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Sample records for albumen

  1. Characterization of high-pressure-treated egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iametti, S; Donnizzelli, E; Pittia, P; Rovere, P P; Squarcina, N; Bonomi, F

    1999-09-01

    Addition of NaCl or sucrose to egg albumen prior to high-pressure treatment (up to 10 min at 800 MPa) prevented insolubilization or gel formation after pressure treatment. As a consequence of protein unfolding, the treated albumen had increased viscosity but retained its foaming and heat-gelling properties. Susceptibility of egg albumen proteins to hydrolysis by trypsin increased dramatically after pressure treatment. The S-form of ovalbumin, the presence of which is an index of egg aging, was not found in any of the pressure-treated samples, which also did not display evidence for covalent protein aggregation. However, recognition of ovalbumin by an anti-ovalbumin antiserum was reduced to 40% of that of untreated sample. PMID:10552693

  2. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and...

  3. Nonvolatile Bio-Memristor Fabricated with Egg Albumen Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chung, Wen-Lin; Wu, San-Lein; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of chicken egg albumen-based bio-memristors. By introducing egg albumen as an insulator to fabricate memristor devices comprising a metal/insulator/metal sandwich structure, significant bipolar resistive switching behavior can be observed. The 1/f noise characteristics of the albumen devices were measured, and results suggested that their memory behavior results from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments. Oxygen diffusion and electrochemical redox reaction of metal ions under a sufficiently large electric field are the principal physical mechanisms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments; these mechanisms were observed by analysis of the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and resistance-temperature (R-T) measurement results. The switching property of the devices remarkably improved by heat-denaturation of proteins; reliable switching endurance of over 500 cycles accompanied by an on/off current ratio (Ion/off) of higher than 103 were also observed. Both resistance states could be maintained for a suitably long time (>104 s). Taking the results together, the present study reveals for the first time that chicken egg albumen is a promising material for nonvolatile memory applications.

  4. Egg albumen - a promising material for fabrication of nanoporous mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural protein, egg albumen, is used for fabrication of nanoporous mats by bubbfil electrospinning. In our experiment, starch is used as an additive. By suitable choices of the spinning conditions, a mat with nanopores can be produced, and the spinning process is tenable by controlling the thermodynamic properties of spun solution and spinning environment.

  5. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum.

  6. Effect of egg albumen (protein additive on surimi prepared from lizardfish (Saurida tumbil during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanki Jitesh B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lizardfish (Saurida tumbil (Bloch, 1795 is a relatively abundant, low value fish that has widedistribution in India due to its adaptability to different environments. This study is an attempt to explorethe possibilities of better utilization of this species by development of minced-based value addedproducts and the evaluation of shelf life during frozen storage. Lizardfish were mince for the preparationof value added products viz., surimi and surimi with 3% egg albumen. The biochemical, gel strength andsensory parameters were analyzed to study the quality changes and shelf life of these products in frozenstorage at -20oC. The addition of 3% egg albumen exhibited gel enhancing effect by increase in gelstregth 113.56 g.cm, where as same treatment after 120th days of storage, % of total protein was higher12.69 with comapare to without egg albumen surimi.

  7. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  8. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Activity on Egg Albumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nahariah, N.; A M Legowo; Abustam, E.; Hintono, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is used for fermentation of fish products, meat and milk. However, the utilization of these bacteria in egg processing has not been done. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of fermented egg albumen as a functional food that is rich in angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors activity (ACE-inhibitor activity) and is antihypertensive. A completely randomized design was used in this study with six durations of fermentation (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h) as...

  9. Sludge Bulking Property of Membrane Bio-reactor in Albumen Wqastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Albumen wastewater was treated by Membrane Bio-reactor. Sludge bulking property of Membrane Bio-Reactor was investigated in this study through contrast research. When the sludge bulking appeared, the removal efficiency of COD in Membrane Bio-reactor increased slightly under the function of filamentous bacteria. However, the negative effects of the higher net water-head differential pressures,the higher block rate of membrane pore and the great quantity of filamentous bacteria at the externalsurface pres...

  10. Transient Resistive Switching Devices Made from Egg Albumen Dielectrics and Dissolvable Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingli; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Wenbo; Xuan, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Qilong; Smith, Charles G; Luo, Jikui

    2016-05-01

    Egg albumen as the dielectric, and dissolvable Mg and W as the top and bottom electrodes are used to fabricate water-soluble memristors. 4 × 4 cross-bar configuration memristor devices show a bipolar resistive switching behavior with a high to low resistance ratio in the range of 1 × 10(2) to 1 × 10(4), higher than most other biomaterial-based memristors, and a retention time over 10(4) s without any sign of deterioration, demonstrating its high stability and reliability. Metal filaments accompanied by hopping conduction are believed to be responsible for the switching behavior of the memory devices. The Mg and W electrodes, and albumen film all can be dissolved in water within 72 h, showing their transient characteristics. This work demonstrates a new way to fabricate biocompatible and dissolvable electronic devices by using cheap, abundant, and 100% natural materials for the forthcoming bioelectronics era as well as for environmental sensors when the Internet of things takes off. PMID:27052437

  11. Parthenogenesis in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens decreases sperm-egg penetration and alters albumen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, P; Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; McDaniel, C D

    2016-10-15

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development without fertilization, resembles very early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs. Also, parthenogenesis alters egg albumen characteristics in virgin Chinese Painted quail hens genetically selected for parthenogenesis (PV). When these PV hens are mated (PM), hatchability is reduced versus control mated (CM) hens that were not genetically selected for parthenogenesis. However, it is unclear if parthenogenesis, which occurs in PM hens, reduces hatchability due to infertility and altered albumen characteristics. Sperm-egg penetration (SEP) holes are indicative of true fertilization and may be useful in identifying if eggs from PM hens exhibit a decrease in fertility versus CM hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if parthenogenesis in PM hens (1) decreases SEP, (2) alters albumen characteristics similar to parthenogenesis in eggs from PV hens, and (3) yields albumen characteristics similar to fertilized eggs containing early mortality. Daily, PV and PM eggs were collected, labeled, and incubated for 10 days, then broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis and albumen characteristics. Also daily, fresh PM and CM quail eggs were macroscopically examined to determine if an egg was infertile with no embryonic development, parthenogenetic, or fertile. Each of these eggs was then microscopically examined for SEP. For both PV and PM incubated eggs, parthenogenesis decreased albumen pH, O2, and protein concentrations yet increased Ca(2+) and CO2 concentrations versus eggs with no development. For incubated PM eggs, albumen pH and O2 were lower, yet CO2 was higher for eggs containing parthenogens or early dead embryos versus infertile eggs. For SEP, fresh eggs classified as infertile or parthenogenetic from PM and CM hens had similar SEP holes but only one sixth as many SEP holes as eggs classified as fertilized. Eggs from CM hens had 3.5 times as many SEP holes as PM eggs. In conclusion

  12. What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisbleau, M; Demongin, L; Angelier, F; Dano, S; Lacroix, A; Quillfeldt, P

    2009-06-01

    Female birds deposit corticosterone into their eggs. Elevated concentrations of this hormone may interfere with the development of their offspring, and mothers should thus regulate corticosterone levels deposited into the eggs adaptively. However, if females are unable to regulate deposition, then the corticosterone concentration in eggs should reflect that in female plasma and should be influenced by stressors to the females. We measured corticosterone levels in the albumen of rockhopper penguins, and assessed their relationship with hatching order, human disturbance and laying date. Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) lay two eggs, of which the second egg (B-egg) is larger and hatches faster than the first egg (A-egg). The chick hatching from the B-egg is also much more likely to survive than its sibling. Albumen corticosterone concentrations were lower in B-eggs. However, as B-eggs contained more albumen than A-eggs, the total corticosterone deposited in the albumen was not significantly different between the two eggs. Daily disturbance by human observers during albumen production did not influence albumen corticosterone levels. Laying date had an effect on total albumen corticosterone through a higher albumen mass. However, we observed a high individual component in the composition of eggs from the same clutch. Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone. PMID:19341737

  13. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this report, natural chicken albumen with high proton conductivity was used as the coupling electrolyte film for organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic devices fabrication. Some important synaptic functions including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering, short-term to long-term memory transition and spatial summation and shunting inhibition were successfully mimicked. Our results are very interesting for biological friendly artificial neuron networks and neuromorphic systems.

  14. Sequential scintigraphy of four different sup(99m)Tc human albumen preparations used for lung scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological behaviour of four sup(99m)Tc-marked human albumen preparations, prepared by different methods, were studied by serial scintigraphy and excretion measurements. Three preparations consisted of particles of irregular albumen macroaggregates, the fourth was in the form of spherical albumen particles (microspheres). Forty-five patients with various pulmonary abnormalities were examined. The following parameters were used for comparison: half-life of pulmonary activity, changes in activity in liver and spleen as a measure for the formation of Tc-containing particle fragments, uptake in the thyroid and stomach and urinary excretion as an indication of the stability of the nucleid fixation. Despite marked differences in their biological behaviour, all four substances provide comparable information and lack of toxicity and are suitable for lung scintigraphy. Because of the rapid initial decline in activity in the lung, microspheres are more suitable for use with a gamma camera, whereas the other three preparations, in view of their long persistence in the lung can be conveniently used for the slower examinations with a conventional scanner. (orig.)

  15. Cataract Vision Mimicked By Means Of Protein Denaturation In Egg Albumen

    CERN Document Server

    Mandracchia, Biagio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing or reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. Moreover, for the doctors it can be very difficult to explain and give comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. We built and tested an optic device that uses egg albumen to mimic the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts and that is able to visualize how the cataract impairs vision. At best of our knowledge, it is the first experimental system developed at this aim. This can be a valuable tool, which can be of help in education for students in medical sciences as well as to provid...

  16. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  17. Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate. Variabel terikat berupa zona hambat pertumbuhan bakteri koliform fekal. Pengujian dilakukan dengan metode difusi agar. Pengujian daya antibakteri albumen telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dilakukan dengan mengukur diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan koloni tiap spesies bakteri koliform fekal pada medium Nutrien Agar. Data pe-nelitian adalah data hasil pengukuran diameter zona hambat pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal. Hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis varian tunggal, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT 1%. Hasil dari penelitian adalah: (1 spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pa-da cangkang telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam yaitu Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella ozaenae, dan Escherichia vulneris; dan (2 ada pengaruh perbedaan albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap daya hambat pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam.Kata kunci: albumen telur, ayam kampung, ayam kate, daya antibakteri, bakteri koliform fekal

  18. Influencia del procesado térmico sobre la reología de geles de albumen de huevo

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar García, José Manuel; Jaramillo, Alexander; Cordobés, Felipe; Guerrero Conejo, Antonio Francisco

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo ha consistido en la caracterización del proceso de gelificación térmica de dispersiones de albumen de huevo mediante ensayos viscoelásticos dinámicos. Las variables estudiadas han sido el tiempo de procesado térmico, manteniendo constante la velocidad de calentamiento y enfriamiento, la concentración de proteína y el pH del medio acuoso. Durante el procesado térmico se ha encontrado un aumento drástico de las propiedades viscoelásticas lineales ...

  19. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators.

  20. The Influence of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Albumen Qualitative Parameters and Microbiological Indicators of Table Eggs Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are intensive fragrant, oily liquid substances contained in different parts of the plant. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oils or pollen on egg albumen physical parameters and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with oregano essential oil and pollen extract supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with oregano essential oil addition in a dose 0.25 g/kg, the feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the dose at 0.4 g/kg. The results suggest that a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.The paper abstract will be written with Times New Roman 10 pt., justify. It will contain maximum 200 words. A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s and year(s. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first

  1. Identification of a novel UDP-GalNAc:GlcNAcβ-R β1-4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from the albumen gland and connective tissue of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Mulder, H.; Spronk, B.A.; Schachter, H.; Neeleman, A.P.; Eijnden, D.H. van den; Jong-Brink, M. de; Kamerling, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Both the albumen gland, one of the female accessory sex glands, and connective tissue of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis contain N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity, capable of transferring GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc in beta1-4 linkage to the terminal GlcNAc residue of GlcNAcbeta-R. The al

  2. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance.

  3. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nal(r) strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis.

  4. Avaliaçao de híbridos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. para produção de frutos e de albúmen sólido fresco Performance of hybrids of coconut palm for production of fruits and solid fresh albumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Manoel Pontes Lins

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de seis híbridos de coqueiro para produção de frutos e de albúmen sólido fresco no Município de Moju, PA. Os híbridos avaliados foram: PB 121 (Anão-amarelo da Malásia x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 111 (Anão-vermelho de Camarões x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 141 (Anão-verde do Brasil x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 123 (Anão-amarelo da Malásia x Gigante de Renel; PB 132 (Anão-vermelho da Malásia x Gigante da Polinésia e PB 113 (Anão-vermelho de Camarões x Gigante de Renel, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Verificou-se, pela análise de variância, diferença significativa para tratamentos, resultante da heterogeneidade do material genético estudado. As fontes de variação ano e a interação anos x tratamentos foram também altamente significativas, evidenciando que o comportamento dos híbridos foi induzido por aquelas fontes de variação. Considerando o desempenho dos híbridos no período de 9 anos de avaliação para produção de frutos e de albúmen fresco, pode-se recomendar para plantio os híbridos PB 111, PB 113, PB 141 nas condições do Estado do Pará, com vistas a atender às indústrias (albúmen sólido, quanto à venda de cocos "in natura" para consumo de água.The performance of six hybrids of coconut palm were evaluated for fruit and solid fresh albumen production in Moju, State of Pará. The evaluated hybrids were: PB 121 (Dwarf Yellow of Malaysia x West African Giant; PB 111 (Dwarf Red of Cameron x West Afican Giant; PB 141 (Dwarf Green of Brazil x West Aficam Giant; PB 123 (Dwarf Yellow of Malaysia x Renel's Giant; PB 132 (Red Dwarf of Malaysia x (Giant from Polynesia; PB 113 (Dwarf Red of Cameron x Renel's Giant in hazard blocks and six repetitions. It was verified through variance analysis, significancy difference between treatments, as result of the heterogeneity of the studied genetic material. The sources of variation year and the interaction years x

  5. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... free of flies, insects, and rodents. (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and... clean condition. (d) Oils and waxes used in oiling drying pans or trays shall be of edible quality....

  6. Mimicking cataract-induced visual dysfunction by means of protein denaturation in egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.

  7. Novel Biomimatic Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods Using Egg White (Albumen) and Their Antibacterial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faheem; Arshi, Nishat; Jeong, Yeong Seung; Anwar, M S; Dwivedi, Saurabh; Alsharaeh, Edreese; Koo, B H

    2016-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is well-recognized as a biocompatible multifunctional material with outstanding properties as well as low toxicity and biodegradability. In this work, a simple and versatile technique was developed to prepare highly crystalline ZnO nanorods by introducing egg white to a bio-inspired approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern results indicated that the ZnO nanorods have single phase nature with the wurtzite structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed the nanometer dimension of the nanorods. Raman, FTIR, and TGA/DTA analyses revealed the formation of wurtzite ZnO. The antibacterial properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated using both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. These studies demonstrate that ZnO nanorods have a wide range of antibacterial activities toward various microorganisms that are commonly found in environmental settings. Survival ratio of bacteria decreased with increasing powder concentration, i.e., increase in antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the ZnO nanorods toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa was stronger than that of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Surprisingly, the antibacterial activity did not require specific UV activation using artificial lamps, rather activation was achieved under ambient lighting conditions. Overall, the experimental results suggest that ZnO nanorods could be developed as antibacterial agents against a wide range of microorganisms to control and prevent the spreading and persistence of bacterial infections. This research introduces a new concept to synthesize ZnO nanorods by using egg white as a biological template for various applications including food science, animal science, biochemistry, microbiology and medicine. PMID:27427657

  8. Program system for analysis of three-dimensional structure of albumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of programs for the investigation of 3D protein structures using X-ray crystallography is described. This set is used for front-end processing, protein structure simulation and for protein structure eValuation using molecular replacement technique. The set is implemented on the CDC-6500 computer and, partially, on ICL-470, Nova-2, and BESM-6 computers

  9. Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of heat-injured Salmonella from egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to af...

  10. Progress in biological mechanism research of prion albumen%Prion蛋白分子生物学机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卓宝; 洪琪; 何华松; 丁瑾瑜

    2004-01-01

    Prion蛋白(Prion Protein,PrP),又称朊病毒、朊蛋白、朊毒体、锯蛋白、朊粒等。致病性Prion蛋白(PrPsc)是一种不含核酸却能不停复制和沉淀,而具传染性和极强抵抗力的特殊蛋白质粒子,在机体中沉积至一定程度,即可引起人和动物的传染性海绵状脑病(transmissible spongiform encephaloptahy,TSE)。其主要的病理特点是:神经元变性、消解,形成脑实质多孔性泡化;

  11. Albumen protein and functional properties of gelation and foaming Proteínas do albume e propriedades fucionais de gelatinização e formação de espuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Carraro Alleoni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hen eggwhite proteins have been extensively utilized as ingredients in food processing because of their unique functional properties, such as gelling and foaming. This work reviews the molecular basis of the eggwhite proteins targeting the development of these functional properties during processing.As proteínas da clara do ovo de galinha têm sido extensivamente usadas como ingredientes em alimentos processados, devido às suas propriedades funcionais, tais como gelatinização e formação de espuma. Essa revisão aborda as bases moleculares das proteínas da clara do ovo para o desenvolvimento dessas propriedades funcionais durante o processamento.

  12. Analyse du protéome de l'albumen et des couches périphériques du grain de blé (Triticum aestivum L.) en développement : vers une intégration des données avec le transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Tasleem-Tahir, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is the second most produced cereal in the world, important for food, feed and many industrial uses. Understanding of the mechanisms involved in grain development is fundamental for developing high quality wheat. In particular, detailed knowledge of the wheat grain physiology and molecular mechanisms involved in its development would help in breeding not only of wheat but also many other cereals. A proteomic approach has been used in this context but, up to now, there had been no work on...

  13. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids...

  14. Prediction of the residue levels of drugs in eggs, using physicochemical properties and their influence on passive diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefferlie, G J; Hekman, P

    2016-08-01

    Based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, describing the relationship between the plasma concentration of a drug and its deposition into eggs, general transport constants into yolk and albumen were derived, for a number of compounds, using experimental data from literature. Using only generally accepted concepts in passive diffusion theory, these transport constants were used to derive and calibrate general equations, describing the transport into yolk and albumen, in terms of the physicochemical properties of a drug. It is shown that, in theory, it is possible to calculate/predict the transport constants, using the physicochemical parameters: pKa and plasma protein binding. For a number of sulfonamides, the model was used to predict their distribution between egg yolk and albumen; the outcome was compared to data found in literature. Within this dataset, the lipophilic nature of a drug does not seem to play a major role in explaining the distribution ratio of a drug between albumen and yolk. PMID:26763131

  15. Production components of Jatropha under irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in the semiarid region of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton M. de Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTJatropha curcas L. proves to be a promising species, considering its inclusion in the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use. However, since it has not been genetically improved, agronomic information is still scarce in the literature, especially under conditions of water and nutritional stress. Thus, this field study aimed to evaluate the effects of irrigation depths (735; 963; 1,191; 1,418 and 1,646 mm and nitrogen fertilization (0; 25; 50 and 75 kg ha-1 on the production of Jatropha plants. Plants under the highest irrigation depth showed the highest values of number of fruits and productivity of fruits, seeds and albumen. Plants under the irrigation depth of 1,191 mm showed the highest values of mean mass of albumen and the ratios between mass of albumen and mass of seeds and between mass of albumen and mass of fruits. Nitrogen fertilization did not influence the production components of Jatropha.

  16. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.

  17. Corticosterone in bird eggs: The importance of analytical validation

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Groothuis, T. G.; Henriksen, R.; Moestl, E.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently found that high concentrations of chicken yolk gestagens and gestagen metabolites hamper corticosterone quantification via immunoassays. However, the situation in chicken albumen is still unresolved. In addition, the ratio of steroid hormone in the yolk of wild birds might differ. To investigate these matters, corticosterone and gestagens were measured in individual fractions of high-performance liquid-chromatographic separations of chicken albumen and yolk of red jungle fowl....

  18. The influence of temperature on the behaviour of mixed bacterial contamination of the shell membrane of the hen's egg.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, J.; Board, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The inner membrane of the air cell of hens' eggs was inoculated with Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The first mentioned eventually dominated the contamination of the albumen of eggs stored at 4, 15, and 20 degrees C. The last mentioned did so in eggs stored at 37 degrees C. The interval between inoculation of the membrane and gross contamination of the albumen was markedly influenced by site of contamination rela...

  19. The influence of temperature on the behaviour of mixed bacterial contamination of the shell membrane of the hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, J; Board, R G

    1992-02-01

    The inner membrane of the air cell of hens' eggs was inoculated with Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The first mentioned eventually dominated the contamination of the albumen of eggs stored at 4, 15, and 20 degrees C. The last mentioned did so in eggs stored at 37 degrees C. The interval between inoculation of the membrane and gross contamination of the albumen was markedly influenced by site of contamination relative to yolk movement. PMID:1547832

  20. Assessment of chemical composition and toxicity of the essential oil of leaves and fruits of Jatropha gossypifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciely Moreti dos Reis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and fruits of Jatropha gossypifolia L. were evaluated for their chemical composition. The essential oil of the leaves, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the fatty material of albumen and seeds were evaluated for chemical composition and toxicity in the Artemia salina assay. The extraction yield of oil was 26.6 % 38.4 % and 0.0365 % for the seeds, leaves and albumen, respectively. The toxicity of the oil obtained from the albumen and seeds against in the Artemia salina were 74.25  0.21 g mL-1 and 78.66  0.25 g mL-1. The saponification and acidity index for the oil albumen was 165.4 mg KOH g-1 and 10%, respectively. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID was used to analyze the fatty acid profile of albumen and seeds. High percentage (35.81 % for heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 was determined for the oil form of the seeds. Twelve compounds were identified in the essential oil obtained from the leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The Kovats Index for compounds were calculated and compared to those of literature.

  1. Information content of the space-frequency filtering of blood plasma layers laser images in the diagnosis of pathological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Bodnar, G. B.; Kushnerick, L. Ya.; Savich, V. O.

    2013-12-01

    The bases of method of the space-frequency of the filtering phase allocation of blood plasma pellicle are given here. The model of the optical-anisotropic properties of the albumen chain of blood plasma pellicle with regard to linear and circular double refraction of albumen and globulin crystals is proposed. Comparative researches of the effectiveness of methods of the direct polarized mapping of the azimuth images of blood plasma pcllicle layers and space-frequency polarimetry of the laser radiation transformed by divaricate and holelikc optical-anisotropic chains of blood plasma pellicles were held. On the basis of the complex statistic, correlative and fracta.1 analysis of the filtered frcquencydimensional polarizing azimuth maps of the blood plasma pellicles structure a set of criteria of the change of the double refraction of the albumen chains caused by the prostate cancer was traced and proved.

  2. THE EFFECT OF BROILER BREEDER AGES ON THE QUALITIVE AND QUANTITIVE PROPERTIES OF THE EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabodin Gharahveysi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler breeder age is one of the most important factors that affects on egg properties. However by increasing the age of broiler breeder flock, the quality of eggs and consequently the quality of their chick products would be changed. In order to study the effect of broiler breeder flock age on the various aspects of chick products, 300 fertilizable eggs were selected randomly, from 3 broiler breeder farms. Selected eggs were collected from broilers that were 30 (young, 36 (peak, 43(after peak, 53 (old, 60 (very old and 82 (molted weeks old. Collected eggs were stored during 3 to 4 days in the ambient temperature. Qualitive and quantitive aspects of eggs including egg weight, albumen height yolk, height thickness of egg shell, yolk color, Albumen and yolk PH and Hugh unit were studied. Trait Analysis was done by ANOVA procedure of SAS statistical software. To compare the means, Duncan test was used. The effects of age and breeder farms on the egg weight, yolk color, yolk and albumen PH, yolk and albumen height, shell egg thickness and Hugh unit were significant (p<0.05. The lowest difference was seen between the age of 53, 60 and 82 week old (p<0.05. Albumen PH and alkaline is increased by increase of age, but yolk PH is the variance. Influence of age on the traits including yolk and albumen height and Hugh unit was decreased and the color of yolk was faded by increasing age. According to obtained results from these research performances of ages of 53, 60 and 82 weeks are close together. We could conclude that older broiler breeder flocks are produce the better qualitive and quantitive properties of egg products. Since most poultry enough information about the quality of breeder chickens and the best age to have chickens, using the results of this study can be answered many questions.

  3. Quality of shell eggs pasteurized with heat or heat-ozone combination during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J J; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Yousef, A E

    2011-09-01

    The physical quality and functionality of shell eggs, pasteurized with heat or a combination of heat and ozone, were assessed during eight weeks of storage at 4 or 25 °C. Shell eggs were treated as follows: (1) immersion heating that mimics commercial pasteurization processes (egg internal temperature of 56 ± 0.1 °C for 32 min), or (2) a newly developed combination process comprised of heating (56 ± 0.1 °C, internal, for 10 min) followed by gaseous ozone treatment. Eggs were tested for yolk index, Haugh units, albumen pH, albumen turbidity, and percent overrun. Additionally, albumen samples were assayed for lysozyme activity and free sulfhydryl group content, and were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both processed and unprocessed eggs maintained superior quality when stored at 4 °C, as opposed to 25 °C. Pasteurization, regardless of method, led to superior maintenance of Haugh units during storage but also increased albumen opacity and decreased albumen overrun. Detrimental effects on quality markers were more severe in heat-pasteurized eggs than those treated with the ozone-based process. Pasteurization of shell eggs by either process did not affect lysozyme activity or sulfhydryl group content. Changes in protein secondary structure, as indicated by FTIR analysis, suggest that the ozone-based process is less damaging to albumen proteins than is the heat-alone process. In conclusion, heat-ozone pasteurization, by virtue of its less severe heat treatment, yields a safe final product that more closely resembles untreated shell eggs.

  4. New technologies on eggs manufacturing; Innovazione tecnologica nell`industria di lavorazione delle uova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M.; Serse, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Marcolini, P.; Erbisti, P. [Soc. Coop. Avicola Lessinia, Pigozzo, Verona (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    Objective of this paper is innovate the industrial manufacturing process, up grading the white egg commercial value according the following points: - improve the albumen rheological properties (whippability); - concentrate the white eggs without damaging the protein functional properties; - fractionate eggs white proteins to improve the useful application range in the pharmaceutical industry. The albumen chemical-physical properties and the protein separation technologies, based mainly on membrane techniques, are discussed. This paper represents a first technical overview on eggs manufacturing, carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and the Avicola Lessinia, with the objective to develop a new production process.

  5. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  6. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  7. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  8. Corticosterone in bird eggs : The importance of analytical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettenbacher, S.; Groothuis, T. G.; Henriksen, R.; Moestl, E.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently found that high concentrations of chicken yolk gestagens and gestagen metabolites hamper corticosterone quantification via immunoassays. However, the situation in chicken albumen is still unresolved. In addition, the ratio of steroid hormone in the yolk of wild birds might differ. To

  9. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while cont

  10. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ALBUMINOUS COMPONENTS CONTENT IN MUSKY PREPUTIAL GLANDS OF MUSKRAT MALES IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS Гистологические изменения и содержание белковых компонентов в мускусных препуциальных железах самцов ондатры на этапах постнатального онтогенеза

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silkin I. I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By the methods of classical histology and modern histochemistry in differential assessment of various albuminous components, we have revealed a number of new regularities of age dynamics and distribution of some albumen in cells and tissues of musky preputial glands of muskrat males inhabiting under conditions of Baikal region ecosystem

  11. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  12. EFFECTS OF HEN AGE, STORAGE PERIOD AND STRETCH FILM PACKAGING ON INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL QUALITY TRAITS OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMET ALPER YILMAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hen age, storage time and packaging with stretch film applications to the internal and external egg quality of table eggs were investigated. A total of 1680 table eggs were used and collected with two commercial layer stocks (Lohmann White 28 and 80 weeks old age. A half of the table eggs packaged with stretch film and all eggs were stored 0, 15, 30 and 45 days at 22 ºC ve 45 % RH . Egg weight, shape index, albumen index, fracture strength, albumen index, yolk index Hauhg unit, yolk color, shell weight, shell thickness, shell weight per unit surface of shell and shell density were examined in the study. Egg weight, egg weight loss, shell weight, albumen index, yolk index, Haugh unit, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, shell density values were found as higher in the young hen flocks’ eggs. Egg weight loss, shell strength, shell thickness, egg weight, shell density increased and egg weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Units and shell weigh decreased as storage time increased. Packaging eggs with stretch film reduced the internal quality losses resulted from prolonged storage.

  13. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  14. Evaluation of different egg quality traits and interpretation of their mode of inheritance in White Leghorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepta Kumar Rath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The experiment was carried out to evaluate different external and internal egg quality traits and to figure out their mode of inheritance from a set of hierarchically classified data. Materials and Methods: The data collected from 548 progenies (1 egg from each progeny of 282 dams mated to 47 sires (1 sire mated to 6 dams of a White Leghorn flock were used in the present study. Phenotypic means and their standard errors were calculated for all the quality traits. Heritabilities were estimated for these traits separately from "sire," "dam" and "sire+dam" (full-sib components of variance using Statistical Package for Social Sciences-17 program. Results: External quality traits such as; egg weight, length, width, shape index, surface area, shell weight, shell thickness, shell ratio, and internal quality traits such as; length, width, height, and weight of albumen and yolk, albumen index, albumen ratio, Haugh unit (H.U., yolk diameter, yolk index, yolk ratio, and yolk albumen ratio were measured in 548 eggs of the experimental White Leghorn flock. The eggs were found to have optimum weight (57.78±0.20 g, shape index (73.53±0.18 and shell characteristics (6 g, 0.32 mm as per its genetic potential. Higher values for albumen height (8.41±0.04 mm and H.U. (92.00±0.19 are attributable to the freshness of eggs and proper age of hens. Heritability estimates from "sire" component of variance were higher than "dam" and "sire+dam" components for the traits like egg weight, length, width, shape index, surface area, albumen width, albumen index, H.U., yolk width, yolk height, yolk weight, and yolk index whereas for rest of the traits the values estimated from "dam" component were higher. Estimates from "sire+dam" component were intermediate to the estimates derived from "sire" and "dam" components. Conclusion: The heritability estimates from different egg quality traits were moderate to high. Since most of the traits have high heritability values

  15. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Howard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid were inoculated on to the surface of the yolk membrane at a concentration of approximately 106 CFU mLˉ1. Yolks were then covered with albumen and incubated for 24 hrs at 25°C. After incubation, eggs were separated into component parts. Samples were removed from yolk, albumen and yolk membrane and diluted 10-fold in sterile phosphate buffered saline. In albumen, S. enteritidis counts were increased in weeks 3 and 8 compared to week 1 (trial 2. The frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis in albumen occurred at week 7 versus weeks 0 and 1 in trial 1 and weeks 3 and 8 versus weeks 0 and 2 in trial 2. In the membrane fraction, the frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis occurred at weeks 5 and 8 versus week 0 in trial 2. In the yolk fractions, S. enteritidis counts recovered from week 6 eggs were significantly higher (PS. enteritidis positive eggs were greater in week 8 than week 5 in trial 1. This suggests that egg components recovered from aged eggs stored at refrigeration temperatures infrequently supported S. enteritidis net growth but generally did not inhibit survivability.

  16. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  17. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  18. Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Lappaconitine Gelata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-zi; XIAO YONG-qing; ZHANG Chao; SUN Xiu-mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lappaconitine gelata (LA). Methods:The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate method in the mouse, and the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were used for investigation on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of LA.Results: The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate methods was significantly inhibited by LA. In addition, the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were all significantly suppressed by LA. Conclusion:LA has the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk....../kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced...... increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest...

  20. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low. Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.

  1. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO; Liping

    2001-01-01

    Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low.  Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.……

  2. Egg proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevalier, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Nau, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Hen egg was categorised by Baldwin in 1986 as a polyfunctional ingredient, as it can simultaneously realise several technological functions in the same formulated foodstuff. Its emulsifying, foaming, gelling, thickening, colouring and aromatic properties make it still today a universal basic ingredient for the domestic kitchen and the food processing industry. Whereas egg yolk is well recognised for its emulsifying properties, egg white (or albumen) is a reference in terms o...

  3. Host–parasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Malte; Åhlund, Matti

    2000-01-01

    Brood parasitism as an alternative female breeding tactic is particularly common in ducks, where hosts often receive eggs laid by parasitic females of the same species and raise their offspring. Herein, we test several aspects of a kin selection explanation for this phenomenon in goldeneye ducks (Bucephala clangula) by using techniques of egg albumen sampling and statistical bandsharing analysis based on resampling. We find that host and primary parasite are indeed...

  4. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique.

  5. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  6. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (Peggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  7. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique. PMID:27155120

  8. Albumin versus Crystalloid Therapy in the Management of Hepatorenal Syndrome: A Model for using Meta Analysis in Cost Effectiveness Studies and the Design of Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Kirk T.; Ohsfeldt, Robert; Voigt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We applied traditional methods of gathering, integrating and summarizing findings of current literature, with new approaches for assessing the cost effectiveness of two treatments for hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Findings of this cost effectiveness study are used to form a proposal for a multi-center prospective clinical trial, to assess the economic and clinical benefits of albumen versus crystalloid therapy in the care of these patients. Our initial findings suggest that albumin therapy is s...

