胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3水平及身高进行检测。结果与对照组治疗后比较,实验组患儿的血清IGF-1水平较高( P<0.05);实验组患儿的血清IGFBP-3水平较高( P<0.05);实验组患儿的身高较高(P<0.05)。结论重组人生长激素能够显著提高特发性矮小症患儿血清IGF-1、IGFBP-3水平,促进患儿生长,对临床有指导意义。%Objective To investigate the effect of recombinant human growth hormone on serum levels of insulin like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3(IGFBP-3)in children with short stature.Methods 48 children were diagnosed with idiopathic short stature were collected.All children were randomly divided into control group and experimental group ,24 cases in each group.Children in control group received nutritional therapy, children in experimental group were given recombinant human growth hormone on the basis of control group treatment, both group were treated for 12 month.After the treatment, the serum levels of IGF-1,IGFBP-3 and the height were detected in all children.Results Compared with control group post-treatment,,the serum level of IGF-1 was higher in experimental group ( P<0.05 );the serum level of IGFBP-3 was higher in experimental group ( P<0.05 );the height was higher in experimental group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion

  7. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.


    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  8. Detecting the cosmological recombination signal from space

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent; Silk, Joseph; de Bernardis, Francesco; Doré, Olivier


    Spectral distortions of the CMB have recently experienced an increased interest. One of the inevitable distortion signals of our cosmological concordance model is created by the cosmological recombination process, just a little before photons last scatter at redshift $z\\simeq 1100$. These cosmological recombination lines, emitted by the hydrogen and helium plasma, should still be observable as tiny deviation from the CMB blackbody spectrum in the cm--dm spectral bands. In this paper, we present a forecast for the detectability of the recombination signal with future satellite experiments. We argue that serious consideration for future CMB experiments in space should be given to probing spectral distortions and, in particular, the recombination line signals. The cosmological recombination radiation not only allows determination of standard cosmological parameters, but also provides a direct observational confirmation for one of the key ingredients of our cosmological model: the cosmological recombination histo...

  9. V(D)J recombination frequency is affected by the sequence interposed between a pair of recombination signals: sequence comparison reveals a putative recombinational enhancer element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, F A; Hobi, R; Berchtold, M W;


    The immunoglobulin heavy chain intron enhancer (Emu) not only stimulates transcription but also V(D)J recombination of chromosomally integrated recombination substrates. We aimed at reproducing this effect in recombination competent cells by transient transfection of extrachromosomal substrates. ...

  10. The homologous recombination system of Ustilago maydis


    Holloman, William K.; Schirawski, Jan; Holliday, Robin


    Homologous recombination is a high fidelity, template-dependent process that is used in repair of damaged DNA, recovery of broken replication forks, and disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. Much of what is known about recombination genes and mechanisms comes from studies on baker's yeast. Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete fungus, is distant evolutionarily from baker's yeast and so offers the possibility of gaining insight into recombination from an alternative perspective. Here we...

  11. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins. (United States)

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L


    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks.

  12. Impact of recombination on bacterial evolution



    Genetic exchange plays a defining role in the evolution of many bacteria. The recent accumulation of nucleotide sequence data from multiple members of diverse bacterial genera has facilitated comparative studies that have revealed many features of this process. Here we focus on genetic exchange that has involved homologous recombination and illustrate how nucleotide sequence data have furthered our understanding of: (i) the frequency of recombination; (ii) the impact of recombination in diffe...

  13. RNA recombination in animal and plant viruses.



    An increasing number of animal and plant viruses have been shown to undergo RNA-RNA recombination, which is defined as the exchange of genetic information between nonsegmented RNAs. Only some of these viruses have been shown to undergo recombination in experimental infection of tissue culture, animals, and plants. However, a survey of viral RNA structure and sequences suggests that many RNA viruses were derived form homologous or nonhomologous recombination between viruses or between viruses ...

  14. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  15. Studies on mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor,recombinant human interleukin-11 and recombinant human interleukin-2 on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy γ-rays irradiation in beagles%细胞因子治疗4.5 Gyγ射线照射比格犬造血损伤的机制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 王金香; 缪竞诚; 朱南康; 罗庆良; 从玉文; 张学光; 欧红玲; 邢爽; 黄海潇; 熊国林; 谢玲; 赵燕芳; 赵振虎; 王宁


    目的 探讨多种细胞因子配伍应用治疗4.5 Gyγ射线照射比格犬造血系统损伤的作用及可能机制.方法 16只比格犬均给予4.5 Gy60Coγ射线全身照射,随机分为照射对照、综合对症和细胞因子3组.细胞因子组在综合对症支持治疗的基础上应用rhG-CSF、rhIL-11和rhIL-2联合治疗,采用流式细胞术检测外周血中CD34+细胞含量、有核细胞周期及凋亡比例.结果 4.5 Gyγ射线照射犬外周血中CD34+细胞含量在照射后1 d明显下降(照射对照组和综合对症组分别为照前值的61.3%和52.1%),G0/G1期有核细胞比例增加(分别为99.27%和99.49%),且凋亡率(分别为26.93%和21.29%)和坏死率(分别为3.27%和4.14%)明显升高(与照前值比较,P<0.05);而经过细胞因子治疗后,外周血中CD34+细胞含量在照射后1 d即明显升高(为照前值的135.6%),G0/G1期有核细胞比例(99.71%)进一步增加,其凋亡率(5.66%)和坏死率(1.60%)明显低于照射对照和综合对症组.结论 本研究的细胞因子组合可能通过动员骨髓中CD34+细胞到外周血,使细胞周期阻滞在G0/G1期,减少细胞凋亡,从而促进极重度骨髓型急性放射病犬造血功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor(rhG-CSF),recombinant human interleukin-11(rhIL-11)and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2)on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy60 Coγ-ray irradiation in beagles,and to provide experimental evidence for the clinical treatment of extremely severe myeloid acute radiation sickness (ARS).Methods Sixteen beagle dogs were given 4.5 Gy60 Co γ-ray total body irradiation(TBI),then randomly assigned into irradiation control group,supportive care group or cytokines+supportive care (abbreviated as cytokines)group.In addition to supportive care,rhG-CSF,rhlL-11 and rhIL-2 were administered subcutaneously to treat dogs in cytokines group.The percentage of CD34+cells,cell cycle and

  16. 凝胶法和动态浊度法检测注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子中细菌内毒素含量%Development of bacterial endotoxin test for recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 应莲芳; 蒋琳; 高雪峰


    Objective To develop a method in detection of bacteria endotoxin for recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor for injection with the gel-clot test and the kinetic turbidimetric test for the control of the quality of the drug and pre-vention of pyroten reaction in clinical practice .Methods the experiment was conducted according to BET in China Phar-macopoeia 2010 , third section .Results The protein concentration was 100 μg/mL, the detection limit for acterial endo-toxin as defined 10 EU/mL.With the gel-clot test and the kinetic turbidimetric test , results of the tested samples were vali-dated.Conclusion Both the gel-clot test and the kinetic turbidimetric test are suitable for bacterial endotoxin test of re-combinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor for injection .%目的采用凝胶法和动态浊度法检测注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子( CNTF )中细菌内毒素含量,控制制品质量,消除临床热原反应的发生。方法供试品参照《中华人民共和国药典》(2010年版)三部附录ⅫE细菌内毒素检查法中的凝胶法和动态浊度法要求进行检查。结果注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子溶液在100μg/mL质量浓度下,确定内毒素限值为10 EU/mL。凝胶法和动态浊度法检查后,注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子内毒素含量均符合规定。结论凝胶法和动态浊度法可用于注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子的细菌内毒素检查。

  17. Clinical analysis of nanometer silver antibacterial gel combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor in the treatment of 34 cases of bedsore wound%纳米银抗菌凝胶联合重组人表皮细胞生长因子治疗压疮创面34例疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文涛; 何国; 张文仕; 曾婷苑; 陈秀凤


    Objective To investigate the application of nanometer silver antibacterial gel combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) in the treatment of bedsore wound.Methods 68 cases of bedsore wound in our hospital were randomly divided into control group and experimental group from September 2009 to June 2013.Control group received conventional therapy,while experimental group received nanometer silver antibacterial gel + rhEGF.The efficacy of two groups was compared after 14 days' treatment.Results The total effective rate of experimental group was 91.1%,significantly higher than 73.5% of control group (P < 0.05).The wound healing time and skin healing time of experimental group were shorter than those of control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Nanometer silver antibacterial gel combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor has a significant effect on bedsore wound,which is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨纳米银抗菌凝胶联合重组人表皮细胞生长因子(rhEGF)在治疗压疮创面中的应用价值.方法 将我院2009年9月至2013年6月期间住院治疗的68例压疮患者按不同治疗方式随机分为对照组(给予常规治疗)和实验组(纳米银抗菌凝胶+重组人表皮细胞生长因子),治疗14 d后比较两组患者治疗效果.结果 实验组患者治疗总有效率达到91.1%,明显高于对照组患者(73.5%)(p<0.05);实验组患者创面愈合时间和皮肤愈合时间均明显少于对照组患者(P<0.05).结论 纳米银抗菌凝胶联合rhEGF治疗压疮创面效果显著,值得临床推广应用.

  18. Experimental recombination rates for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold Schuch [Dept. of Atomic Physics, Stockholm Univ., Frescativ., Stockholm (Sweden)


    Recent studies of recombination between free electrons and highly charged ions using electron coolers of heavy-ion storage rings have produced accurate rate coefficients of interest for plasma modeling and diagnostics. Some surprises were discovered which can lead to revisions of recombination models. With bare ions one finds at low energy a strong and puzzling deviation from radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic recombination with C3+, N4+ show that jj coupling gives essential contributions to the cross section also for light ions. (author)

  19. Human Insulin from Recombinant DNA Technology (United States)

    Johnson, Irving S.


    Human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology is the first commercial health care product derived from this technology. Work on this product was initiated before there were federal guidelines for large-scale recombinant DNA work or commercial development of recombinant DNA products. The steps taken to facilitate acceptance of large-scale work and proof of the identity and safety of such a product are described. While basic studies in recombinant DNA technology will continue to have a profound impact on research in the life sciences, commercial applications may well be controlled by economic conditions and the availability of investment capital.

  20. Stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis method for the assessment of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and its correlation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography method and bioassay. (United States)

    Dalmora, Sergio Luiz; Butzge, Cairo dos Santos; Machado, Francine Trevisan; Walter, Maurício Elesbão; Dalmora, Maria Elisabeth de Ávila; Souto, Ricardo Bizogne


    A stability-indicating capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was validated for the analysis of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) using leuprorelin acetate (LA), as internal standard (IS). A fused-silica capillary (75 μm i.d.; effective length, 72 cm) was used at 25 °C; the applied voltage was 12 kV. The background electrolyte solution consisted of 50mM di-sodium hydrogen phosphate solution at pH 8.8. Injections were performed using a pressure mode at 50 mbar for 9s, with detection by photodiode array detector set at 200 nm. Specificity and stability-indicating capability were established in degradation studies, which also showed that there was no interference of the excipients. The method was linear over the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9995) and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.79 μg mL(-1) and 2.5 μg mL(-1), respectively. The accuracy was 99.14% with bias lower than 1.40%. The method was applied to the quantitative analysis of biopharmaceutical formulations, and the results were correlated to those of a validated reversed-phase LC method (RP-LC), and an in vitro bioassay, showing non-significant differences (p>0.05).