  9. PERFORMANCE AND EGGS QUALITY OF HENS OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Ledvinka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the performance and technological values of eggs of Czech Hen and Oravka breeds housed on litter. The assumption was that the genotype of hens affects their performance, egg weight, and parameters of yolk, albumen and eggshell quality. A total of 30 pullets of Czech Hen breed and 30 pullets of Oravka breed in the age of 17 weeks were included in to the experiment. Environmental conditions corresponded to the standard requirements for laying hens in observed type of housing system. Hen day egg production, egg yield, daily feed consumption per hen, feed consumption per egg and egg weight, egg shape index, proportion and index of yolk and albumen,yolk colour and Haugh units score were monitored in the experiment. From the parameters of eggshell, proportion, thickness, strength and colour of eggshell were observed. Performance parameters of laying hens weren't affected by the genotype of hens. Czech Hen breed showed insignificantly the higher value in all indicators. The significantly (P≤0.01 and P≤0.001 better values of eggshell quality parameters were detected in Czech Hen breed. We found out that Czech Hen breed had also statistically significantly lighter colour of eggshell. There were no significant interbreed differences in egg weight, proportion of yolk and albumen. The egg shape index was significantly higher in Oravka. Index of yolk and albumen was also significantly (P≤0.001 higher in Oravka. Haugh units score, that reflect the quality of the eggs, were found significantly (P≤0.001higher in Oravka too. On the other hand, yolk colour was detected significantly (P≤0.001 darker for the Czech Hen.

  10. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    OpenAIRE

    Z. R. Howard; R. W. Moore; I. B. Zabala Diaz; Kim, W. K.; S. G. Birkhold; J. A. Byrd; L. F. Kubena; Nisbet, D. J.; Ricke, S C

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis re...

  11. New validated multiresidue analysis of six 4-hydroxy-coumarin anticoagulant rodenticides in hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Soback, Stefan; Cuneah, Olga; Shlosberg, Alan; Britzi, Malka

    2013-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are frequently a cause of poisoning of domestic animals, wildlife, and human beings. A toxicosis in 6,000 laying hens caused by the malicious addition of unknown amounts of coumatetralyl bait as well as the insecticides aldicarb, methomyl, and imidacloprid in the drinking water, was investigated in the current study. In order to determine a possible carryover of coumatetralyl into eggs, a rapid and reliable analytical method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous detection of 6 anticoagulant rodenticides (warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and brodifacoum) in yolk and albumen using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The method developed was reproducible, sensitive, accurate, and linear within the range of 0.01-1 mg/kg, which is the concentration range of bromadiolone and warfarin found in yolk in previously reported studies. The coefficient of variations of within and between days was 1.0-8.5% for yolk and 0.6-3.8% for albumen, while recoveries from spiked albumen and yolk samples were all in the range of 79-99% and 51-95%, respectively. Limits of detection in yolk were 0.01 mg/kg for warfarin and 0.003 mg/kg for the remaining compounds; in albumen, the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for warfarin, coumatetralyl, and coumachlor, and 0.0015 mg/kg for difenacoum and brodifacoum. The application of the validated method revealed the presence of coumatetralyl in the yolk only at levels of 0.0057 mg/kg and 0.0052 mg/kg on the second and fourth day of the poisoning. In conclusion, the HPLC method demonstrated suitability for application in official analysis of anticoagulants in hen eggs. PMID:24081927

  12. Distribution of toxigenic Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins production in milling fractions of Durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; BARREAU, Christian; CHAURAND, MARC; GREGOIRE, Stéphanie; MONMARSON, Magalie; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We defined reliable and sensitive PCR assays to specifically detect trichothecene-producing Fusarium spp. in milling fractions and kernel tissues of naturally infected durum wheat. The assays were based on a combination of primers derived from the trichodiene synthase and the ?-tubulin genes. The occurrence of toxigenic Fusarium spp. in semolina and wheat tissues (grain ends, crease, pericarp, aleurone layer, germ and albumen) was detected, even for a weakly contaminated w...

  13. Impact of egg harvesting on breeding success of black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Philippa J.; Hudson, Malcolm D.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Gull colonies world-wide have been harvested for their eggs for centuries with minimal knowledge of the impacts on breeding. Although most Laridae can replace lost eggs, they have comparatively high energetic demands for egg production. In this paper we assess the impacts of a licensed egg harvest on the breeding success of black-headed gulls Larus ridibundus, which nest colonially in an EU Special Protection Area in Hampshire, southern England. We compared egg volume, hatching and chick survival from harvested and un-harvested nests in central and fringe positions within colonies of various sizes, including colonies with no harvesting activity. Eggs from various laying stages were collected from harvested and un-harvested colonies of similar pre-harvest intrinsic quality, for comparison of their volumes, yolk-to-albumen ratios and eggshell thickness. Egg volume and the yolk-to-albumen ratio depended on laying time and location, with the largest eggs laid during the peak period by birds breeding in central positions on large colonies. Eggs produced by these peak layers also had the largest yolk-to-albumen ratios. Harvested sites were characterised by reductions in egg volume, yolk-to-albumen ratio and eggshell thickness, which translated to poorer hatching success and chick survival. Harvested sites also had a higher proportion of abnormal eggs, particularly taking the forms of small yolkless eggs and unpigmented eggs. The reduced breeding success on harvested colonies is likely to be linked to depletion of the female's endogenous reserves which can also reduce future survival and breeding propensity.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  15. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  16. Bioactive amines and internal quality of commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Viegas, R P; Lara, L J C; Baião, N C; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of commercial eggs produced by layer hens of different ages (approximately 30 and 60 wk old) were submitted to storage under room temperature or refrigeration for 28 d. A total of 600 eggs were subjected to microbiological analyses of their inner contents and another 600 to a determination of Haugh units (HU) and bioactive amine content. A decrease in the quality of the inner contents of the eggs was observed during the experiment, mainly in the eggs from the 60-wk-old layers, which presented the worst HU values when stored at room temperature (P Pseudomonas spp., mesophilic aerobic bacteria, and fungi were also recorded. The chromatographic analysis of bioactive amines detected the presence of phenylethylamine in all albumens (38.0 mg/kg) and spermidine in the yolks (1.02 mg/kg). It was concluded that the age of the hens and the time and temperature of storage influenced the quality parameters of the eggs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, despite the low levels of microbial contamination found, phenylethylamine was detected in the albumen. It was not possible to establish index of quality of eggs using bioactive amines present in the yolk and albumen of eggs. PMID:23571349

  17. Physical and chemical quality of sanitized commercial eggs experimentally contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and refrigerated during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to verify the physicochemical quality of commercial washed and unwashed eggs, experimentally inoculated on the shell with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and stored at 5 and 25 ºC for 30 days. A total of 384 eggs, classified as large, from light Dekalb White laying hens at 30 to 40 weeks of age, were used. The experimental design consisted of two blocks in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (contamination, washing, and refrigeration with six replicates. The sanitization was performed by mechanical washing (hot water with chlorhexidine 20% and 8% active content. Eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 × 10(5 colony-forming units (cfu of Pseudomonas aeruginosa/mL solution, and stored at 5 and 25 ºC for 30 days. Each ten days, analyses of the eggs were carried out, for the assessment of physical (egg weight, specific gravity, shell thickness, yolk, albumen and shell percentage, Haugh unit, yolk and albumen rates and chemical (albumen and yolk pH characteristics. There were interactions between sanitization, storage temperature and contamination. The cooling process maintained the egg internal quality even when there was contamination on the shell by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculum. Cooling slows down the weight loss and promotes better internal physical and chemical quality of the eggs during the 30 days of storage regardless of the contamination and washing processes.

  18. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  19. 皮蛋腌制过程中碱度、pH及质构特性变化规律的研究%Change of alkalinity, pH and texture properties during pidan pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有仙; 赵燕; 涂勇刚; 黄新球; 李建科; 罗序英; 王俊杰

    2012-01-01

    Pidan(Chinese preserved egg) had prepared by the traditional copper method. The change of alkalinity of curing liquid,pH and free alkalinity of albumen and yolk,textural properties of albumen were studied during pickling,which could provide basic data for the quality control of pidan during pickling,exploiting the substitute of metal additives,and researching new processing technic. The result showed that alkalinity of curing liquid presented a declining curve. The pH and free alkalinity of albumen increased rapidly at first and decreased gradually,then slowly increased again. The pH and free alkalinity of yolk showed an increasing trend. Hardness of albumen presented an upward trend overall. Flexibility,chewing and cohesion of albumen all increased firstly,then decreased slightly,and finally remain stable.%采用简易传统铜盐清料法腌制皮蛋,研究皮蛋腌制过程中料液碱浓度、蛋内pH和游离碱度、蛋白的质构特性的变化规律,旨为皮蛋加工过程中的质量控制,开发代金属添加剂和研究新加工工艺提供基础数据。结果表明,在腌制过程中,料液碱浓度呈下降趋势;蛋白pH和游离碱度呈现先迅速升高,后逐渐下降,再缓慢回升的趋势;蛋黄pH和游离碱度则一直呈升高的趋势;蛋白硬度总体呈上升趋势;蛋白弹性、咀嚼性、内聚性均是先上升再略有下降,然后基本保持稳定。

  20. Effect of Probiotic Preparation Enriched with Selenium on Qualitative Parameters of Table Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mellen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this experiment the effects of the diet for laying hens supplemented with probiotic product with an organic form of selenium on egg weight, albumen quality, yolk quality and egg shell quality were studied. Isa Brown hens (n=90 were randomly divided at the age of 17 weeks into three groups (30 birds per group. Hens in all groups consumed the complete feed mixture ad libitum. In the control group water for drinking contained no additions. In the first experimental group probiotic product was added to the water, in the second experimental group the same probiotic preparation enriched with 0.8 to 1 mg of organic selenium per 1 g of the product was added to the water. The probiotic preparations were administered at the dose of 15 mg per 6 l of water daily, in both experimental groups. Monitored physical parameters of eggs: egg weight (g, specific egg weight (g/cm3​​, albumen weight (g, albumen height (mm, albumen index, Haugh units (HJ, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (°HLR, egg shell weight, egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell strength (N/cm2, the average eggshell thickness (µm. Experiment lasted 48 weeks. The results showed that egg weight was slightly higher in both experimental groups compared with the control group, differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05. The values ​​in the order of groups: 60.97 ± 4.97, 61.18 ± 5:00; 61.75 ± 5.89 (g ± SD. Was found insignificant impact of the add probiotic preparation and probiotic preparation enriched with selenium on the quality parameters of table eggs. Yolk index, albumen index, Haugh units and the average egg shell thickness were only slightly, statistically insignificant higher in the experimental groups (P> 0.05. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normálna tabuľka"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso

  1. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  2. Enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound heat deposition for more efficient hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Cecille Pemberton

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is currently being developed for hemorrhage control since it provides rapid energy deposition in the form of heat in the HIFU focal region. When the HIFU focus is targeted on soft tissue wounds, the resulting elevation of tissue temperature cauterizes the tissues thus stopping the bleeding. If HIFU is targeted near blood vessels with millimeter-range diameter, the rate of heat deposition is limited by loss of heat to the blood flow. Maximizing the local heat deposition is important for the achievement of HIFU-induced hemorrhage control, or "hemostasis", near large vessels. In this study, the effect of a fiber device on the heat deposition in the HIFU focal region is investigated in tissue-mimicking flow phantoms with liquid albumen as the heat-sensitive denaturing flow fluid. The effect of the embedded fiber on albumen coagulation in the flow phantom is compared to the degree and rate of albumen coagulation when no fiber is present. The effect of the fiber device on the size of lesions formed in a heat-sensitive tissue-mimicking phantom is also investigated. Finally, finite difference time domain simulations are performed to determine the heat deposition in a tissue-mimicking phantom with a nylon disc embedded and a phantom with the nylon disc removed. The results of this study are quite promising for the possibility of increased efficacy of hemostasis for such a device in concert with HIFU in vessel-containing tissue volumes where HIFU alone is not completely effective.

  3. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (Peggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  4. Friction and wear of hydroxyapatite reinforced high density polyethylene against the stainless steel counterface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Chandrasekaran, M; Bonfield, W

    2002-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) was invented as a biomaterial for skeletal applications. In this investigation, tribological properties (e.g. wear rate and coefficient of friction) of unfilled HDPE and HA/HDPE composites were evaluated against the duplex stainless steel in dry and lubricated conditions, with distilled water or aqueous solutions of proteins (egg albumen or glucose) being lubricants. Wear tests were conducted in a custom-built test rig for HDPE and HA/HDPE containing up to 40 vol % of HA. It was found that HA/HDPE composites had lower coefficients of friction than unfilled HDPE under certain conditions. HA/HDPE also exhibited less severe fatigue failure marks than HDPE. The degradation and fatigue failure of HDPE due to the presence of proteins were severe for low speed wear testing (100 rpm) as compared to high speed wear testing (200 rpm). This was due possibly to the high shear rate at the contact which could remove any degraded film instantaneously at high sliding speed, while with a low sliding speed the build-up of a degraded layer of protein could occur. The degraded protein layer would stay at the contact for a longer time and mechanical activation would induce adverse reactions, weakening the surface layer of HDPE. Both egg albumen and glucose were found to be corrosive to steel and adversely reactive for HDPE and HA/HDPE composites. The wear modes observed were similar to that of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Specimens tested with egg albumen also displayed higher wear rates, which was again attributed to corrosion accelerated wear. PMID:15348592

  5. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  6. Egg quality during storage and deposition of minerals in eggs from quails fed diets supplemented with organic selenium, zinc and manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Gravena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments with Japanese laying quails were performed aiming to assess the effect of supplementation with minerals in organic form on the egg quality during storage and the deposition of minerals in eggs. The assessments of each experiment were related to one mineral, thus, experiment 1 assessed the supplementation with selenium in 0.35-, 0.70- and 1.05-mg/kg levels of feed; experiment 2, the supplementation with zinc in 50-, 100- and 150-mg/kg levels of feed; and experiment 3, the supplementation of manganese with 60-; 120- and 180-mg/kg levels of feed. All diets were evaluated compared with a control diet without mineral supplementation. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with eight birds per plot and six replicates per treatment. Fifty-five days after the beginning of diets, the yolks of three eggs from each plot were collected for selenium, zinc and manganese quantification, whereas the albumens of three eggs from each parcel were collected for analysis of selenium concentration. Eggs were collected at the last days of the experimental period from each experiment, to be stored at room temperature (28±2 °C and refrigeration (4 °C during different periods (0, 10, 20 and 30 days, except for experiment 3, in which eggs were stored at 0, 10 and 20 days. Percentages of albumen and yolk, yolk index, Haugh unit and moisture loss of eggs were evaluated. The supplementation with selenium is able to maintain the egg yolk index unchanged over the storage periods; however, supplementation with zinc and manganese is not effective to keep the quality of stored eggs. Supplementation with selenium and manganese is effective to increase the concentration of these minerals at 328.66% in the albumen and at 74.47% in the yolk, respectively. The different levels of zinc do not change the egg composition.

  7. Pattern of mercury allocation into egg components is independent of dietary exposure in Gentoo penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Abel, Stephanie; Polito, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Avian eggs have become one of the most common means of evaluating mercury contamination in aquatic and marine environments and can serve as reliable indicators of dietary mercury exposure. We investigated patterns of mercury deposition into the major components of penguin eggs (shell, membrane, albumen, and yolk) using the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) as a model species. Eggs were collected from both wild and captive populations of Gentoo penguins to compare the allocation of mercury into individual egg components of birds feeding at disparate trophic positions as inferred by stable isotope analysis. Mercury concentrations in captive penguins were an order of magnitude higher than in wild birds, presumably because the former were fed only fish at a higher trophic position relative to wild penguins that fed on a diet of 72-93% krill (Euphausia spp.). Similar to previous studies, we found the majority of total egg mercury sequestered in the albumen (92%) followed by the yolk (6.7%) with the lowest amounts in the shell (0.9%) and membrane (0.4%). Regardless of dietary exposure, mercury concentrations in yolk and membrane, and to a lesser degree shell, increased with increasing albumen mercury (used as a proxy for whole-egg mercury), indicating that any component, in the absence of others, may be suitable for monitoring changes in dietary mercury. Because accessibility of egg tissues in the wild varies, the establishment of consistent relationships among egg components will facilitate comparisons with any other study using eggs to assess dietary exposure to mercury. PMID:22002784

  8. Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dietary requirement of threonine was determined for brown laying hens in the period 50-66 weeks of age, based on performance parameters and quality of eggs. For this we used 150 laying Shaver Brown hens distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0.460; 0.490; 0.520; 0.550 and 0.580% of digestible threonine, six replications and five birds each. The digestible threonine levels did not affect (p>0.05 feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass or feed conversion kg kg-1, but presented a quadratic effect (p<0.05 on feed conversion dozen kg -1, where the lower conversion was obtained with a supply of 0.521% threonine in the diet. There was no effect of dietary digestible threonine levels (p>0.05 on the yolk and albumen index, specific gravity, yolk percentage, thickness or shell weight per surface area, since the variable Haugh unit displayed linear behavior (p<0.05 and increased with increasing levels of dietary threonine. The percentage of albumen and shell presented a quadratic effect (p<0.05 according to the dietary levels of threonine, and the best levels of these variables were obtained with a supply of 0.520% and 0.521% digestible threonine in the diet. The dietary requirement of threonine for laying hens, aged between 50 and 66 weeks, based on converting food kg kg-1, percentage of albumen and shell is 0.521%

  9. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing.

  10. [Clinical case of management of a patient with Guillain-Barre syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A V; Babak, C I; Murashko, N K

    2012-01-01

    Syndrome of Giyena-Barre can arise up in any age, in different regions, for men more frequent, than for women. There are descriptions of clinical supervisions of syndrome in domestic literature, combining with the defeat of the nervous system as a result of different pathogens which are procatarxiss in the start of mechanisms of immune attack on the albumens of mielina. However this disease continues to remain one of most heavy, requiring neyroreanimacionnykh measures, that causes the necessity of development of new methods of treatment in same queue.

  11. Using a novel micro-sampling technique to monitor the effects of methylmercury on the eggs of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Heinz, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds. The embryo is the life stage at which birds are most sensitive to methylmercury. Protective guidelines have been based largely on captive-breeding studies done with chickens (Gallus domesticus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Typically these studies are cost and time prohibitive. In the past, researchers have used either egg injections or the ?sample egg? technique to determine contaminant effects on bird eggs. Both techniques have their limitations. As an alternative to the above methods and because most of the methylmercury is found in the albumen we have developed a novel, less invasive technique, to micro-sample the albumen of eggs in the field. An albumen sample would be analyzed and then compared to the hatching success of that egg. Using the micro-sampling procedure, the egg is oriented with the blunt end up and the pointed end down. A vent hole is drilled at the top to relieve pressure. Approximately one third up from the bottom, a withdrawal site is drilled just until the inner shell membrane is exposed. A syringe with a 21 or 18 gauge needle is gently inserted just into the egg and approximately 200?300?l of albumen is removed. Almost concurrently this site and then the vent are sealed. Thus far we have experimented with both chicken and mallard eggs in the laboratory. We sampled chicken eggs at days 0 and 3 of incubation with a hatching success of 76% and 70%, respectively. Neither group was significantly different from control eggs (P=0.52, 0.54). Field studies are in progress using this technique in which birds are allowed to incubate their own eggs. We envision micro-sampling to be a tool that researchers and managers could use in the field to determine the effects of mercury or other contaminants in bird populations. Micro-sampling would reduce the impact on the sampled population and could be used to monitor

  12. Qualidade de ovos e resistência óssea de poedeiras alimentadas com minerais orgânicos Quality of eggs and bone strength of layers fed organic minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da utilização de níveis crescente de minerais orgânicos sobre a qualidade externa e interna de ovos e a resistência de ossos da tíbia de poedeiras semi-pesadas. Foram utilizadas 256 aves, com idade inicial de 30 semanas, distribuídas em 64 gaiolas perfazendo quatro aves por gaiola em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram da inclusão de minerais inorgânicos ou níveis crescentes de orgânicos na dieta basal das poedeiras, resultando em quatro tratamentos. Foram avaliados peso do ovo (g, gravidade específica, peso (g e espessura (mm da casca, altura do albúmen (mm, unidade Haugh, peso da gema (g e do albúmen (g e resistência óssea (kg. Houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 entre as médias para peso do ovo e do albúmen. O fornecimento de dietas suplementadas com minerais orgânicos, em nível intermediário resultou na produção de ovos mais pesados, com maior peso de albúmen, e na manutenção das demais características de qualidade externa e interna dos ovos e de resistência óssea.The effect of increasing levels of organic minerals on the external and internal quality of eggs and tibia bone strength of brown-egg laying hens was studied. A total of 256, 30-week old was equally distributed in 64 cages in a total of four birds per cage in a completely randomized experimental design. The dietary treatments consisted of inorganic or increasing levels of organic minerals in the diets of laying hens, resulting in four treatments. Egg weight (g, specific gravity, shell weight and thickness (mm, albumen height (mm, Haugh unit, yolk weight and albumen (g and bone strength (kg were evaluated. A significant difference (P<0.05 among treatment means for egg weight and albumen was found. Intermediate inclusion levels of organic minerals resulted in the production of heavier eggs, with higher albumen weight and maintenance of the other characteristics of internal and external quality of eggs and

  13. Iodine Concentration in Fodder Influences the Dynamics of Iodine Levels in Hen's Egg Components

    OpenAIRE

    Dolińska, Barbara; Opaliński, Sebastian; Zieliński, Michał; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Ryszka, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we determined the availability and accumulation of iodine in selected structures in hen's eggs: yolk, albumen, and eggshells. Iodine was administered as a yeast-derived biological complex mixed in standard fodder mix “DJ” to laying hens in their maximum egg yield period. The feeding period was sustained for 12 weeks, resulting in iodine enrichment in yolk and eggshells. These results suggest that iodine-enriched yeast can be added to fodder mix and premix (mineral–vitamin) given...

  14. Recovery of Salmonella from eggshell wash, eggshell crush, and egg internal contents of unwashed commercial shell eggs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R

    2012-07-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the eggshell surface, eggshell membranes or pores, and in egg internal contents from unwashed eggs collected from commercial caged layer farms in Australia. Eggshell rinsate, shell crush, and egg internal contents (yolk and albumen) of eggs were processed for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella subspecies 1, serotype 4,12:d were isolated from the eggshell surface. Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any eggshell crush or egg internal contents. It would appear that the occurrence of Salmonella in the Australian egg industry is low. PMID:22700522

  15. Enterobacteria isolation in ostrich eggs (Struthio Camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Knöbl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of enterobacteria in the eggs of ostriches reared on a farm with a history of reproductive failure. Ninety samples from twenty eggs were submitted to bacteriological tests. The results showed Enterobacteria growth in 100% of the eggs. The microorganisms isolated were Hafnia alvei in 50% (10/20, Serratia spp. in 20% (4/20, Escherichia coli in 15% (3/20, and Citrobacter freundii in 15% (3/20. All eggs presented poor eggshell quality, which favored enterobacteria contamination. Hafnia alvei was present only in the internal egg structures (albumen and yolk sac, suggesting the possibility of vertical infection.

  16. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives Viscosidade da clara de ovo proveniente de poedeiras de diferentes espécies com aditivos comerciais e naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk color and egg white (albumen cleanliness and viscosity are important parameters by which consumers judge the quality of eggs. This study aimed to investigate changes in albumen viscosity during storage of eggs for up to 36 days from two different commercial laying hen strains (Carijo Barbada and Isa Brown fed a diet containing annatto (1.5 and 2.0% or a synthetic additive without synthetic colorants (control. Analyses of humidity, albumen height, pH, viscosity, foam formation, and stability were carried out on eggs. Carijo Barbada strain had smaller albumen, lower humidity and higher egg white viscosity than Isa Brown strain; however, with storage, viscosity lowered significantly on both strains. Initially, the addition of 2.0% of annatto or a synthetic additive increased viscosity in both strains, but with storage only the control maintained longer viscosity. Lower viscosity did not change foam density and stability.A coloração da gema, transparência e viscosidade da clara (albúmen são parâmetros importantes que os consumidores consideram na avaliação dos ovos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar as trocas que ocorrem na armazenagem por 36 dias em relação à viscosidade da clara de ovos produzidos por poedeiras de duas diferentes linhagens (Carijo Barbada eIsa Brown , as quais receberam dietas contendo urucum (1,5 e 2,0% ou aditivo sintético. Foram realizadas as análises de umidade, altura do albúmen, pH, viscosidade, formação e estabilidade da espuma. A linhagem Carijó Barbada apresentou menor quantidade de albúmen, menor umidade e maior viscosidade que a linhagem Isa Brown, entretanto, com a estocagem, a viscosidade diminuiu significativamente para ambas as linhagens. Inicialmente, a adição de 2,0% de urucum ou aditivo sintético foi suficiente para aumentar a viscosidade em ovos obtidos de ambas as linhagens, mas com a estocagem, somente o controle manteve maior viscosidade. A baixa viscosidade não interferiu na

  17. Effects of extended storage on egg quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2005-11-01

    Eggs were collected from a single inline processing facility weekly for 3 wk (replicates). The eggs were stored at 4 degrees C and 80% RH. Sampling began the day after collection and continued each week for 10 wk. During analysis, 24 eggs were examined for egg weight, albumen height, Haugh units (HU), shell strength, and vitelline membrane strength for each replicate. Egg weight decreased (P Eggs from the second replicate were significantly (P eggs in replicate 2 compared with the other replicates (P shell strength between replicates or during extended storage. A significant difference (P membrane strength between replicates, but this difference was less than 0.05 g. The elasticity of the vitelline membrane decreased during storage (P egg weight, albumen height, and HU. However, average HU values were still within the range for grade A. Shell strength was not affected by extended storage. Vitelline membrane elasticity also decreased, which could lead to yolks more easily rupturing as consumers crack the eggs. The results indicated that although the physical quality factors monitored in this study decreased during storage, egg quality was still acceptable beyond current recommended shelf life guidelines. PMID:16463976

  18. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens.

  19. Traceability of animal meals in Japanese quail eggs using the technique of 13C e 15N* stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen by the technique of carbon-13 (13C and nitrogen-15 (15N stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%. After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.

  20. Assessment of low amounts of meat and bone meal in the diet of laying hens by using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Madeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the inclusion of low amounts of ingredients such as wheat bran, corn gluten and yeast in the diet of laying hens can interfere with the traceability of meat and bone meal (MBM in eggs and its fractions (albumen and yolk. We used 256 laying hens distributed across eight treatment groups, which consisted of a diet based on corn-soybean-wheat (CSW bran meal and other diets that had additions comprising gluten and/or (MBM and/or yeast. To analyse the isotopic ratios (13C:12C and 15N:14N, on the 28th and 56th days, 16 eggs were randomly taken for each treatment (four for each repetition, where eight eggs (two for each repetition were used to harvest yolk and albumen samples and the remaining eight (two for each repetition were used to analyse the whole egg. We concluded that detection of 2.0% MBM in the egg and its fractions is possible; however, the results for treatments containing gluten and yeast were not different from those containing MBM. Therefore, the inclusion of 3.0% gluten and/or yeast does not result in different ?13C and ?15N isotopic values in the egg and its fractions compared to the values obtained with the addition of 2.0% MBM in the diet.

  1. Protein and cholesterol content of Araucana chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somes, R G; Francis, P V; Tlustohowicz, J J

    1977-09-01

    Comparative data collected over two years are presented which refute the popular press claims that blue-shelled eggs of Araucana chickens have higher protein levels and lower cholesterol levels than market eggs. These comparisons were made between the eggs from the strains of Araucanas and those of White Leghorns and Sex-links. None of the differences found between test groups in % protein/g. albumen and % protein/g. yolk were shown to be consistently related to any one test group type. However, all Araucana test groups were significantly (P less than .01) lower in their total egg protein content than either control group by from 2.8--6.5%. This lower total protein content was the result of a consistent increase in the yolk/albumen ratio of the Araucana eggs over the market eggs. The Araucana eggs were consistently higher in their cholesterol levels on a mg./g. yolk basis than either of the market eggs. These increased concentrattions ranged from 2.0--6.9%. PMID:564510

  2. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site. PMID:27059867

  3. The inhibitory effect of soy products on nonheme iron absorption in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J D; Morck, T A; Lynch, S R

    1981-12-01

    Radioiron absorption studies were performed in male volunteer subjects to determine the effect on nonheme iron absorption of various semipurified proteins. When egg albumen and casein were substituted in protein-equivalent quantities in a semisynthetic meal, similar mean absorptions of 2.5 and 2.7% were observed. In contrast, isolated soy protein reduced absorption sharply, to an average of 0.5%. When egg albumen in the semisynthetic meal was replaced with full fat soy flour, textured soy flour, and isolated soy protein, absorption fell from 5.5 to 1.0, 1.9, and 0.4%, respectively, indicating an inhibitory effect by a wide range of soy products. The effect of substituting textured soy flour for meat in a meal containing a hamburger, french fries, and a milkshake was also evaluated. With 3:1 and 2.1 ratios of meat to unhydrated textured soy flour, absorption decreased by 61 and 53%, respectively. The soy products tested in this study have a pronounced inhibitory effect on the absorption of nonheme iron. PMID:7198374

  4. The traceability of animal meals in layer diets as detected by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Denadai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to trace the inclusion of animal meals in layer diets by analyzing eggs and their fractions (yolk and albumen using the technique of carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Two-hundred and eighty-eight (288 73-week-old Shaver White layers, never fed animal ingredients, were randomly distributed in six treatments with six replicates each. The treatments were: control - corn and soybean meal based diet and five other experimental diets including bovine meat and bone meal (MBM; poultry offal meal (POM; feather meal (FM; feather meal and poultry offal meal (OFM, and poultry offal meal, feather meal, and meat and bone meal (MBOFM. The isotopic results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance. Ellipses were determined through an error matrix (95% confidence to identify differences between treatments and the control group. In the albumen and yolk of all experimental treatments were significantly different from the control diet (p < 0.05. In summary, the stable isotope technique is able to trace the animal meals included in layer feeds in the final product under these experimental conditions.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in entire clutches of Audouin's gulls from the Ebro Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Joana; Sanpera, Carola; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Pérez, Alba; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in three-egg clutches of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in Ebro Delta's colony according to the laying order (a, b and c eggs). Five PFASs were analyzed in 30 eggs (yolk and albumen separately), corresponding to 10 three-egg clutches. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured as dietary tracers. PFASs were not detected in albumen. In egg yolks, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the main compound detected followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFBS) was not detected. Mean ΣPFASs for a-eggs was of 236±57 ng g(-1) yolk wet weight (ww), for b-eggs was of 140±56 ng g(-1) yolk ww and for c-eggs, 133±54 ng g(-1) yolk ww. PFOS concentration decreased according to the laying order of the eggs, showing significant differences between consecutive eggs. In addition, significant correlation (rs2=0.7-0.9) was observed for PFOS concentration within the eggs from the same clutch. No relationship was found between PFOS levels and stable isotopes signatures. Capsule: In Audouin gull's eggs, PFOS was the main PFASs detected and its concentration decreased according to the laying sequence. PMID:24815900

  6. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (Pbean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  7. Effects of parenteral gibberellic acid and dietary supplementaion of vitamin D3 on egg quality and physiological characteristics in aged laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Razuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral gibberellic acid (GA3 and/or vitamin D3 supplementation in diet on egg quality and blood physiological characteristics in aged laying hens. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens aging 73-week were randomly assigned to equal three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3 with equal 3 replicas in each group. The birds of group T1 (control group were injected subcutaneously (SC with sesame oil at 0.2 mL/kg body weight. The birds of group T2 were given with GA3 at 400 µg/kg b.wt., SC, whereas group T3 had diet containing vitamin D3 at 500 IU/kg feed. Relative weight of albumen and egg shell, Haugh unit, shell thickness, serum glucose, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, serum estradiol, and bone calcium absorption were significantly increased in the birds of group T2 and T3. On the other hand, relative weight of yolk, yolk cholesterol, and serum cholesterol were significantly decreased in group T2 and T3 as compared to group T1. However, serum protein and albumen were unaffected in the treatments. In conclusion, the parenteral GA3 and vitamin D3 supplementation in diet could improve egg quality traits and serum blood biochemical perperties in agend laying hens.

  8. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG CHARACTERISTICS OF PULLETS AND SPENT LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. YASMEEN, S. MAHMOOD1, M. HASSAN, N. AKHTAR AND M. YASEEN2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Production performance and egg quality characteristics of pullets and spent layers were compared in this study. Forty birds, each from the flocks of pullets (24 weeks old and spent layers (76 weeks old were selected as experimental birds. The birds from each age group were divided into five replicates, each comprising of eight birds. All the experimental birds were fed a commercial layer ration @ 110g/bird/day for 12 weeks. The data on egg production, feed consumption, egg weight and egg quality characteristics viz. shell thickness, shell weight, breaking strength, albumen diameter, albumen weight and yolk weight were recorded. The data thus collected were utilized for calculation of FCR, Haugh unit and yolk index values. The results revealed that pullets produced more eggs and utilized their feed more efficiently than spent layers. However, egg weight in spent layers was higher than in their counterparts. Pullets also produced eggs with thicker shell and higher Haugh unit values when compared to the spent layers. Feed consumption and yolk index values remained unaffected due to the age. Pullets also had better egg quality characteristics than those of spent layers.

  9. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  10. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species.

  11. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: an indication of polluted effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif; Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Ghafri, Sabha; Al-Amri, Issa; Alkindi, Abdulaziz

    2009-05-01

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  12. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: An indication of polluted effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  13. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used i to examine the effect of supplementing of different levels of arginine to broiler diets on blood biochemistry. The chicks were allocated on 4 treatment groups each of five replicates and each replicate consisted of 15 chicks. The treatment groups were control (without arginine and treatments T1, T2 and T3 having arginine in the diet at the levels of 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 %, respectively. The blood plasma traits included in this study were protein, albumen, globulin, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, uric acid, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The results indicated that adding arginine to the diet of broilers (T1, T2 and T3 resulted in significant increases in blood plasma protein, albumen, globulin, glucose, ALP, and calcium and significant decreases in blood plasma cholesterol, uric acid, AST, and ALT during all periods of the experiment. In conclusion, supplementation of the broiler ration with L-arginine resulted in improvement with respect to blood plasma traits. Therefore, arginine can be used as effective feed additive for enhancing physiological status of broiler chickens.

  14. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species. PMID:27143774

  15. Digestible threonine to lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-hundred sixteen white laying hens were used to assess the ideal ratio of digestible threonine:lysine in diets for laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age. Birds were assigned to a randomized block design, with six treatments, six replicates per treatment and six birds per experimental unit. The cage was used as the blocking criterion. Experimental diets contained different digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratios (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90% with 142 g/kg of crude protein. Experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with different contents of L-glutamic acid. Feed intake (g/hen/d, egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/hen/d, feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen and kg/kg egg, eggshell weight (g, albumen weight (g, yolk weight (g and body weight gain (g were assessed. The maximum egg production was observed at 78% digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio, while the best values of feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg of egg were observed at 77.6% and 75%, respectively. Feed intake, egg mass and egg contents (yolk, albumen and eggshell were not affected by treatments. The estimated digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of Hy-Line W36 laying hens at 24 to 40 weeks of age is 78%, corresponding to 5.70 g/kg of dietary digestible threonine.

  16. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Terčič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for interior or exterior quality characteristics. There were no effects of dietary treatments on egg shape index. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation resulted in a reduction in egg shell colour (darker shells and yolk colour (paler yolks and higher incidence of blood and meat spots, which reduce the internal quality of the egg. Alpha lipoic acid had no effect on egg weight, egg shell colour, egg shell density, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk colour, incidence of blood and meat spots but increased shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units values were noted. Egg shell strength for hens supplemented with alpha lipoic acid was greater than for control hens. The results of the experiment indicated that alpha lipoic acid supplementation to the diet of layers may be of practical value due to the increased egg shell strength and better albumen characteristics without any adverse effect on other egg quality traits.

  17. Effect of sodium fluoride and high fluorine fertilizer phosphates on performance of laying chickens and egg shell quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, H.J. Jr.; Sullivan, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Caged layer chickens were placed on corn-soybean meal diets containing the following dietary variables for a period for 16 weeks: monosodium phosphate (MSP); MSP plus 500 ppm F as NaF; diammonium phosphate (DAP); concentrated superphosphate (CSP); and feed grade dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Egg production rate was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of F to diets containing MSP. Feed efficiency was not depressed by added F, and was improved by CSP. Egg weight was significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the addition of NaF to diets containing MSP. Egg shell breaking strength was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by NaF and DAP. No statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed among treatments in percent checked and cracked eggs; however, the trends corresponded closely with breaking strength. Dietary treatments had not effect on mortality. Fluorine content of the egg was affected by dietary F level and duration of feeding period. After 16 weeks, F content of egg shell was 38 and 35 ppm for MSP and DCP, respectively, 150 ppm for both MSP + NaF and DAP, and 140 ppm for CSP. Fluorine contents of yolk and albumen were not affected by dietary treatments, and mean values were .55 and .35 ppm F, respectively, for yolk and albumen.

  18. Effect of a commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Abdo, Z

    2014-05-01

    Egg producers in the United States are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. Consumer egg grades in the United States were developed for conventional cage production, and it is unclear what effect alternative production systems might have on egg quality during retail and consumer home storage. The current study was undertaken to determine what changes in egg quality characteristics occur during extended cold storage for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. During 12 wk of cold storage, egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, static compression shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and deformation, yolk index, shell dynamic stiffness, and whole egg total solids were monitored. Overall, aviary and enriched eggs were significantly (P eggs. Static compression shell strength was greatest (P eggs compared with aviary. No overall housing system effects for yolk measurements, shell dynamic stiffness, or whole egg total solids were observed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk quality measurements were all greatest at 0 and lowest at 12 wk of storage (P egg weight at 4 wk, no significant differences in the rate of quality decline were found among the housing systems. The results of the current study indicate that current US egg quality standards should effectively define quality for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. PMID:24795324

  19. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  20. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  1. 胡萝卜火腿肠的研制%Study on the Formula of Carrot Flavor Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 张丽芳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ] To search for the optimum formula of carrot flavor sausages. [ Method ] With pork and carrots as the main raw materi als and soybean albumen and glutinous rice starch as adjunct, the single factor test was adopted to determine the optimum addition range of carrot juice, and then the orthogonal experiment was carried out to determine the best addition amount of carrot juice, glutinous rice starch, soybean albumen, carrageenin, salt, spice, monosodium glutamate and white sugar. [ Result] The optimal formula was 60% pork (fat/mus cle ratio 1 'A), 13% carrot juice, 8% glutinous rice starch, 4% soybean albumen, 0.3% carrageenin, 3% salt,0.8% spice,0.3% mono sodium glutamate and 1.2% white sugar. [ Conclusion ] The study not only richened the varieties of sausages and added more nutrients to the sausage products, but also paved a new path and broad marketing prospect for the deep processing of carrots.%[目的]寻求胡萝卜风味火腿肠的最佳配方.[方法]以猪肉和胡萝卜为主要原料,以大豆蛋白和糯米淀粉为辅料,采用单因素试验确定了胡萝卜汁的最佳添加范围.再通过正交试验确定胡萝卜汁、糯米淀粉、大豆蛋白、卡拉胶、食盐、香辛料、味素、白糖的最佳添加量.[结果]最佳配方为猪肉60%(肥瘦比1∶4)、胡萝卜汁13%、糯米淀粉8%、大豆蛋白4%、卡拉胶0.3%、食盐3%、香辛料0.8%、味素0.3%、白糖1.2%.[结论]该研究不仅丰富了火腿肠的种类,增添了肠制品的营养,也为胡萝卜的深加工开辟了一条新道路,具有良好的市场前景.

  2. ON THE NATURE OF THE OPSONIC SUBSTANCES OBNORMAL SERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, H; Cary, E G

    1914-04-01

    Our experiments show that the albumen fraction, or end-piece, obtained by the dialysis of normal guinea pig serum possesses definite opsonic action. This action is often almost equal to that residing in the unfractionated alexin. It is evident, however, only if the reaction maintained during the experiments approximates that of the original serum. By the addition of small quantities of a weak sodium hydrate solution to the dialyzed serum we have been able to bring back opsonic action which was not evident in the same end-piece if simply rendered isotonic. Although our attention was called to the question of reaction by the work of Bronfenbrenner and Noguchi, like Liefmann, we have been unable to reactivate the hemolytic function of end-piece by alteration of reaction. Our experiments suggest that the opsonic action of the albumen fraction is enhanced by preliminary sensitization of the bacteria with heated normal serum and by persensitization of such bacteria with the globulin fraction. However, we cannot be positive of this, since the slight differences of phagocytic counts upon which such an opinion can be based, fall within the limits of what we consider our experimental error. The fact that the albumen fraction can exert opsonic activity upon bacteria but cannot hemolyze blood cells seems to us particularly interesting in the light of the fact that alexin can be absorbed by unsensitized bacteria but not by similarly untreated blood cells. The literature upon the relation of the alexin fractions to bacteria and the bactericidal effect is confusing in that contradictory results have been obtained by other workers. We are studying this phase of the problem with particular attention to the alkalinity or acidity under which the reactions are carried out. We think that our experiments do not point to a differentiation of normal opsonin from alexin, but we believe they indicate that the so called end-piece can enter to a slight extent into non-specific relationship

  3. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. PMID:27516250

  4. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-05-01

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  5. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin, E-mail: tanmja@gis.a-star.edu.sg; Parrish, Colin R., E-mail: crp3@cornell.edu

    2014-05-15

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  6. 酥脆牛轧糖生产工艺的探讨%Study of Manufacturing Technique of the Crisp Nougat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祖春

    2012-01-01

    Effects of some influential factor on effect quality were studied and then an orthogonal test design was applied to obtain the optimal process conditions. The best manufacturing conditions are as follows: sugar/glucose syrup 5:5, boiled temperature 145 "C, 2% dosage of egg Albumen, and tired time25 min.%先对影响产品质量的单因素进行实验研究,并在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验获得最优化工艺条件.实验结果为:糖浆比5:5,熬糖温度145℃,2%卵蛋白,搅打时间25 min.

  7. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  8. Estimation of monosaccharide radioactivity in biological samples through osazone derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F.J.; Pons, A.; Alemany, M.; Palou, A.

    1982-03-01

    A method for the quantitative estimation of radioactivity in the glucose (monosaccharide) fraction of biological samples is presented. Radioactive samples are added with cold glucose, and 1 aliquot receives a known amount of radioactive glucose as internal standard. After controlled osazone formation and three washings of the yellow precipitate, the osazones are dissolved, decolored, and their radioactivity determined through scintillation counting. The overall efficiency of recovery is 23-24% of the initial readioactivity. Each sample is corrected by the recovery of its own internal standard. There is a very close linear relationship between radioactivity present in the samples and radioactivity found, despite the use of different biological samples (rat plasma, hen egg yolk and albumen).

  9. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  10. AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE CÓRNEAS DE COELHOS CRIOPRESERVADAS COM ETILENOGLICOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA BORGES ALVES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit corneas, cryopreserved with ethylene glycol, were evaluated. Corneas of the right and left ocular globes were collected from eleven New Zelanda male rabbits, weighing between 4.0kg and 5.0kg, immediately after the animals were slaughtered. The corneas were removed with a 2.0mm edge of sclera and washed in physiological solution 0.9%. The right corneas were fixed in formaldeide, enclosed in paraffin, stained in hematoxyline eosine for evaluation in light microscopy. The left corneas were immersed in cryoprotect bottlescontaining phosphate-buffered saline solution, 0.4% of bovine albumen and 1.5 molar of ethylene glycol. The bottles were frozen for 60 days at -196º C in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, they were submitted to macrocospic analysis, and measured from digital images. The rabbits´ corneas preservated with ethylene glycol in liquid nitrogen caused no structural nor morphometry alterations at the layers that compose the cornea.

  11. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  12. Metabolic changes in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A positron emission tomograph (PET) is described for displaying the flow pattern of radioactive isotope-labelled substances injected into the human brain. This is claimed to assist in diagnosis of circulation disturbances and to show sugar and oxygen uptake. Emitted gamma rays are detected by rings of 96 detectors whose outputs are used to produce a computer-generated reproduction of the brain, with different colours or densities on a cathode ray tube representing concentration of the labelled substance. Epileptic spasms, Huntington's chorea and drug uptake, as well as albumen content variations due to tumours, are stated to be capable of display. Future uses of the ''PET'' tomograph are discussed. (G.M.E.)

  13. An Investigation into Japine Platinum Photographs: William Willis´s Proprietary Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Clark, Matthew L; McCabe, Constance;

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of two samples of the commercial platinum photographic paper “Japine” revealed that this trade-name product was sold with a range of surface properties from matte to glossy. An in-depth examination of an unprocessed glossy Japine sample showed a chemically modified surface resulting from...... parchmentization by treatment with sulfuric acid. This treatment results in a thin film of amorphous cellulose on the printing surface, altering its visual appearance and wet strength. Photographers selected this paper due to its aesthetic qualities. However, such papers have never been characterized...... and are essentially unknown to modern-day scholars who may mistake them as prints with thin binder layers, such as albumen or gelatin. Indeed, the approach to conservation of these photographs may differ from one designed for a traditional platinum print. The parchmentized Japine paper was criticized for its tendency...

  14. CARACTERÍSTICAS PÓS-COLHEITA DOS FRUTOS DE CULTIVARES DE MELANCIA, SUBMETIDAS À APLICAÇÃO DE BIOESTIMULANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÚLIO CÉSAR PONTES MARTINS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective to study the foam-mat drying of Cereus jamacaru pulp fruit with albumen (2% and “Super Liga Neutra” (2% with whipping time of 5 min, dried in oven with air circulation at 70; 80, and 90 °C with three different foam thicknesses (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying curves were fitted with the Page, Henderson and Pabis and Cavalcanti Mata models. Drying time was influ- enced by the foam thickness and process temperature being the process faster for smaller thickness and higher temperature. He Cavalcanti Mata model presented the best fit of the experimental foam drying kinetics data.

  15. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver.

  16. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  17. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  18. Effect of restricted preen-gland access on maternal self maintenance and reproductive investment in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Giraudeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As egg production and offspring care are costly, females should invest resources adaptively into their eggs to optimize current offspring quality and their own lifetime reproductive success. Parasite infections can influence maternal investment decisions due to their multiple negative physiological effects. The act of preening--applying oils with anti-microbial properties to feathers--is thought to be a means by which birds combat pathogens and parasites, but little is known of how preening during the reproductive period (and its expected disease-protecting effects influences maternal investment decisions at the level of the egg. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally prevented female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from accessing their preen gland during breeding and monitored female immunoresponsiveness (e.g., plasma lysozyme concentration as well as some egg traits linked to offspring quality (e.g., egg mass, yolk carotenoid content, and albumen lysozyme levels. Females with no access to their preen gland showed an increase in plasma lysozyme level compared to control, normally preening females. In addition, preen-gland-restricted females laid significantly lighter eggs and deposited higher carotenoid concentrations in the yolk compared to control females. Albumen lysozyme activity did not differ significantly between eggs laid by females with or without preen gland access. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results establish a new link between an important avian self-maintenance behaviour and aspects of maternal health and reproduction. We suggest that higher yolk carotenoid levels in eggs laid by preen-gland-restricted females may serve to boost health of offspring that would hatch in a comparatively microbe-rich environment.

  19. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  20. The Influence of Oregano Essential Oil and Rhus Coriaria L. on Qualitative Parameters and Microbiological Indicators of Hens Eggs Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and Rhus coriaria L.seeds addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 20 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and Rhus coriaria L.seeds supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups were supplemented with 1 ml/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental group of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with Rhus coriaria L. seeds (1% in total feed mixture. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content and egg shell were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or Rhus coriaria L. seeds addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant difference in favour of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality, in the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coli forms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normálna tabuľka"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40 were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05. A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05. The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  2. Eggshell quality, eggshell structure and small intestinal histology in laying hens fed dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Lokaewmanee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effects of dietary Pantoea-6® (extract of fermented wheat flour with Pantoea agglomerans and plant extracts (red clover and garlic on eggshell quality and structure and intestinal histology. Sixty-six Boris Brown laying hens (30 weeks old were allotted to 3 groups, each with eleven replicates of two chickens. The control group was fed a basal diet (18% crude protein, 2850 kcal/kg ME and the other groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% Pantoea-6® (including 0.06 g/kg lipopolysaccharide and 0.1% plant extracts, respectively. There were no significant differences in laying performance and egg quality. However, these adverse effects occurred in the egg and albumen weight and eggshell breaking strength of the Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups (P<0.05. Shell weight of the Pantoea- 6® group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05. Compared with the control, eggshell structure tended to have greater thickness in both dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups. The duodenum and jejunum of both Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups showed higher values for cell area than those of the control (P<0.05. Moreover, cells on the villus tip surface were protuberated in both dietary Pantoea-6® and plant extracts groups, resulting in a rough surface. This study shows that Pantoea-6® and plant extracts at a 0.1% level might have a beneficial effect on egg and albumen weight, eggshell quality and structure parameters, as well as on small intestine histological parameters.

  3. Rastreabilidade da farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em ovos de poedeiras comerciais pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e nitrogênio Traceability of bovine meat and bones meal in eggs of commercial laying hens through carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia Denadai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo rastrear a inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em dietas para poedeiras comerciais, por meio da análise dos ovos e de suas frações (gema e albúmen, pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis do carbono e nitrogênio e avaliar o índice analítico mínimo detectável. Foram utilizadas 240 galinhas poedeiras da linhagem Shaver White de 73 semanas de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram avaliados cinco níveis de inclusão (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0% de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos em uma dieta à base de milho e farelo de soja. No 35º dia, foram tomados aleatoriamente 24 ovos por tratamento: 12 serviram para amostragem de gema e albúmen e os outros 12 para amostragem do ovo (gema + albúmen. Os resultados isotópicos foram submetidos à análise multivariada de variância e, a partir das matrizes de erro, com 95% de confiança, foram determinadas elipses para identificar as diferenças entre os resultados obtidos com o fornecimento das dietas experimentais e a dieta controle, sem farinha de carne e ossos bovinos. No ovo e na gema, a partir do par isotópico da dieta com 3,0% de farinha de carne e ossos, houve diferenciação do par do tratamento controle, enquanto, no albúmen, a diferenciação ocorreu a partir do nível de 1,5% de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos na dieta. Pela técnica dos isótopos estáveis, é possível rastrear o uso de farinha de carne e ossos bovinos na alimentação de poedeiras; no albúmen, o nível mínimo de inclusão detectável é de 1,5% e, no ovo e na gema, 3,0%.The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bones meal in diets of laying hens analyzing eggs and theirs fractions (yolk and albumen, by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, as well as to evaluate the detectable analytical minimal index. Two hundred and forty (240 Shaver White laying hens aging 73 weeks were

  4. Caracterização biométrica de frutos de coqueiro, Vocos nucifera L. variedade anã-verde, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento Biometric characterization in fruitages of green dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Benassi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a curva de crescimento da massa do fruto e diâmetros externos longitudinal e transversal, bem como os acúmulos do albúmen sólido (polpa e albúmen líquido (água-de-coco e sua caracterização sensorial em diferentes estádios. Frutos de coqueiro-anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L. foram avaliados em 26 épocas, durante o período de sua formação, em intervalos quinzenais, de abril de 2004 a maio de 2005, no município de Bebedouro - SP. Foram aplicados aos dados modelos de regressão logística e logística combinada com exponencial quadrática, obtendo-se elevados graus de ajustes. O diâmetro externo longitudinal alcançou a média máxima de 20,12 cm aos 375 dias após a abertura da inflorescência (d.a.a.i., enquanto o diâmetro externo transversal alcançou 14,57 cm, aos 345 (d.a.a.i.. Os frutos apresentaram maior massa no período entre 255 e 315 (d.a.a.i., não havendo diferença estatística significativa neste período. O albúmen sólido teve início de formação aos 225 (d.a.a.i., chegando aos 375 dias com a massa média de 214,78 gramas. O maior volume médio de albúmen líquido foi verificado em frutos com 8,5 meses de idade com adequado sabor. Esses dados são importantes indicativos do ponto ideal de colheita dos frutos de coqueiro-anão-verde, na região de Bebedouro - SP, para o consumo in natura da água-de-coco.The aim of this work was to determine the growth curve of the fruit mass and the longitudinal and transversal diameter, as well as the accumulation of solid and liquid albumens (coconut water and its sensorial characterization in different stages. Fruitages of green dwarf coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. were evaluated fortnightly in 26 times during the period of their formation, from April 2004 to May 2005, in the city of Bebedouro, São Paulo state. Models of logistics regression and logistics with quadratic exponential were applied to the data with the graphic collaboration of the growth

  5. Níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável na produção e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann Brown Levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy on the production and eggs quality of Lohmann Brown layers strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Setor de Avicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de 324 poedeiras Lohmann Brown submetidas a diferentes níveis protéicos e energéticos entre a 43ª e 55ª semana de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 3x3, sendo 3 níveis protéicos (15,50, 16,50 e 17,50% e 3 níveis energéticos (2700, 2800 e 2900 Kcal EM/kg, com 6 repetições e 6 aves por unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram produção de ovos, massa de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa de ovos, peso do ovo, peso do albúmen, peso da gema e peso da casca e suas respectivas porcentagens. Os níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável não influenciaram significativamente (P>0,05 nenhum dos parâmetros estudados. Os níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável apresentaram efeito linear (PThe experiment was conducted in the Section of Aviculture, of the Department of Animal Science at the Federal University of Paraiba to study the acting of 324 laying hens Lohmann Brown, submitted to different proteins and energy levels among of the 43ª and 55ªweek of age. The laying hens were distributed in randomly experimental design in a factorial model 3x3, being 3 crude protein levels (15.50, 16.50 and 17.50% and 3 energy levels (2700, 2800 and 2900 Kcal ME/kg, with 6 replicates and 6 laying hens for experiment unit. The parameters evaluated were production of eggs, mass of eggs, feed conversion for mass of eggs, weight of the egg, weight of albumen, weight of the yolk and weight of the shell, and their respective percentages. The crude protein and metabolizable energy levels had any significantlive influency (P>0.05 on the studied parameters. Crude protein and metabolizable energy levels shown linear effect (P<.05 only on weight and percentage of the albumen and shell, however there was

  6. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  7. Efeito de Bixa orellana na alteração de características de ovos de galinhas Effect of Bixa orellana in the alteration of characteristics of poultry laying eggs

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    Marcia Nalesso Costa Harder

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da adição de urucum (Bixa orellana L. na ração de galinhas poedeiras, quanto à possível interferência na qualidade dos ovos. Para obtenção das amostras foram utilizados 125 animais, divididos em cinco tratamentos: Controle (0% - T1 e quatro tratamentos com adição de urucum na ração (0,5% - T2; 1,0% - T3; 1,5% - T4 e 2,0% - T5. Os animais foram separados aleatoriamente em cinco blocos de cinco animais, totalizando 25 animais por parcela. Os ovos, após coletados, foram classificados usando ovoscópio, pesados, realizada análise de gravidade específica, unidade Haugh, altura de albúmen e gema, espessura da casca, diâmetro e índice de gema. As diferentes dietas não afetaram: peso; gravidade específica; altura do albumén; espessura da casca; altura de gema; diâmetro de gema. Pôde ser observado que a adição de urucum, na ração de poedeiras, não alterou a maior parte dos parâmetros de qualidade física do ovo, somente a unidade Haugh e o índice de gema apresentaram diferença (pThis research evaluated the effects of addition of anatto (Bixa orellana L. to feed laying hens to verify the possible interference of the anatto on egg quality. The eggs were obtained from 125 animal divided in 5 treatments: Control (0% - T1 and four treatments with addition of anatto (0.5% - T2; 1.0% - T3; 1.5% - T4 and 2.0% - T5. The laying hens were separated in five blocks, each block with 5 animals, with total 25 animals by parcel. The eggs picked were classified using eggscopic, weighed, specific gravity, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk height, thickness of the shell, diameter and index yolk. Different feeds did not modify: weight; specific gravity; albumen height, thickness of the shell; yolk height and diameter of yolk. About the eggs quality analysis, addition of anatto did not show significance (p>0.05 among the treatments to most of the parameters of physical quality of eggs, only

  8. 不同氮素营养水平的水稻冠层光谱红边参数及其应用研究%Study on red edge characteristics of rice spectral caused by nitrogen level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀珍; 王人潮; 李云梅; 沈掌泉

    2001-01-01

    通过对不同氮素营养水平水稻冠层光谱特性的田间试验研究,发现红边位移现象:在孕穗期之前,红边随施氮量增加向长波方向“红移”;孕穗期后“红移”现象基本消失,而发生“蓝移”。 红边参数(红边、红边振幅、红边振幅与最小振幅的比值、红边峰值面积)与上层叶片的叶绿素含量、LAI、累积施氮量有着密切的关系,而与叶片中的叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素、蛋白氮和非蛋白氮之间的相关性不明显。一些红边参数可作为水稻叶绿素含量、LAI测定的简便方法。%The canopy spectra of rice under different nitrogen levels were studied . Some red edge parameters in the first derivative reflectance curve (wavelength, amplitude and area of the red edge peak ) were studied to evaluate rice leaf chlorophyll, LAI etc. Red edge positions move to longer wave bands till booting stage and move to short bands after booting stage. A high correlation was found between chlorophyll a content of top leaves and the wavelength of the red edge position and between LAI and the red edge parameter. Then, the red edge was found valuable for assessment of rice up stand leaves chlorophyll contents. But a correlation was not found between chlorophyll b content of leaves or carotenoid or albumen-nitrogen or non-albumen-nitrogen and the wavelength of the red parameters. Some red edge parameters are one of the best remote sensing descriptors.

  9. Maximizing carbon dioxide content of shell eggs by rapid cooling treatment and its effect on shell egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P; Keener, K M

    2012-06-01

    Rapid cooling of shell eggs using liquid CO₂ has been shown to cool eggs to 7°C within minutes, as opposed to days required by traditional cooling treatments. This quick-cooling technique is component in the maintenance of egg quality and extended shelf life beyond the current 30- to 45-d period. The hypothesis for the current study was that maximizing CO₂ content of the eggs during cooling may increase Haugh units and thus extend shelf life (physical quality factors). The objective of this study was to maximize CO₂ content of shell eggs during rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ and determine its effect on egg quality during 12 wk of refrigerated storage. Three cooling conditions selected for the study were -45°C for 18 min (treatment A), -60°C for 15 min (treatment B), and -75°C for 12 min (treatment C). After rapid-cooling treatment, it took approximately 25 min for the internal temperature of eggs to equilibrate to 7°C. The Haugh units of the rapidly cooled eggs were significantly higher than the traditionally cooled (control) eggs. After 12 wk of refrigerated (5-7°C) storage, control eggs were only 37% AA-grade, 57% A-grade, and 6% B-grade. In comparison, all the rapidly cooled eggs averaged to 80% AA-grade and 20% A-grade. After 6 wk, the average quality of control eggs reduced to grade A, whereas rapid cooling treatment was able to maintain AA quality up to 12 wk. The CO₂ content of the rapidly cooled eggs (1.8 mg of CO₂/g of albumen) showed no difference between treatments A, B, and C, but it was significantly higher than the control (1.3 mg of CO₂/g of albumen). In addition, the vitelline membrane strength of the control decreased 65% during storage and was between 30 and 50% of the vitelline membrane strength of CO₂-cooled eggs at 12 wk. Rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ extends shelf life of shell eggs. PMID:22582306

  10. Knowledge of Chemical Indicators of Eggs from Hens Reared in Conventional and Free Range System

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    Lucia Iuliana Cotfas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many consumers prefer nowadays eggs from alternative production systems because of their concerns about its own food safety and welfare of laying hens (Anderson. K. E., 2009. According to the regulations, a free range egg is obtained in poultry farms were laying hens have access to outdoor paddock, where they can show all the instincts of physiological and ethological (Usturoi M.G., 2004. Aims: The aim of this research was the correct information on the quality of these products and comparative study of chemical characteristics of eggs obtain from different production systems (conventional and free range. Materials and Methods: Chemical indicators’ determination was made through specific methods, in according with actual standards and consists in establishing of water, proteins, fats, ash and non-nitrogenous extractive substances contents. The biological material was represented by 90 eggs produced by Lohmann Brown laying hens aged 33 weeks: 45 gathered from birds exploited in free range system and 45 from birds reared in cages agreed by EU. Results: Egg obtained from free range system have a slightly higher content of protein (10.35±0.12 % vs. 9.97±0.03 % compared with conventional system, from albumen and from yolk (17.46±0.00 % vs. 17.19±0.01 %, this fact was happened because of aport of green grass from the outside paddock (Morris T.R., 2004. Comparative with conventional system, eggs from free range system have a higher content of lipids of yolk with 2.23%.Chemical analysis of melange from studied eggs showed a higher rate of dry matter at free range eggs (23.374% vs. 22.969%, but also for proteins (12.952% vs. 12.520% and lipids (7.676% vs. 7.398%. Conclusions: The increase in freedom of laying hens (free range caused a qualitative improvement of dry components of both the egg components (yolk and albumen but also the quantitative one, and eggs obtained has a high nutritional value  

  11. Internal quality of eggs coated with whey protein concentrate Qualidade interna de ovos de galinha cobertos com concentrado protéico de soro de leite bovino

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    Ana Cláudia Carraro Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of foods can be preserved when they are coated with edible films, since both the loss of moisture and the transport of O2 and CO2 are reduced. The objectives of this work were: to compare weight loss, Haugh units, and albumen pH between fresh eggs and eggs coated with whey protein concentrate (WPC, under six storage periods (3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days, at 25°C. During the entire storage period, regardless of whether the eggs were coated or not, the Haugh unit values and the weight loss decreased, and differences between values from the first to the last period were lower for coated eggs. Albumen pH increased. The Haugh unit values for coated eggs were similar to those found in literature references when the same storage period was considered.As vantagens de utilizar filmes e coberturas comestíveis podem ser justificadas pela manutenção das propriedades funcionais dos alimentos, através da diminuição da perda de umidade e da diminuição da troca de gases (O2 e CO2. Aplicação de cobertura em ovos com casca reduz a perda de peso e mantém a qualidade interna do produto. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram comparar a perda de peso, os valores de unidades Haugh e o pH do albume de ovos com e sem cobertura à base de concentrado protéico de soro de leite, armazenados a 25°C, por 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 e 28 dias. Durante todo o período de armazenamento houve decréscimo dos valores de unidades Haugh e perda de peso, tanto para os ovos com cobertura como para os ovos sem cobertura. O pH do albume aumentou para os ovos com e sem cobertura, a variação dos valores nos ovos com cobertura foi menor do que para os ovos sem cobertura. A cobertura de concentrado protéico de soro de leite reduz o transporte de vapor de água e gás (CO2 através dos poros da casca do ovo. Essa cobertura mantém o pH da clara de ovo na faixa de 8, durante quatro semanas de armazenamento e, desse modo, consegue manter as características necess

  12. EFEITO DO PERÍODO DO ANO SOBRE A QUALIDADE DE OVOS COMERCIALIZADOS NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Elaine Silva Boiago

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The egg is a product that clearly shows reduced quality when subjected to inappropriate storage conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of large brown eggs sold in Chapecó city (Santa Catarina, Brazil during winter and summer seasons. It was used a completely randomized design in a factorial 2 x 4, with 2 collection periods and 4 markets analyzed, with four replications. All the eggs were from the same brand, batch and storage period of 9 days after packaging. Haugh unit, yolk index, yolk color by color fan DSM, albumen and yolk pH, and specific gravity were the parameters analyzed. The results obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS program and the differences between means were compared by Tukey test at5% of significance. A significant increase for specific gravity, Haugh unit and yolk index was observed during the winter season. It was also observed a significant increase for the albumen and yolk pH values in the samples analyzed during the summer. O ovo é um produto que apresenta queda de qualidade quando submetido a condições impróprias de armazenamento. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar as características qualitativas de ovos marrons tipo grande comercializados na cidade de Chapecó, SC, Brasil nos períodos de inverno e verão. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, sendo 2 períodos de coleta e 4 mercados analisados, com 4 repetições (bandejas com 12 ovos. Todos os ovos foram da mesma marca, lote e com período de armazenamento de 9 dias após a embalagem. Foram analisados os parâmetrosde unidade Haugh, índice gema, coloração da gema pelo leque colorimétrico DSM, pH do albúmen e da gema e gravidade específica. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância através do programa SAS e as diferenças entre as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Houve aumento significativo da

  13. Desempenho, qualidade de ovos e análise econômica da produção de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com diferentes níveis de raspa de mandioca = Performance, egg quality and economic analysis of the production of commercial brown laying hens fed different levels of cassava shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de raspa de mandioca na ração sobre o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos e a viabilidade econômica da produção de poedeiras semipesadas. Foram utilizadas 180 poedeiras, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, constituído de seis tratamentos (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e25% de inclusão de raspa de mandioca, com cinco repetições de seis aves por parcela. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso e a massa de ovo, a conversão por massa de ovo e por dúzia de ovo, as percentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca, a pigmentação da gema e a margem bruta relativa. Apenas o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, a conversão por massa de ovo e por dúzia de ovo e a porcentagem de albúmen responderam linearmente ao aumento dos níveis de inclusão da raspa de mandioca, resultando em pior desempenho das aves. A margem bruta relativa reduziu com5% de inclusão da raspa de mandioca e aumentou até o nível de inclusão de 15%, reduzindo ligeiramente até 25% de inclusão, permanecendo sempre abaixo de 100%.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cassava shavings in the diet on egg production, egg quality and economic feasibility of brown laying hens. The study used 180laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, composed of six treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of cassava shaving inclusion, with five replicates of six birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass, conversion by egg mass and by egg dozen, percentage of albumen, yolk and shell, yolk pigmentation and relative gross margin were evaluated. Feed intake, egg production, conversion by egg mass and by eggdozen and the percentage of albumen responded linearly to the increase in inclusion levels, leading to a decreased performance. There was a reduction of relative gross margin with 5% ofshavings inclusion, and values

  14. Desempenho, qualidade de ovos e análise econômica da produção de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com diferentes níveis de raspa de mandioca - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.457 Performance, egg quality and economic analysis of the production of commercial brown laying hens fed different levels of cassava shavings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.457

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóvão Joaquim de Souza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de raspa de mandioca na ração sobre o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos e a viabilidade econômica da produção de poedeiras semipesadas. Foram utilizadas 180 poedeiras, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, constituído de seis tratamentos (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de inclusão de raspa de mandioca, com cinco repetições de seis aves por parcela. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso e a massa de ovo, a conversão por massa de ovo e por dúzia de ovo, as percentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca, a pigmentação da gema e a margem bruta relativa. Apenas o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, a conversão por massa de ovo e por dúzia de ovo e a porcentagem de albúmen responderam linearmente ao aumento dos níveis de inclusão da raspa de mandioca, resultando em pior desempenho das aves. A margem bruta relativa reduziu com 5% de inclusão da raspa de mandioca e aumentou até o nível de inclusão de 15%, reduzindo ligeiramente até 25% de inclusão, permanecendo sempre abaixo de 100%.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of cassava shavings in the diet on egg production, egg quality and economic feasibility of brown laying hens. The study used 180 laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, composed of six treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of cassava shaving inclusion, with five replicates of six birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass, conversion by egg mass and by egg dozen, percentage of albumen, yolk and shell, yolk pigmentation and relative gross margin were evaluated. Feed intake, egg production, conversion by egg mass and by egg dozen and the percentage of albumen responded linearly to the increase in inclusion levels, leading to a decreased performance. There was a reduction of relative gross margin with 5% of shavings inclusion, and

  15. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L E; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular. PMID:27447649

  16. Tracking of buried layers during plasma-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of compound targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvaniya, I. A.; Garmatina, A. A.; Makarov, I. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    It was shown that drilling of multi-layered target placed in the air by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with high fluence (up to 1000 J/cm2) can be monitored online using plasma-induced X-ray emission and second harmonic of incident laser radiation. The technique based on X-rays registration is appeared to be more flexible than the method based on detection of second harmonic since its accuracy depends crucially on the target type. We demonstrated that the X-ray signal clearly indicates the transition from one layer to another during the microdrilling of targets consisting of 2-4 layers of titanium foil when a laser beam is focused beneath the target surface at a depth comparable to the layer thickness. The diagnostics of microchannel production in the chicken eggshell was performed for the first time. It was found that the presence of albumen beneath the shell accounts for longtime generation of X-ray pulses.