  1. Metabolomic analysis of riboswitch containing E. coli recombinant expression system. (United States)

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Xu, Yun; Morra, Rosa; Trivedi, Drupad K; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Dixon, Neil; Goodacre, Royston


    In this study we have employed metabolomics approaches to understand the metabolic effects of producing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli cells. This metabolic burden analysis was performed against a number of recombinant expression systems and control strains and included: (i) standard transcriptional recombinant expression control system BL21(DE3) with the expression plasmid pET-eGFP, (ii) the recently developed dual transcriptional-translational recombinant expression control strain BL21(IL3), with pET-eGFP, (iii) BL21(DE3) with an empty expression plasmid pET, (iv) BL21(IL3) with an empty expression plasmid, and (v) BL21(DE3) without an expression plasmid; all strains were cultured under various induction conditions. The growth profiles of all strains together with the results gathered by the analysis of the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy data, identified IPTG-dependent induction as the dominant factor hampering cellular growth and metabolism, which was in general agreement with the findings of GC-MS analysis of cell extracts and media samples. In addition, the exposure of host cells to the synthetic inducer ligand, pyrimido[4,5-d] pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (PPDA), of the orthogonal riboswitch containing expression system (BL21(IL3)) did not display any detrimental effects, and its detected levels in all the samples were at similar levels, emphasising the inability of the cells to metabolise PPDA. The overall results obtained in this study suggested that although the BL21(DE3)-EGFP and BL21(IL3)-EGFP strains produced comparable levels of recombinant eGFP, the presence of the orthogonal riboswitch seemed to be moderating the metabolic burden of eGFP production in the cells enabling higher biomass yield, whilst providing a greater level of control over protein expression.

  2. 保守性多巴胺能神经营养因子重组杆状病毒转移载体的构建及鉴定%Construction and identification of a recombinant baculovirus transfer vector of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 牛朝诗; 高歌; 梅加明; 汤深凤


    目的 构建并鉴定小鼠保守性多巴胺能神经营养因子(mCDNF)重组杆状病毒转移载体pFastBacHTb-mCDNF. 方法 应用Trizol法提取小鼠组织总RNA,反转成cDNA,经PCR扩增得到带有预定酶切位点(BamH Ⅰ、Xho Ⅰ)的mCDNF基因全长(564 bp),回收片段并克隆至pGEM-T载体,测序验证PCR结果的准确性.将mCDNF定向克隆到pFastBacHTb载体,构建含有mCDNF基因的重组质粒pFastBacHTb-mCDNF,转化大肠杆菌DH5α感受态细胞,氨苄青霉素抗性筛选阳性克隆,摇菌抽取质粒进行测序和双酶切鉴定. 结果 RT-PCR扩增产物经琼脂糖凝胶电泳显示得到预定大小的目的 条带(564 bp),mCDNF的T-A克隆经蓝白斑抗性筛选获得阳性克隆,PCR及测序均提示pGEM-T-CDNF载体成功构建.重组质粒pGEM-T-mCDNF和pFastBacHTb载体进行BamH Ⅰ、Xho Ⅰ限制性内切酶酶切后再连接,得到pFastBacHTb-mCDNF重组质粒,并经PCR、酶切及测序验证无误. 结论 本实验成功构建了mCDNF重组杆状病毒转移载体pFastBacHTb-mCDNF,为该营养因子的进一步研究奠定了一定基础.%Objective To construct and identify a recombinant baculovirus transfer vector of mouse conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (mCDNF): pFastBacHTb-mCDNF. Methods Mouse total RNA was isolated by using Trizol reagent, and then, first-strand cDNAs were synthesized by reverse transcriptase. Overall length of CDNF (564 bp) was amplified by two rounds of PCR introducing appropriate restriction sites (BamH Ⅰ, Xho Ⅰ). The PCR products were cloned into pGEM-T vector and sequenced to confirm PCR fidelity. The mCDNF was sub-cloned into pFastBacHTb vector to create pFastBacHTb-mCDNF vector, then the vector was transferred into the E. coli DH5α competent cells. The clone was selected using amicillin resistance and then this vector was sequenced and identified by double digests. Results Agarose gel electrophoresis after RT-PCR showed a 564 bp band being consistent with the anticipation

  3. Pathogen stress increases somatic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Steiner, Henry-York; Metraux, Jean-Pierre; Ryals, John; Hohn, Barbara


    Evolution is based on genetic variability and subsequent phenotypic selection. Mechanisms that modulate the rate of mutation according to environmental cues, and thus control the balance between genetic stability and flexibility, might provide a distinct evolutionary advantage. Stress-induced mutations stimulated by unfavorable environments, and possible mechanisms for their induction, have been described for several organisms, but research in this area has mainly focused on microorganisms. We have analyzed the influence of adverse environmental conditions on the genetic stability of the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that a biotic stress factor-attack by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora parasitica-can stimulate somatic recombination in Arabidopsis. The same effect was observed when plant pathogen-defense mechanisms were activated by the chemicals 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or benzothiadiazole (BTH), or by a mutation (cim3). Together with previous studies of recombination induced by abiotic factors, these findings suggest that increased somatic recombination is a general stress response in plants. The increased genetic flexibility might facilitate evolutionary adaptation of plant populations to stressful environments.

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to improve recombinant protein production. (United States)

    Liu, Min; Feng, Xinjun; Ding, Yamei; Zhao, Guang; Liu, Huizhou; Xian, Mo


    Escherichia coli is one of the most widely used strains for recombinant protein production. However, obstacles also exist in both academic researches and industrial applications, such as the metabolic burden, the carbon source waste, and the cells' physiological deterioration. This article reviews recent approaches for improving recombinant protein production in metabolic engineering, including workhorse selection, stress factor application, and carbon flux regulation. Selecting a suitable host is the first key point for recombinant protein production. In general, it all depends on characteristics of the strains and the target proteins. It will be triggered cells physiological deterioration when the medium is significantly different from the cell's natural environment. Coexpression of stress factors can help proteins to fold into their native conformation. Carbon flux regulation is a direct approach for redirecting more carbon flux toward the desirable pathways and products. However, some undesirable consequences are usually found in metabolic engineering, such as glucose transport inhibition, cell growth retardation, and useless metabolite accumulation. More efficient regulators and platform cell factories should be explored to meet a variety of production demands.

  5. Dielectronic recombination of tungsten ions (United States)

    Li, Bowen; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Dong, Chenzhong; Chen, Ximeng


    Ab initio calculations of dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of Ne-, Pd- and Ag-like tungsten have been performed. Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities and autoionization rates were calculated using the Flexible Atomic Code. The contributions from different channels to the total rate coefficients are discussed. The present calculated rate coefficients are compared with other calculations where available. Excellent agreement has been found for Ne-like W while a large discrepancy was found for Pd-like W, which implies that more ab initio calculations and experimental measurements are badly needed. Further calculations demonstrated that the influence of configuration interaction is small while nonresonant radiative stabilizing (NRS) contribution to doubly excited non-autoionizing states are vital. The data obtained are expected to be useful for modeling plasmas for fusion applications, especially for the ITER community, which makes experimental verification even more essential.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W


    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  7. Titania Photocatalysis beyond Recombination: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunsho Ohtani


    Full Text Available This short review paper shows the significance of recombination of a photoexcited electron and a hole in conduction and valence bands, respectively, of a titania photocatalyst, since recombination has not yet been fully understood and has not been evaluated adequately during the past several decades of research on heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  8. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael


    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  9. Theoretic Study of CⅡ Recombination Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永伦; 王民盛; 韩小英; 李家明


    Using the R-matrix method, we carry out theoretical calculations for recombination line λ 8794 A(3d'-3p') of CⅡ, which is important to estimate the abundances of carbon in planetary nebulae. Our calculations are based on three sets of target orbital basis, through which we elucidate the electron correlation and static polarization effects in the dielectronic recombination processes.

  10. Three-Body Recombination in Cold Atomic Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, Peder K


    Systems of three particles show a surprising feature in their bound state spectrum: a series of geometrically scaled states, known as Efimov states. These states have not yet been observed directly, but many recent experiments show indirect evidence of their existence via the so-called recombination process. The theories that predict the Efimov states also predicts either resonant enhancement of the recombination process or suppression by destructive interference, depending on the sign of the interaction between the particles. The theories predict universal features for the Efimov states, for instance that the geometric scaling factor is 22.7, meaning that one state is 22.7 times larger than its lower lying neighbour state. This thesis seeks to investigate non-universal effects by incorporating additional information about the physical interactions into the universal theories.

  11. Effective conductance method for the primordial recombination spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine


    As atoms formed for the first time during primordial recombination, they emitted bound-bound and free-bound radiation leading to spectral distortions to the cosmic microwave background. These distortions might become observable in the future with high-sensitivity spectrometers, and provide a new window into physical conditions in the early universe. The standard multilevel atom method habitually used to compute the recombination spectrum is computationally expensive, impeding a detailed quantitative exploration of the information contained in spectral distortions thus far. In this work it is shown that the emissivity in optically thin allowed transitions can be factored into a computationally expensive but cosmology-independent part and a computationally cheap, cosmology-dependent part. The slow part of the computation consists in pre-computing temperature-dependent effective "conductances", linearly relating line or continuum intensity to departures from Saha equilibrium of the lowest-order excited states (2...

  12. Laser-induced recombination of D{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asp, S. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.; Schuch, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.; DeWitt, D.R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.; Biedermann, C. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.; Gao, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.; Zong, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.; Andler, G. [Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Justiniano, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Atomic Phys.


    Laser induced recombination into the L shell (n=2) of deuterium was investigated at the heavy-ion cooler storage ring CRYRING for two values of the electron density. The data shows the expected enhancement of radiative recombination, induced by the intense laser field applied, over the spontaneous case. Like in previous measurements, a strong intensity below the photoionization threshold was observed. Qualitatively, this gain is described by an average field induced threshold shift model. However, when reducing the electron density by roughly a factor of two, the effective field increased by an order of magnitude. This surprising result indicates that the precise origin of the observed fields is not simply related to the known field sources. (orig.).

  13. [Clinical use of recombinant human thrombopoietin. Status and perspectives]. (United States)

    Hansen, P B; Hasselbalch, H C


    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is primarily produced by hepatocytes and regulates the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes and platelets in the bone marrow. The endogenous TPO level is increased when the megakaryocyte count is low, and high in aplastic anaemia and after myeloablative chemotherapy. TPO is cloned and manufactured by a recombinant technique for clinical use. Treatment with recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) after intensive chemotherapy may reduce the need for platelet transfusions. Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in combination with rhTPO has enhanced the mobilisation and harvest product of haematopoietic stem cells. Whether rhTPO is effective in the treatment of the myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anaemia, and other conditions with bone marrow insufficiency (including AIDS) is not yet known. In liver cirrhosis, the endogenous TPO level rapidly increases after liver transplantation. Accordingly, substitution of rhTPO may be indicated in advanced liver failure complicated by thrombocytopenia and bleeding.