  17. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values. PMID:20181877

  18. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  19. Managing Colllinearity in Modeling the Effect of Age in the Prediction of Egg Components of Laying Hens Using Stepwise and Ridge Regression Analysis

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    TM Shafey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The relationships between egg measurements [egg weight (EGWT, egg width (EGWD, egg shape index (EGSI, egg volume (EGV and egg density (EGD], and egg components [eggshell (SWT, yolk (YWT and albumen (AWT] were investigated in laying hens with 32, 45, and 59 weeks of age with an objective of managing multicollinearity (MC, using stepwise regression (SR and ridge regression (RR analyses. There were significant correlations among egg traits that led to MC problems in all eggs. Hen age influenced egg characteristics and the magnitude of the correlations among egg characteristics. Eggs produced at older age had significantly (p<0.01 higher EGWT, EGWD, EGV, YWT and AWT than those produced at younger age. The SR model alleviated MC problem in eggs produced at 32 weeks, with condition index greater than 30, and one predictor, EGWT had a model fit predicted egg components with R2 ranged from 60 to 99%. The SR model of eggs produced at 45 and 59 weeks indicated MC problem with variance inflation factors (VIF values greater than 10, and 4 predictors; EGWT, EGWD, EGV and EGD had a model fit that significantly predicted egg components with R2 % ranged from 76 to 99 %. The RR analysis provided lower VIF values than 10 and eliminated the MC problem for eggs produced at any age group. It is concluded that the RR analysis provided an ideal solution for managing the MC problem and successfully predicting egg components of laying hens from egg measurements.

  20. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  1. Host-parasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M; Ahlund, M

    2000-11-21

    Brood parasitism as an alternative female breeding tactic is particularly common in ducks, where hosts often receive eggs laid by parasitic females of the same species and raise their offspring. Herein, we test several aspects of a kin selection explanation for this phenomenon in goldeneye ducks (Bucephala clangula) by using techniques of egg albumen sampling and statistical bandsharing analysis based on resampling. We find that host and primary parasite are indeed often related, with mean r = 0.13, about as high as between first cousins. Relatedness to the host is higher in nests where a parasite lays several eggs than in those where she lays only one. Returning young females parasitize their birth nestmates (social mothers or sisters, which are usually also their genetic mothers and sisters) more often than expected by chance. Such adult relatives are also observed together in the field more often than expected and for longer periods than other females. Relatedness and kin discrimination, which can be achieved by recognition of birth nestmates, therefore play a role in these tactics and probably influence their success. PMID:11050150

  2. Flame retardants at the top of a simulated baltic marine food web--a case study concerning African penguins from the Gdansk Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Andrzej R; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2015-02-01

    The present study estimated hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) as a sum of three main isomers (α, β, and γ) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from Gdansk Zoo and in their sole food, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), from Gdansk Bay. The average concentration of HBCD in whole herring was 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/g lw, whereas TBBPA was approximately 10-fold lower (2.3 ± 1.3 ng/g lw). Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were also found in muscle and liver of herring. The estimated daily dietary exposure of the penguins to HBCD was 252.9 ± 113.7 ng, whereas for TBBPA it was 26.3 ± 14.9 ng. The ability of BFRs to accumulate in the liver, muscles, fatty tissue, and brain of penguin was confirmed. The highest concentrations of HBCD (326.9 ng·g(-1) lw) and TBBPA (14.8 ng·g(-1) lw) were found in the brain of an adult penguin. The strongest accumulation factor for BFRs was also established for brain tissue, but it showed stronger magnification in muscle than in liver. HBCD and TBBPA were found in penguin guano and eggs, thus showing effective removal from the birds' systems. BFRs content in yolk was approximately ten times greater than in albumen indicating the lipophilic character of these compounds.

  3. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

  4. Conditions for liposome adsorption and bilayer formation on BSA passivated solid supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-López, Elsa I; Edens, Lance E; Barden, Adam O; Keller, David J; Brozik, James A

    2014-10-01

    Planar solid supported lipid membranes that include an intervening bovine serum albumen (BSA) cushion can greatly reduce undesirable interactions between reconstituted membrane proteins and the underlying substrate. These hetero-self-assemblies reduce frictional coupling by shielding reconstituted membrane proteins from the strong surface charge of the underlying substrate, thereby preventing them from strongly sticking to the substrate themselves. The motivation for this work is to describe the conditions necessary for liposome adsorption and bilayer formation on these hetero-self-assemblies. Described here are experiments that show that the state of BSA is critically important to whether a lipid bilayer is formed or intact liposomes are adsorbed to the BSA passivated surface. It is shown that a smooth layer of native BSA will readily promote lipid bilayer formation while BSA that has been denatured either chemically or by heat will not. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy was used to characterize the surfaces of native, heat denatured, and chemically reduced BSA. The mobility of several zwitterionic and negatively charged lipid combinations has been measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). From these measurements diffusion constants and percent recoveries have been determined and tabulated. The effect of high concentrations of beta-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) on liposome formation as well as bilayer formation was also explored.

  5. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I.-Wen Peter

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm2, which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 104 accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 104 s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization.

  6. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I-Wen Peter

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm2, which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 104 accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 104 s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization. PMID:27452118

  7. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  8. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  9. Membrane separation using nano-pores; Nano poa wo riyoshita makubunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, S. [Fukuoka Women`s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The membrane constituted by nano-pore only (NF membrane) is sold on the market recently as the membranes used for the matter separations in addition to the reverse osmosis membrane for changing seawater into fresh water, dialysis membrane used for artificial kidney, ultrafiltration membrane used for the separation and condensation of protein and the micro-filter used for removing microbe. It is possible for the membrane constituted by nano-pore to remove the virus with the size being from 20 to 300 nm. In this paper, the pore structure of NF membrane is explained, and then its application as the membrane for removing virus is described. Especially, it is possible for NF membrane to remove the virus with smallest size (parvovirus, etc.), prion albumen (bovine serum pathogen, etc.) and the special gene such as cancer, and it is further applied to the condensation and refining of virus and genes. The broader application of nano-pore to the control of the transportation of micro-particles in the future is expected. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Heritable variation in maternally derived yolk androgens, thyroid hormones and immune factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, S; Gienapp, P; Groothuis, T G G; Schaper, S V; Darras, V M; Pereira, C; de Vries, B; Visser, M E

    2016-09-01

    Maternal reproductive investment can critically influence offspring phenotype, and thus these maternal effects are expected to be under strong natural selection. Knowledge on the extent of heritable variation in the physiological mechanisms underlying maternal effects is however limited. In birds, resource allocation to eggs is a key mechanism for mothers to affect their offspring and different components of the egg may or may not be independently adjusted. We studied the heritability of egg components and their genetic and phenotypic covariation in great tits (Parus major), using captive-bred full siblings of wild origin. Egg mass, testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) hormone concentrations showed moderate heritability, in agreement with earlier findings. Interestingly, yolk triiodothyronine hormone (T3), but not its precursor, thyroxine hormone (T4), concentration was heritable. An immune factor, albumen lysozyme, showed moderate heritability, but yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) did not. The genetic correlation estimates were moderate but statistically nonsignificant; a trend for a positive genetic correlation was found between A4 and egg mass, T and lysozyme and IgY and lysozyme, respectively. Interestingly, phenotypic correlations were found only between A4 and T, and T4 and T3, respectively. Given that these egg components are associated with fitness-related traits in the offspring (and mother), and that we show that some components are heritable, it opens the possibility that natural selection may shape the rate and direction of phenotypic change via egg composition. PMID:27381323

  11. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangjun Leng; Kun-Nan Hsu; Richard EAustic; Xin genLei

    2014-01-01

    Background:This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods:Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5%DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5%or 15%DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results:The 15%DFA diet decreased (P<0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P<0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5%DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P<0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions:Feeding laying hens with 7.5%DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15%inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization.

  12. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles

  13. Influence of the natural dyes bixin and curcumin in the shelf life of eggs from laying hens in the second production cycle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12096

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Salgado Politi Braga Saldanha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the effect of adding natural pigments on the storage of eggs from laying hens in the second production cycle submitted to diets based on corn and low-tannin sorghum. A total of 160 eggs from Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 90 - weeks old after forced molting were used. The study evaluated the isolated effect and the interaction of two factors: the inclusion of natural pigments (control diet - 50% low-tannin sorghum replacing the corn; RC - 2% powdered dry turmeric rhizome; PU - 2% dry annatto powder; RCPU - 1% turmeric rhizome + 1% dry annatto powder combined with the storage period (0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. The studied variables were: specific gravity, percentages of yolk, albumen and shell in relation to the egg weight, and yolk color. Yolk color was more intense with increasing percentage of annatto. The inclusion of 2% annatto powder promotes and maintains an adequate pigmentation of egg yolk when stored for up to 21 days. Regardless of natural pigment supplementation, the egg quality decreases as storage time increases. 

  14. Towards the development of an embryotoxicity bioassay with terrestrial snails: Screening approach for cadmium and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently no bioassays are available to assess the embryotoxicity of chemicals with terrestrial soil invertebrates. We therefore presented a new method for embryotoxicity testing with snail eggs: a relevant biological material that incubates in soil and that can be exposed to contaminants from leachates and soil solution. The effects of aqueous solutions of two herbicide formulations, Reglone (active ingredient (a.i.), diquat) and Roundup or its a.i., glyphosate, of a surfactant (Agral 90, a.i., nonylphenol polyethoxylates) and of cadmium (Cd) were studied. Endpoints were the hatching success and observations of embryo abnormalities after exposure. Roundup was found to be more toxic than its a.i. alone (EC50a.i. = 18 mg/l and about 1300 mg/l, respectively). Reglone (EC50a.i. = 0.72 mg/l) and Agral (EC50a.i. ∼ 50 mg/l) were also tested together, revealing that Reglone accounted for more than 99% of the mixture's toxicity. An antagonistic interaction between the two substances was found. For Cd (EC50 = 3.9 mg/l), a significant transfer from exposure medium to eggs was emphasized, particularly affecting the albumen. Abnormalities of embryogenesis in non-hatched embryos depended on the substance and the concentration considered.

  15. Effects of Ochratoxin A Feeding in White Leghorn Cockerels on Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters and its Amelioration with Silymarin and Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhar-ud-Din Ahmad, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Faqir Muhammad1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan2, Aisha Khatoon, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Rao Zahid Abbas3, Farzana Rizvi and Ishtiaq Ahmed4

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hematobiochemical effects tempted by ochratoxin A (OTA in White Leghorn (WL cockerels and to evaluate the effect of silymarin (SL, vitamin E (VE and their combination against OTA persuaded pathological alterations in cockerels. A total of 240 day-old WL cockerels were divided into 12 groups A-L having 20 birds in each group and group A was control. Two doses of OTA 1000 and 2000 µg/kg of feed were given to cockerels up to 7 weeks. Silymarin was administered at a dose rate of 10000 mg/kg and Vitamin E at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg alone and in combinations with two doses of OTA. In OTA treated groups total erythrocytes counts, leukocytes count, PCV and Hb were decreased as compared to control, SL and VE groups. Albumen and serum total proteins in OTA treated groups were significantly lower as compared to control, SL and VE groups. Serum alanine transferase was significantly increased in OTA fed groups in comparison with control, SL and VE groups. Creatinine and urea were increased in OTA treated groups but were almost normal in SL and VE groups. Results showed that OTA had severe effect on liver and kidney but SL and VE treated groups had normal liver and kidneys showing its hepatoprotective effects. However, at higher dose of OTA this ameliorative effect was partially observed. These agents may be recommended as a remedy for ochratoxicosis.

  16. Nutritional levels of digestible methionine + cystine to brown-egg laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauber Polese

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the requirement of digestible methionine + cystine of brown-eggs laying hens from 50 to 66 weeks age at the end of the first production cycle. The design was completely randomized, with 150 Brown Shaver hens, which were distributed in five treatments with six replications of five birds each. Birds received a basal diet with 2857 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.97% crude protein, supplemented with 0.132; 0.174, 0.215, 0.256 and 0.298% DL-methionine (98%, in order to provide 0.572, 0.613, 0.653, 0.693 and 0.734% digestible methionine + cystine. The levels of digestible methionine + digestible cystine followed, respectively, the relations of 67, 72, 77, 81 and 86% with lysine fixed at 0.851%. Feed intake, methionine + cystine intake, feed conversion per dozen eggs, egg weigth and mass, percentage of egg components, internal egg quality and weight gain were evaluated. Methionine + cystine levels showed a quadratic effect on feed conversion per dozen eggs and egg weight, a linear effect on feed conversion per kilogram of eggs and percentage of albumen. There was also a positive linear effect on yolk percentage. The methionine + cystine requirement was estimated at 0.572%, corresponding to 682 mg of digestible methionine + cystine/bird/day.

  17. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Baten

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  18. Internal quality of laying hens’ commercial eggs according to storage time, temperature and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Lorena Melúcio Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assay evaluates the internal quality of eggs of Hy-Line W-36 hens, according to storage time, temperature and packaging. Two equal experiments, starting one day apart, were conducted with 140 eggs each. The two experiments were divided into two phases, from 1 to 9 days and from 9 to 21 days, in a randomized block design. In the 1st phase, the treatments were arranged in a factorial 2 x 3+1, packaging (with or without, time (3, 6 and 9 days, with control on the 1st day. In the 2nd phase, treatments were arranged in a factorial design 2 x 2 + 1, packaging (with or without, cooling (with or without, and control on the 9th day. Egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell percentage, yolk index and Haugh unit were evaluated. The internal quality was reduced (p 0.05 on the 9th and 21st days. Packaging assured better quality (p < 0.05, but not similar to the quality of refrigerated eggs. Results showed that the internal quality of the eggs was worse when there was no refrigeration during storage time and that packages provided better internal quality, although not as effective as cooling.

  19. Electrolyte balance in diets with reduced protein for semi-weighted laying hens in the second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Franklin Santos de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of electrolyte balance in diets with reduced protein for semi-weighted Bovans Goldline laying hens in the second production cycle. The design was completely randomized with five treatments and seven replicates of six birds per experimental unit. Treatment 1 consisted of a control diet containing 165.0 g/kg crude protein (CP, formulated with the addition of DL-methionine to meet birds requirements during the experimental period. To compose the treatments 2-5 (BE149, BE167, BE185 and BE203, a basal diet with reduced protein (135.0 g/kg CP supplemented with synthetic amino acids DL-methionine, L-lysine, L- threonine, L-valine and L-tryptophan was formulated. This basal diet was supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, so as to provide four levels of potassium (5.86, 6.56, 7.26 and 7.96 g/kg corresponding to the electrolyte balance of 171, 149, 167, 185 and 203 meq/kg, respectively. There was increased linear effect for feed intake and decreasing linear effect for albumen weight and yolk percentage and quadratic effect for conversion per dozen and per egg mass. Crude protein is recommended at 135.0g/kg with 6.77 g/kg potassium and electrolyte balance of 172.51meq/kg in the diet of semi-weighted laying hens in the second production cycle.

  20. Towards the development of an embryotoxicity bioassay with terrestrial snails: Screening approach for cadmium and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druart, Coline; Scheifler, Renaud [Department of Chrono-Environment, University of Franche-Comte, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249 usc INRA, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Vaufleury, Annette de, E-mail: annette.devaufleury@univ-fcomte.fr [Department of Chrono-Environment, University of Franche-Comte, UMR UFC/CNRS 6249 usc INRA, Place Leclerc, F-25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    Currently no bioassays are available to assess the embryotoxicity of chemicals with terrestrial soil invertebrates. We therefore presented a new method for embryotoxicity testing with snail eggs: a relevant biological material that incubates in soil and that can be exposed to contaminants from leachates and soil solution. The effects of aqueous solutions of two herbicide formulations, Reglone (active ingredient (a.i.), diquat) and Roundup or its a.i., glyphosate, of a surfactant (Agral 90, a.i., nonylphenol polyethoxylates) and of cadmium (Cd) were studied. Endpoints were the hatching success and observations of embryo abnormalities after exposure. Roundup was found to be more toxic than its a.i. alone (EC50{sub a.i.} = 18 mg/l and about 1300 mg/l, respectively). Reglone (EC50{sub a.i.} = 0.72 mg/l) and Agral (EC50{sub a.i.} {approx} 50 mg/l) were also tested together, revealing that Reglone accounted for more than 99% of the mixture's toxicity. An antagonistic interaction between the two substances was found. For Cd (EC50 = 3.9 mg/l), a significant transfer from exposure medium to eggs was emphasized, particularly affecting the albumen. Abnormalities of embryogenesis in non-hatched embryos depended on the substance and the concentration considered.

  1. Features of medical feed at saccharine diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykova Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic approaches are considered to application of medical feed at saccharine diabetes. An analysis is conducted more than 30 literary sources. It is set that a dietotherapy is obligatory for all of patients saccharine diabetes and allows to obtain his indemnification more than in third of cases. It is marked that at saccharine diabetes of the I type it is necessary basis of diet to count the severe observance of time of reception of meal, constancy of its composition and amount. At diabetes II type a substantial value is acquired by achievement and subsequent support of ideal mass of body. It is set that basic modern principles of dietotherapy at saccharine diabetes is: physiological composition of carbonhydratess (55-60%, fats (20-25% and albumens (15-20%; calculation of power value of day's ration taking into account mass of body, age, floor, power charges; exception from the diet of the refined carbonhydratess which are easily mastered; a feed must be a shot; severe mode of distributing of power value of day's ration and sacchariferous value of meal on an amount and clock of reception of meal.

  2. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I-Wen Peter

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm(2), which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 10(4) accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 10(4) s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization. PMID:27452118

  3. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  4. Turmeric root and annato seed in second-cycle layer diets: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Laganá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of annato (Bixa orellana L. and turmeric (Turmeric longa L. in layer feeds on live performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation and depigmentation time. A number of 144 layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments with six replicates of six birds each. In the basal diet, sorghum replaced 50% of corn, and was supplemented or not with natural pigments to composse the following treatments: Control (0% pigments, AS (2.0% annato, TR (2% turmeric and ASTR (1% annato and 1% turmeric. Egg weight (g, egg production (%, egg mass (%, feed intake (g, feed conversion ratio (kg/dz and kg/kg and mortality were evaluated. The following egg quality parameters were evaluated: specific gravity (SG; yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentages, and yolk color. The treatments did not influence layer performance or egg quality parameters, except for egg production and yolk color. The dietary inclusion of 1% turmeric root and 1% annato seed promoted higher egg production. Diets containing annato resulted in more saturated, more intense, and redder yolk color, with increasing pigment deposition after day 10, with maximum values obtained on day 28. Dried turmeric root did not promote good yolk pigmentation, resulting in higher presence of white in the yolk, which was stabilized on day 4. Three days after pigments were withdrawn from the feeds, yolk color faded in the treatments with annato inclusion.

  5. Models and measurements of light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy: implications for optical monitoring of the coagulation boundary location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a multi-region spherical Monte Carlo (MC) model to simulate the dynamic changes in light intensity measured during laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT). Model predictions were validated experimentally in tissue-simulating albumen phantoms with well-characterized optical properties that vary dynamically with LITT in a way similar to tissue. For long treatments (2.5 W, ∼1800 s), the transient light intensity changes demonstrated better qualitative agreement with a three-region MC model (with an inner layer of fully coagulated optical properties, a middle layer of partially coagulated properties and an outer region of native properties); for short treatments (4 W, ∼240 s), better qualitative agreement was seen with a two-region MC model (with an inner layer of fully coagulated properties and outer region of native properties). These differences were attributed to differences in coagulation formation during low- and high-powered heating regimes, respectively. At the end of heating, a three-region coagulation zone was observed for both heating schemes. Quantitatively, final light intensity changes at the end of heating were compared with changes predicted by both two- and three-region MC for the same experimentally measured coagulation size and found to agree within ∼30% for both models. The developed MC model helps lend insight into the nature of thermal coagulation events occurring for low and high power LITT irradiation schemes

  6. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

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    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  7. State of catecxolaminergine systems of the brain in forming of sydnocarb psychosis

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    Al Nasir Eiad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Violations of mnestic reactions are one of substantial signs of disorders of nervous activity. On the basis of it, as a criterion of forming of experimental psychosis, in our supervisions, the state of processes of conditionally-reflex memory was studied in rats. To cover up mechanisms of derangements of conditionally reflex activity in the process of forming of psychotic symptomatic complex, maintenance of adrenalin, noradrenalinum and neurospecific albumen S - 100 in the brain structures, that take a direct part in the processes of memory was studied. Derangements of cognitive function, that are the result of neurotoxic action of sydnocarb, are related to reduction of maintenance of noradrenalinum in the frontal cortex, as well as adrenalin in the pons varolii. That is, sydnocarb psychosis is accompanied by reduction of activating role of the cortex and trunk structures, negatively affecting the state of mnestic reactions. In the hippocampus and striate body excitation causes violation of memory processes and on the contrary, concentration of noradrenalinum rose. Thus, the presented model of experimental psychosis, created by subacute introduction of sydnocarb, is an adequate and alternative methodology of psychotic disorders forming in animals resulted from direct participation of the catecholaminergetic systems of CNS.

  8. Effect of silver nanoparticles and hydroxyproline, administered in ovo, on the development of blood vessels and cartilage collagen structure in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Iwona; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kutwin, Marta; Jaworski, Sławomir; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    It has been considered that concentrations of certain amino acids in the egg are not sufficient to fully support embryonic development of modern broilers. In this study we evaluated embryo growth and development with particular emphasis on one of the major components of connective tissue, collagen. Experiments were performed on Ross 308 chicken embryos from 160 fertilised eggs. Experimental solutions of silver nanoparticles (Ag), hydroxyproline solution (Hyp) and a complex of silver nanoparticles with hydroxyproline (AgHyp) were injected into albumen, and embryos were incubated until day 20. An assessment of the mass of embryo and selected organs was carried out followed by measurements of the expression of the key signalling factors' fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Finally, an evaluation of collagen microstructure using scanning electron microscopy was performed. Our results clearly indicate that Hyp, Ag and AgHyp administered in ovo to chicken embryos did not harm embryos. Comparing to the control group, Hyp, Ag and the AgHyp complex significantly upregulated expression of the FGF-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Hyp, Ag and, in particular, the complex of AgHyp significantly increased blood vessel size, cartilage collagen fibre lattice size and bundle thickness. The general conclusion from this study is that AgHyp treatment may help to build a stronger and longer lasting form of collagen fibres. PMID:25530495

  9. Effects of organic selenium supplemented to layer diet on table egg freshness and selenium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pavić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effects that organic selenium supplemented in layer diets has on its content in the edible part of egg, on egg freshness and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx in hens’ blood. The experiment lasted for 30 days and was completed on 240 laying hens of the Hy Line Brown hybrid. Hens were divided into 2 experimental groups (E1 and E2, each consisting of 120 hens housed in 24 cages. Hens were fed a commercial diet containing 18% of crude protein and 11.60MJ ME/kg. The experiment was set up in two different feeding treatments. The E1 group had diets supplemented with 0.2ppm of selenium, and E2 had diets with 0.4ppm of selenium (organic selenium Sel-Plex®, Alltech, inc.. The GSH-Px activity was higher in blood of hens in the E2 group than in the E1 (P<0.05. Furthermore, statistically the E2 group had a significantly higher portion of selenium in egg yolks and albumen than the E1 group (P<0.05. Analysis of effects that feeding treatments have on egg freshness over three examined periods (fresh eggs, eggs stored for 14 and for 28 days at 4ºC showed better results for HU (Haugh units and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the E2 eggs than in the E1 eggs.

  10. Structure and blood supply of motion neuro-muscles endings of skeletal muscles of rats of a different age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popel S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work consists in the study of structure ofthe neuro-muscles endings and their blood supply in ontogenesis. It is shown that at the level of the neuro-muscles endings there is the expressed blood-nerve barrier which is deter-mined by the structural features of wall of blood microvessels. In the early period of ontogenesis of structure of blood-nerve barrier immature, and his functional insufficiency is compensated by made distance of sources of blood supply, that provides the sufficient morphological isolation of axons from albumens and cellular components of blood. With age structure of blood-nerve barrier destruction as a result of strengthening and generalization reverse development processes which pass by apoptos. Intracellulary alteration of neurolemocytes during ontogenesis testifies to their active trophic function, and concentration of synaps blisters in the cytoplasm of separate terminals neurolemocytes requires сomprehension of their role in functioning of blood supply barrier at the level of neuro-muscles endings.

  11. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler. PMID:825006

  12. Females paired with new and heavy mates reduce intra-clutch differences in resource allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Reproductive investment affects both offspring and parental fitness and influences the evolution of life histories. Females may vary their overall primary reproductive effort in relation to the phenotypic characteristics of their mate. However, the effects of male quality on differential resource allocation within clutches have been largely neglected despite the potential implications for mate choice and population dynamics, especially in species exhibiting biparental care and brood reduction. Female southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome paired with heavy mates reduced intra-clutch variation in egg and albumen masses. Females paired with new mates also reduced intra-clutch variation in yolk androgen levels. Since both an increased mass and increased androgen concentrations positively influence chick survival under sibling competition, the chances of fledging the whole clutch are likely to be higher for newly formed pairs with heavy males than for previously formed pairs with light males. Interestingly, total clutch provisioning did not vary with male quality. We show for the first time that females vary intra-clutch variation in resource allocation according to male quality. In species with brood reduction, it may be more adaptive for females to modulate the distribution of resources within the clutch according to breeding conditions, than to change their total clutch provisioning.

  13. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  14. Effects of externally supplied protein on root morphology and biomass allocation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Trusov, Yuri; Young, Anthony; Rentsch, Doris; Näsholm, Torgny; Schmidt, Susanne; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat

    2014-01-01

    Growth, morphogenesis and function of roots are influenced by the concentration and form of nutrients present in soils, including low molecular mass inorganic N (IN, ammonium, nitrate) and organic N (ON, e.g. amino acids). Proteins, ON of high molecular mass, are prevalent in soils but their possible effects on roots have received little attention. Here, we investigated how externally supplied protein of a size typical of soluble soil proteins influences root development of axenically grown Arabidopsis. Addition of low to intermediate concentrations of protein (bovine serum albumen, BSA) to IN-replete growth medium increased root dry weight, root length and thickness, and root hair length. Supply of higher BSA concentrations inhibited root development. These effects were independent of total N concentrations in the growth medium. The possible involvement of phytohormones was investigated using Arabidopsis with defective auxin (tir1-1 and axr2-1) and ethylene (ein2-1) responses. That no phenotype was observed suggests a signalling pathway is operating independent of auxin and ethylene responses. This study expands the knowledge on N form-explicit responses to demonstrate that ON of high molecular mass elicits specific responses. PMID:24852366

  15. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; Pvs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; Pvs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  17. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  18. Seasonal bioconcentration of heavy metals in Onchidium struma (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from Chongming Island, the YangtzeEstuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaobo; JIA Linzhi; ZHAO Yunlong; WANG Qun; CHENG Yongxu

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal concentration changes of selected heavy metal Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in five tissues of marine gastropod Onchidium struma were studied in the Chongming Island, the Yangtze Estuary on July 2006, September 2006, and November 2006, April 2007, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bioconcentration factor of Cu (biomass/water) in all selected tissues was about 104 magnitudes, Fe and Cd were 103, Zn was 102, and Mn, Pb, and Cr were 101. Hepatopancreas was proven to be the dominant storage tissue of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn, whereas Fe and Pb were mainly stored in muscle and digenetic gland, and Cd was stored in vitelline gland and albumen gland. Additionally, it was found that Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were concentrated significantly by O. struma (whole-body) in summer or autumn, and Cd, Cr, and Pb increased slightly in spring and winter. Furthermore, the bioconcentration of Cr was nearly 2-fold higher and Zn was 1.6-fold higher in the water compared with the Water Quality Standard for Fisheries. With view of excessive amount of Pb, Cd, and Cu according to seafood standard, the consumption of O. struma might have the risk of health hazard.

  19. The inclusion of coffee in commercial layer diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on the performance and internal and external egg quality of commercial layers. One hundred and twenty 25-week-old Hy-line Brown layers, with 1575 ± 91 average body weight, were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (control, 1.2% caffeinated coffee, or 1.2% decaffeinated coffee of five replicates of eight birds each. The inclusion of 1.2% caffeinated coffee was calculated to supply 6mg caffeine per kg body weight, which is considered a moderate dose. The applied treatments did not influence (p>0.05 feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, Haugh units, yolk color or albumen and yolk percentages. The eggs of hens fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee presented lower (p<0.05 eggshell thickness and egg specific density. The eggs of layers fed 1.2% caffeinated coffee tended (p=0.0637 to present lower eggshell percentage. It was concluded that feeding caffeinated coffee to commercial layers does not affect their performance or internal egg quality; however, eggshell quality is impaired.

  20. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  1. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion.

  2. Can vitamin C elevate laying hen performance, egg and plasma characteristics under normal condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. H. Matin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C on laying hen performance, egg quality and some blood parameters under thermal neutrality condition. A total of 192 laying hens (20-week-old were used by completely randomize design. The treatments, from 20 to 35 weeks of age, included four levels of vitamin C: 0 (control, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet. Bird’s performance, egg characteristics, plasma glucose, calcium and uric acid were assayed at 28 and 35 weeks of age. Laying hen performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05. Greater albumen index and Haugh unit were obtained by fed 750 mg vitamin C/kg diet compared to other treatments at 28 weeks of age (P<0.05. Increased yolk height was attained by diet supplemented with 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet at this age (P<0.05. Shape index was improved (P<0.05 by 250 and 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet at 35 weeks of age. Higher yolk index was achieved by 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet at 28 and 35 weeks of age (P<0.05. Plasma uric acid was decreased by 250 mg vitamin C/kg diet compared with control diet (P<0.05. The results of the current study have shown that diets supplemented with vitamin C can improve some egg characteristics and decrease plasma uric acid, but have similar effects on performance.

  3. The Effects of Suplementation of Nigella Sativa Oil on Performance and Egg Fatty Acid Composition During the Late Laying Period in Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kuddusi Erhan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine effects of dietary Nigella sativa oil on performance, egg quality, blood metabolic profile and fatty acid composition of egg yolk of laying hens. Sixty four of 70 weeks old white Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups equally (n = 16. Each treatment was replicated four times. Diets were prepared by adding 0,1.5 ,2.5, and 3.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil to basal diets. Dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa oil had no significant effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, and egg production, Hough Unit, ratio of yolk, albumen and shell. The addition of 3.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil to the laying hens feed led to a significant decrease in the cholesterol ratio of the serum. It was found that serum globulin concentration increased significantly with supplementation of 2.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil. The addition of 2.5 and 3.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil to feed significantly (P<0.05 increased the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, eicosapentaenoic asit (EPA, docosahexaenoic asit (DHA, and n-3 content in the egg yolk. Consequently, it was determined that the addition of Nigella sativa oil did not effect performance values, however, it reduced cholesterol level of serum and n-6/n-3 ratio of egg yolk and increased the EPA, DHA and n-3 ratio of the egg yolk.

  4. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  5. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen. PMID:27357046

  6. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  7. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Infrared differential-absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and neural network-based data fusion for biological aerosol standoff detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Arthur H; Copper, Jack; Owens, David J; Roese, Erik S; Bottiger, Jerold R; Everly, Robert D; Hung, Kevin C

    2010-01-20

    An active spectrophotopolarimeter sensor and support system were developed for a military/civilian defense feasibility study concerning the identification and standoff detection of biological aerosols. Plumes of warfare agent surrogates gamma-irradiated Bacillus subtilis and chicken egg white albumen (analytes), Arizona road dust (terrestrial interferent), water mist (atmospheric interferent), and talcum powders (experiment controls) were dispersed inside windowless chambers and interrogated by multiple CO(2) laser beams spanning 9.1-12.0 microm wavelengths (lambda). Molecular vibration and vibration-rotation activities by the subject analyte are fundamentally strong within this "fingerprint" middle infrared spectral region. Distinct polarization-modulations of incident irradiance and backscatter radiance of tuned beams generate the Mueller matrix (M) of subject aerosol. Strings of all 15 normalized elements {M(ij)(lambda)/M(11)(lambda)}, which completely describe physical and geometric attributes of the aerosol particles, are input fields for training hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The properly trained and validated ANN model performs pattern recognition and type-classification tasks via internal mappings. A typical ANN that mathematically clusters analyte, interferent, and control aerosols with nil overlap of species is illustrated, including sensitivity analysis of performance. PMID:20090802

  9. Determination of digestible isoleucine: lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 42-58 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal ratio of isoleucine (Ile in relation to lysine (Lys to laying hens aged 42-58 weeks. Experimental diets contained digestible Ile at different levels, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1; 0.78:1; 0.83:1; 0.88:1; 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. A basal diet was formulated to provide Isoleucine in levels below recommendations. This diet was supplemented with L-isoleucine to make up the 6 diets. Each diet was made isonitrogenous by varying the dietary contents of glutamic acid and isocaloric by adjusting the contents of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to lysine. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, albumen, yolk and eggshell contents were recorded and compiled at every 28-day period. No differences were observed in the performance over a wide range of dietary isoleucine concentrations from 5.76 to 7.73 g/kg corresponding to 0.73:1 to 0.98:1 Ile:Lys ratios. The lowest Ile:Lys ratio (0.73:1 was sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance of birds, corresponding to the consumption of 534 mg of isoleucine and 731 mg of lysine/day.

  10. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  11. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Eggs of Hens Experimentally Intoxicated with Methylmercury Chloride and Detoxified with a Humic-Aluminosilicate Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Barej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive-detox preparation (P-dP based on humic and aluminosilicate substances in the diet of laying hens (3% daily dose previously intoxicated with methylmercury chloride (CH3ClHg, 5 mg Hg/kg feed mixture for six weeks. Mercury content in the whole eggs of the group intoxicated with CH3ClHg increased compared to the control group: 488-fold after 1 wk, 622-fold after 2 wks, and 853-fold after 6 wks of intoxication. The use of P-dP in the group previously intoxicated with CH3ClHg reduced he mercury content of whole eggs by 18.4%, on average, whereas the average was 29.9% two weeks after the discontinuation of CH3ClHg and P-dP supply. Maximum Hg content in the whole egg was observed in group III (299.7 g, whereas the highest mercury level was obtained in the egg albumen.

  12. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L E; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  13. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  14. Influence of cottonseed meal on vanadium toxicity and 48vanadium distribution in body tissues of laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens of two commercial White Leghorn strains were fed diets representing a complete factorial arrangement of 0, 3, or 6 ppm vanadium (V) from dicalcium phosphate and 0 or 5% cottonseed meal (CSM). Test diets were fed for 4 consecutive weeks beginning when hens were 25, 40, 62, or 76 weeks old. After each 4-week treatment period, all hens were fed a diet containing no added V or CSM. Albumen quality (Haugh units) was determined on eggs produced on Days 6 and 7 of each week of feeding the test diets. Three ppm V caused a slight decrease in Haugh units, while 6 ppm V reduced Haugh unit score (HU) by 6 to 15 units when fed to hens 29, 44, or 80 weeks old. The relative influence of V on HU of eggs from 66-week-old hens was less pronounced. The inclusion of 5% CSM in the diet counteracted most of the adverse effects of V on egg quality, irrespective of strain of hens. Egg production and egg weight were not affected by V or CSM. In a second experiment, hens fed diets containing no V + no CSM, 6 ppm V + no CSM, no V + 5% CSM, or 6 ppm V + 5% CSM were given 110 microCi of 48V by oral capsule. Greatest concentrations of 48V were found in bone, kidney, liver, and magnum. Little 48V was detected in whites, and none was found in yolks of eggs produced 2 days after 48V dose

  15. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting.

  16. Limestone particle sizes and lighting regimens on egg and bone quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of limestone particle sizes in the diet and of lighting regimes on the egg and bone quality and on the performance of commercial laying hens. Three hundred Hissex White layers, at 18 weeks of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 5×2 factorial arrangement (coarse limestone in the diet at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%; with or without artificial light, with five replicates of six birds. No significant interaction was observed between particle sizes and lighting regime for the evaluated parameters. There was no significant effect of coarse limestone level in the diet on the performance and egg quality of hens; however, bone deformity (3.23 to 4.01 mm, strength (5.19 to 6.70 kgf cm-2, and mineral matter (51.09 to 59.61% improved as the proportion of coarse limestone increased. For lighting regime, the treatment with artificial light yielded higher Haugh unit values (87.17 vs. 85.54 than that with natural light only. Greater limestone particles improve bone quality of laying hens, and the use of artificial light can benefit the albumen quality of the eggs.

  17. Quality and stability of eggs from laying hens fed with organic minerals and lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Kleszcz da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using lycopene and organic minerals in diets for laying hens on the egg quality and stability of eggs stored for 30 days under different storage environments. An entirely randomized design was adopted in 2x3x3 factorial scheme (mineral sources x lycopene levels x storage periods with six replicates of eight hens per experimental unit. The experimental diets were: feed containing inorganic minerals (IM without added lycopene; IM with added lycopene (400mg kg-1; IM with added lycopene (800mg kg-1; organic minerals (OM without added lycopene; OM with added lycopene (400mg kg-1; OM with added lycopene (800mg kg-1. After 112 days of feeding experimental diets, it was selected 60 eggs treatment-1, which were later labeled, stored in room and refrigerated temperature, and subjected to different storage periods (0, 15 and 30 days. Variables analyzed were: Haugh unit, yolk index, yolk color, albumen and yolk pH, and lipid oxidation (TBARS. Stability of eggs is not altered as a function of mineral sources and levels of lycopene studied. However, increasing storage time affects the quality of the eggs of laying hens at both storage conditions.

  18. Relationship of arginine with lysine in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Souza Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship of arginine with lysine for Japanese quails during the period of production, an experiment was conducted using 360 subspecies of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica with 162 days of age, distributed in a completely randomized design. Diets were formulated with corn, soybean meal, sorghum and wheat bran containing 20.0% crude protein and 2,800 kcal ME/kg. The basal diet contained suboptimal level of lysine equal to 1% and was supplemented with five levels of L-arginine 99% (0.032; 0.083; 0.134; 0.185 and 0.236% to replace the glutamic acid, corresponding to the relationship of arginine with digestible lysine of 1.16, 1.21, 1.26, 1.31 and 1.36. The parameters studied were: feed intake, egg production per hen/day, egg production per hen housed, commercial egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion by egg mass, feed conversion per dozen eggs, weight and percentage of components of the eggs (yolk, albumen and shell and specific gravity. There was no significant effect on the relationship of arginine with digestible lysine in the diet of Japanese quails for any of the parameters examined. The arginine/lysine ratio of 1.16, which corresponds to a daily intake of 288.84 mg of arginine, provides satisfactory performance and egg quality of Japanese quails.

  19. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  20. Successful treatment of a case of extensive radiation burns with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeyang; Wang, Jinlun; Li, Gang; Lin, Weihua; Li, Xiaojian; Tong, Renlian

    2013-01-01

    A patient sustained acute third-degree radiation burns over 41% of his body surface. The burns were due to occupational injury caused by an electron accelerator. Most of his wounds appeared and spread gradually during the 10th week after the radiation burn. Subsequently, severe wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, severe pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy, and hypoproteinemia had developed 3 months after the radiation injury. Most of the skin grafts could neither survive nor spread on the fresh wound after removing the necrotic tissue. This phenomenon resulted in many more wounds after operations, increasing the risk of wound infection. Parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, steroid therapeutics for nephropathy, deeper debridement for wounds, and skin grafting were applied for treatment of this patient. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged from the hospital in good condition after 18 months. The authors suggest that deeper excision of necrotic tissue and skin grafting as well as appropriate antibiotics are principal measures to counteract systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Sufficient albumen by vein and steroid should be administered for treatment against nephropathy and for control of infection. Functions of organs should be carefully monitored to fine-tune the therapeutic programs and to minimize complications of organs.

  1. A Research on the Processing of Pine Needle, Pine Pollen and Pine Nut Nougat%三松充气牛轧糖的工艺研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宁; 王立江

    2015-01-01

    以松针、松花粉、松子为主要原料,按不同配比添加原料中,通过单因素和正交试验,制作的牛轧糖原料添加的最佳配比是:即白糖与糖浆1∶2制成糖液,糖液添加量为70.6%,黄油添加量为11.7%,蛋白添加量为4.1%,松针粉添加量为11.7%,生产的牛轧糖风味、口感和营养价值比较高。%In the present research, pine needle, pine pollen, pine nuare used as the primary materials, and the optimum formula for the nougat was confirmed by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the amount of sugar solution was 70.6%, which was made of the sugar and syrup———the ratio of the two elements was 1∶2;the amount of butter was 11.7%;the amount of albumen was 4.1%;the amount of pine neelde powder was 11.7%.

  2. Effects of Inorganic and Organic Complex Trace Elements at Different Levels on Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens%不同水平无机及有机复合微量元素对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛颖; 董晓芳; 佟建明; 辛小青

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of inorganic and organic trace elements ( Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) at different levels on performance and egg quality of laying hens. Nine hundred and ninety 22⁃week⁃old Beijing Red No. 1 laying hens were randomly allocated to 11 groups with 6 replicates per group and 15 hens per replicate. Group 1 was control group. Groups 2 to 6 and groups 7 to 11 were fed the basal diets supplemented inorganic and organic complex trace elements at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 125% of require⁃ments NRC (1994) recommended, respectively. Mn, Fe, Zn, Se were referenced at laying hen requirements of NRC (1994) recommended, while Cu was referenced for broiler. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. The results showed as follows:1) hens fed diets supplemented inorganic trace element at 25% of requirement NRC recommended had the highest egg production during 1 to 24 weeks, and inorganic trace element at 25% of re⁃quirement NRC recommended significantly enhanced the egg shell strength in week 8 and 22 (P<0.01). 2) Organic trace element at 25%, 50%, 100%, 125% of requirements NRC recommended significantly increased egg production ( P<0.05) , and organic trace element at 50%, 100%, 125% of requirements NRC recommen⁃ded significantly decreased feed/egg during 17 to 24 weeks and 1 to 24 weeks (P<0.01), and organic trace element at 50% of requirement NRC recommended significantly increased yolk color in week 8 and albumen height and Haugh unit in week 24 ( P<0.01) . 3) At 25% of requirement NRC recommended, the egg produc⁃tion of organic groups during 9 to 16 weeks, the albumen height and Haugh unit of organic groups in week 20 were significantly higher than those of inorganic groups (P<0.05). 4) At 50% of requirement NRC recom⁃mended, the albumen height ( P<0.01) and Haugh unit ( P<0.05) of organic groups were significantly higher than those of inorganic groups in week 22, while the albumen height and Haugh unit of organic groups were

  3. Exigências nutricionais de treonina digestível para poedeiras semipesadas no segundo ciclo de produção Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine to brown-egg laying hens on the 2nd cycle of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência nutricional de treonina digestível para poedeiras comerciais de segundo ciclo de produção, período de 79 a 95 semanas de idade, foi conduzido um experimento com 180 poedeiras semipesadas, distribuídas em cinco níveis de treonina digestível (0,380; 0,413; 0,446; 0,479; e 0,512%, cada um com seis repetições de seis aves. Os níveis de treonina na ração tiveram efeito quadrático sobre o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, a taxa de postura, o peso e a massa de ovos. O consumo de treonina digestível aumentou linearmente de acordo com os níveis de treonina na ração. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível na ração sobre o ganho de peso, os índices de gema e de albúmen e as porcentagens de casca, gema e albúmen do ovo, com exceção da unidade Haugh, que aumentou de forma quadrática conforme os níveis de treonina digestível da ração. Considerando a conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos, a exigência de treonina digestível para poedeiras comerciais no período de 79 a 95 semanas de idade é de 0,467%, que corresponde a um consumo de 462 mg de treonina/ave/dia.The objective of this work is to determine the nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for brown-egg laying hens between 79 to 95 weeks of age. For this experiment, 180 commercial Lohmann Brown laying hens were used, distributed in five digestible threonine levels (0.380; 0.413; 0.446; 0.479 and 0.512%, each one with six replicates and six hens/replicate. It was observed a quadratic effect of threonine levels on the feed intake, egg mass conversions, egg dozen conversions, egg production, egg weight, and egg mass. The digestible threonine intake increased linearly in function of diet threonine levels. It was not observed effect of diet threonine levels for weight gain, yolk index, albumen index, shell percentage, yolk percentage and albumen percentage, except

  4. Fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras: desempenho produtivo e qualidade dos ovos Lipids sources on layer hen diet: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de fontes de lipídios na dieta de poedeiras sobre o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade do ovo foram verificados em dois experimentos. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos, definidos de acordo com a fonte lipídica adicionada nas rações: óleo de soja, óleo de girassol, óleo de linhaça e ração controle (sem adição de óleo. Os experimentos foram realizados com poedeiras de 20 e 54 semanas de idade, respectivamente, com duração de oito semanas. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros produtivos - consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, produção e peso dos ovos - e de qualidade do ovo - porcentagens de gema, albúmen e casca, sólidos da gema, unidades Haugh, pH do albúmen, e cor da gema. Somente o peso do ovo de poedeiras jovens foi afetado pela inclusão de óleos vegetais na ração. Esses ovos apresentaram maior peso e maior porcentagem de gema que os produzidos pelas poedeiras jovens alimentadas com ração-controle. Concluiu-se que a utilização de diferentes fontes de lipídios na ração de poedeiras não altera o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade interna dos ovos, com exceção do peso do ovo de poedeiras novas, que aumenta com a utilização de óleos vegetais.The effects of different sources of fat in the diet of layer hens on performance and egg quality were recorded in two experiments. Four treatments were defined by the lipid source added to the diets: soybean oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil and control diet (without oil added. The experiments were carried out with layers from 20 to 54 weeks of age, respectively, for eight weeks. Production parameters (feed intake, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight and quality of eggs (percentages of yolk, albumen, and shell; total solids of yolk; Haugh units; pH of albumen; and yolk color were evaluated. Among the parameters of production and quality of the eggs, only the weight of eggs and percentage of yolk of young hens were affected by the inclusion of vegetable

  5. PROFIL GELATINISASI BEBERAPA FORMULASI TEPUNG-TEPUNGAN UNTUK PENDUGAAN SIFAT PEMASAKAN (GELATINISATION PROFILE OF SEVERAL FLOUR FORMULATIONS FOR ESTIMATING COOKING BEHAVIOUR

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    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The combination of starch from various sources, salt and protein, are the basic formulation often found in the Indonesian traditional food. The different composition of amylopectine-amylose and the interactions among the ingredients in the formulation, determines pasting properties in order gain a suitable texture characteristics. The aim of the research is to study the interactions of severals kinds of flours with water, white egg protein, and salt and its influences to the cooking behaviour of semi-solid food. There are four formulations for each kind of flour (rice, glutenniuos rice, wheat and cassava that are: (1 water: flour = 25 : 3 g; (2 water :  flour : salt  =  25 : 3 : 0.28 g; (3 water : flour : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.3 g; and (4 water : flour : salt : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.28 : 0.3 g. The flours are analysed for proximate, particle size distribution and amylose-amylopectine composition. Pasting behaviour is measured using Rapid Visco Analizer (RVA to determine peak viscosity, peak temperature, and peak time gelatinisation. Rice, glutinous rice, wheat and cassava flours have different gelatinization profiles that depend on starches structural origin and amylose and amylopectin composition. Wheat flour has the lowest peak viscosity among four type of flour examined, whether cassava flour has the highest. Salt in starch-water system delays peak time. Egg white protein raises peak viscosity of starches, the addition of salt and egg white protein simultaneously into the system increases peak viscosity and causes the peak occurs earlier. In food processing, tapioca flour can be used to give viscosity at short time cooking but it could not give a sufficient viscosity to the cold products. Rice flour needs a long time cooking to give a suitable viscosity to the products, however this viscosity can hold well in cold temperature. Keywords: flour, salt, protein, gelatinisation, viscosity   ABSTRAK Kombinasi berbagai macam tepung dengan

  6. Relative Risk Factors with Osteoporosis%骨质疏松症的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一鹏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relative risk factors with osteoporosis(OP). Methods A questionnaire survey was made to 298 cases with OP confirmed by bone mineral density(BMD)and 298 normal, single factor analysis and logistic regressionwere applied in analyzing the relative factors with OP. Results Single factors including sex, age, BMI, calcium in-taking, animal’s albumen in-taking, milk drinking, residence, working circumstance, exercises, smoking, alcohol drinking, menopausal age, history of diabetes and fracture were relative with the occurrence of OP; logistic regression showed out that the following factors were closely relative with OP: age (OR=2.194, 95%CI:1.358-3.544), calcium in-taking(OR=0.524, 95%CI:0.341-0.805), exercises(OR=0.529, 95%CI:0.294-0.951), history of fracture(OR=1.764, 95%CI:1.053-2.955), BMI(OR=0.575, 95%CI:0.364-0.908), animal’s albumen in-taking(OR=1.689, 95%CI:1.159-2.461)and alcohol drinking(OR=1.694, 95%CI:1.097-2.618). Conclusions The occurrence of OP is related to multi factors;it is the key point in the prevention of OP to strengthen the health education of the patients, to improve the living circumstances, to change the improper diet habit and to persist in exercises.%  目的探讨骨质疏松症(OP)发生的危险因素,为OP的防治提供理论参考.方法对经骨密度测定确诊的OP患者298例(OP组)和健康体检者298例(非OP组)进行问卷调查,单因素和多因素非条件Logis-tic回归法分析影响OP发生的相关因素.结果单因素分析结果:性别、年龄、BMI、钙营养摄入、动物蛋白摄入、饮用牛奶、居住地、工作环境、运动量、吸烟、饮酒、绝经年龄、糖尿病、骨折史与OP的发生有关;多因素非条件Logistic回归结果显示年龄(OR=2.194,95%CI:1.358~3.544)、钙营养摄入(OR=0.524,95%CI:0.341~0.805)、运动量(OR=0.529,95%CI:0.294~0.951)、骨折史(OR=1.764,95%CI:1.053~2.955)、BMI(OR=0.575,95%CI:0.364~0.908)

  7. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

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    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  8. Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas Influence of linseed oil on performance and egg quality of semi-heavy laying hens

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    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-05-01

    linseed oil in the diets. The evaluated parameters were: production (PROD, egg weight (EW and mass (EM, feed:egg mass ratio (FEM and feed:egg dozen ratio (FED, albumen, yolk and shell weights and percentages, specific gravity, albumen and yolk dry matter, ashes and protein, yolk cholesterol and coloration. The production , EW, EM, FEM and FED, as for internal and external egg quality, were not influenced by the linseed oil levels in the diet. Likewise, no effect was observed on egg chemical composition and only yolk coloration was intensified with the levels above 1% of linseed oil in the diet. The addition of up to 2% f linseed oil on diet did not alter the performance on semi-heavy laying hens, and the internal and external egg quality and cholesterol.

  9. Exigências de lisina digestível para codornas japonesas na fase de postura Digestible lysine requirements for laying Japanese quails

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    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar as exigências nutricionais de lisina digestível para codornas japonesas em postura. Foram utilizadas 240 codornas distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições de oito aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração basal deficiente em lisina e suplementada com L-lisina.HCL, de modo a apresentar 0,88; 0,96; 1,04; 1,12 ou 1,20% de lisina digestível. Avaliaram-se o consumo de ração (CR, a produção de ovos (PR, o peso (PO e a massa (MO do ovo, a conversão alimentar por massa (CMO e por dúzia (CDZ de ovos, os pesos de albúmen (PA, gema (PG e casca (PC, as porcentagens de albúmen (%A, gema (%G e casca (%C e a gravidade específica (GE dos ovos. O nível de lisina digestível da ração influenciou o consumo de ração, enquanto a produção de ovos respondeu de forma quadrática aos níveis de lisina. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram influenciadas pelo nível de lisina digestível da ração. A exigência de lisina digestível para codornas japonesas em postura foi estimada em 1,03% da ração, que corresponde a um consumo diário de 292 mg de lisina digestível.The objective was to estimate the nutritional requirements of digestible lysine for Japanese laying quails. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails were allotted to a completely randomized block designs, with five diets, with six replications of eight birds each. Diets consisted of a basal ration deficient in lysine and supplemented with five levels 0.88, 0.96, 1.04, 1.12 or 1.20% of digestible lysine. Feed consumption, egg production, egg weight and egg mass, feed conversion by egg mass (FCEM and by dozen egg were evaluated. It was also evaluated, albumen weight, yolk weight and shell weight, percentages of albumen, yolk and shell and egg specific gravity. Dietary digestible lysine level linearly influenced feed intake, while egg production was affected in a quadratic faction by digestible

  10. Exigência de cálcio para codornas japonesas (coturnix coturnix japonica em postura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.247 Calcium requirement for japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in the laying phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.247

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    Jocelyn Santiago Brandão

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de cálcio de codornas japonesas em postura. Foram utilizadas 105 codornas, distribuídas em sete tratamentos, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração basal suplementada com calcário calcítico para alcançar sete níveis de cálcio (2,95; 3,10; 3,25; 3,40; 3,55; 3,70 e 3,85%. As variáveis avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (CR, produção de ovos (PD, massa de ovos (MO, conversão por massa de ovos (CMO, conversão por dúzia de ovos (CDO, peso do ovo (PO, peso e percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e gravidade específica. O CR e CMO não foram influenciados pelos níveis de cálcio na dieta. A PD, MO e CDO sofreram efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio, sendo os valores máximos para estas variáveis estimados com os níveis de 3,45; 3,51 e 3,34% de cálcio. O PO aumentou linearmente com os níveis de cálcio na dieta. Foi verificado efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio sobre o peso e percentagem do albúmem e gema e gravidade específica. Recomendase para codornas japonesas o nível de 3,51% de cálcio da ração para a otimização dos índices de desempenho sem afetar negativamente a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos.This trial was performed to determine the requirements of calcium for Japanese quails during the laying period. A hundred and five quails were distributed in seven treatments and three repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with limestone in order to produce seven calcium levels (2.95; 3.10; 3.25; 3.40; 3.55; 3.70 and 3.85%. The following variables were evaluated: feed intake (CR, egg production (PD, egg mass (MO, conversion per egg mass (CMO, conversion per egg dozen (CDO, egg weight (PO, the weights and percentages of yolk, albumen and shell, and specific gravity. Calcium levels in the diet had no effect on CR and CMO. On the other hand, there was quadratic effect on PD, MO and CDO

  11. Exigência de cálcio para codornas japonesas (coturnix coturnix japonica em postura = Calcium requirement for japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in the laying phase

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    Patrícia Araújo Brandão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de cálcio de codornas japonesas em postura. Foram utilizadas 105 codornas, distribuídas em sete tratamentos, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração basal suplementada com calcário calcítico para alcançar sete níveis de cálcio (2,95; 3,10; 3,25; 3,40; 3,55; 3,70 e 3,85%. As variáveis avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (CR, produção de ovos (PD, massa de ovos (MO, conversão por massa de ovos (CMO, conversão por dúzia de ovos (CDO, peso do ovo (PO, peso e percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e gravidade específica. O CR e CMO não foram influenciados pelos níveis de cálcio na dieta. A PD, MO e CDO sofreram efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio, sendo os valores máximos para estas variáveis estimados com os níveis de 3,45; 3,51 e 3,34% de cálcio. O PO aumentou linearmente com os níveis de cálcio na dieta. Foi verificado efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio sobre o peso e percentagem do albúmem e gema e gravidade específica. Recomendasepara codornas japonesas o nível de 3,51% de cálcio da ração para a otimização dos índices de desempenho sem afetar negativamente a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos.This trial was performed to determine the requirements of calcium forJapanese quails during the laying period. A hundred and five quails were distributed in seven treatments and three repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with limestone in order to produce seven calcium levels (2.95; 3.10; 3.25; 3.40; 3.55; 3.70 and 3.85%. The following variables were evaluated: feed intake (CR, egg production (PD, egg mass (MO, conversion per egg mass (CMO, conversion per egg dozen (CDO, egg weight (PO, the weights and percentages of yolk, albumen and shell, and specific gravity. Calcium levels in the diet had no effect on CR and CMO. On the other hand, there was quadratic effect on PD, MO and CDO, and

  12. From food to offspring down: tissue-specific discrimination and turn-over of stable isotopes in herbivorous waterbirds and other avian foraging guilds.

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    Steffen Hahn

    Full Text Available Isotopic discrimination and turn-over are fundamental to the application of stable isotope ecology in animals. However, detailed information for specific tissues and species are widely lacking, notably for herbivorous species. We provide details on tissue-specific carbon and nitrogen discrimination and turn-over times from food to blood, feathers, claws, egg tissues and offspring down feathers in four species of herbivorous waterbirds. Source-to-tissue discrimination factors for carbon (δ¹³C and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ¹⁵N showed little variation across species but varied between tissues. Apparent discrimination factors ranged between -0.5 to 2.5‰ for δ¹³C and 2.8 to 5.2‰ for δ¹⁵N, and were more similar between blood components than between keratinous tissues or egg tissue. Comparing these results with published data from other species we found no effect of foraging guild on discrimination factors for carbon but a significant foraging-guild effect for nitrogen discrimination factors.Turn-over of δ¹³C in tissues was most rapid in blood plasma, with a half-life of 4.3 d, whereas δ¹³C in blood cells had a half-life of approximately 32 d. Turn-over times for albumen and yolk in laying females were similar to those of blood plasma, at 3.2 and 6.0 d respectively. Within yolk, we found decreasing half-life times of δ¹³C from inner yolk (13.3 d to outer yolk (3.1 d, related to the temporal pattern of tissue formation.We found similarities in tissue-specific turn-over times across all avian species studied to date. Yet, while generalities regarding discrimination factors and tissue turn-over times can be made, a large amount of variation remains unexplained.

  13. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

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    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  14. [Steroid hormones and the activity of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szukalski, B; Wieniawska-Szewczyk, E; Lipska, B

    1979-01-01

    Steroid hormones, i.e., corticosteroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens are formed in the adrenal cortex, male gonads, and the female placenta. Relatively little is known of their influence on behavior and their neuroendocrine function. On the cellular level, the rate of increase of RNA message to produce albumen and avidin is directly proportionate to the presence of steroids and their amount. Corticosteroid receptors are found in the thymus, liver, spleen and heart. The brain has receptors both for the corticosteroids and the sex hormones. These receptors are scattered throughout different regions of the brain, but the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasome is found only in the pituitary which accounts for its role in stopping the secretion of ACTH. Testosterone undergoes metabolic changes in the brain, affecting behavior. The A chain undergoes an enzyme reduction to 5aDHT and androstandiol. Following enzyme changes, the A chain of male testosterone can become female estradiol. Laboratory tests prove that sexual behavior in males is affected only by those androgens that can convert to estrogens, while in females it is dependent on the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Lately psychiatrists have become very interested in the catechol estrogens, fairly new metabolites of estradiol which are produced in the hypothalamus and contain 2 hydroxyl groups (as compared with the 1 hydroxyl in estrogens). Catechol estrogens block estradiol receptors, behaving like antiestrogens. Researchers are investigating the possibility of signaling the desired neural messages without the concomitant effects that estrogen produces, through using catechol estrogens. They are examining this natural derivative of estradiol which may affect among others: sexual behavior, maturity, depression, migraines, and epileptic seizures.

  15. Efeitos da inclusão do extrato oleoso de urucum em rações de poedeiras com substituição total ou parcial do milho pelo sorgo de baixo tanino - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.603 Effects of oily anatto extract inclusion in laying hens rations with total or partial replacement of maize by low tannin sorghum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.603

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    Cláudia de Castro Goulart

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição do extrato oleoso de urucum na s rações de poedeiras com substituição do milho pelo sorgo de baixo tanino. Foram utilizadas 324 aves em um delineament o inteiramente casualizado, com nove tratamentos, sendo uma ração controle e um fatorial 2 x 4 (dois níveis de sorgo e quatro níveis de extrato oleoso de urucum, com seis repetições de seis aves por unidade experimental. A substituição do milho pelo sorgo não alterou o desempenho das aves (P>0,05, porém a inclusão do sorgo reduziu o peso do albúmen e aumentou o peso e a porcentagem da casca (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oily anatto extract addition on laying hens rations with replacement of maize by low tannin sorghum. Three hundred and twenty four birds were used in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments, a control diet and a 2 x 4 factorial (two sorghum levels and four levels of oily anatto extract, and six replicates of six birds each experimental unit. Replacement of maize by sorghum did not alter birds performance (P>0.05, however, sorghum inclusion decreased albumen weight and increased shell weight and percentage (P<0.05. There was a linear effect on yolk weight when anatto extract was added to rations with 100% of sorghum. It was verified that inclusion of 0.15% of anatto extract on sorghum ration promotes yolk coloration score similar to the one observed for maize ration.

  16. Phosphate flame retardants and novel brominated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an e-waste recycling region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP)) were measured in free-range chicken eggs from three e-waste recycling sites and a negative control site located in Guangdong province, Southern China. BEH-TEBP, tris-(chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris-(chloropropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP, two isomers) and tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP) were detected in more than 50% of eggs samples with low concentrations. The median values of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs were 0.17-0.46 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 1.62-2.59 ng/g ww in eggs from the e-waste sites, respectively. The results indicate that EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PFRs are less persistent and bioaccumulative than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs, and possibly also in other bio-matrices. Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were identified in albumen with higher frequencies, but at similar concentrations compared to yolk, while BEH-TEBP was mainly detected in yolk. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs from consumption of chicken eggs ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 and 0.32-0.52 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.20-0.54 and 1.89-3.02 ng/kg bw/day for children in e-waste sites, respectively. Indoor dust ingestion seems to be a more important pathway for the intake of these FRs, while egg consumption is probably a more important exposure pathway for PBDEs. PMID:26460270

  17. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

    2014-10-01

    Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.

  18. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

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    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus ( p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage ( p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  19. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  20. Lipid profile in eggs of Araucana hens compared with Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown hens given diets with different fat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, S; De Ceulaer, K; Van Paemel, M; Raes, K; De Smet, S; Janssens, G P J

    2006-06-01

    1. In a cross-over trial, the egg cholesterol and fatty acid composition of Araucana hens was compared with those of two commercial breeds (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown) under two feeding regimes, either high (Hn-3) or low (Ln-3) in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. 2. The Hn-3 diet was formed by isocaloric substitution of animal fat in the control diet (Ln-3) by a dry product containing stabilised fish oil with standardised concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). 3. Both breed and diet had influences on egg composition, without interactions. 4. The Araucana breed showed lower feed intake and lower egg weights than the other two breeds. The yolk weight was similar, leading to a much higher yolk:albumen ratio in the Araucana eggs. 5. In comparison to commercial breeds, Araucanas produced eggs with higher cholesterol content per g of yolk, which was even more pronounced when expressed per g of egg, due to the high yolk content of the eggs. The cholesterol content of an egg remained unchanged by the diet, irrespective of the dietary fat source. 6. Changing to the Hn-3 diet led to greater concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents in the yolk, without a change in the ratio of saturated (SFA) to unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). 7. Within the PUFA, the n-3 fatty acids increased at the expense of the n-6 fatty acids, indicating a competition between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for incorporation in the yolk. PMID:16787853

  1. A nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K.R.; Klimstra, J.D.; Eagles-Smith C.A.; Ackerman, J.T.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. Protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) or on field studies where whole eggs were collected and analyzed and the effects of the mercury were measured based on the reproductive success of the remaining eggs. However, both of these methods have limitations. As an alternative, we developed a technique that involves extracting a small sample of albumen from a live egg, sealing the egg, returning the egg to its nest to be naturally incubated by the parents, and then relating the hatching success of this microsampled egg to its mercury concentration. After first developing this technique in the laboratory using chicken and mallard eggs, we selected the laughing gull (Larus atricilla) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) as test subjects in the field. We found that 92% of the microsampled laughing gull eggs met our reproductive endpoint of survival to the beginning of hatching compared to 100% for the paired control eggs within the same nests. Microsampled black-necked stilt eggs exhibited 100% hatching success compared to 93% for the paired control eggs. Our results indicate that microsampling is an effective tool for nonlethally sampling mercury concentrations in eggs and, as such, can be used for monitoring sensitive species, as well as for improving studies that examine the effects of mercury on avian reproduction.

  2. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  3. Bioactive thermoresponsive polyblend nanofiber formulations for wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Mahesh D. [Polymer Science and Engineering, National Chemical Laboratory, Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); MAEER' s Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy S. No. 124, MIT Campus Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune 411 038 (India); Rathna, G.V.N., E-mail: rv.gundloori@ncl.res.in [Polymer Science and Engineering, National Chemical Laboratory, Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Agrawal, Shubhang [Polymer Science and Engineering, National Chemical Laboratory, Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Kuchekar, Bhanudas S. [MAEER' s Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy S. No. 124, MIT Campus Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune 411 038 (India)

    2015-03-01

    The rationale of this work is to develop new bioactive thermoresponsive polyblend nanofiber formulations for wound healing (topical). Various polymer compositions of thermoresponsive, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), egg albumen and poly(ε-caprolactone) blend solutions with and without a drug [gatifloxacin hydrochloride, Gati] were prepared. Non-woven nanofibers of various compositions were fabricated using an electrospinning technique. The morphology of the nanofibers was analyzed by an environmental scanning electron microscope. The morphology was influenced by the concentration of polymer, drug, and polymer blend composition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the shift in bands due to hydrogen ion interactions between polymers and drug. Thermogram of PNIPAM/PCL/EA with Gati recorded a shift in lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of PNIPAM. Similarly T{sub g} and melting temperature (T{sub m}) of PCL were shifted. X-ray diffraction patterns recorded a decrease in the crystalline state of PCL nanofibers and transformed crystalline drug to an amorphous state. In vitro release study of nanofibers with Gati showed initial rapid release up to 10 h, followed by slow and controlled release for 696 h (29 days). Nanofiber mats with Gati exhibited antibacterial properties to Staphylococcus aureus, supported suitable controlled drug release with in vitro cell viability and in vivo wound healing. - Highlights: • Thermoresponsive and bioactive nanofiber blends of PNIPAM/EA/PCL were fabricated. • Nanofiber blends favored initial rapid release, followed by controlled release. • In vitro cell viability of pure polymers and nanofiber blends was least toxic. • In vivo studies of drug loaded nanofiber mats recorded faster tissue regeneration.

  4. Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter for Biological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Wesley Nelson

    In vitro measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are presented for several biological media. With these measurements it is possible to predict the distortion of a finite amplitude wave in biological tissues of current diagnostic and research interest. The measurement method is based on the finite amplitude distortion of a sine wave that is emmitted by a piston source. The growth of the second harmonic component of this wave is measured by a piston receiver which is coaxial with and has the same size as the source. The experimental measurements and theory are compared in order to determine the nonlinearity parameter. The density, sound speed, and attenuation for the medium are determined in order to make this comparison. The theory developed for this study accounts for the influence of both diffraction and attenuation on the experimental measurements. The effects of dispersion, tissue inhomogeneity and gas bubbles within the excised tissues are studied. To test the measurement method, experimental results are compared with established values for the nonlinearity parameter of distilled water, ethylene glycol and glycerol. The agreement between these values suggests that the measurement uncertainty is (+OR-) 5% for liquids and (+OR-) 10% for solid tissues. Measurements are presented for dog blood and bovine serum albumen as a function of concentration. The nonlinearity parameters for liver, kidney and spleen are reported for both human and canine tissues. The values for the fresh tissues displayed little variation (6.8 to 7.8). Measurements for fixed, normal and cirrhotic tissues indicated that the nonlinearity parameter does not depend strongly on pathology. However, the values for fixed tissues were somewhat higher than those of the fresh tissues.