  14. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C; Phadnis, Naina


    During meiosis, the formation of viable haploid gametes from diploid precursors requires that each homologous chromosome pair be properly segregated to produce an exact haploid set of chromosomes. Genetic recombination, which provides a physical connection between homologous chromosomes, is essen......During meiosis, the formation of viable haploid gametes from diploid precursors requires that each homologous chromosome pair be properly segregated to produce an exact haploid set of chromosomes. Genetic recombination, which provides a physical connection between homologous chromosomes....... Surprisingly, one mutant derepressed for recombination in the heterochromatic mating-type region during meiosis and several mutants derepressed for centromeric gene expression during mitotic growth are not derepressed for centromeric recombination during meiosis. These results reveal a complex relation between...... types of repression by heterochromatin. Our results also reveal a previously undemonstrated role for RNAi and heterochromatin in the repression of meiotic centromeric recombination and, potentially, in the prevention of birth defects by maintenance of proper chromosome segregation during meiosis....

  15. Recombinant vaccines: experimental and applied aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels


    Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved in in......, these fields will open up a number of interesting research objectives of mutual benefit. Recent aspects of recombinant protein vaccines, live recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines are discussed.......Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved...... in induction of a protective immune response may become vital. The few recombinant vaccines licensd so far, despite much research during the last decade, illustrate that this is not a straightforward matter. However, as vaccine technology as well as our knowledge of the fish immune system is steadily improved...

  16. The effect of the unfolded protein response on the production of recombinant proteins in plants. (United States)

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree


    Recombinant proteins are currently produced through a wide variety of host systems, including yeast, E. coli, insect and mammalian cells. One of the most recent systems developed uses plant cells. While considerable advances have been made in the yields and fidelity of plant-made recombinant proteins, many of these gains have arisen from the development of recombinant factors. This includes elements such as highly effective promoters and untranslated regions, deconstructed viral vectors, silencing inhibitors, and improved DNA delivery techniques. However, unlike other host systems, much of the work on recombinant protein production in plants uses wild-type hosts that have not been modified to facilitate recombinant protein expression. As such, there are still endogenous mechanisms functioning to maintain the health of the cell. The result is that these pathways, such as the unfolded protein response, can actively work to reduce recombinant protein production to maintain the integrity of the cell. This review examines how issues arising from the unfolded protein response have been addressed in other systems, and how these methods may be transferable to plant systems. We further identify several areas of host plant biology that present attractive targets for modification to facilitate recombinant protein production.

  17. The effect of gamma radiation on recombination frequency in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Kim, J S; Rose, A M


    We have studied the effect of gamma radiation on recombination frequency for intervals across the cluster of linkage group I in Caenorhabditis elegans. Recombination frequency increased approximately twofold across the dpy-5-unc-13 interval after treatment with 2000 rads (1 rad = 10 mGy) of cobalt 60 gamma radiation. Several factors affecting the magnitude of the increase have been characterized. Recombination frequency increased more with higher doses of radiation. However, the increase in recombination frequency with increasing dose was accompanied by a reduced average number of progeny from radiation-treated individuals. The amount of the increase was affected by meiotic stage, age at the time of treatment (premeiotic), and radiation dose. The increase in recombination was detectable in the B brood and remained elevated for the remainder of egg production. X-chromosome nondisjunction was also increased by radiation treatment. A high frequency of the recombinant progeny produced with radiation treatment were sterile unlike their nonrecombinant siblings. When parameters affecting recombination frequency are held constant during treatment, chromosomal regions of high gene density on the meiotic map increased more (fourfold) than an adjacent region of low gene density (no increase). The greatest increase was across the dpy-14-unc-13 interval near the center of the gene cluster. These results may suggest that the physical length of DNA per map unit is greater within the cluster than outside.

  18. Mechanism of charge recombination in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin; organic Group Team


    In the recent popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and open circuit voltages, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this work we study the recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells and its roles on determining the device performance. Based on macroscopic device model simulations, the recombination resistances (Rrec) under different applied voltages are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism, and the current density-voltage (J - V) curves are simulated to describe the device performance under at the same time. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy (IS) extracted Rrec data, it is found that bimolecular recombination (BR) is the dominant recombination process in the whole applied voltage regime and can determine the open circuit voltage, while the trap-assisted SRH monomolecular recombination (MR) is only important if the trap density is high or the BR rate is significantly reduced. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can induce different patterns for the Rrec- V characteristics. Under the cases of increased band gap or decreased BR rate, the Rrec's are enhanced which leads to high open circuit voltages. We are grateful to the support from the state key laboratory of surface physics, Fudan University.

  19. 冻干重组人三突变型HIF-1α腺病毒生物学效应考察%Characterization of the biological activities of lyophilized recombinant adenovirus expressing the triple mutant of hypoxia inducible factor-lα

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶宇; 王月刚; 魏旋; 刘城; 陈冬冬; 吴平生


    To investigate the influence of lyophilization on the biological activity of recombinant adenovirus-mediated triple mutant of hypoxia inducible factor-la (Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803). Methods Ad-HIF-la-564/ 402/803 was amplified from HEK293A cells and purified by ultracentrifugation in CsCl gradient solutions. The infection efficiency was observed by X-gal staining. The lyophilized adenovirus was prepared under appropriate conditions. Before and after lyophilization, the effect of Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 on hMVEC proliferation was evaluated by MTS assay. The recombinant adenovirus was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis before and 1 day, 6 months and 12 months after lyophilization, and hMVECs infected with Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 at these time points were examined for HIF-la protein expression using Western blotting. Results No significant changes were observed in the effect of lyophilized Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 on hMVECs proliferation at the optimal multiplicity of infection of 100 pfu/cell (P>0.05). At the 4 time points, the recombinant adenovirus HIF-la showed no structural alterations or significant changes in the expression level of HIF-la protein in the transfected hMVECs (P>0.05). Conclusion Lyophilized Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 can maintain its biological activities for a long time.%目的 研究冻干对重组人三突变型HIF-1α病毒(Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803)生物学效应的影响.方法 将前期构建的Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803在HEK293A细胞中进行扩增,用氯化铯浓度梯度离心法进行腺病毒纯化,X-Gal染色法测定重组腺病毒转染效率,在适宜的条件下制成冻于剂.采用MTS试剂盒观察冻干前后Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803对hMvECs增殖的影响.分别在冻干前、冻干后1 d、6月、12月四个时间点提取病毒DNA,进行PCR及PCR产物测序鉴定重组人三突变型HIF-1α腺病毒基因;并在4个时间点以Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803转染hMVECs,提取蛋白进行western blot检测HIF-1α蛋白的表达.结果 X

  20. Analysis of ORF5 and Full-Length Genome Sequences of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates of Genotypes 1 and 2 Retrieved Worldwide Provides Evidence that Recombination Is a Common Phenomenon and May Produce Mosaic Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Valls, G. E.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Tello, M.


    Recombination is currently recognized as a factor for high genetic diversity, but the frequency of such recombination events and the genome segments involved are not well known. In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrom...

  1. Identifying the important HIV-1 recombination breakpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Archer

    Full Text Available Recombinant HIV-1 genomes contribute significantly to the diversity of variants within the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is assumed that some of these mosaic genomes may have novel properties that have led to their prevalence, particularly in the case of the circulating recombinant forms (CRFs. In regions of the HIV-1 genome where recombination has a tendency to convey a selective advantage to the virus, we predict that the distribution of breakpoints--the identifiable boundaries that delimit the mosaic structure--will deviate from the underlying null distribution. To test this hypothesis, we generate a probabilistic model of HIV-1 copy-choice recombination and compare the predicted breakpoint distribution to the distribution from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Across much of the HIV-1 genome, we find that the observed frequencies of inter-subtype recombination are predicted accurately by our model. This observation strongly indicates that in these regions a probabilistic model, dependent on local sequence identity, is sufficient to explain breakpoint locations. In regions where there is a significant over- (either side of the env gene or under- (short regions within gag, pol, and most of env representation of breakpoints, we infer natural selection to be influencing the recombination pattern. The paucity of recombination breakpoints within most of the envelope gene indicates that recombinants generated in this region are less likely to be successful. The breakpoints at a higher frequency than predicted by our model are approximately at either side of env, indicating increased selection for these recombinants as a consequence of this region, or at least part of it, having a tendency to be recombined as an entire unit. Our findings thus provide the first clear indication of the existence of a specific portion of the genome that deviates from a probabilistic null model for recombination. This suggests that, despite the wide diversity of recombinant forms seen in

  2. Identifying the Important HIV-1 Recombination Breakpoints (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Arts, Eric J.; Negroni, Matteo; Robertson, David L.


    Recombinant HIV-1 genomes contribute significantly to the diversity of variants within the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is assumed that some of these mosaic genomes may have novel properties that have led to their prevalence, particularly in the case of the circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In regions of the HIV-1 genome where recombination has a tendency to convey a selective advantage to the virus, we predict that the distribution of breakpoints—the identifiable boundaries that delimit the mosaic structure—will deviate from the underlying null distribution. To test this hypothesis, we generate a probabilistic model of HIV-1 copy-choice recombination and compare the predicted breakpoint distribution to the distribution from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Across much of the HIV-1 genome, we find that the observed frequencies of inter-subtype recombination are predicted accurately by our model. This observation strongly indicates that in these regions a probabilistic model, dependent on local sequence identity, is sufficient to explain breakpoint locations. In regions where there is a significant over- (either side of the env gene) or under- (short regions within gag, pol, and most of env) representation of breakpoints, we infer natural selection to be influencing the recombination pattern. The paucity of recombination breakpoints within most of the envelope gene indicates that recombinants generated in this region are less likely to be successful. The breakpoints at a higher frequency than predicted by our model are approximately at either side of env, indicating increased selection for these recombinants as a consequence of this region, or at least part of it, having a tendency to be recombined as an entire unit. Our findings thus provide the first clear indication of the existence of a specific portion of the genome that deviates from a probabilistic null model for recombination. This suggests that, despite the wide diversity of recombinant forms seen in the viral

  3. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses. (United States)

    Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri


    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these "viral" receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  4. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Ylä-Pelto


    Full Text Available Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these “viral” receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy.

  5. Consistency and stability of recombinant fermentations. (United States)

    Wiebe, M E; Builder, S E


    Production of proteins of consistent quality in heterologous, genetically-engineered expression systems is dependent upon identifying the manufacturing process parameters which have an impact on product structure, function, or purity, validating acceptable ranges for these variables, and performing the manufacturing process as specified. One of the factors which may affect product consistency is genetic instability of the primary product sequence, as well as instability of genes which code for proteins responsible for post-translational modification of the product. Approaches have been developed for mammalian expression systems to assure that product quality is not changing through mechanisms of genetic instability. Sensitive protein analytical methods, particularly peptide mapping, are used to evaluate product structure directly, and are more sensitive in detecting genetic instability than is direct genetic analysis by nucleotide sequencing of the recombinant gene or mRNA. These methods are being employed to demonstrate that the manufacturing process consistently yields a product of defined structure from cells cultured through the range of cell ages used in the manufacturing process and well beyond the maximum cell age defined for the process. The combination of well designed validation studies which demonstrate consistent product quality as a function of cell age, and rigorous quality control of every product lot by sensitive protein analytical methods provide the necessary assurance that product structure is not being altered through mechanisms of mutation and selection.