  5. Limestone and oyster shell for brown layers in their second egg production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 % and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL, 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL, 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS, 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS, with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g, egg production (% Eggs, egg mass (EM %, feed intake (FI g, feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg, mortality (% Mort., specific egg gravity (SG, percentages of yolk (Y%, albumen (Alb% and eggshell (ES%, eggshell thickness (EST, eggshell breaking strength (BS, eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA, Haugh unit (HU, yolk index (YI and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05 FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg. Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.

  6. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  7. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  8. 日月山梅花鹿公鹿血清生理指标研究%Study on the Physiological Indices in the Serum of Male Sika Deer on Riyue Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平珍

    2011-01-01

    对日月山养鹿场围栏放牧的10头梅花鹿公鹿的7项血清生理指标进行了测定,并与祁连白唇鹿、祁连马鹿、祁连梅花鹿的某些生理指标进行比较。结果表明,日月山梅花鹿血清总蛋白显著低于祁连白唇鹿、祁连马鹿及祁连梅花鹿(P〈0.01);日月山梅花鹿血清无机磷显著低于祁连白唇鹿(P〈0.01),其他血清生理指标无显著差异(P〉0.05)。%Seven serum physiological indices of ten male sika deer by fence grazing in deer farm on Riyue Mountain were determined and they were compared with some physiological indices of Qilian white-lipped deer,Qilian red deer and Qilian sika deer. The results showed that total albumen in the serum of sika deer on Riyue Mountain was significantly lower than that of Qilian white-lipped deer,Qilian red deer and Qilian sika deer(P0.01) .The inorganic phosphorus in the serum of sika deer on Riyue Mountain was significantly lower than that of Qilian white-lipped deer(P0.01) . And other serum physiological indices had no significant difference(P 0.05).

  9. Níveis de cálcio em dietas para poedeiras semipesadas após o pico de postura Levels of calcium in diets for brown layers post-peak production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos dos níveis de cálcio nas rações sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 216 poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann Brown no período de 39 a 55 semanas de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, composto de seis níveis de cálcio (3,0; 3,4; 3,8; 4,2; 4,6; 5,0% e seis repetições de seis aves por parcela. Os níveis de cálcio avaliados não influenciaram os parâmetros produtivos, mas afetaram significativamente as porcentagens de albúmen e casca do ovo. O aumento do cálcio na dieta promove incremento na qualidade da casca do ovo em relação aos demais componentes do ovo. Recomenda-se nível de 4,3% de cálcio em dietas para poedeiras semipesadas após o pico de postura.Two hundred and sixteen layers were raised from 39 to 55 weeks of age to study the effects of levels of calcium in the rations on performance and eggs quality of brown commercial layers. A completely randomized experimental design were used with six levels of calcium (3.0; 3.4; 3.8; 4.2; 4.6 and 5.0% and six replicates of six layers hens. There was no effect of calcium levels on hen performance, however significantly affected the percentage of albumen and egg shell. The increase of calcium in the diet promoted increment in egg shell quality in relationship to other eggs components. The calcium level of 4.3% is recommended for brown layer hens after production peak.

  10. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  11. NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Witkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II, Zn(II, Co(II, Cr(III. In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II, Zn(II, Cr(III, the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

  12. Isotopes in medical diagnosis. New techniques reviewed at Vienna symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical uses of radioisotopes cover diagnosis and therapy as well as clinical research. There is specialized equipment not only detects the radiations from a radioactive substance inside the body, but also produces a two-dimensional visual image of the size and functional condition of tissue that absorbs this substance. This is known as medical radioisotope scanning, aimed at determining the distribution of a radioisotope within an organ which specifically concentrates a radioisotope. Methods of scanning are exceedingly complex, and although a variety of equipment is now available for the automatic determination of the distribution of a radioisotope in an organ, experience of their use is still limited. To facilitate an adequate exchange of views and a pooling of experience in this field, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization recently arranged a seminar to discuss the techniques and results of scanning. Topics discussed included problems of collimation, sensitivity patterns of various collimating systems, optimum isotope concentrations, essential requirements for obtaining satisfactory visualization by a scanner, basic principles of scintillation counting, a the scintillation camera, isotope scanning for studies on liver disorders and liver tumours, radiogold used for liver scanning, scanning the liver and pancreas with the help of positron-emitting isotopes, measuring the distribution of radioisotopes in deep lying tissues by detection of 'bremsstrahlen', 'profile counting', brain tumour scanning with the usage of radioarsenic or radioiodine-labelled albumen, different aspects of thyroid scanning, value and methods of scanning in thyroid cancer as well as scanning procedures in non-cancerous thyroid disease. During the discussions Dr. Keroe (IAEA) demonstrated a new electronic device, the use of which results in a substantial increase of contrast and resolution of the recordings of a scanning machine, and which is the first

  13. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation. PMID:26854179

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types. PMID:27108035

  15. 笼养以及笼养替代模式对鸡蛋品质的影响%Effects of Cage and Alternative Systems on Egg Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兴和; 朱思兵; 刘胜军

    2013-01-01

      出于动物福利的需要,许多国家对蛋鸡的饲养方式进行了改进。出现了改良型鸡笼饲养、大笼饲养、自由散养等三种替代模式。从传统的笼养转变为改良型笼养或散养等模式改变了鸡的生活环境,饲养方式的改变可能会改变蛋壳质量、蛋黄和蛋白的营养构成及功能,同时伴随着鸡蛋品质的变化。另外季节、品种、家禽的年龄以及免疫情况等的相互作用也会对鸡蛋品质有一定的影响。%  In order to improve the welfare of hens,various housing systems were used in many countries which were enriched cage system,aviary system and free-range system.Changing from conventional cages to enriched cage or free-range systems affected the living environment of the laying hens.With the changing of housing systems,some characters of eggshell,nutritional composition and function of yolk and albumen might change,along with changes in egg quality.Season,hen breed,flock age,and flock disease-vaccination status also interacted to affect egg quality.

  16. 响应面法优化玉米胚芽蛋白粉的酶改性工艺%Optimization of Enzymatic Modification for Corn Germ Protein Powder by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梅; 韩忠杰; 孙庆杰

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to optimize the process condition of enzymatic modification for corn germ albumen powder.The functional property of modified protein and examinational protein was compared.The gel hardness of corn germ powder was investigated with respect to processing time,substrate concentration and enzyme content.The results showed that the optimized enzymatic modification process was processing time of 3.18 h,substrate mass fraction of 10.88% and enzyme content of 24.16 U/g.Under above conditions,the gel hardness was 98.13 g.Modified corn germ protein showed an obviously improvement in its functional property.Therefore,the effect of enzymatic modification is obvious.%酶法改性处理玉米胚芽蛋白粉,并比较改性前后玉米胚芽蛋白粉的功能性质.以改性时间、底物浓度和加酶量为响应因素,玉米胚芽蛋白粉凝胶硬度为响应值,采用响应面分析方法,优化玉米胚芽蛋白粉酶改性工艺.结果表明:酶法改性玉米胚芽蛋白粉的最优工艺条件为改性时间3.18 h;底物质量分数10.88%;加酶量24.16 U/g,在此工艺条件下得到的凝胶硬度为98.13 g.改性后的玉米胚芽蛋白粉其功能性质有了较明显的改善,说明酶法改性玉米胚芽蛋白粉效果明显.

  17. Effect of group size on performance and egg quality of laying hens during 20 to 36 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve knowledge on the effect of group size on productive performance and egg quality of hens raised in furnished cages equally designed. A total of 520, 15-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into 2 groups to have a similar initial body weight (average 1392±16.3 g. The cages of S25 group (240 L x 78 W x 50 H cm, 749 cm2/hen hosted a total of 200 hens, while those of S40 group (462 L x 65 W x 50 H, 751 cm2/hen included 320 birds. Experimental data were recorded after an adaptation period of 5 weeks (20 to 36 weeks of age. Hens were submitted to 15 h of light/d. The average temperature inside the building was 24.6±2.5°C over the entire experimental period with higher values at 24, 26, 28 and 30 weeks of age. The relative humidity recorded inside the building was 55% at week 20 and 60% all through the experimental period. Hens raised from S40 group had lower percentage of egg production (84.91 vs 88.90%, P<0.01 and higher feed conversion ratio (2.70 vs 2.25, P<0.0001 than S25 group. The percentage of eggs laid out of the nest was higher in S25 than S40 group (0.26 vs 0.19%, P<0.01. As expected, the week of age affected almost all the parameters (feed intake, body weight, laying percentage, egg weight, yolk, shell and albumen indexes, shell thickness, Haugh unit. However, the effect of group size was particularly evident during the hot period.

  18. Continual feeding of two types of microalgal biomass affected protein digestion and metabolism in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Chou, K; Magnuson, A; Lei, X G

    2015-01-01

    A 14-wk study was conducted to determine the nutritional efficacy and ssmetabolic impact of 2 types of microalgal biomass as alternative protein sources in laying hen diets. Shaver hens (total = 150 and 26 wk old) were fed 1 of 5 diets: a control or a defatted green microalgal biomass (DG; Desmodesmus spp.) at 25% and a full-fatted diatom biomass (FD; Staurosira spp.) at 11.7% inclusion with or without protease. This experiment consisted of 5 replicates per treatment and each replicate contained 6 hens individually reared in cages (1 hen for biochemical data/replicate). Despite decreased ADFI (P = 0.03), hens fed DG or FD had final BW, overall hen-day egg production, and egg quality similar to the controls. Feeding DG or FD did not alter plasma concentrations of insulin, glutamine, and uric acid or alkaline phosphatase activity at wk 8 or 14 but decreased plasma 3-methyhistine concentrations (P = 0.03) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities (P hens. However, DG and FD manifested with different impacts on weights of egg and egg albumen, proteolytic activity of jejunal digesta, plasma TRAP activity, ileal total AA digestibility, and several intestinal genes and hepatic proteins. Supplemental protease in the DG and FD diets produced mixed effects on a number of measures. In conclusion, our findings revealed the feasibility of including greater levels of microalgal biomass as a source of feed protein for laying hens and a novel potential of the biomass in improving dietary protein digestion and body protein metabolism than previously perceived.

  19. Sunflower Meal and Supplementation of an Enzyme Complex in Layer Diets

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    WAG Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of 64- to 79-wk-old laying hens fed diets supplemented with an enzyme complex (EC and containing increasing sunflower meal (SFM levels. A total of 384 Hy-Line Brown layers were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (four levels of SFM, and inclusion or not of EC, with eight replicates of six birds each unit. The levels of SFM inclusion were 0, 8, 16 and 24%, utilized in two distinct diets. Diets were calculated to meet all the nutritional requirements of birds, except for the nutrients that would be made available by the nutritional matrix of the enzyme complex, with or without utilization of EC. The parameters analyzed were feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, body weight gain, egg components (yolk, albumen and eggshell and the economic efficiency index (EEI. There was no interaction between EC addition and the SFM levels in the diet. The addition of EC in the diets of laying hens did not affect egg productive or components parameters. The increase in the SFM levels in the diet presented quadratic effect on egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, with calculated optimal sunflower meal inclusion levels of 6.72% and 5.83%, respectively, for each parameter. The best economic efficiency per dozen eggs was obtained with the diet with 16.0% SFM and EC inclusion, whereas per egg mass with the diet with of 24.0% SFM and no EC addition.

  20. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. PMID:26957629

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella in Shell Eggs by Hot Water Immersion and Its Effect on Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geveke, David J; Gurtler, Joshua B; Jones, Deana R; Bigley, Andrew B W

    2016-03-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strains PT8 C405, 2 (FSIS #OB030832), and 6 (FSIS #OB040159). Eggs were immersed in a circulating hot water bath for various times and temperatures. Come-up time of the coldest location within the egg was 21 min. SE was reduced by 4.5 log at both hot water immersion treatments of 56.7 C for 60 min and 55.6 °C for 100 min. Decimal reduction times (D-values) at 54.4, 55.6, and 56.7 °C were 51.8, 14.6, and 9.33 min, respectively. The z-value was 3.07 °C. Following treatments that resulted in a 4.5 log reduction (56.7 °C/60 min and 55.6 °C/100 min), the surviving population of SE remained static during 4 wk of refrigerated storage. After processing under conditions resulting in 4.5 log reductions, the Haugh unit and albumen height significantly increased (P shell dynamic stiffness significantly increased (P shell strength showed no significant difference (P membrane strength significantly increased (P membrane elasticity. In summary, the hot water immersion process inactivated heat resistant SE in shell eggs by 4.5 log, but also significantly affected several egg quality characteristics. PMID:26878421

  2. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.

  3. Occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in hens' eggs depending on their source and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień-Pyśniak, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the qualitative composition of Gram-negative microbes, mainly of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, in the albumens and yolks and on the shells of hens' eggs, depending on their source and on the temperature and duration of their storage. A total of 375 table eggs were studied, from a large-scale poultry farm, a small-scale poultry farm and a supermarket. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups according to the temperature and duration of their storage during the study. Two serotypes of bacteria of the genus Salmonella were identified: S. Enteritidis and S. Arizonae. Strains of Salmonella spp. were also isolated. Apart from Salmonella and Escherichia coli, among the most frequently isolated bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter freundii. Qualitative analysis of the bacterial microflora of the eggs also showed the presence of other Gram negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Tatumella ptyseos, Providencia stuartii, Serratia liquefaciens, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Vibrio metschnikovii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Kluyvera spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Proteus mirabilis, and Achromobacter spp. The study demonstrated that the conditions applied, i.e., the temperature and duration of storage, did not significantly influence the prevalence of particular species of Gram-negative bacteria in the eggs. However, based on the analysis of contamination of eggs with Salmonella depending on their source, it can be concluded that the system in which the hens are housed affects the risk of contamination of eggs with these pathogens. PMID:21033566

  4. Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

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    Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis compared to normal control subjects. Design: !"",include sickle cell disease patients with chronic renal fa"# $%& ' ", i ,nclude ( # #"# $%&'", , ,( #&'", i 9nclude the normal *+&*+' All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen, s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using #,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of - .Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than $/%- .% 0( # #cell disease have significantly. Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with 12( # * 3 &4 !4! '#"#"patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis , presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v. Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis, correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

  5. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  6. Comparative evaluation of dietary oregano, anise and olive leaves in laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EV Christaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was the comparative evaluation of the effect of ground oregano, anise and olive leaves as feed additives on performance and some egg quality characteristics of laying Japanese quails. A total of 189 Coturnix japonica quails (126 females and 63 males, 149 days old, were randomly allocated into seven equal groups with three subgroups of 9 birds each (6 females and 3 males. A commercial laying diet was fed to the control group. The remaining six groups were fed the same diet supplemented with oregano at 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg, anise at 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg and olive leaves at 10 g/kg or at 20 g/kg. The birds were offered feed and water ad libitum for a period of 29 days, while being kept under commercial conditions. During the experiment, egg production, feed intake and mortality were recorded daily. At the end of the feeding period egg weight, egg yolk, albumen and eggshell weight percentages, egg yolk color (using the L*a*b* color space and blood serum triglycerides were determined. The diets supplemented with olive leaves (10 g/kg or 20 g/kg resulted in a tendency (p = 0.054 for higher egg production percentage. Also, the color parameter a* was significantly (p = 0.001 higher in the eggs of quails that consumed oregano (10g/kg or 20 g/kg or olive leaves (10g/kg or 20 g/kg.

  7. Studies on the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions of Alchornea floribunda leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Festus BC.Okoye; Patience O.Osadebe

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Alchornea floribunda leaves are widely used in ethnomedicinal management of inflammatory disor-ders.The present work is aimed at investigating this folkloric use.Methods:The anti-inflammatory effect of the leaf extracts and fractions was investigated in experimental animal models of acute and chronic inflamma-tion.The possible mechanisms by which the two most active fractions,hexane (HE)and ethyl acetate (EF) exert their effects were also investigated.Results:The crude extract (200 mg/kg)showed moderate inhibition of egg albumen-induced edema in rats (% edema inhibition =54.69)at 4 h.HE and EF showed very high activity (% edema inhibition of 81.25 and 67.19 respectively at 200 mg/kg)at 4h as compared to the con-trol.Both fractions ameliorated arthritis induced by formaldehyde in rats.At 400 mg/kg,HE evoked a signifi-cant irritation of gastric mucosa in rats.EF (200 mg/kg,p.o.)significantly inhibited leucocytes (% inhibi-tion =36.79)migration in vivo,but could not stabilize heat and hypotonicity-induced lysis of human erythro-cyte at 200 and 400 μg/mL in vitro.Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of terpenoids and ster-oids in HE and flavonoids,tannins and saponins in EF.Conclusion:These results suggest that the leaves of Alchornea floribunda possess anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammation.The activity may de-rive from a combination of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and leucocytes migration.The phytochemical constituents detected in HE and EF may account for the anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Effect of dietary vanadium and vitamin C on egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J P; He, K R; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of dietary vanadium (V) and vitamin C (VC) on production performance, egg quality and antioxidant status in laying hens. A total of 360 laying hens (31-week-old) were randomly allotted into a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement treatments (four replicates and 10 chicks per replicate) with three levels of dietary V (0, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and three levels of vitamin C (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. The effect of V and VC did not alter egg production, egg weight, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio during 1-12 week. Albumen height and Haugh unit value were linearly decreased (p Hens fed V-containing diet laid lighter (linear effect, p < 0.05) coloured eggs (higher lightness value, lower redness and yellowness value), and the VC exerted no influence on it during 1-12 week. The serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical, were significantly decreased, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and V contents were increased (p < 0.05) by effect of V during 4, 8 and 12 week. The effect of VC alone and the interactive effect between VC and V were shown to increase serum (p < 0.05) SOD activity in 4 week and decrease MAD levels in 12 week. The result indicate that V decreased the egg quality and caused the oxidative stress at level of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, and the addition of 100 mg/kg vitamin C can alleviate its egg quality reduction effect and can mitigate the oxidative stress to some extent. PMID:26259765

  9. Utilization of nitrogen-15 from wheat by growing poultry and laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-15 offered to broiler chickens and laying hens has been tested. The test animals were given wheat (atom % 15N-excess 20-25%) or 15N-lysine in balanced rations. The results showed that different feedstuffs are transported selectively through the gastro-intestinal tract. Therefore the atom % 15N-excess is higher in the contents of the crop, the proventriculus and the gizzard in comparison with the feed. Some hours after feeding the atom % 15N-excess in the contents of the small intestine is lower than in other parts of the intestinal tract (3 to 12 hours after feeding). As to atom % 15N, there is a significant correlation between the contents of the small intestine and the gut wall (r=0.99). As the amount of nitrogen in the contents of the small intestine does not change between 3 and 12 hours after feeding, the obvious dilution of 15N does not allow conclusions to be made regarding the endogenic secretion. In the steady state, 24% of the 15N of wheat lysine, 12% of the 15N of wheat histidine and 9% of arginine were excreted in the faeces. Four days after the last feed intake of labelled wheat or lysine we found more 15N in the carcass than in the total sum of eggs. Four days after the last feeding the albumen showed a higher labelling rate than urine. The 15N of wheat was differently incorporated into thoracic, leg and heart muscles. We found a different half-life time for the individual muscle protein types in the following order: heart, leg, thoracic. Within the eight-day period no changes were observed in the level of labelling in the thoracic muscle. (author)

  10. Desempenho, qualidade dos ovos e balanço de nitrogênio de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis de proteína bruta e lisina Performance, egg quality and nitrogen balance of commercial laying hens fed diets with different levels of crude protein and lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Fernanda Rizzo Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos de rações com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB e lisina sobre as características de desempenho, a qualidade interna dos ovos e o balanço/retenção do nitrogênio. Foram utilizadas 160 poedeiras Hisex White com 48 semanas de idade, alojadas individualmente em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, com quatro níveis de PB (12, 14, 16 e 18% e dois de lisina (0,85 e 1,00%, totalizando oito rações com cinco repetições de quatro aves. O consumo de proteína bruta, o peso dos ovos, a massa de ovos e a porcentagem de albúmen apresentam resposta linear crescente aos níveis de PB na dieta. O balanço de nitrogênio não é alterado pelos níveis de proteína das rações.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets with different levels of crude protein (CP and lysine (LYS on characteristics of performance, egg internal quality, and nitrogen balance/retention. It was used 160 Hisex White laying hens at 48 weeks of age, individually accomodated in a complete random design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with four levels of crude protein (12, 14, 16 and 18% and two levels of lysine (0.85 and 1.00%, totalizing eight treatments with five replicates of four birds each. Crude protein intake, egg weight, egg mass and percentage of the albumen show increasing linear response to the levels of crude protein in the diet. Nitrogen balance is not altered by the levels of proteins in the diets.

  11. Digestible lysine levels in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Luís Nascimento Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the digestible lysine requirement of Japanese quails in the egg-laying phase. A total of 336 female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica of average initial age of 207 days were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, composed of 6 treatments (lysine levels with 7 replicates and 8 birds per experimental unit, with duration of 84 days. Experimental diets were formulated from a basal diet, with corn and soybean meal, with 2.800 kcal ME/kg and 203.70 g/kg crude protein, showing levels of 9.50; 10.00; 10.50; 11.00; 11.50; and 12.00 g/kg digestible lysine; diets remained isoprotein and isocaloric. The following variables were studied: feed intake (FI; lysine intake (LI; egg production per bird per day (EPBD; egg production per bird housed (EPBH; production of marketable eggs (PME; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; utilization efficiency of lysine for egg mass production (UELEM; feed conversion per mass (FCEM; feed conversion per dozen eggs (FCDZ; bird availability (BA; percentages of yolk (Y, albumen (A and shell (S; specific egg weight (SW; nitrogen ingested (NI; nitrogen excreted (NE; and nitrogen balance (NB. Significant effect was only observed for LI, EW, EM, UELEM, FCEM, Y, A and SW. The digestible lysine level estimated in diets for laying Japanese quails is 11.20 g digestible lysine/kg diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 272.23 mg lysine.

  12. 可降解性壳聚糖基小口径人工血管的生物安全性%BIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF BIODEGRADABLE CHITOSAN SMALL-CALIBRE ARTIFICIAL VASCULAR PROSTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晓颖; 韩宝芹; 王海霞; 李辉; 徐文华; 刘万顺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological safety of a new type biodegraded chitosan-diameter small-calibre (inner diameter 2 mm) artificial vascular prosthesis (AVP). Methods Cytotoxicity, acute systemic toxicity. subcutaneous irritant reaction, inflammatory reaction, in vitro haemolysis, and plasma protein adherency of the AVP were detected. Results All the above parameters detected were consistent with clinical requirements, and the adsorption quantity of albumen of heparin-contained AVP was higher than that without heparin-contained AVP, Conclusion Biodegradable chitosan small calibre AVP is consistent with clinical requirements in terms of cell-safety and tissue-safety, which provides a sufficient theoretical evidence for its clinical application.%目的 对新型可降解的壳聚糖基小口径(内径为2 mm)人工血管的安全性进行检测,探讨其意义.方法 对壳聚糖基小口径人工血管的细胞毒性、急性全身毒性、皮下刺激反应、炎症反应、体外溶血率、血浆蛋白黏附等进行检测.结果 可降解壳聚糖基小口径人工血管细胞毒性、体外溶血率、急性全身毒性、皮下刺激反应及炎症反应均符合临床要求,且含有肝素的人工血管的清蛋白吸附量显著高于无肝素成分的人工血管.结论 可降解壳聚糖基小口径人工血管在细胞安全性、组织安全性方面均符合临床要求,为其临床应用提供充分的理论依据.

  13. Structural trace of adaptation in motive nuclei of spinal cord of rats in hypokinesia and after physical loading in the recovery period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Popel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the morphological changes of neurocytes in spinal cord of rats in hypokinesia and subsequent physical loading. Studies were performed on 55 laboratory rats of Wistar line. Materials of the research were the anterior horns of the gray matter of L5-S2 spinal segments. Preparations stained by Nissl and Viktorov were examined histologically. Hypokinesia was modeled following on the author’s technique. It was established that during prolonged hypokinesia in neurocytes of spinal cord of rats morphological changes in cell size and shape of the motor nuclei of all segments under study have been recorded. The number of hypochromic, hyperchromic destructively unchanged and hyperchromic destructively altered neurocytes increase; shadow cells appears, as well as cases of satellitosis and neuronophagia. Decrease in of albumen synthetical neurocyte function has been recorded. Physical loading of the average aerobic capacity leads to normalization of structural and functional state of neurocytes and enhances the reparative processes, as evidenced by a number of positive changes in morphometric parameters: increase in the number of normochromic neurocytes and decreasing the number of hyper- and hypochromic neurocytes with destructive signs, absence of pyknotic forms. Morphological parameters of neurocytes and their nuclei after physical loading of average aerobic capacity do not differ from those in the control group of intact animals. In neurocytes of this group of rats RNA concentration increases by 12.6% compared to animals after prolonged hypokinesia. Neurocytes of spinal cord of rats after prolonged hypokinesia develop significant morphological changes which are characterized by emergence of a significant number of hyperchromic neurocytes with signs of destructive changes and shadow cells, as well as and hypochromic neurocytes with signs of destructive changes, reduction in size and change of shape of perikaryons of

  14. Studies on reproductive system of Hemifusus ternatanus%细角螺生殖系统的形态结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋霞敏; 段雪梅; 姜小敏; 陆伟进

    2011-01-01

    The tissue structure of the reproductive system of Hemifusus ternatanus was studied by anatomical and histological techniques, and the shape of its reproductive system was described. The features are discussed in its reproductive system. The results showed that:the male reproductive system of H. ternatanus consists of the testis, vas deferens collecting duct, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and the transfer device; the female reproductive system of H. ternatanus is composed of the ovaries, the fallopian collecting duct, albumen gland ,gland wrapped around the eggs, black gland, transfer capsule, the vagina and proleg mouth. Transfer device is a unique structure of H. ternatanus, which has not been reported in other gastropods. The proleg mouth only disappeared in the female, and is the only morphology symbol that can distinguish male and female. The protein gland secretes strong eosinophilic material in reproductive season,the gland wrapped around the eggs secretes strong basophilic substances. The black gland was first discovered in H. ternatanu, and its specific functions should be studied further.%运用解剖学和组织学方法,研究了细角螺生殖系统的结构,并描述了该螺生殖系统的形态构造,探讨了细角螺生殖系统的结构特点.结果表明:细角螺雄性生殖系统由精巢、输精集合管、储精囊、输精管、阴精囊和交接器组成;雌性生殖系统由卵巢、输卵集合管、蛋白腺、缠卵腺、黑腺、交接囊、阴道和腹足口组成.交接器是细角螺特有的结构,在其它腹足纲动物中未见报道.腹足口仅雌性特有,是区分雌雄的唯一形态特征.繁殖期蛋白腺分泌强嗜酸性物质,缠卵腺分泌强嗜碱性物质.在细角螺中发现黑腺结构,其具体功能还有待于进一步研究.

  15. Dietary daidzein influences laying performance of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and early post-hatch growth of their hatchlings by modulating gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruqian; Wang, Yaju; Zhou, Yuchuan; Ni, Yingdong; Lu, Lizhi; Grossmann, Roland; Chen, Jie

    2004-08-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation of daidzein improves egg production in duck breeders during late periods of the laying cycle. The present study was aimed to clarify whether the growth of ducklings hatched from eggs laid by daidzein-treated hens would be affected, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying potential trans-generational effects, by determining changes of hormone levels and mRNA expression of relevant genes. Daidzein was added to the basal diet of 415-day-old duck breeders at the level of 5 mg/kg. During 9 weeks of daidzein treatment, laying rate increased by 7.70%, average egg mass tended to increase, whereas yolk/albumen ratio decreased significantly. These changes were accompanied by significantly elevated plasma T4 and E2 levels, enhanced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA, but diminished estrogen receptor (ER)-beta mRNA expression in hypothalamus of daidzein-treated hens. Ducklings hatched from daidzein-treated eggs were significantly smaller at hatching, but they caught up with their control counterparts by 4 weeks of age. Serum levels of T4, pituitary GH, hepatic GH receptor (GHR) and type-1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA expression were all suppressed markedly in the daidzein-treated group at hatching, but this suppression proved to be temporary, as at 4 weeks of age, expression levels of all investigated genes were restored. However, it is noteworthy that at 4 weeks of age an obvious down-regulation of hypothalamic GnRH mRNA expression was detected in ducklings maternally exposed to daidzein. Our results provide evidence that maternal exposure to daidzein affects post-hatch growth in the duck with accompanying changes in the secretion of metabolic hormones and expression of growth-related genes. Although the negative effect of maternal daidzein on embryonic growth could be eliminated 4 weeks after hatching, the long-term effect of maternal daidzein on reproductive function is not to be ignored and awaits

  16. Semente residual do urucum na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais: desempenho e características dos ovos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.207 Annato seed byproduct used as a source of pigment in laying hen diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaele Ferreira Moreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão da semente residual de urucum (SRU sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações contendo sorgo. Cento e quarenta e quatro poedeiras comerciais foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de quatro aves. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração � base de milho e, as demais, � base de sorgo com a inclusão de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0;1,5 e 2,0% de SRU. As variáveis: consumo de ração, percentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovo, conversão alimentar, percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e unidades Haugh não foram afetadas significativamente pelos níveis de inclusão de SRU. Entretanto, a pigmentação da gema aumentou linearmente com o aumento de SRU na ração. A inclusão de 2% de SRU em rações contendo sorgo foi capaz de pigmentar as gemas em, aproximadamente, 61,4% da pigmentação obtida em rações compostas por milho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of annatto (Bixa orellana L. seed byproduct (ASB in diets with sorghum on laying hens performance and eggs characteristics. A hundred and forty-four laying hens were randomly allotted to six treatments and six replications with four birds each. Treatments consisted of one diet based on corn and the five others based on sorghum with the inclusion of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0% of ASB. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion, yolk, albumen and shell percentages and Haugh units were not affected by the inclusion levels of ASB. However, yolk colour increased linearly as ASB increased in diet. The inclusion of 2% of annatto seed byproduct on laying hens diets based on sorghum improves egg yolk colour nearly 61.4% of that obtained with birds fed diet based on yellow corn.

  17. Semente residual do urucum na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais: desempenho e características dos ovos = Annato seed byproduct used as a source of pigment in laying hen diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia de Melo Braz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão da semente residual de urucum (SRU sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações contendo sorgo. Cento e quarenta e quatro poedeiras comerciais foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de quatro aves. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração àbase de milho e, as demais, à base de sorgo com a inclusão de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0;1,5 e 2,0% de SRU. As variáveis: consumo de ração, percentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovo, conversão alimentar, percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e unidades Haugh não foramafetadas significativamente pelos níveis de inclusão de SRU. Entretanto, a pigmentação da gema aumentou linearmente com o aumento de SRU na ração. A inclusão de 2% de SRU em rações contendo sorgo foi capaz de pigmentar as gemas em, aproximadamente, 61,4% da pigmentação obtida em rações compostas por milho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of annatto (Bixa orellana L. seed byproduct (ASB in diets with sorghum on laying hens performance and eggs characteristics. A hundred and forty-four laying hens were randomly allotted to six treatments and six replications with four birds each. Treatments consisted of one diet based on corn and the five others based on sorghum with the inclusion of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0% of ASB. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion, yolk, albumen and shell percentages and Haugh units were not affected by the inclusion levels of ASB. However, yolk colour increased linearly as ASB increased in diet. The inclusion of 2% of annatto seed byproduct on laying hens diets based on sorghum improves egg yolk colour nearly 61.4% of that obtained with birds fed diet based on yellow corn.

  18. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation.

  19. The feeding habits of the snail kite in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    snails with albumen glands removed (versus males or mixed samples of both sexes of complete tissue or with viscera removed) had the highest caloric value (.hivin.x=4.04 kcal/g, n=10). Kites cast pellets, a behavior documented here for the first time.

  20. Avian responses to late-season grazing in a shrub-willow floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T.R.; Knopf, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    snails with albumen glands removed (versus males or mixed samples of both sexes of complete tissue or with viscera removed) had the highest caloric value (.hivin.x=4.04 kcal/g, n=10). Kites cast pellets, a behavior documented here for the first time.

  1. Níveis de cloro para codornas japonesas na fase de postura Chlorine levels for Japanese quails during the egg-laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Madeira Bezerra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de quatro níveis de cloro sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de codornas japonesas na fase de produção, 288 codornas com 17 semanas de idade foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, oito repetições e seis aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de cloro avaliados foram 0,07; 0,12; 0,17; 0,22; 0,27 e 0,32% e os parâmetros de desempenho e qualidade dos ovos foram: consumos de ração e água, porcentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, umidade das excretas, coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CDMS, nitrogênio (CDN e energia bruta (CDEB, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida (EMAn, unidade Haugh, porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca. Os níveis de cloro não influenciaram significativamente nenhuma dessas variáveis, entretanto, a gravidade específica aumentou linearmente com o acréscimo de cloro na ração. Pode-se recomendar que rações para codornas japonesas na fase de produção sejam formuladas com níveis de cloro de até 0,32%.In order to evaluate the effects of chlorine levels on performance and egg quality of Japanese quails during the production phase, 288 quails with seventeen weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, eight replicates and six birds experimental unit. Chlorine levels were: 0.07, 0.12, 0.17, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.32%. Performance and egg quality parameters evaluated were: feed intake (g/bird/day, water consumption (mL/bird/day, production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (g/g, moisture of excreta, digestibility of dry matter, coefficient of nitrogen, coefficient of gross energy, apparent metabolizable energy, corrected apparent metabolizable energy, Haugh unit, percentages of albumen, yolk and shell. Chlorine levels did not significantly influence any of those variables; however, the specific gravity

  2. Toxic effects, metabolism, and carry-over of ergot alkaloids in laying hens, with a special focus on changes of the alkaloid isomeric ratio in feed caused by hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins formed by Claviceps purpurea. Due to the large variation in EA content, the mass proportion of ergot (hardened sclerotia) in animal diets is not suited to establish safe levels of EA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of dietary EA on laying hens. Ergoty rye or ergot-free rye (control diet) was included in the diets either untreated or after hydrothermal treatment ("expansion"). The total EA levels in five different diets containing 0-3% of untreated or expanded rye were 0.1-14.56 mg/kg (untreated rye) and 0.08-13.03 mg/kg (expanded rye). The average EA reduction amounted to 11% due to expanding. The proportions of the sum of all -inine isomers however were consistently higher (19.5-48.4%) compared to the sum of their -ine isomer counterparts which decreased at the same time. Most of the laying performance and reproductive traits were significantly compromised during the test period between weeks 22 and 42 of age when the diet with the highest EA content was fed. Toxic effects were less pronounced due to expanding. Relative weights of liver, proventriculus, and gizzard as well as the aspartate aminotransferase activity, the antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus, albumin, and total bilirubin concentrations were all significantly increased in hens fed at the highest dietary ergot level whereby expanding additionally modified the albumin and total bilirubin responses. No carry-over of EA into egg yolk and albumen, blood, liver, and breast muscle was found, but bile contained quantifiable levels of ergometrine and ergometrinine. Biological recovery of ingested individual alkaloids with the excreta varied from 2 to 22% and was strongly positive linearly related to the octanol to water partition coefficient (logkOW). This suggests the lipophilicity of alkaloids as a factor influencing their metabolism and elimination. Based on the overall results of this study, a lowest observed

  3. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos.

  4. Effects of rearing systems on performance, egg characteristics and immune response in two layer hen genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyılmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Cınar, Mustafa; Catlı, Abdullah Uğur; Bintaş, Erol; Cöven, Fethiye

    2012-04-01

    White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty

  5. Multivariate analysis of stable isotope data in the traceability process for birds=Análise multivariada em dados de isótopos estáveis no processo de rastreabilidade em aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Pereira Sartori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isotope analysis has proved to be an extremely important tool in the traceability process; however, statistical analyses of the results show discrepancies, as the data depend on and originate from several chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur (CHONS. In order to establish the proper analysis of traceability data for birds using the stable isotope technique and evaluate the need for a combined analysis of the variables, data for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 were used from eggs (albumen + yolk of laying hens and the pectoral muscle of broilers, which were subjected to univariate statistical analysis (ANOVA and complemented with Tukey’s test and multivariate statistical analysis (MANOVA and Discriminant Analysis. The data were analyzed using Minitab 16 software, and the results, corroborated in the theory, confirm the need for multivariate analysis, showing also that discriminant analysis clarifies questions from the results of the other analysis methods compared in this study.A análise isotópica tem se mostrado uma ferramenta de suma importância ao processo de rastreabilidade, no entanto, existem divergências nas análises estatísticas dos resultados, uma vez que os dados são dependentes e advindos de vários elementos químicos tais como Carbono, Hidrogênio, Oxigênio, Nitrogênio e Enxofre (CHON’S. Com o intuito de estabelecer a análise propícia para os dados de rastreabilidade em aves pela técnica de isótopos estáveis e avaliar a necessidade da análise conjunta das variáveis, foram usados dados de carbono-13 e de nitrogênio-15 de ovos (albúmen + gema de poedeiras e músculo peitoral de frangos de corte, os quais foram submetidos à análise estatística univariada (Anova e complementada pelo teste de Tukey e multivariada (Manova e Discriminante. Os dados foram analisados no software Minitab 16, e os resultados, consolidados na teoria, confirmam a necessidade de análise multivariada, mostrando

  6. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.221 Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Izumi Sakamoto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveis estudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%, espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commercial laying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400 ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day- 1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical composition of hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in

  7. Efeito da suplementação enzimática no desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais = Effects of the enzyme complex supplementation on the performance and egg quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da utilização de um complexo multienzimático sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, HyLine W36, com 29 semanas de idade distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 7 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 8 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta basal suplementada com o complexo enzimático nos níveis de 400 ou 500 ppm com valorização do nível de proteína, energia metabolizável e aminoácidos do farelo de soja em 5/5/5, 7/7/7 e 7/7/9%, respectivamente. As variáveisestudadas foram: consumo de ração (g ave-1 dia-1, conversão alimentar (kg dz-1 de ovos, peso médio dos ovos (g, produção de ovos (%, gravidade específica (g mL-1, Unidade Haugh, coloração da gema, percentuais de sólidos totais, de gema, clara e casca (%,espessura da casca (mm e composição bromatológica das excretas. A adição do complexo multienzimático apresentou resultados produtivos e de qualidade dos ovos semelhantes à dieta controle.The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a commercial enzyme complex on the performance and egg quality of commerciallaying hens. A total of 336 29-week old Hyline W36 layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and six replications of eight birds each. The treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with inclusion of (500 or 400ppm, overestimating the percentages of protein, ME and amino acids of the soybean meal by 5:5:5, 7:7:7 and 7:7:9, respectively. The studied variables were: feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, feed:egg (kg feed-1 egg dozen-1, egg weight (g, egg laying percentage (hen day-1 specific gravity (g ml-1, Haugh Unit, color of the egg yolk, total solids percentage (%, egg yolk percentage, albumen and eggshell (%, eggshell thickness (mm and chemical compositionof hen manure. The inclusion of enzyme complex in the

  8. Yolk sac nutrient composition and fat uptake in late-term embryos in eggs from young and old broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgary, L; Cahaner, A; Kedar, O; Uni, Z

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the composition, amount, and uptake of yolk nutrients [fat, protein, water, and carbohydrates (COH)] during incubation of eggs from 30- and 50-wk-old broiler breeder hens. Eggs were sampled at embryonic d 0 (fresh eggs), 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 (hatch). Egg, embryo, yolk content, and yolk sac membrane were weighed, and the yolk sac (YS; i.e., yolk content + yolk sac membrane) composition was analyzed. From 30 to 50 wk of age, the albumen weight increased by 13.3%, whereas the yolk increased by more than 40%. The proportion of fat in the fresh yolk of the 30-wk-old group was 23.8% compared with 27.4% in the 50-wk-old group, whereas the proportion of protein was 17.9% compared with 15.6%, respectively. During incubation, results indicated that water and protein infiltrated from other egg compartments to the YS. Accordingly, the calculated change in the content of water and protein between fresh yolk and sampled YS does not represent the true uptake of these components from the YS to the embryo, and only fat uptake from the YS can be accurately estimated. By embryonic d 15, fat uptake relative to embryo weight was lower in the 30-wk-old group than in the 50-wk-old group. However, by embryonic d 21, embryos of both groups reached similar relative fat uptake, suggesting that to hatch, embryos must attain a certain amount of fat as a source of energy for the hatching process. The amount of COH in the YS increased similarly during incubation in eggs from hens of both ages, reaching a peak at embryonic d 19, suggesting COH synthesis in the YS. At hatch, the amount of protein, water, and COH in the residual YS, relative to the weight of the yolk-free chick, was similar in eggs from young and old hens. However, chicks from the younger hens had less fat in the YS for their immediate posthatch nutrition compared with those from the older hens.

  9. Effects of Fermentation Product Containing Phytase on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, and Phosphorous Apparent Metabolism of Laying Hens Fed Different Levels of Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; DONG Xiao-fang; TONG Jian-ming; XU Shang-zhong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermentation product containing phytase (FPP) that was fermented using waste vinegar residue (WVR) as substrate from Aspergillus ifcuum NTG-23 on productive performance, egg quality, and phosphorus apparent metabolism of laying hens. First, 375 22-wk-old Jinghong hens were allocated into 5 treatments (5 replicates of 15 hens each) in an 8-wk experiment for evaluating the parameters of productive performance, egg quality, serum, and tibia. Experimental diets contained 4%FPP and 96%corn-soybean diet. The levels of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) were 1.34, 1.01, 0.67, 0.34 and 0%. Next, thirty 31-wk-old Jinghong hens were fed 5 types of diets for evaluating phosphorous apparent metabolism rate. Egg productive rate, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, Haugh unit, egg albumen height, serum calcium, tibia ash, tibia ash calcium and tibia breaking strength were not different signiifcantly among 5 treatments. The signiifcant difference of average daily feed intake was not appeared when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.67%;the eggshell hardness, eggshell thickness and serum phosphorus were not reduced signiifcantly until the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was reduced to 0.34%. The yolk color was improved when the laying hens fed deifcient DCP corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 22.14%reduction in excreta phosphorus was observed when the laying hens fed low phosphorus (0.67%DCP) corn-soybean-FPP diet. A 30%elevation of phosphorus apparent metabolism rate was obtained when the DCP content of corn-soybean-FPP diet was decreased from 1.34 to 1.01%. The reducing cost of layer diet was totalized about 120 CNY 1 000 kg-1 diet when the content of DCP was 0.67%in corn-soybean-FPP diet. These results indicated that FPP could be applied in laying hen as a potential, cost-effective and rational application of WVR.

  10. EFEITOS DA INOCULAÇÃO DE Salmonella Enteritidis NA INCUBAÇÃO DE OVOS EMBRIONADOS DE PERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA YOKO TANIKAWA ANDRADE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the incubation performance, the Salmonella Enteritidis capacity of penetration through the eggshell and the ability of colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Four hundred turkey eggs were incubated and distributed into four treatments with 100 experimental units each: CC and CCA (inoculation with placebo in eggshell and air chamber, respectively, ICand ICA (inoculation with 4.2 X 104 CFU/mL of Salmonella Enteritidis in eggshell and air chamber, respectively. The parameters of incubation were fertility, total hatchability and hatchability of fertile eggs, and relative chick weight to egg weight. Salmonella wasinvestigated in shell, membrane, albumen/yolk and embryo of two eggs per treatment at one, seven, 1 4, 21 and 28 days. After birth, the frequency of recovery of the pathogen in meconium of all birds was determined. The variables were analyzed by χ-square test (χ² and Fischer test. During the whole incubation period, the agent hasremained viable in 87.5% and 1 00% of eggshell samples in treatments IC and ICA, respectively. There was migration into eggs in 33.33% and 95.45% of the samples in treatments IC and ICA, respectively. The parameters of incubation were not affected when the pathogen wasinoculated in the eggshell. It was also observed that inoculation of Salmonella Enteritidis in air chamber determined low hatchability with higher early embryonic mortality (P <0.05 than control treatment (CCA. Furthermore, air chamber control treatment determinedlow hatchability (P <0.05 with increase in late embryonic mortality (P<0.05 comparing to inoculation in eggshell. The intestinal colonization by the pathogen occurred in chicks from experimental inoculation in eggshell. It can be concluded that the assessment offertility, hatchability and ratio of chick weight by egg weight does not show presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the hatchery. However, hatchery contamination may be determined by detection of

  11. Toxic effects, metabolism, and carry-over of ergot alkaloids in laying hens, with a special focus on changes of the alkaloid isomeric ratio in feed caused by hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids (EA) are mycotoxins formed by Claviceps purpurea. Due to the large variation in EA content, the mass proportion of ergot (hardened sclerotia) in animal diets is not suited to establish safe levels of EA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of dietary EA on laying hens. Ergoty rye or ergot-free rye (control diet) was included in the diets either untreated or after hydrothermal treatment ("expansion"). The total EA levels in five different diets containing 0-3% of untreated or expanded rye were 0.1-14.56 mg/kg (untreated rye) and 0.08-13.03 mg/kg (expanded rye). The average EA reduction amounted to 11% due to expanding. The proportions of the sum of all -inine isomers however were consistently higher (19.5-48.4%) compared to the sum of their -ine isomer counterparts which decreased at the same time. Most of the laying performance and reproductive traits were significantly compromised during the test period between weeks 22 and 42 of age when the diet with the highest EA content was fed. Toxic effects were less pronounced due to expanding. Relative weights of liver, proventriculus, and gizzard as well as the aspartate aminotransferase activity, the antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus, albumin, and total bilirubin concentrations were all significantly increased in hens fed at the highest dietary ergot level whereby expanding additionally modified the albumin and total bilirubin responses. No carry-over of EA into egg yolk and albumen, blood, liver, and breast muscle was found, but bile contained quantifiable levels of ergometrine and ergometrinine. Biological recovery of ingested individual alkaloids with the excreta varied from 2 to 22% and was strongly positive linearly related to the octanol to water partition coefficient (logkOW). This suggests the lipophilicity of alkaloids as a factor influencing their metabolism and elimination. Based on the overall results of this study, a lowest observed

  12. Influence of Nano Fertilizer 399 on the Microstructure and Nutritional Quality of Wheat%施用纳米肥料对小麦微结构和营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤艳; 侯碧辉; 丁晓红

    2011-01-01

    Varies of microstructure and nutritional quality of wheat seeds after application of nano fertilizer 399 are studied in this paper. The exterior topography and profiles features of wheat seeds are observed and compared between those applied with the nano fertilizer 399 and those not applied with the nano fertilizer 399 by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the observation of the wheat seeds with SEM, it is found that the 399 has the functions of promoting all of the growth of the epidermal cells, the aleurone layer and the albumen. In addition, the wheat applied with and those not applied with the 399 are detected in four aspects respectively, that is, the quality percentages of protein, fat, coarse fibres and heavy metal Pb. The results indicate that the wheat applied with the nano fertilizer 399 has significantly increased contents of both protein and fat. The contents of coarse fibres and Pb has no positive correlation with the application of the 399 nano fertilizer.%为了研究施用纳米肥料399植物生长剂后小麦籽粒微结构和营养品质的变化,通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察比较了施用和未施用399植物生长剂的小麦籽粒的外部形貌和截面特征.通过观察发现,399植物生长剂对表皮细胞、糊粉层及胚乳的生长都有促进作用.对小麦蛋白质、脂肪、粗纤维和重金属的质量分数进行了检测分析.结果表明,施用399植物生长剂的小麦蛋白质质量分数提高了8%以上,粗脂肪质量分数提高了5%以上;粗纤维、铅的质量分数与399植物生长剂的施用没有正相关性.

  13. Qualidade de ovos de consumo submetidos a diferentes condições de armazenamento Quality of consume eggs submitted to different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.C. Xavier

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a qualidade interna de ovos de consumo armazenados sob diferentes condições, utilizando-se 768 ovos, provenientes de galinhas Hy-line com 40 semanas de idade. Os tratamentos foram dispostos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 2x4x8 (ovos embalados em filme plástico e não embalados, quatro períodos de estocagem em temperatura ambiente (zero, cinco, 10 e 15 dias e oito períodos de armazenamento sob refrigeração (zero, cinco, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 dias. Foram avaliados os valores das Unidades Haugh (UH e os de pH do albúmem (pH. Os valores de UH diminuíram com a estocagem, e houve uma queda mais acentuada nos ovos que permaneceram em temperatura ambiente. A embalagem das bandejas de ovos mostrou-se eficaz na preservação da qualidade interna dos ovos, pois os valores de UH mantiveram-se altos por um maior período de estocagem. Os índices de pH aumentaram com o período de armazenamento dos ovos (PThe internal quality of 768 commercial white eggs from 40-week-old Hy-Line laying hens was evaluated after storage under different conditions. The eggs were submitted to treatments in a factorial scheme of 2x4x8, being two types of package (using plastic film or not, four periods of storage (zero, five, 10, and 15 days, and eight refrigerated storage times (zero, five, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days. The values of Haugh Unities (HU and albumen pH were measured. The HU values significantly decreased (P<0.05 during storage mainly at room temperature. Wrapping the eggs packages with plastic film showed efficient in preserving their internal quality since it kept HU higher for a longer storage time. The pH values of the eggs increased during the storage time (P<0.05, independently of both storage temperature and packaging. It was concluded that temperature and time of storage of eggs influenced on the values of HU and wrapping the eggs packages with plastic film improved their internal quality.

  14. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  15. Relationship of methionine plus cystine with lysine in diets for laying Japanese quails Relação metionina mais cistina com lisina em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Souza Reis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationships of methionine plus cystine with lysine for Japanese quails in the laying phase. Thus, it was used 480 birds at initial age of 65 days, distributed in randomized block design with 6 treatments, 10 replicates and 8 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of basal diet deficient in methionine plus cystine (0.65%, with 19.6% of crude protein and 2800 kcal of metabolizable energy/kg of ration, supplemented with six levels of DL-methionine 98% (0.116; 0.167; 0.218; 0.269; 0.320 and 0.371%, corresponding to methionine plus cystine with lysine ratio of 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90, and the digestible lysine set at a suboptimal level of 1.00. The parameters studied were: feed intake, egg production per hen day, egg production per housed hen, commercial egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, feed conversion per dozen eggs, viability of birds, weight of the egg components (yolk, albumen and shell, percentage of components of eggs, diameter and height of the eggs and specific gravity. It was observed an increasing linear effect for feed intake, egg diameter, shell weight and percentage of yolk. For eggshell percentage, it was observed a decreasing linear effect. For the weight of the eggs, the best adjustment was obtained by using the Linear Response Plateau model. A quadratic effect was observed for egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, egg production per hen day, egg production per housed hen, yolk weight, albumen weight and height of the eggs. The relationship of methionine plus cystine with lysine of 0.84 which corresponds to the consumption of 221.0 mg/bird/day of methionine + cystine provides better performance and satisfactory quality of Japanese quail eggs.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de relações entre metionina mais cistina com lisina para codornas japonesas na fase de postura, 480 aves com idade inicial de 65 dias foram

  16. Efeitos de níveis nutricionais de energia sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de codornas européias na fase inicial de postura Effects of energy nutritional levels on performance and egg quality of European quails in the initial laying phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2007-02-01

    . The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with five treatments (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal ME/kg, six replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The corn, soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain 20% of CP, 2.5% of Ca, 1.17% of lysine and 0.802% of methionine + cystine. Feed intake (g/bird/day, energy intake (kcal ME/bird/day, total egg production (%/bird/day, commercial egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg/kg of egg and kg/egg dozen, body weight gain (g, energy efficiency utilization (kcal ME/ egg dozen and kcal ME/ egg mass, weights of yolk (g, albumen (g and shell (g and yolk cholesterol concentration (mg/g were analyzed. Increasing dietary ME levels decreased linearly feed intake and weights of egg, yolk and albumen and increased feed conversion (feed:egg mass and feed:egg dozen ratios and energy efficiency utilization per egg dozen. It was observed quadratic effect on egg production; the birds fed diet with 2,900 ME/kg showed the best production. No treatment effect on the other parameters was observed. It was concluded that diets for European quails in the initial laying phase must contain 3,050 kcal ME/kg (intake of 82.4 kcal ME/bird/day, for better feed:egg mass and feed:egg dozen ratio, or 2,900 kcal ME/kg (intake of 87.1 kcal ME/bird/day for better egg production.

  17. Níveis de energia metabolizável para codornas japonesas na fase inicial de postura Metabolizable energy levels for Japanese quails in the initial laying phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2007-02-01

    and egg quality of quails was evaluated in this experiment. Two hundred and fifty laying Japanese female quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, with 56 days of age, were assigned to a complete randomized design, with five treatments (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal of ME/kg, five replications and ten birds per experimental unit. The corn, soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain 20% of CP, 2.5% of Ca, 1.17% of lysine and 0.802% of methionine+cystine. Feed intake (g/bird/day, energy intake (kcal ME/bird/day, total egg production (%/bird/day, commercial egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (kg/kg of egg and kg/egg dozen, body weight gain (g, energy efficiency utilization (kcal ME/egg dozen and kcal ME/egg mass, weights of yolk (g, albumen (g and shell (g and yolk cholesterol concentration mg/g were analyzed. Increasing dietary ME levels resulted in linear decreased on feed intake and weights of egg and yolk and quadratic effect on weights of albumen, shell and egg mass. The 2,650 kcal of ME/kg level increased 12.6, 3.9, 15.7, 7.5, and 6.8% respectively the variables above, compared to the 3,050 kcal of ME/kg level. Feed:egg dozen ratio increased as the dietary ME levels increased. No treatment effect on the other studied variables was observed. Diets of Japanese quails in the initial laying phase (from 56 to 112 days of age must contain 2,650 kcal of ME/kg, corresponding to a daily intake of 61.5 kcal of ME/bird or 6.24 kcal of ME/g of egg to obtain good results of egg weight and feed:egg mass ratio, besides greater egg production in absolute value.

  18. Effects of prebiotic and mycotoxin binder feed supplementation on the quality of the eggs produced by the hens in the end of their laying period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eggs yield decreases while the hens approach the end of their laying cycle. On the contrary, the weight of the eggs increases. When laying hens become older, the egg volume and the yolk proportion increase, and the albumen proportion and the shell thickness decrease. These undesirable situations are related to some factors as shell thickness and shell stiffness, which decrease proportionally with hens ageing. Some previous researches proved that the Bio-Mos prebiotic product, which contains mannan oligosaccharides issued from the cell wall of the Sacharomyces cerevisiae yeast, could generate beneficial effects, such as combat against intestinal pathogen germs in birds and mammals, through the immune response modulation and through the improvement of the intestinal mucosae structural integrity. Prebiotics also improve the absorption of the nutrients, including macro and microelements, through the intestinal wall, increasing meantime the degree of their availability to be used for organism's maintenance and regeneration, as good as for production. Egg production could negatively affected, quantitative and qualitative speaking some mycotoxins exist in feed. It was proved that aflatoxin and ochratoxin produce a 20% depression of the serum Ca level in laying hens, leading to some osteogenesis and eggshell formation troubles. The mycotoxins harmful effect could be prevented or eliminated by using some feed additives, which have the property to selectively bind the mycotoxins and to carry them out of the organism, without binding other beneficial elements, as vitamins or minerals. Mycosorb is such a product, based on gluco-mannans extracted from the yeasts cell wall, which have a higher capacity to bind a series of important mycotoxins, comparing with other detoxifying agents. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Bio-Mos and Mycosorb on the performance and egg quality of commercial laying hens approaching the end of the laying cycle. The trial was

  19. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des

  20. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  1. Efeito da substituição dos antimicrobianos pelo ovo desidratado na fase pré-inicial de frangas de dois grupos genéticos alojadas em camas nova e reciclada Effect of antimicrobial replacement with dehydrated egg in the pre-starter phase of two genetics groups of pullets allotted to new and recycled litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2006-10-01

    coccidiose. The pullets were weighed and assigned to a complete randomized design with a 3 x 2 x 2 (three diets x two litter x two strains factorial arrangement, in a total of 12 treatments with six replications of 20 pullets. The experimental diets (D were: D1 = diet with commercial dose of antimicrobial; D2 = diet without antimicrobial; and D3 = diet without antimicrobial + 0.6% of DE. DE was composed by dehydrated yolk+albumen (55°C for 72 hours and showed negative result to Samonella spp. test. The use of recycled litter decreased pullet performance of two genetic groups, specially the Brown ones, that showed lower weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. This fact suggests better enlargement of lymphoid tissues, and that probably explains the smaller tolerance of White pullets to recycled litter. The antimicrobials minimize negative effect of recycled litter on pullet performance. Dehydrated egg is a good alternative to antimicrobials and can improve performance of pullets in the pre-starter on conventional environment.

  2. 不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡蛋品质的影响%Effects of Different Rearing Systems on Egg Quality of Huainan Spotted-yellow Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏世广; 吴义景; 李俊营; 唐焰; 许月英; 徐珊珊; 张永德; 李绍全

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of different rearing systems on egg quality of Huainan spotted-yellow chicken. [ Method] The egg quality of 90 210-day Huainan spotted-yellow chickens with around 70% laying rate which were raised in cages, free range and pasture was detected. [ Result] The eggs of the chickens raised in free range were heavier (47. 13 g) than that of the chickens raised in pasture (P < 0. 01) and in cages ( P <0.05 ) ; the eggshell of the chickens reared in pasture was thicker than that of the chickens reared in cages and free range respectively by 2.32% ( P < 0.05 ) and 7. 32% ( P < 0.01). The eggshell strength of the chickens raised in cages was the highest, higher than those raised in free range by 26.67% (P < 0. 05 ). The albumen water content of caged spotted-yellow chickens was the lowest, lower than that of free range and pasture raised chickens respectively by 1.92% and 1.45% (P <0.01); the yolk water content of caged chickens was the highest, higher than that of pasture raised chickens (P < 0.05 ) and significantly higher than that of free range raised chickens ( P < 0.01). [ Conclusion] The egg quality of Huainan spotted-yellow chickens varied under different rearing systems.%[目的]研究不同饲养方式对淮南麻黄鸡蛋品质的影响.[方法]对来自笼养、平养带运动场和林地散养的210日龄、产蛋率约70%的90个淮南麻黄鸡鸡蛋进行了蛋品质测定.[结果]蛋重以平养最大(47.13 9),显著高于林地散养(P<0.01)和笼养鸡的蛋重(P<0.05);蛋壳厚度以林地散养最大,分别比笼养和平养分别高2.32% (P <0.05)和7.32% (P <0.01).蛋壳强度以笼养最高,比平养高26.67% (P <0.05).笼养淮南麻黄鸡蛋蛋白含水率最低,比平养和林地散养组的蛋白含水率分别低1.92%和1.45%(P<0.01);笼养淮南麻黄鸡的蛋黄含水率最高,显著高于林地散养组(P<0.05)且极显著高于平养组(P<0.01).[结论]不同饲养方式下淮南麻

  3. Qualidade do ovo de galinhas poedeiras criadas em galpões no semi-árido paraibano Quality of eggs of laying hens reared in poultry houses in the semi-arid Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair L. Trindade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar índices ambientais dos galpões e os zootécnicos em aves de postura leve da linhagem Lohamann, em condições de verão e inverno de 2005 na região do semi-árida paraibana, foi o objetivo primordial deste trabalho, no qual se utilizaram 34.500 aves com diferentes idades: 32, 50, 60 e 71 semanas, acondicionadas em quatro galpões. Avaliaram-se os índices ambientais temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar, índice de temperatura do globo negro e umidade, carga térmica de radiação e velocidade do vento; e os produtivos (produção total de ovos, peso do ovo, peso do albúmen, peso da gema e peso das cascas, parâmetros geométricos (área e volume e a unidade Haugh (UH do ovo, em função da idade. Quanto ao ambiente no interior dos aviários, não houve diferença significativa na media dos índices ambientais, que ficaram dentro da zona de conforto. A idade das aves teve influência nos índices produção total, peso do ovo e peso da gema. A maior produção foi obtida com aves mais jovens, enquanto o peso do ovo e da gema foi com aves de maior idade. Os parâmetros geométricos volume e área do ovo não foram influenciados pela idade das aves. Conforme a UH os ovos de melhor qualidade se referem aos das aves com 32 e 50 semanas.The objective of this research was to evaluate production indexes for laying hens of the Lohamann lineage, under the summer and winter conditions of 2005, in São José da Mata district of Campina Grande, which is located in the Paraíban semi-arid region. 34.500 hens were used with ages of 32, 50, 60 and 71 weeks, and which were reared in four poultry houses. The production indexes (total production of eggs, egg weight, albumen weight, egg yolk weight, and rinds weight, geometric parameters (area and volume and Haugh unit of egg were calculated as a function of hen age. The production indexes in all rearing systems followed the technical recommendations. The age of the hens influenced the indexes of

  4. Nutrição Pós-Eclosão de Frangos de Corte Post-Hacthing Nutrition in Broiler

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    SL Vieira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A emergência da casca marca o final do período de incubação das aves. Esse período pode ter extremos que vão de 480 a 510 horas em galinhas domésticas. As aves precociais nascem com reservas nutricionais provenientes do albúmen e gema residuais contidos no saco vitelino, que são importantes nas primeiras horas de vida enquanto ocorre a adaptação à alimentação independente, com recursos obtidos no meio ambiente. Aparentemente, os pintainhos de corte não apresentam restrições significativas com relação à utilização dos nutrientes obtidos externamente. Uma exceção, de importância questionável, pode ser a possível redução na capacidade de emulsificação das gorduras devido a uma menor concentração de sais biliares momentaneamente disponíveis. Entretanto, o imediato alojamento com disponibilização de alimento e água acelera a adaptação das aves à vida independente e tem reflexos positivos no desempenho posterior. Atrasos no alojamento, seja ainda na câmara de eclosão, transporte ou manejo dos pintinhos, reduzem o potencial de síntese protéica muscular, especialmente na musculatura do peito. Por muitos anos, os produtores de frangos de corte têm usado programas nutricionais que incluem uma mesma dieta da eclosão até as 3 semanas de idade. Recentemente, tem havido um aumento no interesse comercial por uma dieta especializada que contemple as diferenças de adaptação dos primeiros dias de vida das aves. A existência de diferenças entre exigências nutricionais das aves nessa situação com relação a animais mais maduros é ainda uma incógnita, tendo em vista o volume pequeno de informações disponíveis.The emergence from the shell delineates the end of a period of incubation with extremes between 480 to 510 hours after the chicken lays the egg. Precocial birds hatch with a yolk sac attached containing residual albumen and yolk. These reserves are very important in the first hours after hatching

  5. Effect of Inoculation and Top-Dressing with KAN on Yields and Characteristics of Winter Peas in Wheat Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Štafa

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Three year field trials (1995-1998 were aimed at determination of the inoculation and top-dressing with calcium amonium nitrate (KAN effect on number and mass of root nodules of winter peas in mixture with "Sana" wheat and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was done by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology (Redžepović et al. at the Agricultural Faculty. In the first investigation period (March 21 st inoculated variants (2 i 4 had a significantly higher (P=5% active nodule number in respect to control and fertilized variant (3. During the second investigation period (May 24 th inoculated pea variant (2 had significantly higher (P=5% active nodule number in respect to root nodule number determined on the fertilized pea variant (3 as well as the highest total nodule number. In the third investigation period (June 1 st the highest total pea root nodule number was determined on the inoculated variant 2 (159,42 as well as nodule dry weight (2,80 g/variant. Average mixture green mass yield were ranging from 49,83 t/ha (variant 4 up to 54,22 t/ha (variant 3. Differences between green mass yield were not significant (P=5%. Pea mass content in total green mass yield was 51,50% (variant 4 up to 63,22% (control. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 12,03 t/ha (control up to 14,85 t/ha for variant 3 (KAN fertilization. Inoculated mass variant (2 had a higher pea mass content in respect to fertilized variants. Digestable pea raw albumen yields in 1998. were ranging from 1147 kg/ha (control up to 1641 kg/ha for inoculated variant 2, and for wheat, those values were from 426 kg/ha (control up to 646 kg/ha for inoculated and fertilitzed variant 4. Total PSB mixture yield were from 1573 kg/ha (control up to 2049 kg/ha for inoculated variant 2. Inoculated variant 2 had a

  6. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

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    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  7. Herdabilidade de características de produção e postura em matrizes de codornas de corte Heritability of production and laying traits in meat-type quails

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    Bruno Bastos Teixeira

    2013-02-01

    period 2006 to 2009, being accompanied by five generations, totaling 2136 arrays. Quail were weighed at birth, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 77, 112 and 147 days of age. We evaluated each quail eggs were collected for three consecutive days, during four periods of 35 days and measured the width and length of eggs, yolk weight, albumen and shell. We evaluated the specific gravity of eggs and measured the rate of overall posture and age at first egg. Univariate analyzes were performed to estimate the variance components, using the method of restricted maximum likelihood using the program and calculated the MTDFREML hedabilidades. For the quality of eggs heritability values were moderate to high (0.13 to 0.55, high values for growth (0.64 to 0.68 and moderate to high for egg shape (0.10 to 0.57. Heritability estimates for egg quality found indicate a high genetic variability for both genetic groups. As for the weights indicated that selection within the population could result in increases in weight by selection based on individual information. For the characteristics of an egg shape, the heritability values suggest the possibility of genetic groups that meet a standard shape.