  6. Precise genome editing by homologous recombination. (United States)

    Hoshijima, K; Jurynec, M J; Grunwald, D J


    Simple and efficient methods are presented for creating precise modifications of the zebrafish genome. Edited alleles are generated by homologous recombination between the host genome and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) donor molecules, stimulated by the induction of double-strand breaks at targeted loci in the host genome. Because several kilobase-long tracts of sequence can be exchanged, multiple genome modifications can be generated simultaneously at a single locus. Methods are described for creating: (1) alleles with simple sequence changes or in-frame additions, (2) knockin/knockout alleles that express a reporter protein from an endogenous locus, and (3) conditional alleles in which exons are flanked by recombinogenic loxP sites. Significantly, our approach to genome editing allows the incorporation of a linked reporter gene into the donor sequences so that successfully edited alleles can be identified by virtue of expression of the reporter. Factors affecting the efficiency of genome editing are discussed, including the finding that dsDNA products of I-SceI meganuclease enzyme digestion are particularly effective as donor molecules for gene-editing events. Reagents and procedures are described for accomplishing efficient genome editing in the zebrafish.

  7. Optical determination of Shockley-Read-Hall and interface recombination currents in hybrid perovskites (United States)

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Masi, Sofia; Rizzo, Aurora; Colella, Silvia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni


    Metal-halide perovskite solar cells rival the best inorganic solar cells in power conversion efficiency, providing the outlook for efficient, cheap devices. In order for the technology to mature and approach the ideal Shockley-Queissier efficiency, experimental tools are needed to diagnose what processes limit performances, beyond simply measuring electrical characteristics often affected by parasitic effects and difficult to interpret. Here we study the microscopic origin of recombination currents causing photoconversion losses with an all-optical technique, measuring the electron-hole free energy as a function of the exciting light intensity. Our method allows assessing the ideality factor and breaks down the electron-hole recombination current into bulk defect and interface contributions, providing an estimate of the limit photoconversion efficiency, without any real charge current flowing through the device. We identify Shockley-Read-Hall recombination as the main decay process in insulated perovskite layers and quantify the additional performance degradation due to interface recombination in heterojunctions.

  8. In situ recovery of lycopene during biosynthesis with recombinant Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Yoon, Ko-Woon; Doo, Eun-Hee; Kim, Seon-Won; Park, Jin-Byung


    Lycopene is produced by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing genes to encode for the lycopene biosynthesis. However, the productivity of lycopene seemed to be limited by many factors including product toxicity. In the present study, we have investigated physiology of recombinant E. coli during biosynthesis and in situ recovery of lycopene based on an organic/aqueous two-phase system. Lycopene, the 40-carbon molecule product, was little extracted from recombinant E. coli cells to octane or decane phase. However, partial digestion of cell walls with lysozyme promoted extraction of lycopene into the organic phases. Engineering of an organic/aqueous two-phase system allowed recombinant E. coli cells to produce ca. 40% larger amount of lycopene compared to that in a conventional aqueous single-phase system. Optimization of the in situ product recovery process will lead to further increase of product concentration and productivity.

  9. Competition between replicative and translesion polymerases during homologous recombination repair in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Kane

    Full Text Available In metazoans, the mechanism by which DNA is synthesized during homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks is poorly understood. Specifically, the identities of the polymerase(s that carry out repair synthesis and how they are recruited to repair sites are unclear. Here, we have investigated the roles of several different polymerases during homologous recombination repair in Drosophila melanogaster. Using a gap repair assay, we found that homologous recombination is impaired in Drosophila lacking DNA polymerase zeta and, to a lesser extent, polymerase eta. In addition, the Pol32 protein, part of the polymerase delta complex, is needed for repair requiring extensive synthesis. Loss of Rev1, which interacts with multiple translesion polymerases, results in increased synthesis during gap repair. Together, our findings support a model in which translesion polymerases and the polymerase delta complex compete during homologous recombination repair. In addition, they establish Rev1 as a crucial factor that regulates the extent of repair synthesis.

  10. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcova


    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd, it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2 genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  11. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse. (United States)

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri


    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  12. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M;


    As growth hormone possesses anabolic properties that are active on protein metabolism, and thus of potential benefit to patients with chronic liver disease, we determined the metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) its specific binding proteins......, and liver function. Twenty consecutive patients with cirrhosis were randomized to recombinant human growth hormone (Norditropin, 4 I.U. twice daily) subcutaneously for 6 weeks (n = 10) or conventional medical treatment (n = 10). The serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in the recombinant...... human growth hormone group increased after 3 (p growth factor-I during the treatment period was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). The AUCIGF-I was significantly larger...

  13. Implications of recombination for HIV diversity. (United States)

    Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Galetto, Roman; Negroni, Matteo


    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population is characterised by extensive genetic variability that results from high error and recombination rates of the reverse transcription process, and from the fast turnover of virions in HIV-infected individuals. Among the viral variants encountered at the global scale, recombinant forms are extremely abundant. Some of these recombinants (known as circulating recombinant forms) become fixed and undergo rapid expansion in the population. The reasons underlying their epidemiological success remain at present poorly understood and constitute a fascinating area for future research to improve our understanding of immune escape, pathogenicity and transmission. Recombinant viruses are generated during reverse transcription as a consequence of template switching between the two genetically different genomic RNAs present in a heterozygous virus. Recombination can thereby generate shortcuts in evolution by producing mosaic reverse transcription products of parental genomes. Therefore, in a single infectious cycle multiple mutations that are positively selected can be combined or, conversely, negatively selected mutations can be removed. Recombination is therefore involved in different aspects of HIV evolution, adaptation to its host, and escape from antiviral treatments.

  14. Initiation of meiotic recombination in Ustilago maydis. (United States)

    Kojic, Milorad; Sutherland, Jeanette H; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K


    A central feature of meiosis is the pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes. Ustilago maydis, a biotrophic fungus that parasitizes maize, has long been utilized as an experimental system for studying recombination, but it has not been clear when in the life cycle meiotic recombination initiates. U. maydis forms dormant diploid teliospores as the end product of the infection process. Upon germination, teliospores complete meiosis to produce four haploid basidiospores. Here we asked whether the meiotic process begins when teliospores germinate or at an earlier stage in development. When teliospores homozygous for a cdc45 mutation temperature sensitive for DNA synthesis were germinated at the restrictive temperature, four nuclei became visible. This implies that teliospores have already undergone premeiotic DNA synthesis and suggests that meiotic recombination initiates at a stage of infection before teliospores mature. Determination of homologous recombination in plant tissue infected with U. maydis strains heteroallelic for the nar1 gene revealed that Nar(+) recombinants were produced at a stage before teliospore maturation. Teliospores obtained from a spo11Δ cross were still able to germinate but the process was highly disturbed and the meiotic products were imbalanced in chromosomal complement. These results show that in U. maydis, homologous recombination initiates during the infection process and that meiosis can proceed even in the absence of Spo11, but with loss of genomic integrity.

  15. Optimal Expression Condition of Recombinant RAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Hong; BI Hao; LIU Zhiguo; GUO Jianli; QU Shen


    In order to construct the expression recombinant of human receptor associated protein (RAP), optimize its expression condition and obtain the recombinant protein after expression with high efficiency, two prokaryotic expression vectors-pT7-PL and pET-28a(+) were used to construct the expression recombinant containing RAP cDNA, and the expression efficiency of two kinds of expression E. coli of BL21 strains was compared. The effect of different induction conditions on the expression of recombinant RAP was observed. After recombinant protein was purified with Ni+-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni+-NTA) affinity chromatogram, its binding ability with microphage was observed. The results showed that two recombinant plasmids both obtained high expression of RAP. The expression levels of RAP in plasmid pT7-PL-RAP in BL21 (DE3, plysS) strain were significantly higher than in BL21 (DE3) strain. The expression of pT7-PL-RAP in the presence of chloramphenicol was higher than in the absence of chloramphenicol, and most of the inducible expressed RAP was soluble. The RAP which was purified by Ni+-NTA resin could strongly bind with the RAW264.7 cells rich in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family receptors. It was concluded that the expression condition of recombinant RAP was optimized and functional RAP was obtained, which offered a good foundation for the further production of RAP as research tool.

  16. Cloning of buffalo growth differentiation factor 9 mature peptide cDNA sequence and preparations of the recombinant protein and polyclonal antibody%水牛生长分化因子9成熟肽基因克隆及重组蛋白质和多克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉鹏; 彭中友; 郭日红; 雷明明; 于建宁; 陈瑞爱; 施振旦


    为了获得水牛生长分化因子9(Growth differentiation factor 9,GDF9)重组蛋白质和抗GDF9抗体,根据GDF9基因编码区序列(GenBank:FJ529501.1)设计1对引物,用水牛基因组DNA为模板扩增水牛GDF9成熟肽基因序列,并与其他反刍动物的GDF9成熟肽基因序列进行同源性比较.将该序列克隆到表达载体pRSET-A的BamH Ⅰ和HindⅢ酶切位点之间以构建重组表达载体,并将重组表达载体转化大肠杆菌E.coli BL21(DE3),转化菌经IPTG诱导表达重组蛋白质.经Ni-NTA凝胶纯化后的重组蛋白质与矿物油佐剂混合免疫新西兰兔制备抗GDF9抗血清,使用ELISA方法检测血清抗体效价,从抗血清中进一步纯化GDF9抗体.结果显示,成功获得了水牛GDF9成熟肽基因序列,该序列在牛和其他反刍动物之间高度同源.成功构建了重组表达载体并转化大肠杆菌E.coli BL21 (DE3),E.coli BL21(DE3)经IPTG诱导后表达了分子量为1.96× 104的GDF9重组蛋白质,其最高表达量达到菌体蛋白质总量的30%左右.成功制备了抗GDF9抗血清,血清效价达到1∶51 200,抗血清经纯化后得到了高纯度的GDF9抗体.GDF9重组蛋白质和抗GDF9抗体有望应用于提高羊繁殖性能和促进动物胚胎发育的研究和技术开发.%In order to obtain recombinant GDF9 (growth differentiation factor 9 ) protein and anti-GDF9 antibody, a pair of primers designed according to the buffalo GDF9 gene mature peptide sequence ( GenBank; FJ529501. 1) was used to amplify the cDNA sequence of water buffalo GDF9 mature peptide with water buffalo ge-nomic DNA as the template, and the alignment was made between the cDNA sequence and this region of other ruminant. The cDNA sequence was cloned into the BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ sites of plasmid pRSET A to generate the expression vector pR-GDF9, which was further transformed into bacteria Escherichia. coli BL21 (DE3). The transformed bacteria were induced to produce a recombinant GDF9 protein by IPTG

  17. Trans-regulation of mouse meiotic recombination hotspots by Rcr1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Parvanov


    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is required for the orderly segregation of chromosomes during meiosis and for providing genetic diversity among offspring. Among mammals, as well as yeast and higher plants, recombination preferentially occurs at highly delimited chromosomal sites 1-2 kb long known as hotspots. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles various proteins play in carrying out the molecular events of the recombination process, relatively little is understood about the factors controlling the location and relative activity of mammalian recombination hotspots. To search for trans-acting factors controlling the positioning of recombination events, we compared the locations of crossovers arising in an 8-Mb segment of a 100-Mb region of mouse Chromosome 1 (Chr 1 when the longer region was heterozygous C57BL/6J (B6 x CAST/EiJ (CAST and the remainder of the genome was either similarly heterozygous or entirely homozygous B6. The lack of CAST alleles in the remainder of the genome resulted in profound changes in hotspot activity in both females and males. Recombination activity was lost at several hotspots; new, previously undetected hotspots appeared; and still other hotspots remained unaffected, indicating the presence of distant trans-acting gene(s whose CAST allele(s activate or suppress the activity of specific hotspots. Testing the activity of three activated hotspots in sperm samples from individual male progeny of two genetic crosses, we identified a single trans-acting regulator of hotspot activity, designated Rcr1, that is located in a 5.30-Mb interval (11.74-17.04 Mb on Chr 17. Using an Escherichia coli cloning assay to characterize the molecular products of recombination at two of these hotspots, we found that Rcr1 controls the appearance of both crossover and noncrossover gene conversion events, indicating that it likely controls the sites of the double-strand DNA breaks that initiate the recombination process.

  18. Homologous recombination in Leishmania enriettii. (United States)

    Tobin, J F; Laban, A; Wirth, D F


    We have used derivatives of the recently developed stable transfection vector pALT-Neo to formally demonstrate that Leishmania enriettii contains the enzymatic machinery necessary for homologous recombination. This observation has implications for gene regulation, gene amplification, genetic diversity, and the maintenance of tandemly repeated gene families in the Leishmania genome as well as in closely related organisms, including Trypanosoma brucei. Two plasmids containing nonoverlapping deletions of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, as well as the neomycin-resistance gene, were cotransfected into L. enriettii. Analysis of the DNA from these cells by Southern blotting and plasmid rescue revealed that a full-length or doubly deleted CAT gene could be reconstructed by homologous crossing-over and/or gene conversion between the two deletion plasmids. Additionally, parasites cotransfected with pALT-Neo and pALT-CAT-S, a plasmid containing two copies of the chimeric alpha-tubulin-CAT gene, resulted in G418-resistant parasites expressing high levels of CAT activity. The structure of the DNA within these cells, as shown by Southern blot analysis and the polymerase chain reaction, is that which would be expected from a homologous exchange event occurring between the two plasmids.

  19. Recombinant horseradish peroxidase: production and analytical applications. (United States)

    Grigorenko, V G; Andreeva, I P; Rubtsova, M Yu; Egorov, A M


    Horseradish peroxidase is a key enzyme in bio- and immunochemical analysis. New approaches in functional expression of the peroxidase gene in E. coli cells and the subsequent refolding of the resulting protein yield a recombinant enzyme that is comparable in its spectral and catalytic characteristics to the native plant peroxidase. Genetic engineering approaches allow production of recombinant peroxidase conjugates with both protein antigens and Fab antibody fragments. The present article reviews the use of recombinant horseradish peroxidase as the marker enzyme in ELISA procedures as well as in amperometric sensors based on direct electron transfer.

  20. Polynomial identities for ternary intermolecular recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Bremner, Murray R


    The operation of binary intermolecular recombination, originating in the theory of DNA computing, permits a natural generalization to n-ary operations which perform simultaneous recombination of n molecules. In the case n = 3, we use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities of degree <= 9 satisfied by this trilinear nonassociative operation. Our approach requires computing a basis for the nullspace of a large integer matrix, and for this we compare two methods: (i) the row canonical form, and (ii) the Hermite normal form with lattice basis reduction. In the conclusion, we formulate some conjectures for the general case of n-ary intermolecular recombination.

  1. Recombinant activated factor VII for uncontrolled bleeding postcardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Makram Habib


    Conclusion: In this analysis, rFVIIa succefully reduced the chest tube bleeding and blood products transfused during severe post cardiac surgical bleeding. However, safety of rFVIIa remains unclear. Prospective controlled trials are still needed to confirm the role of rFVIIa.

  2. Bicarbonate-dependent secretion and proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc. affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues.

  3. Detection of biomarkers using recombinant antibodies coupled to nanostructured platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Kierny


    Full Text Available The utility of biomarker detection in tomorrow's personalized health care field will mean early and accurate diagnosis of many types of human physiological conditions and diseases. In the search for biomarkers, recombinant affinity reagents can be generated to candidate proteins or post-translational modifications that differ qualitatively or quantitatively between normal and diseased tissues. The use of display technologies, such as phage-display, allows for manageable selection and optimization of affinity reagents for use in biomarker detection. Here we review the use of recombinant antibody fragments, such as scFvs and Fabs, which can be affinity-selected from phage-display libraries, to bind with both high specificity and affinity to biomarkers of cancer, such as Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2 and Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA. We discuss how these recombinant antibodies can be fabricated into nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and quantum dots, for the purpose of enhancing detection of biomarkers at low concentrations (pg/mL within complex mixtures such as serum or tissue extracts. Other sensing technologies, which take advantage of ‘Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering’ (gold nanoshells, frequency changes in piezoelectric crystals (quartz crystal microbalance, or electrical current generation and sensing during electrochemical reactions (electrochemical detection, can effectively provide multiplexed platforms for detection of cancer and injury biomarkers. Such devices may soon replace the traditional time consuming ELISAs and Western blots, and deliver rapid, point-of-care diagnostics to market.

  4. 纳米银敷料联合重组人表皮生长因子凝胶对烧伤创面的安全性和有效性研究%Safety and Effectiveness of Nano Silver Dressing Combined with Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Gel on Patients with DeepⅡ Degree Burn Wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李烨; 焦建强; 黄喆; 胡伟光


    Objective: To investigate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) the curative effect and safety of gel combined with nano silver dressing in the treatment of deepⅡ degree burn wounds.Methods:48 cases of deepⅡ degree burn were selected fromJan 2011 to Jun 2013 in our hospital, two wounds were randomly selected the same depth as control group,were treated with single nanometer silver dressing (control group) the epidermis and nano silver dressing combined with recombinant human growth factor gel (treatment group) treatment,48 cases in each group.The two groups were observed and the wound healing time,adverse reactions and healing quality.Results:In treatment group,the wound healing time was (18.2±3.1) days,signiifcantly shorter than the control group (27.1±5) days,P<0.05;the treatment group wound edge inlfammation reaction degree lower than that of the control group,the wound bacteria culture colony count less than that in the control group,all healed after six months of follow-up,the rate of healing (100%) higher than that of the control group (85%).Conclusion:rhEGF gel with nanometer silver dressing in treating deep second degree burn wounds can obviously promote healing of deepⅡ degree burn wounds, shorten the healing time, reduce inlfammation, improve the healing rate.%目的:探讨重组人表皮生长因子凝胶联合纳米银敷料对深Ⅱ度烧伤创面的疗效及安全性.方法:选择2011年1月~2013年6月我院收治的48例深Ⅱ度烧伤患者,随机选择相同深度的两个创面作为自身对照,分别采用单纯纳米银敷料(对照组)和纳米银敷料联合重组人表皮生长因子凝胶(治疗组)治疗,每组48例.观察两组病例创面愈合时间、不良反应及愈合质量.结果:治疗组创面愈合时间为(18.2±3.1)天,明显短于对照组(27.1±5.0)天,P<0.05;治疗组创面边缘炎症反应程度低于对照组,创面细菌培养菌落计数少于对照组,随访

  5. 重组表皮生长因子联合莫匹罗星在鼓膜修补术中的临床应用效果%Clinical application effect of recombinant endothelial growth factor com-bined with mupirocin in myringoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁祖均; 刘小飞


    Objective To explore the clinical application effect of recombinant epidermal growth factor (REGF) com-bined with mupirocin in myringoplasty. Methods 60 patients accepted myringoplasty in our hospital from January to December in 2013 were selected as research objects.They were evenly divided into two groups in random.In control group, patients were treated by external application of gelatin sponge alone,while external application of gelatin sponge covered with REGF combined with mupirocin was adopted to experimental group.The therapeutic effect and complica-tions between two groups was compared respectively. Results The cure rate in experimental group was 93.33%,while in control group,the rate was 86.67%,with no statistical differenc (P>0.05).In experimental group,the incidence of compli-cation was 3.3%,while in control group,the rate was 20%,with statistical difference (P<0.05).In addition,there were sta-tistical differences in postoperative hearing improvement and healing time of tympanic membrane (P<0.05). Conclusion Recombinant endothelial growth factor combined with mupirocin in myringoplasty can effectively promote wound heal-ing and reduce complications and improve the surgical successful rate.%目的:探讨重组表皮生长因子联合莫匹罗星在鼓膜修补术中的临床应用效果。方法选择2013年1~12月在本院接受鼓膜修补术治疗的60例患者为研究对象,随机分为2组,各30例,对照组患者行明胶海绵单纯外贴手术,试验组患者行涂有重组表皮生长因子+莫匹罗星混合物的明胶海绵外贴手术,比较两组治疗效果及并发症情况。结果试验组治愈率为93.33%,对照组治愈率为86.67%,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P跃0.05);试验组并发症发生率为3.3%,低于对照组的20%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组术后听力改善及鼓膜愈合时间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论鼓膜修补术中应用重组表皮生长因

  6. Taxing the rich: recombinations and bubble growth during reionization (United States)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng


    Reionization is inhomogeneous for two reasons: the clumpiness of the intergalactic medium (IGM), and clustering of the discrete ionizing sources. While numerical simulations can in principle take both into account, they are at present limited by small box sizes. On the other hand, analytic models have only examined the limiting cases of a clumpy IGM (with uniform ionizing emissivity) and clustered sources (embedded in a uniform IGM). Here, we present the first analytic model that includes both factors. At first, recombinations can be ignored and ionized bubbles grow primarily through major mergers, because at any given moment the bubbles have a well-defined characteristic size. As a result, reionization resembles `punctuated equilibrium,' with a series of well-separated sharp jumps in the ionizing background. These features are local effects and do not reflect similar jumps in the global ionized fraction. We then combine our bubble model with a simple description of recombinations in the IGM. We show that the bubbles grow until recombinations balance ionizations, when their expansion abruptly halts. If the IGM density structure is similar to that at moderate redshifts, this limits the bubble radii to ~20 comoving Mpc; however, if the IGM is significantly clumpier at higher redshifts (because of minihalo formation, for example), the limit could be much smaller. Once a bubble reaches saturation, that region of the Universe has for all intents and purposes entered the `post-overlap' stage. Because different HII regions saturate over a finite time interval, the overlap epoch actually has a finite width. Our model also predicts a mean recombination rate several times larger than expected for a uniformly illuminated IGM. This picture naturally explains the substantial large-scale variation in Lyman-series opacity along the lines of sight to the known z > 6 quasars. More quasar spectra will shed light on the transition between the `bubble-dominated' topology

  7. Radical recombination in a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyuan


    Full Text Available To reveal the radical recombination process in the scramjet nozzle flow and study the effects of various factors of the recombination, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO schemes are applied to solve the decoupled two-dimensional Euler equations with chemical reactions to simulate the hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow. The accuracy of the numerical method is verified with the measurements obtained by a shock tunnel experiment. The overall model length is nearly 0.5 m, with inlet static temperatures ranging from 2000 K to 3000 K, inlet static pressures ranging from 75 kPa to 175 kPa, and inlet Mach numbers of 2.0 ± 0.4 are involved. The fraction Damkohler number is defined as functions of static temperature and pressure to analyze the radical recombination progresses. Preliminary results indicate that the energy releasing process depends on different chemical reaction processes and species group contributions. In hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow, reactions with H have the greatest contribution during the chemical equilibrium shift. The contrast and analysis of the simulation results show that the radical recombination processes influenced by inflow conditions and nozzle scales are consistent with Damkohler numbers and potential dissociation energy release. The increase of inlet static temperature improves both of them, thus making the chemical non-equilibrium effects on the nozzle performance more significant. While the increase of inlet static pressure improves the former one and reduces the latter, it exerts little influence on the chemical non-equilibrium effects.

  8. The observation of therapertic effect of naevus fuscocaeruleus zygomaticus treated by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser associated with recombinant human epidermal growth factor%Q开关Nd: YAG激光联合重组人表皮生长因子治疗颧部褐青色痣疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波; 李大铁; 安丽莎; 文洋; 唐正喜


    目的:评价Q开关Nd: YAG激光联合重组人表皮生长因子(recombinant human epidermal growth factor, rhEGF)在治疗颧部褐青色痣(naevus fuscocaeruleus zygomaticus NFZ)过程中对减轻色素沉着,缩短疗程的作用.方法:对2004年12月~2007年12月采用Q开关Nd: YAG激光治愈的52例颧部褐青色痣患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,治疗组27例(治疗后外涂重组人表皮生长因子),对照组25例(治疗后待自然愈合),比较其治疗间隔时间、疗程的长短.结果:治疗组与对照组平均治疗间隔时间分别为74.59天及105.24天,平均疗程分别为453.37天及651.28天,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:Q开关Nd: YAG激光联合重组人表皮生长因子治疗颧部褐青色痣色素沉着轻、疗程较短,值得临床推广.

  9. Recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for febrile neutropenia during cancer therapy: the first 20 years%重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子在肿瘤化疗中应用20年回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫红楠; 石远凯; 孙燕


    中性粒细胞减少一直被认为是骨髓抑制性化疗最严重的血液学毒性,同时也是实体瘤和血液恶性肿瘤治疗中常见的剂量限制性毒性.重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子(recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor,rhG-CSF)主要用于抗肿瘤治疗后出现中性粒细胞减少,对癌症患者来说是重要的支持治疗.rhG-CSF的应用降低了发热性中性粒细胞减少的发生率、持续时间和严重程度,从而保证及时、足量完成抗肿瘤治疗.rhG-CSF1993年在中国上市,至今已经20年,目前临床上常用的rhG-CSF主要分为长效和短效两种制剂.本文从rhG-CSF的种类和作用机制,对化疗后出现FN的治疗和预防作用,国内外的应用经验以及相关的药物不良反应等方面,对rhG-CSF临床应用20年进行系统回顾.

  10. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  12. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. The homologous recombination system of Ustilago maydis. (United States)

    Holloman, William K; Schirawski, Jan; Holliday, Robin


    Homologous recombination is a high fidelity, template-dependent process that is used in repair of damaged DNA, recovery of broken replication forks, and disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. Much of what is known about recombination genes and mechanisms comes from studies on baker's yeast. Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete fungus, is distant evolutionarily from baker's yeast and so offers the possibility of gaining insight into recombination from an alternative perspective. Here we have surveyed the genome of U. maydis to determine the composition of its homologous recombination system. Compared to baker's yeast, there are fundamental differences in the function as well as in the repertoire of dedicated components. These include the use of a BRCA2 homolog and its modifier Dss1 rather than Rad52 as a mediator of Rad51, the presence of only a single Rad51 paralog, and the absence of Dmc1 and auxiliary meiotic proteins.

  14. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold? (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena


    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  15. Recombination Effects on Supernovae Light-Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Sari, Re'em


    Supernovae of type IIP are marked by the long plateau seen in their optical light curves. The plateau is believed to be the result of a recombination wave that propagates through the outflowing massive hydrogen envelope. Here, we analytically investigate the transition from a fully ionized envelope to a partially recombined one and its effects on the SN light curve. The motivation is to establish the underlying processes which dominate the evolution at late times when recombination takes place in the envelope, yet early enough so that $^{56}$Ni decay is a negligible source of energy. We assume a simple, yet adequate, hydrodynamic profile of the envelope and study the mechanisms which dominate the energy emission and the observed temperature. We consider the diffusion of photons through the envelope while analyzing the ionization fraction and the coupling between radiation and gas. We find that once recombination starts, the observed temperature decreases slowly in time. However, in a typical red supergiant (R...

  16. Genetic Analyses of Meiotic Recombination in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and recombination is a critical step required for normal meiosis. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate recombination ie important for medical, agricultural and ecological reasons. Readily available molecular and cytological tools make Arabidopsis an excellent system to study meiosis. Here we review recent developments in molecular genetic analyses on meiotic recombination. These Include studies on plant homologs of yeast and animal genes, as well as novel genes that were first identified in plants. The characterizations of these genes have demonstrated essential functions from the initiation of recombination by double-strand breaks to repair of such breaks, from the formation of double-Holliday junctions to possible resolution of these junctions, both of which are critical for crossover formation. The recent advances have ushered a new era in plant meiosis, in which the combination of genetics, genomics, and molecular cytology can uncover important gene functions.

  17. The stability of recombined milk fat globules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, J.P.


    The stability of the fat globules in recombined milk products against creaming, flocculation, clustering, partial coalescence and real coalescence, with the emphasis on partial coalescence, was studied. (partial) Coalescence was characterized by determining changes in globule size distribution and f

  18. Complexity through Recombination: From Chemistry to Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Díaz Arenas


    Full Text Available Recombination is a common event in nature, with examples in physics, chemistry, and biology. This process is characterized by the spontaneous reorganization of structural units to form new entities. Upon reorganization, the complexity of the overall system can change. In particular the components of the system can now experience a new response to externally applied selection criteria, such that the evolutionary trajectory of the system is altered. In this work we explore the link between chemical and biological forms of recombination. We estimate how the net system complexity changes, through analysis of RNA-RNA recombination and by mathematical modeling. Our results underscore the importance of recombination in the origins of life on the Earth and its subsequent evolutionary divergence.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖建明; 林建华; 林文平; 吴朝阳


    目的 构建猪TGF-β1重组慢病毒表达载体,并转染BMSCs,为构建组织工程骨软骨提供TGF-β;修饰的BMSCs,作为持续、高效的种子细胞.方法 将已获取的目的基因TGF-β1cDNA包装至慢病毒载体中,通过PCR及基因测序对阳性克隆进行鉴定,并测定病毒滴度.取2月龄巴马香猪(体重约15 kg)骨髓制备BMSCs,取第2~3代用于实验.用TGF-β1重组慢病毒载体以感染复数(multiplicity of infection,MOI)为10、50、70、100、150分别转染BMSCs,通过激光共聚焦显微镜观察,并以Western blot检测不同MOI值的转染效果,确定最佳MOI值.用TGF-β1重组慢病毒载体以最佳MOI值感染BMSCs作为实验组,以空载体转染的BMSCs(空载体组)及未转染的BMSCs(空白组)作为对照,通过RT-PCR、免疫细胞化学染色、ELISA等方法检测TGF-β1基因及蛋白在BMSCs中的表达情况,并检测Ⅱ型胶原表达情况.结果 经PCR及基因测序鉴定TGF-β1重组慢病毒表达载体构建成功,并成功转染BMSCs,激光共聚焦显微镜下可观察到强绿色荧光;Westem blot示MOI为70时转染效果最佳;RT-PCR示实验组TGF-β1基因的表达量明显高于空载体组及空白组,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05);免疫细胞化学染色示实验组TGF-β1蛋白及Ⅱ型胶原呈阳性表达,而空载体组及空白组呈弱阳性或阴性表达;ELISA示实验组TGF-β1蛋白至转染后21 d仍有较高表达.结论 TGF-β1重组慢病毒表达载体可成功转染BMSCs,TGF-β1蛋白可长期、稳定表达,促使BMSCs向成软骨细胞方向分化.%Objective To construct recombinant lentiviral expression vectors of porcine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) gene and transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) so as to provide TGF-P, gene-modified BMSCs for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Methods The TGF-P, cDNA was extracted and packed into lentiviral vector, and positive clones were identified by PCR and gene sequencing, then

  20. Environment control to improve recombinant protein yields in plants based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi eFujiuchi


    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: 1 recombinant protein content per unit biomass; and 2 recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on those parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and post-inoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Pre-inoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, post-inoculation environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity and humidity have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the post-inoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain

  1. Recombinant bispecific antibodies for cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Bispecific antibodies can serve as mediators to retarget effector mechanisms to disease-associated sites. Studies over the past two decades have revealed the potentials but also the limitations of conventional bispecific antibodies. The development of recombinant antibody formats has opened up the possibility of generating bispecific molecules with improved properties. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of recombinant bispecific antibodies and discusses further requirements for clinical development.

  2. Hadron Correlations from Recombination and Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fries, R J


    We review the formalism of quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. Evidence in favor of the quark recombination model is outlined. Recent work on parton correlations, leading to detectable correlations between hadrons, is discussed. Hot spots from completely quenched jets are a likely source of such correlations which appear to be jet-like. It will be discussed how such a picture compares with measurement of associated hadron yields at RHIC.

  3. Rapid host adaptation by extensive recombination



    Experimental investigations into virus recombination can provide valuable insights into the biochemical mechanisms and the evolutionary value of this fundamental biological process. Here, we describe an experimental scheme for studying recombination that should be applicable to any recombinogenic viruses amenable to the production of synthetic infectious genomes. Our approach is based on differences in fitness that generally exist between synthetic chimaeric genomes and the wild-type viruses ...

  4. Correlation of material properties and recombination losses in Al sub 0. 2 Ga sub 0. 8 As solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, G.B.; Stellwag, T.B.; Keshavarzi, A.; Venkatesan, S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lundstrom, M.S.; Pierret, R.F. (Purdue Univ., School of Electrical Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (USA)); Tobin, S.P.; Vernon, S.M. (Spire Corporation, Bedford, MA (USA))


    To optimize the efficiency of AlGaAs solar cells intended for tandem cell applications, a detailed understanding of recombination losses and their relation to material quality and device design is essential. In this paper, recombination losses in Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As are characterized and the implications for high-efficiency cells are examined. Bulk and perimeter recombination in space-charge regions is characterized by dark I-V analysis and recombination losses in quasi-neutral regions are studied by internal quantum efficiency measurements. Deep-level transient spectroscopy studies are then used to correlate the measured recombination losses to material quality. Finally, the estimated material parameters are used to assess the efficiency-limiting factors in present-day Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As solar cells. (orig.).

  5. Comparison of device models for organic solar cells: Band-to-band vs. tail states recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldera, Marcos; Taretto, Kurt [Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires, Neuquen (Argentina); Kirchartz, Thomas [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, South Kensington (United Kingdom)


    The efficiency-limiting recombination mechanism in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is a current topic of investigation and debate in organic photovoltaics. In this work, we simulate state-of-the-art BHJ solar cells using two different models. The first model takes into account band-to-band recombination and field dependent carrier generation. The second model assumes a Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination mechanism via tail states and field independent carrier generation. Additionally, we include in both cases optical modelling and, thus, position-dependent exciton generation and non-ideal exciton collection. We explore both recombination mechanisms by fitting light and dark current-voltage (JV) characteristics of BHJ cells of five materials: P3HT, MDMO-PPV, MEH-PPV, PCDTBT and PF10TBT, all blended with fullerene derivatives. We show that although main device parameters such as short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor and ideality factor are accurately reproduced by both Langevin and tail recombination, only tail recombination reproduces also the ideality factor of dark characteristics accurately. Nevertheless, the model with SRH recombination via tail states needs the inclusion of external circuitry to account for the heavy shunt present in all the blends, except P3HT:PCBM, when illuminated. Finally, we propose a means to find analytical expressions for the short circuit current by assuming a linear relation between the recombination rate and the concentration of free minority carriers. The model reproduces experimental data of P3HT cells at various thickness values using realistic parameters for this material. Dark JV measurement (circles) of a PCDTBT:PC{sub 70}BM solar cell (Park et al., Nature Photon. 3, 297 (2009) [1]), the fit with the model including recombination via tail states (solid line) and the fit with the model reported by (Koster et al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 085205 (2005) [2]) that includes bimolecular band-to-band recombination

  6. High resolution resonant recombination measurements using evaporative cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilmann, C; Lopez-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Mokler, P H; Ullrich, J, E-mail: christian.beilmann@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    We report on a method significantly improving the energy resolution of dielectronic recombination (DR) measurements in electron beam ion traps (EBITs). The line width of DR resonances can be reduced to values distinctly smaller than the corresponding space charge width of the uncompensated electron beam. The experimental technique based on forced evaporative cooling is presented together with test measurements demonstrating its high efficiency. The principle for resolution improvement is elucidated and the limiting factors are discussed. This method opens access to high resolution DR measurements at high ion-electron collision energies required for innermost shell DR in highly charged ions (HCI).

  7. Dissociation of recombinant prion autocatalysis from infectivity. (United States)

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Supattapone, Surachai


    Within the mammalian prion field, the existence of recombinant prion protein (PrP) conformers with self-replicating (ie. autocatalytic) activity in vitro but little to no infectious activity in vivo challenges a key prediction of the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication--that autocatalytic PrP conformers should be infectious. To understand this dissociation of autocatalysis from infectivity, we recently performed a structural and functional comparison between a highly infectious and non-infectious pair of autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same initial prion strain. (1) We identified restricted, C-terminal structural differences between these 2 conformers and provided evidence that these relatively subtle differences prevent the non-infectious conformer from templating the conversion of native PrP(C) substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. (1) In this article we discuss a model, consistent with these findings, in which recombinant PrP, lacking post-translational modifications and associated folding constraints, is capable of adopting a wide variety of autocatalytic conformations. Only a subset of these recombinant conformers can be adopted by post-translationally modified native PrP(C), and this subset represents the recombinant conformers with high specific infectivity. We examine this model's implications for the generation of highly infectious recombinant prions and the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication.

  8. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera. (United States)

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A


    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  9. Construction of recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with bglS gene insertion into PEP4 locus by homologous recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang ZHANG; Qi-he CHEN; Ming-liang FU; Jin-ling WANG; Hong-bo ZHANG; Guo-qing HE


    The bglS gene encoding endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and sequenced in this study. The bglS expression cassette, including PGK1 promoter, bglS gene fused to the signal sequence of the yeast mating pheromone α-factor (MFals), and ADH1 terminator with G418-resistance as the selected marker, was constructed. Then one of the PEP4 allele of Saccharomyces cerevisiae WZ65 strain was replaced by bglS expression cassette using chromosomal integration of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated homologous recombination, and the bglS gene was expressed simultaneously. The recombinant strain S. cerevisiae (SC-βG) was preliminarily screened by the clearing hydrolysis zone formed after the barley β-glucan was hydrolyzed in the plate and no proteinase A (PrA) activity was measured in fermenting liquor. The results of PCR analysis ofgenome DNA showed that one of the PEP4 allele had been replaced and bglS gene had been inserted into the locus of PEP4 gene in recombinant strains. Different endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase assay methods showed that the recombinant strain SC-βG had high endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase expression level with the maximum of 69.3 U/(h-ml) after 60 h of incubation. Meanwhile, the Congo Red method was suitable for the determination of endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase activity during the actual brewing process. The current research implies that the constructed yeast strain could be utilized to improve the industrial brewing property of beer.

  10. 以钙磷骨水泥为载体重组人血管内皮细胞生长因子与重组人骨形态发生蛋白-2复合体对异体脱蛋白骨修复骨关节缺损的促进效应%Calcium phosphate cement attaching with recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 promotes deproteinized osteoarticular allograft to repair osteoarticular defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿向阳; 蒋电明; 安洪


    8、12及16周A组血管内皮细胞生长因子和BMP-2的面积积分吸光度值明显高于B、C组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).③墨汁灌注微血管分析结果显示A组术后各期移植物内新生血管较多,部分趋向成熟,与B、C组比较均有统计学意义(P<0.01).④术后4周时各组手术侧膝关节较对侧血流量均增高,但A组显著增高,8周时进一步增高,12周时达到顶峰,16周时略有下降,但仍较B、C组高,差异有显著性意义(P<0.01).⑤A组三点抗弯曲应力,强于B、C组(P<0.01).结论:重组脱蛋白骨关节材料具有较强的再血管化和成骨能力,可早期与受体达到骨愈合修复骨关节缺损并最终成为自身组织.%BACKGROUND: Deproteinized bone has three diamensions frame profitting bone cells to adhere to, new capillaries and interstitial cells to enter, osteoblasts to differentiate and extracellular matrix to synthesize. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a new in-ceramic bone cement that can degradate, which has plasticity, no heat production, invariably mechanics intension and porosity.OBJECTIVE: To explore the ability of CPC attaching with human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in promoting deproteinized osteoarticular allograft to repair osteoarticular defect.DESIGN: Randomly control observation.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University.MATERIALS: A total of 42 adult hybridization dogs of both genders and weighing (10±0.5) kg were provided by Animal Center of Chongqing Medical University. RhVEGF was provided by Beijing Boaosen Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; rhBMP-2 by Guangzhou Dahui Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; CPC by Shanghai Ruibang Biotechnology Co., Ltd.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Orthopaedics (Municipal Laboratory), Clinical College,Chongqing Medical University from March to September 2006. A total of 36

  11. No Evidence that Infection Alters Global Recombination Rate in House Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Dumont

    Full Text Available Recombination rate is a complex trait, with genetic and environmental factors shaping observed patterns of variation. Although recent studies have begun to unravel the genetic basis of recombination rate differences between organisms, less attention has focused on the environmental determinants of crossover rates. Here, we test the effect of one ubiquitous environmental pressure-bacterial infection-on global recombination frequency in mammals. We applied MLH1 mapping to assay global crossover rates in male mice infected with the pathogenic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, and uninfected control animals. Despite ample statistical power to identify biologically relevant differences between infected and uninfected animals, we find no evidence for a global recombination rate response to bacterial infection. Moreover, broad-scale patterns of crossover distribution, including the number of achiasmate bivalents, are not affected by infection status. Although pathogen exposure can plastically increase recombination in some species, our findings suggest that recombination rates in house mice may be resilient to at least some forms of infection stress. This negative result motivates future experiments with alternative house mouse pathogens to evaluate the generality of this conclusion.

  12. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The cryopreservation systems of recombinant bacterial cells based on glycerol were studied in these experiments according to the hypothesis that glycerol is one of the widely used cryoprotective additives in microbiology and a multitude of factors affecting the effectiveness of cryopreservation in microorganisms; the best cryoprotective additive and the optimum concentration for a particular microorganism has to be determined empirically. The results obtained in this experiment are showing that the freezing procedure at -80°C in LB 40% glycerol is the optimum system for the cryopreservation of E. coli DH5α recombinant cells. The use of SOC medium supplemented with 10g/l NaCl provided more proper conditions of culture for the defrosted E. coli DH5α recombinant cells, reducing the osmotic stress during the recovery after thawing. The utilization of this optimum cryopreservation system offer the possibility of preserving the large volume of work and time involved by the recombinant DNA technology procedures applied for obtaining a recombinant strain, avoiding the storage of recombinant strains by costly and time consuming microbiology culturing techniques.

  14. Expression and functional study of human recombinant chemokine-like factor I in Drosophila S2 cells%人重组趋化素样因子1在果蝇S2细胞中的表达和功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖妹; 李婷; 娄雅欣; 韩文玲; 马大龙


    Objective To express human chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) in Drosophila S2 cells and study its function. Methods The pMT/V5-His-CKLF1 expression plasmid was constructed and transfected into Drosophila S2 cells. The positive clones were selected through PCR and RT-PCR. The culture medium was analyzed by Western blot with anti-CKLF1 polyclonal antibody. Chemotaxis and MTT assays on human peripheral blood and C2C12 cells, respectively, were then carried out with the medium. Results CKLF1 was transcribed efficiently in S2 cells. The expressed CKLF1 protein could be detected in the culture supernatant by Western blot, which showed weak chemotactic activity on both human peripheral blood neutrophils and lymphocytes as well as enhancing effect on the proliferation of C2C12 cells. Conclusion CKLF1 was expressed successfully in Drosophila S2 cells and secreted into the culture medium. The recombinant CKLF1 expressed in Drosophila cells can chemoattract leucocytes and promote the proliferation of C2C12 cells.%目的 在果蝇S2细胞中表达人趋化素样因子1(chemokine-like factor 1,CKLF1),并对其分泌形式进行功能研究.方法 构建pMT/V5-His-CKLF1表达质粒,转染S2细胞,筛选并鉴定阳性细胞克隆,用兔抗人CKLF1多肽抗体对其培养上清进行Western blot检测,并分析其趋化活性和促C2C12细胞增殖活性.结果 RT-PCR证明CKLF1在S2细胞中高效转录;通过Western blot在细胞培养上清中可检测到表达的重组CKLF1蛋白;其对人外周血中性粒细胞和淋巴细胞有较弱的趋化活性,对C2C12细胞具有增殖促进作用.结论 在果蝇S2细胞中成功表达了人重组CKLF1,并证实其存在分泌形式且具有趋化活性和促C2C12细胞增殖活性.

  15. Efficacy of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Plus Sodium Hyaluronate in The Treatment Of Xerophthalmia After Cataract Phacoemulsification%重组hEGF凝胶联合玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗白内障超声乳化术后干眼症的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄薇; 伊琼


    [Objective] To explore the efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) plus sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of xerophthalmia after cataract phacoemulsification .[Methods]From January 2012 to May 2014 ,a total of 200 patients with xerophthalmia after cataract phacoemulsification were recruited and divided into study (recombinant hEGF+ sodium hyaluronate) and control (sodium hyaluronate) groups ( n=100 each) .The subjective symptom score ,break up time of tear film (BUT) ,Schirmer I test (Sit) ,corneal fluorescein score (FL) and values of upper and lower river of tears were compared between two groups .[Results] The subjective symptom scores of all patients at 1d ,1w and 1m after surgery had statistical differences with those before surgery ( P<0 .05) .The subjective symptom scores at 1d ,1w ,1m and 3 m af‐ter surgery had inter‐group statistical differences ( P<0 .05) .BUT ,SIt and FL at 1d ,1w and 1m after sur‐gery had statistical differences with those before surgery ( P <0 .05) .And BUT ,SIt and FL at 1d ,1w ,1m and 3 m after surgery had inter‐group statistical differences ( P <0 .05) .And U/LTM H ,U/LTMD and U/LMA for all patients at 1d ,1w and 1m after surgery had statistical difference with those before surgery ( P<0 .05) .U/LTMH ,U/LTMD and U/LMA at 1d ,1w ,1m and 3 m after surgery had inter‐group statistical differences ( P < 0 .05 ) .[Conclusion] Recombinant hEGF plus sodium hyaluronate can effectively alleviate clinical symptoms and tear film stability and promote patient recovery in patients with xerophthalmia after cata‐ract phacoemulsification .%【目的】探讨重组人表皮生长因子(human epidermal grow th factor ,hEGF)凝胶联合玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗白内障超声乳化术后干眼症的临床疗效。【方法】选取2012年1月至2014年6月于本院行白内障超声乳化手术并在术后发生干眼的200例(277眼)患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组:其中观察组100例(

  16. Recombination analysis based on the complete genome of bocavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shengxia


    Full Text Available Abstract Bocavirus include bovine parvovirus, minute virus of canine, porcine bocavirus, gorilla bocavirus, and Human bocaviruses 1-4 (HBoVs. Although recent reports showed that recombination happened in bocavirus, no systematical study investigated the recombination of bocavirus. The present study performed the phylogenetic and recombination analysis of bocavirus over the complete genomes available in GenBank. Results confirmed that recombination existed among bocavirus, including the likely inter-genotype recombination between HBoV1 and HBoV4, and intra-genotype recombination among HBoV2 variants. Moreover, it is the first report revealing the recombination that occurred between minute viruses of canine.

  17. Interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity in wild-type and Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM)-deficient mammalian cells. (United States)

    LaRocque, Jeannine R; Stark, Jeremy M; Oh, Jin; Bojilova, Ekaterina; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Takeda, Junji; Jasin, Maria


    Genomic integrity often is compromised in tumor cells, as illustrated by genetic alterations leading to loss of heterozygosity (LOH). One mechanism of LOH is mitotic crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes, potentially initiated by a double-strand break (DSB). To examine LOH associated with DSB-induced interhomolog recombination, we analyzed recombination events using a reporter in mouse embryonic stem cells derived from F1 hybrid embryos. In this study, we were able to identify LOH events although they occur only rarely in wild-type cells (≤2.5%). The low frequency of LOH during interhomolog recombination suggests that crossing over is rare in wild-type cells. Candidate factors that may suppress crossovers include the RecQ helicase deficient in Bloom syndrome cells (BLM), which is part of a complex that dissolves recombination intermediates. We analyzed interhomolog recombination in BLM-deficient cells and found that, although interhomolog recombination is slightly decreased in the absence of BLM, LOH is increased by fivefold or more, implying significantly increased interhomolog crossing over. These events frequently are associated with a second homologous recombination event, which may be related to the mitotic bivalent structure and/or the cell-cycle stage at which the initiating DSB occurs.

  18. 重组人胰岛素样生长因子-1大肠杆菌高密度发酵研究%High Cell Density Fermentation of Recombinant Escherichia coli in Producing Human Insulin-like Growth Factor-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈理; 杨渐; 俞昌喜


    Objective To establish the expression process of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor一1 by high cell density fermentation of Escherichia coli.Method Taking engineering strain DH5α/pET32a(IGF一1)as object,the fermentation factors such as oxygen,pH and temperature were opti-mized through batch fermentation, then fed-batch fermentations were carried out using glycerol as carbon source so as to discuss the effects on fermentation by different feeding modes . Results The optimum conditions of recombined hIGF-1 expression in the engineering strain in high cell density fermentation were found to be : after activation and initial cultivation, the dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 20o% , the temperature was adjusted to 30 ℃ ,and the culture pH was kept at 7.2 from induction, then pH- stat feedback feeding method was used for fed-batch fermentation. After 12 h, cell density OD600 of the engineering bacterial reached 44.53 with the dry cell weight of 17.49 g/L, the average production intensity was about 1.458 g·L-1·h-1, and the relative expression level of hIGF-1 was about 32.5% . Conclusion The study provides a basis for large-scale production of hIGF-1 in industrial fermentation.%目的 建立重组人胰岛素样生长因子-1(hIGF-1)在大肠杆菌高密度发酵中表达的工艺.方法 以工程菌DH5α/pET32a(IGF-1)为对象,通过分批发酵培养优化溶解氧浓度、pH及温度等发酵条件,在此基础上以甘油为限制性基质进行分批补料发酵,考察不同补料方式对发酵的影响.结果 适合重组hIGF-1在工程菌高密度发酵中表达的条件:在菌株活化与初始培养后,诱导时控制发酵系统溶解氧浓度为20%,温度为30 ℃,pH为7.2并以恒定pH反馈补料,发酵12 h菌体密度OD600达44.53,得菌体干质量17.49 g/L,平均生产强度为1.458 g·L-1·h-1,其中重组hIGF-1的相对表达量为32.5%.结论 研究为工业化生产hIGF-1奠定了基础.

  19. Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer. (United States)

    Ramel, C; Cederberg, H; Magnusson, J; Vogel, E; Natarajan, A T; Mullender, L H; Nivard, J M; Parry, J M; Leyson, A; Comendador, M A; Sierra, L M; Ferreiro, J A; Consuegra, S


    The principle objective of this research programme, to analyse chemical induction of somatic recombination and related endpoints, i.e., mobilization of transposing elements and gene amplification, has been approached by means of several assay systems. These have included Drosophila, Saccharomyces and mammalian cell cultures. 6.1. Screening assays for mitotic recombination. A large number of chemicals have been investigated in the three Drosophila assay systems employed--the multiple wing hair/flare wing spot system developed by Graf et al., 1984, the white-ivory system developed by Green et al., 1986 and the white/white+ eye spot assay developed by Vogel (Vogel and Nivard, 1993). Particularly the screening of 181 chemicals, covering a wide array of chemical classes, by the last mentioned assay has shown that measurement of somatic recombination in Drosophila constitutes a sensitive and efficient short-term test which shows a remarkably good correlation with the agent score of 83 short-term tests analysed by ICPEMC (Mendelsohn et al., 1992; Table 2) as well as the assay performance in international collaborative programmes measuring carcinogen/non-carcinogens (de Serres and Ashby, 1981; Ashby et al., 1985, 1988). Also the wing spot assay has gained wide international recognition as a similarly sensitive test. These two assay systems in Drosophila measure both intrachromosomal events and interchromosomal recombination. The white-ivory system on the other hand is based on the loss of a tandem duplication in the white locus, the mechanism of which is less known, but probably involves intrachromosomal recombination. The difference in the mechanism between this assay and the former two was indicated by the lack of response to methotrexate in the white-ivory assay, while this compound was strongly recombinogenic in both the wing spot and white/white+ assays. The use of different strains of Drosophila with the white/white+ assay demonstrated the importance of the

  20. Performance testing of passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malliakos, A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    Passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) have been under consideration in the U.S. as a combustible gas control system in advanced light water reactor (ALWR) containments for design basis and severe accidents. PARs do not require a source of power. Instead they use palladium or platinum as a catalyst to recombine hydrogen and oxygen gases into water vapor upon contact with the catalyst. Energy from the recombination of hydrogen with oxygen is released at a relatively slow but continuous rate into the containment which prevents the pressure from becoming too high. The heat produced creates strong buoyancy effects which increases the influx of the surrounding gases to the recombiner. These natural convective flow currents promote mixing of combustible gases in the containment. PARs are self-starting and self-feeding under a very wide range of conditions. The recombination rate of the PAR system needs to be great enough to keep the concentration of hydrogen (or oxygen) below acceptable limits. There are several catalytic recombiner concepts under development worldwide. The USNRC is evaluating a specific design of a PAR which is in an advanced stage of engineering development and has been proposed for ALWR designs. Sandia National laboratories (SNL), under the sponsorship and the direction of the USNRC, is conducting an experimental program to evaluate the performance of PARs. The PAR will be tested at the SURTSEY facility at SNL. The test plan currently includes the following experiments: experiments will be conducted to define the startup characteristics of PARs (i.e., to define what is the lowest hydrogen concentration that the PAR starts recombining the hydrogen with oxygen); experiments will be used to define the hydrogen depletion rate of PARs as a function of hydrogen concentration; and experiments will be used to define the PAR performance in the presence of high concentrations of steam. (author)

  1. Recombinant human growth hormone in the treatment of Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessie E Spiliotis


    Full Text Available Bessie E SpiliotisDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Patras, School of Medicine, Patras, GreeceAbstract: Turner syndrome (TS is a common chromosomal disorder in women that is associated with the absence of one of the X chromosomes. Severe short stature and a lack of pubertal development characterize TS girls, causing psychosocial problems and reduced bone mass. The growth impairment in TS seems to be due to multiple factors including an abnormal growth hormone (GH – insulin-like growth factor (IGF – IGF binding protein axis and haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene. Growth hormone and sex steroid replacement therapy has enhanced growth, pubertal development, bone mass, and the quality of life of TS girls. Recombinant human GH (hGH has improved the height potential of TS girls with varied results though, depending upon the dose of hGH and the age of induction of puberty. The best final adult height and peak bone mass achievement results seem to be achieved when hGH therapy is started early and puberty is induced at the normal age of puberty in a regimen mimicking physiologic puberty. The initiation of estradiol therapy at an age-appropriate time may also help the TS patients avoid osteoporosis during adulthood. Recombinant hGH therapy in TS seems to be safe. Studies so far show no adverse effects on cardiac function, glucose metabolism or any association with neoplasms but research is still in progress to provide conclusive data on long-term safety.Keywords: Turner syndrome, recombinant growth hormone, growth hormone deficiency, SHOX gene, hormonal replacement therapy

  2. Comparative Study of Recombinant Bovine Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Ophthalmic Gel and Sodium Hya