  8. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T3), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the summer

  9. 依那普利和限食对肥胖相关肾病大鼠足细胞损伤的干预作用%protective effect of Enalapril and weight reduction on podocyte lesions of obesity-related gLomerulop-athy rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 武明虎; 张晓东

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of WT1 in pedecyte of obesity- related glomerulopathy (ORG) rats and the mechanism of enalapril and weight reduction-induced renal protection. Methods After the ORG model was established by high lipid forage for 24 weeks, the rata were divided into control rats (group A), ORG rats (group B), enalapril-treated ORG rats (group C), ORG rats with weight reduction (group D) and enalapril -treated ORG rats with weight reduction (group E). At the 8th week, 24 hour urine albumen (24hUA1b) was assayed, and the pathological changes of kidney were detected by optics microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of WT1, a marker of pedocyte injury. Results In ORG rats, pedocyte number and density were declined remarkably compared with group A (respectively, P<0.01), and 24 hour UA1b and obvious kidney damage were sig- nificantly higher than those of group A (respectively, P<0.01 ). After treatment, pedocyte number and density in group (C, D, E) were significantly increased compared with group B (respectively, P<0.05, P<0.01). Meanwhile, 24honr UA1b was reduced and kidney dam- age was alleviated ( respectively, P <0. 01 ), and therapeutic alliance effect in group E outweighed than that in group C and D. Conclusion Changes of pedocyte in ORG correlated with degree of proteinuria and renal function impairment. Enalapril and weight reduction can re- strain the expression of WT1 in ORG, which can reduce proteinuria and lessen kidney damage.%目的 观察肥胖相关肾病(ORG)大鼠肾小球足细胞WT1表达,探讨依那普利和限食对ORG肾脏保护机制.方法 高脂饲料喂养Wistar大鼠24周建立ORG模型后,分为对照组(A)、模型组(B)、依那普利治疗组(C)、限食组(D)、限食加依那普利组(E)继续饲喂8周,观察24 h尿白蛋白(24 hUA1b)、肾组织形态学及超微结构,免疫组化检测足细胞WT1表达(足细胞密度).结果 B组足细胞

  10. Farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta de poedeiras comerciais de 28 a 44 semanas de idade Defatted corn germ meal in diets for laying hens from 28 to 44 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta de galinhas de 28 a 44 semanas de idade. Foram utilizadas 240 poedeiras Hy-Line W36 distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis níveis de farelo de germen de milho desengordurado (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30%,cada um com cinco repetições de oito aves. No período experimental, que durou quatro ciclos de 28 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho das aves (consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo e conversão alimentar e de qualidade dos ovos (gravidade específica, índice de pigmentação da gema, porcentagem de gema e albúmen, porcentagem e espessura da casca e unidade haugh. Os níveis de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado tiveram efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de ração e o índice de pigmentação da gema e efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar. A inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na dieta não influenciou as outras variáveis estudadas. O farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado pode ser incluído em níveis de até 21,2% em rações para galinhas poedeiras.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of including defatted corn germ meal in diets for laying hens. It was assigned two hundred and forty laying hens to a randomized design, with six diets and five replicates of eight hens per diet. Experimental diets were formulated by inclusion of defatted corn germ meal at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30% level. The period experiment was carried out for four 28-day cycles and performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion and the egg quality (egg specific gravity, yolk color, yolk and albumen percentages, shell percentages, shell thickness and Haugh unity were the evaluated parameters. Negative linear effect was observed for feed intake and yolk pigmentation by increasingly

  11. Exigência nutricional de lisina digestível para galinhas poedeiras no período de 34 a 50 semanas de idade Nutritional requirement of lysine for laying hens in the period from 34 to 50 weeks old

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    Luciano Moraes Sá

    2007-12-01

    replications per treatment and six hens per experimental unit in a completely randomized design was used. Egg production (%, egg mass and average egg weight (g, feed intake (g/hen.day, feed conversion (kg feed /egg dozen, body weight change (g and internal egg quality (Haugh unit, albumen and yolk index were evaluated. The lysine levels did not affect the body weight change, feed intake and egg quality in both laying hen strains. Feed conversion and egg production, average egg weight and egg mass were positive influenced by the lysine level, in light and the semi-heavy. The digestible lysine requirement estimated by quadratic model, for the light and the semi-heavy laying hens, was 0.732 and 0.715% in the ration, corresponding to the daily intake per hen of 893 and 804 mg lysine/day, respectively.

  12. 吡咯喹啉醌对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及抗氧化功能的影响%Effect of Dietary PQQ on Performance, Egg Quality and Antioxidant Function of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 张海军; 武书庚; 岳洪源; 齐广海; 孙琳琳

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平的吡咯喹啉醌(PQQ)对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及抗氧化功能的影响.试验选用378只50周龄健康海兰灰蛋鸡,随机分为7组,每组6个重复,每个重复9只鸡,分别在基础饲粮中添加不同水平[0、0.005、0.010、0.020、0.040、0.080、0.160 mg/(d·只)]的PQQ.试验期6周.结果表明,饲粮PQQ有提高蛋鸡产蛋率、蛋品质、鸡蛋蛋白高度和哈氏单位的趋势,但差异不显著(P>0.05);PQQ添加组血浆和肝脏谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、总超氧化物歧化酶(T-SOD)活性显著提高(P<0.05);PQQ抑制超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)和羟自由基(·OH)能力显著增强(P<0.05);PQQ可显著降低血浆和肝脏中丙二醛(MDA)含量(P<0.05).由此可见,饲粮中添加PQQ有提高蛋鸡产蛋率和蛋品质的趋势;改善蛋鸡的抗氧化能力,其中以0.010 mg/(d·只)的添加量效果最佳.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary PQQ on performance, egg quality and antioxidant function of laying hens. Three hundred and seventy-eight healthy Hy-line laying hens of 50 week-old were randomly divided into 7 groups with 6 replicates per group and 9 hens per replicate. All the hens were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.040, 0.080, and 0. 160 mg/(d·Hen) PQQ, respectively. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The result showed that laying rate and egg quality of laying hens had a tendency to increase in the PQQ supplemental groups, and dietary PQQ increased albumen height and Haugh unit, but there was no significant difference among the 7 groups (P >0.05) ; the activities of GSH-Px and T-SOD in serum and livers of laying hens was significantly increased (P <0.05); the abilities of inhibiting superoxide anion and the hydroxyl radical were significantly increased (P <0.05); the content of MDA in serum and livers was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (P <0

  13. Níveis de proteína e de vitamina E para matrizes de frango de corte. 1. Efeito sobre o desempenho das matrizes, composição do ovo e desempenho da progênie Protein and vitamin E levels for broiler breed hens. 1. Effects on broiler breed performance, egg composition and performance of their progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.T. Barreto

    1999-04-01

    repetitions each. Egg production/hen/day, egg weight, egg number/hen housed, viability, final female body weight and egg yolk percentage were not affected (P>0.05 by the treatments, and no interaction between CP and VE was observed. Hens fed diet with 16% CP, supplemented with 25 or 250mg VE/kg, had smaller egg shell and greater albumen percentage (P<0.05. Diet with 250mg VE/kg resulted in greater alpha tocopherol concentration in the yolk (P<0.05. No effects of CP or VE levels were observed on incubation performance in both studied ages (32nd and 52nd week, i.e., on incubated egg weight, on eclodibility, on relationship between egg weight and neonatal chick weight, and on subsequent performance of the progeny. However, greater neonatal chick weight (P<0.01 was observed in those from 32 week-old broiler breed hens fed diet containing 16% CP and 250mg VE/kg. It can be concluded that a 14% CP with 25mg VE/kg diet provides sufficient CP and VE to assure the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens during the laying period.

  14. Egg yield,quality and hatchability of egg-type Houdan%贵妃鸡的蛋用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华祥; 蔡霞; 徐志刚; 杨俭; 陆军; 谢承光

    2015-01-01

    Houdan,as a kind of rare and ornamental bird imported from Europe,was selected for synthetic line of hybrid chicken or broiler ?layer commercial lines.This study measured the egg performance of the 4th gen-eration Houdan which were closed selection and cage rearing separately,recorded the survival rate and egg laying rate of hens from 19 to 90 weeks old,evaluated egg quality of 36 weeks old and 90 weeks old,hatched for 4 shifts hen eggs from 46 to 56 weeks old.The results showed that hen-housed and hen-dated production of 72-week-old was 176.8 and 187.2,and that of 90-week-old was 213.3 and 228.3,respectively.Egg weight was highly signifi-cant difference between the 36-week-old and 90-week-old hens,eggshell strength was significant difference,while the albumen height,HA unit,shell thickness and yolk color were not significant difference.Hens(about 50 weeks old)set egg hatchability of 10-day eggs was 74.3%,while that of 30-day eggs was 63.6%.The cage rearing Houdan could be of good behavior generally,with good anti-stress and egg quality,and potential of higher egg production,more tasty and better hatchability.%贵妃鸡作为珍禽从欧洲引入我国后,除作为独立珍禽品种外,还参与鸡合成系和配套系的育种。本研究测定了经过4个世代闭锁群选育后笼养贵妃鸡的产蛋性能,统计了19—90周龄存栏母鸡的存活率和产蛋率,检测了36周龄和90周龄的蛋品质,分4批次进行了46—56周龄时的种蛋孵化。结果表明:72周龄入舍鸡产蛋量176.8个,存栏鸡产蛋量187.2个,90周龄入舍鸡产蛋量213.3个,存栏鸡产蛋量228.3个。36周龄贵妃鸡与90周龄相比蛋重差异极显著,蛋壳强度差异极显著,蛋白高度、哈氏单位、蛋壳厚度、蛋黄颜色等差异不显著。50周龄时贵妃鸡种蛋保存10 d 的入孵蛋孵化率74.3%,种蛋保存30 d 的入孵蛋孵化率63.6%。贵妃鸡笼养性能稳定,具有较强的抗应激能力

  15. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações para poedeiras no período de 24 a 40 semanas de idade Digestible lysine levels in feed for 24 to 40-week old laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2009-09-01

    the lysine to be 97.6%, the amount of L-lysine. HCl added in each diet supplied 0.00; 0.045; 0.090; 0.135; 0.180 and 0.225 digestible lysine, respectively, resulting in diets with 0.545; 0.590; 0.635; 0.680; 0.725 and 0.770% digestible lysine. Feed intake, lysine intake, egg production, average egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion (kg feed/egg dozen, albumen index and final weight gain of the chickens showed a linear response with increase in the digestible lysine levels. There was a quadratic effect for the levels of digestible lysine on feed conversion/egg mass but no significant effect on Haugh Units, yolk index and egg components was detected. The digestible lysine requirement was estimated to be at least 0.770% of the diet, corresponding to the intake of 759 mg of lysine digestible/hen/day.

  16. Uso de rações à base de aminoácidos digestíveis para poedeiras Use of digestible amino acids based diets for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2000-10-01

    sulfur amino acids as HD diet. The third diet (LD+AA was similar to LD diet, but supplemented with L-Lysine·HCL and DL-methionine added to obtain levels of true digestible amino acids equal to HD diet. The evaluations were carried out in three periods of 28 days. There were no differences on feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed:egg mass ratio. The egg quality estimated by Haugh unit and by yolk and albumen index were not affected. The use of digestible amino acids based diet for layers hens was not confirmed in this research from digestible amino acids information obtained with cecectomized roosters.

  17. Effect of different metabolizable energy and soybean oil levels in the diet of laying hens on the egg chemical composition and lipid profile Efeito de diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável e óleo de soja na dieta de poedeiras sobre a composição química e o perfil lipídico do ovo

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    Bárbara Josefina de Sousa Quirino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of increasing metabolizable energy and soybean oil levels on the egg chemical composition, total lipids and cholesterol contents and fatty acids profile in the egg yolk. Three hundred and sixty 29 week-old Bovans Goldline semi-heavy commercial layers were used during three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design were used in a 3 × 3 double factorial arrangement with three soybean oil levels (1, 2 and 3% and three metabolizable energy levels in the diet (2,600, 2,750 and 2,900 kcal/kg, totalizing nine diets with five replicates of eight birds. No interaction soybean oil × metabolizable energy levels was observed. The metabolizable energy levels did not affect any of the determined characteristics. The moisture, ash and protein contents in the egg yolk and albumen and the lipid and cholesterol contents in the yolk were not affected by the soybean oil levels in the diet, while linoleic acid (C18:3 and linolenic acid (C18:2 levels responded linearly. The use of 2,600 kcal ME/kg and 3% of soybean oil in the diet of laying hens with consumption of 120 g/bird/day is justifiable, since this feeding strategy improves the fatty acids profile of the egg.Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis crescentes de energia metabolizável e de óleo de soja sobre a composição bromatológica do ovo, o teor de lipídios totais e de colesterol e o perfil de ácidos graxos na gema. Foram utilizadas 360 poedeiras comerciais da linhagem Bovans Goldline, com 29 semanas de idade, durante três períodos de 28 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial duplo 3 × 3, com três níveis de óleo de soja (1, 2 e 3% e três de energia metabolizável na ração (2.600, 2.750 e 2.900 kcal/kg, totalizando nove dietas com cinco repetições de oito aves. Não foi observada interação níveis de óleo de soja × energia metabolizável. Os n

  18. Analysis of clinical features of chronic liver diseases B with hepatogenous diabetes%慢性乙型肝病肝源性糖尿病临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and the possible etiology of hepatogenous diabetes. Methods Retrospective analyzed of 126 patients with hepatogenous diabetes and compared with those of chronic liver diseases B with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results Serum HBV-DNA titer in 107 patients with hepatogenous diabetes was higher than 103 copies/mL. Bady mass index, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, albumen and prothombin activily level was lower between than hepagetonous diabetes and T2DM. The patients with hepatogenous diabetes showed not play clipsia, Polyphagia, polyuria and retoacidosis, angiopath of heart and brain. The patients with hepatogenous diabetes showed a much lower of fasting plazma glucose [(6.82±2.42) mmol/L than that of T2DM [(9.50±2.34) mmol/L](P 103 copies/mL,92例是慢性乙型肝炎肝硬化患者;126例肝源性糖尿病患者与179例慢性乙型肝病伴发2型糖尿病患者相比人体质量指数(BMI)、血清总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、白蛋白和凝血酶原活动度(PTA)均呈低水平,无慢性乙型肝病伴发2型糖尿病多饮、多食、多尿症状和酮尿酸中毒、心、脑、肾等血管疾病,空腹血糖(6.82±2.42)mmol/L,显著低于慢性乙型肝病伴发型糖尿病[(9.50±2.34)mmol/L](P < 0.01);空腹和餐后2 h血清胰岛素和C肽水平均明显高于慢性乙型肝病伴发2型糖尿病患者(P < 0.05).在抗病毒治疗、改善肝功能、抗纤维化基础治疗的基础上,经控制饮食,应用胰岛素联合胰岛素增敏剂可有效控制血糖.结论 肝源性糖尿病临床表现主要是肝功能损害的症状,而慢性乙型肝病伴发2型糖尿病的临床表现不典型,以餐后高血糖为特征;HBV感染引起肝脏、胰岛损伤及其引发的胰岛素抵抗可能是肝源性糖尿病重要的发病机制,抗病毒治疗和积极应用胰岛素效果较好.

  19. 不同硒源及硒水平对产蛋鸡生产性能和蛋品质的影响%The Effect of Different Levels and Sources of Dietery Selenium Supplementation on Laying Hen's Production Performance and Egg Quality

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    崔国强; 王海宏; 初芹; 张剑; 耿爱莲; 刘辉; 王继华; 刘华贵

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of different levels and sources of dietery selenium supplementation on laying hen's production performance and egg quality. 648 hybrid and laying hens of Beijing You chicken and Lohm-ann-pink chicken with age in 23-week were randomly allocated into 12 groups according to experiment requirement to compare the effects of different doses of two sources of selenium on production performances and egg quality in laying hens for 8-week feeding in this study. Both selenium sources were added into the basal diet at 0. 3, 1.0, 2. 0, 3. 0,4. 0 and 5. 0 mg/kg of selenium, and 1 to 6 groups were added with sodium selenite while 7 to 12 groups with selenium-enriched yeast. The results indicated that the selenium addition of less than 5. 0 mg/kg tended to increase the laying rate(P>0. 05) and had no significant negative impacts on egg quality,whatever its sources. The selenium-enriched yeast had better effects than sodium selenite on production performances and egg quality in laying hens. The best selenium level in laying hen's feed was separately 2. 0 and 3. 0 mg/kg in the form of sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast. The group of selenium-enriched yeast was significant higher than the group of sodium selenite on the average daily feed intake and the eggshell strength(P<0. 05) , while the group of sodium selenite was significant higher than the group of selenium-enriched yeast on albumen height and haugh unit(P<0. 05).%试验旨在研究添加不同水平的亚硒酸钠和酵母硒对产蛋鸡生产性能和蛋品质的影响.试验选用23周龄北京油鸡和罗曼粉杂交一代产蛋母鸡648只,随机分为12组,每组6个重复,每个重复9只鸡,进行为期8周的饲养试验.试验1~6组在基础日粮中分别添加含硒0.3、1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、5.0 mg/kg的亚硒酸钠,试验7~12组在基础日粮中分别添加含硒0.3、1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、5.0 mg/kg的酵母硒.结果表明,

  20. Níveis de treonina digestível em dietas para codorna japonesa em postura Digestible threonine levels in diets for laying Japanese quail

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    Regina Tie Umigi

    2007-12-01

    .70, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.85, respectively, to compose the experimental treatments. The characteristics evaluated were: feed intake, threonine intake, egg production, production of commercial eggs, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, feed conversion per egg dozen, egg quality (yolk, albumen and shell, egg length and width and specific gravity. Linear effect was only observed in the threonine intake. In conclusion, to provide the best performance results and of the quality of eggs, the Japanese quail does not require more than 0.65% of digestible threonine for a intake of 149.2 mg of digestible threonine/day or a daily intake of 14.34 mg of digestible threonine/g egg, corresponding to the digestible threonine: digestible lysine ratio of 0.65.

  1. Performance, Body Temperature and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Vitamins D and C Under Three Environmental Temperatures Desempenho, Temperatura Corporal e Qualidade dos Ovos de Poedeiras Alimentadas com Vitaminas D e C em Três Temperaturas Ambiente

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    DE Faria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber to determine the effects of vitamins D3 and C supplementation on performance, body temperature, and egg quality under thermoneutral temperature (24.8º to 27.0º C, a cyclic heat stress (26.2º C for 16 h and 32.1º C for 8 h and a constant heat stress (30.0º to 32.0º C for three weeks in each temperature. One hundred forty-four White Leghorn hens aged 31 weeks were used in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 3 x 3: vitamin D3 (2,500, 3,000, and 3,500 IU/kg and vitamin C (0, 200, and 400 ppm, with a total of nine treatments with four replicates of four hens each. Parameters measured included feed intake (FI, feed:gain (FG, egg production (EP, egg weight (EW, egg mass (EM, rectal (RT and dorsal temperatures (DT, percentages of albumen (AP and yolk (YP, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, shell percent (SP, shell thickness (ST and egg specific gravity (ESG. Vitamin D3 influenced the parameters SP, ST, ESG and DT; vitamin C influenced YI, SP and ESG. There was no influence of environmental temperature only on HU. It was concluded that higher levels of vitamin D3 and 200 or 400 ppm of vitamin C can be improve eggshell quality and that heat stress impaired the main characteristics evaluated.O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática para determinar os efeitos das vitaminas D3 e C sobre o desempenho, temperatura corporal e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras em três temperaturas: termoneutra (24,8º a 27,0º C, estresse calórico cíclico (26,2º C por 16h e 32,1º C por 8h e estresse calórico constante (30,0º a 32,0º C. Foram utilizadas 144 galinhas brancas com 31 semanas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 3x3x3: vitamina D3 (2500, 3000 e 3500 UI/kg, vitamina C (0, 200 e 400 ppm e temperatura ambiente (termoneutra, estresse calórico cíclico e constante. As características avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (CR, produção de ovos (PO

  2. Qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com levedura seca de cana-de-açúcar Quality of the eggs of commercial layers fed with sugarcane dry yeast

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    George André Rodrigues Maia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de levedura seca (Saccharomyces cerevisiae à dieta de poedeiras na qualidade dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 120 poedeiras comerciais com 33 semanas de idade, distribuídas em um delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0, 7, 14, 21 e 28% de levedura, quatro repetições e seis aves por unidade experimental. Rações isoprotéicas (18% de proteína bruta, isoenergéticas (2.800 kcal de energia metabolizável/kg, isocálcicas (3,8% Ca e isofosfóricas (0,38% P disponível foram formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja. Os níveis de levedura seca não alteraram o peso do ovo (64,35± 0,85 g, a altura do albúmen (7,95±0,22 mm, a unidade Haugh (87,42±1,31, os sólidos totais da gema (50,86±0,20%, o extrato etéreo da gema (30,74±0,26%, a proteína da gema (16,92±0,16%, a gravidade específica do ovo (1,0912±0,001 g/mL, o peso da casca (6,67±0,08 g e a espessura da casca (0,4671±0,003 mm. Foi observado efeito quadrático na variável cor da gema no terceiro ciclo de postura. A inclusão de até 28% de levedura seca nas rações intensificou a cor da gema e foi considerada uma prática viável pela análise econômica.This work aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the laying diet on the quality of the eggs. One hundred and twenty chickens with 33 weeks of age were used in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28% of dried yeast, four replicates and six birds per pen. Diets similar in protein (18% of crude protein, energy (2,800 kcal of metabolizable energy/kg, calcium (3.8% and in phosphorus (0.38% of available phosphorus were formulated based on corn and soybean meal. The levels of dry yeast did not affect egg weight (64.35±0.85 g, albumen height (7.95±0.22 mm, Haugh unit (87.42±1.31, total yolk solids (50.86±0.20%, ether extract of yolk (30.74±0.26%, yolk protein (16.92±0

  3. Effects of Dietary Lysine Level on Performance,Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical and Hormonal Indices of Linwu Ducks Aged from 22 to 28 Weeks%饲粮赖氨酸水平对22~28周龄临武鸭生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化和激素指标的影响

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    林谦; 张旭; 蒋桂韬; 戴求仲

    2014-01-01

    65%赖氨酸组T3/T4显著高于1.05%赖氨酸组( P<0.05)。综上所述,在本试验条件下,饲粮0.65%赖氨酸水平即可满足22~28周龄临武鸭生产需要,而当饲粮赖氨酸水平在0.95%时可获得最佳生产性能。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary lysine( Lys)level on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical and hormonal indices of Linwu ducks aged from 22 to 28 weeks,and to find the Lys requirement of Linwu ducks in early laying period. A total of 125 healthy 147-day-old Linwu duck with the nearly same body weight and laying rate were randomly selected and divided into 5 groups( dietary Lys lev-el were 0.65%,0.75%,0.85%,0.95% and 1.05%,respectively)with 5 replicates in each group and 5 ducks in each replicate. There was a 7 days adaptation period and a 42 days experimental period. The results showed as follows:1)dietary Lys level had no significant effects on performance of laying ducks( P>0. 05 ),but 0.95% Lys group obtained the best performance except average egg weight. 2)Dietary Lys level had no signif-icant effects on egg shell thickness,albumen height,Haugh unit,yolk ratio,albumen ratio of laying ducks (P>0.05). The yolk color in 0.75% Lys group was significantly higher than that in 0.65% and 0.95% Lys groups(P0.05). The contents of albu-min and creatinine in serum and the ratio of albumin to globulin in 0.75% Lys group were significantly higher than those in 1.05% Lys group( P0.05). The serum growth hormone content in 0.65% Lys group was significantly higher than that in 0.75%,0.85% and 1.05%Lys groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01),the contents of cortisol,triiodothyronine(T3)and thyroxine(T4)in ser-um in 1.05% Lys group were significantly higher than that in 0.75% and 0.85% Lys groups( P<0.05 or P<0.01),and the T3/T4 in 0.65% Lys group was significantly higher than those in 1.05% Lys group( P<0.05). In conclusion,in this experimental condition,dietary 0. 65% Lys level can fulfil the

  4. 哮喘大鼠大脑和肺组织c-fos蛋白表达与神经免疫调节%Cerebral and lung c-fos protein expression and neuroimmunomodulation in asthmatic rats

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    樊卫文; 杨志军; 罗荣城; 魏玲; 邓火金

    2005-01-01

    经免疫调节密切相关.%BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence identifies the immune system not as an isolated system with automodulations, but one that interacts with the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of c-fos expression in the lung and brain tissues of asthmatic rats and explore is significance.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of Oncology, Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted Department of Oncology,Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital,Southern Medical University, between January and August 2004. Fourteen healthy male rats were randomized into experimental group (n=10) and control group (n=4).METHODS: On the first day of experiment, the rats in experimental group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL of the suspension containing 10 mg albumen, 200 mg aluminum hydroxide powder and inactivated pertussis vaccine (5×109), and subjected to inhalation of ultrasonically atomized 10 g/L albumen from on the 15th day, 2 times per hour for totally 3 days, to induce asthma in the rats. The rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL normal saline on the 1st day and inhalation of ultrasonically normal saline on the 15th day, 30 mL a day for totally 3 days. The lung and brain tissues of all the anesthetized rats were fixed by perfusion, and immunohistochemical method with ovin-biotin-peroxidase complex and imaging analysis system were used to observe the distribution of Fos protein in the lung and brain.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of c-Fos protein in lung and cerebrum.c-Fos in the lung and brain tissues was obviously higher in asthmatic group than in the control group (P < 0.05), located mainly in the parietal-fontal cortex, limbic forebrain (cingulum cortex, pyriform cortex and central amygdaloid nucleus and so on), thalamus paraventricular nucleus, hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus

  5. 利用近红外光谱技术同时检测奶粉中的多个掺假成分%Discrimination of milk powder with multi-adulteration by near infrared spectroscopy technology

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    彭攀; 林慧; 杜如虚

    2011-01-01

    利用近红外光谱技术对奶粉中含有多种掺假物的情况进行了定性判别分析.样本集除12个纯正奶粉样品外,146个掺假奶粉样品中分别加入了植脂末,天然大豆分离蛋白粉和麦芽糊精中的1~3种,掺假物的总含量范围在1.96%~35.9%之间.用Thermo Scientific Antaris MX型近红外光谱仪测量样本近红外光谱,采用非线性迭代偏最小二乘法(NIPALS)提取主成分,然后利用马氏距离进行线性判别分析,建立了1个8类判别模型.在138个样本集的交叉验证中,判别准确率达99.28%,20个测试样本的判别准确率达100%.另一方面,将3种掺假物中的1种作为未知干扰掺假物,用不含未知干扰物的样本建立了定性判别模型,然后用含有未知干扰物的样本进行验证.在植脂末作为未知干扰的情况下,判断奶粉是否掺假的准确率有100%,判断大豆分离蛋白粉和麦芽糊精是否掺入的准确度分别为78.94%和88.42%;而使用麦芽糊精作为未知干扰物时,调用模型判别奶粉是否掺假,准确率依然有100%,但判断植脂末和大豆蛋白粉掺入情况的准确率只有34.74%和32.63%.研究表明近红外光谱技术可以对奶粉中的掺假情况和掺假物种类进行快速判断;当掺假物定性判别模型遇到未知干扰时,使用该方法虽然可以对奶粉是否存在掺假进行判断,但对掺假物种类难以进行正确判别,因此建模样本集应包含尽可能多类型的掺假物.%Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to discriminate the adulterate milk powder with adulterations such as vegetal creamer, bean albumen powder and maltodextrin. We got a set of 158 samples. 12 samples was pure milk powder without adulteration, the other 146 samples contained one or more adulterations above whose total contents were from 1.9% to 35.9% .The samples were divided into the modeling set of 138 samples and the validation set of 20 samples. Thermo Scientific Antaris MX FT

  6. 饲粮缬氨酸水平对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响%Dietary Valine Level Affects Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代腊; 顾林英; 朱巧明; 朱莎; 张爱婷; 邹晓庭; 胡彩虹

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary valine level on the performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in laying hens, and to explore the optimal valine level in the diet of laying hens. A total of 720 Hy-Line variety Brown laying hens aged 40 weeks were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 36 hens per replicate. Valine was added to a basal diet to obtain the valine level at 0. 6% , 0. 7% , 0. 8% , 0. 9% and 1. 0% , respectively, and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) although supplementing the diet with valine did not affect the laying rate, average egg weight and average daily egg weight (P >0. 05) , the average daily feed intake in 1.0% group and the feed/egg ratio in 0. 8% group were significantly lower than those in the other groups (P 0. 05) , but the eggshell strength in 0. 8% group was higher and the protein content in egg white in 1.0% group was lower compared with the other groups (P < 0.05 or P<0.10);3) serum glucose content in 0. 8% group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0. 05) , and the contents of urea nitrogen and uric acid in serum were higher and serum total ami-no acid content in 0. 8% group was lower compared with the other group (P<0.10);4) based on the feed/ egg ratio, the eggshell strength and serum albumen content, the optimal valine levels in diets of laying hens in the laying peak period were 0. 78% , 0. 81% and 0. 75% , respectively, when the levels of crude protein, ly-sine and metabolizable energy were set at 15. 81% , 0. 77% and 11. 31 MJ/kg in diets. The results suggest that supplementing the diet with suitable valine level reduces feed/egg ratio, improve eggshell strength and serum glucose content.%本文旨在研究饲粮不同缬氨酸水平对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响,并探讨蛋鸡饲粮中缬氨酸的最适添加量.试验选用720只体重相近的40周龄的

  7. Comparative Analysis of Guinea Fowl and Hy-line Brown Egg Quality and Nutrient Composition%珍珠鸡蛋与海兰褐鸡蛋蛋品质及营养成分比较分析

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    彭亦谷; 杨亚光; 马娇; 逄焕明; 李瑾瑜; 王子荣

    2014-01-01

    Guinea fowl is imported from abroad, with a special variety of artificial trainer parenting into, the egg performance achieved significant progress, efforts to speed up the development of egg products, increase the added value, the comparative analysis of the guinea fowl and Hy-Line brown egg quality and nutrient composition. Test random pearl egg, Hy-Line brown egg the 100 medals, determination of the egg quality and nutrition, and the use of Duncan ' s analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient method. Studies have shown that in the external quality, the Hy-Line Brown egg weight than guinea fowl 15.54g (35.61%), there was a significant difference (P<0.01); guinea fowl eggshell thickness Hy-Line brown thick 0.14 mm (40%),the difference was significant (P<0.01); because egg weight differences in the proportion of two kinds of egg yolk protein ratio , the proportion of eggshell were significantly different (P<0.01). Including in terms of quality , two kinds of egg albumen pH, yolk height , yolk index were not significantly different ; Guinea fowl egg protein highly concentrated below the Hy-Line Brown chicken 3.02mm,there was a significant difference (P<0.01);concentrated protein factor ratio Hy-Line Brown high 0.87,a significant difference (P<0.05);Guinea fowl egg yolk color than Hy-Line Brown chicken,a significant difference (P<0.05). The nutritional composition, in g/pieces as a unit, the pearl of the main nutrients except egg cholesterol than Hy-Line Brown eggs , the other less than Hy-Line Brown eggs. In g/100 g as a unit, the moisture content pearl egg eggs differ significantly lower than the Hy-Line Brown 12.62 (20.21%)were significantly different (P<0.01),fat content is also lower than Hy-Line Brown chicken significant difference(P<0.05)difference of 1.34(4.4%),other nutrients were higher than the Hy-Line Brown eggs.Guinea fowl egg is smaller than Hy-Line brown eggs, shell thickness, low moisture content rich nutrition is concentrated eggs, created the

  8. Effects of Qyrroloquinoline Quinine on Performance, Egg Quality, Plasma Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Ability of Laying Hens Fed High-Energy Low-Protein Diets%吡咯喹啉醌对高能低蛋白质饲粮蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质、血浆脂质代谢及抗氧化能力的影响

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    赵芹; 张海军; 武书庚; 岳洪源; 王晶; 齐广海; 孙琳琳

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinine ( PQQ) on per-formance, egg quality, plasma lipid metabolism and antioxidant ability of laying hens fed high-energy low-pro-tein diets. Two hundred and eighty-eight Hy-Line brown laying hens aged 29 weeks were randomly divided in-to 4 groups with 6 replicates per group and 12 hens per replicate. Hens in group Ⅰ ( control group) were fed a basal diet ( metabolic energy 11 . 03 MJ/kg; crude protein 16 . 2%) , hens in group II ( pathological model control group) were fed a high-energy low-protein diet ( metabolic energy 12. 75 MJ/kg; crude protein 13 . 0%) , and hens in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ were fed the high-energy low-protein diet ( the same as group II) supplemented with 0. 08 and 0. 16 mg/kg PQQ, respectively. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The results showed as follows:1) compared with the control group, the high-energy low-protein diet induced fatty liver, the liver fat rate in group II was significantly increased (P<0. 05), and the contents of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol ( TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) in plasma in group II were signifi-cantly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) . 2 ) Dietary PQQ could significantly decrease the increase of average daily feed intake and the ratio of feed to egg of laying hens fed high-energy low-protein diets ( P<0 . 05 ) , it could signif-icantly inhibit the decrease of albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color and the increase of the contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in plasma (P<0. 05), and all the above inde-xes could get the same levels as control group. 3) Dietary PQQ could significantly inhibit the decrease of plas-ma superoxide dismutase activity and the increase of plasma malondialdehyde content of laying hens fed high-energy low-protein diets (P<0. 05). In conclusion, dietary PQQ can decrease the liver fat content, improve the lipid metabolism and antioxidant ability of laying

  9. Comparing Performances of Two Cultivated Layer Crosses in the Pen and Cage Housing Systems%笼养和地面平养蛋鸡配套组合群体的生产性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永梅; 袁韫聪; 赵小玲; 朱庆; 张露; 王珍; 王彦; 尹华东; 叶林

    2014-01-01

    Obj ective]To evaluate the performance and environmental adaptability of cultivated layer lines.[Method]We measured the livability,egg quality,weekly body weight,and laying rate of two crosses (SD1HS2 and HS1HS2)raised by two housing systems the pen and cage,re-spectively.[Results]From 8 week-old,males of SD1 HS2 were heavier than HS1 HS2 in body weight (P<0. 05);from 6 week-old,the females body weight of SD1HS2 in the two housing sys-tems were heavier than that of HS1 HS2 (P<0. 05 ).In the two housing systems,the livability and yolk percentage of SD1 HS2 were higher than that of HS1 HS2 (P<0. 05 ),whereas its egg production and protein concentration were higher than those of SD1HS2 (P<0. 05).The livabili-ty of penned birds were higher than that of caged (P<0. 05 ).The egg production and protein concentration of caged birds were higher than those of penned birds (P<0. 05).The egg produc-tion and protein concentration of caged HS1 HS2 were higher than those of SD1 HS2 .[Conclu-sion]The results suggested that the egg production and albumen height of the caged layers,no matter from cross SD1 HS2 or HS1 HS2 were superior to the penned chickens.The laying rate and egg quality of HS1 HS2 were higher than those of SD1 HS2 .The cage housing system is fit for our two crosses.%【目的】为掌握培育的地方特色蛋鸡配套系生产性能和环境适应性。【方法】本试验比较笼养和平养两种饲养方式下两个配套组合(SD1HS2、HS1HS2)的存活率、蛋品质、各周龄体重和产蛋率等性能。【结果】从第8周龄开始SD1HS2公鸡体重显著高于 HS1HS2公鸡体重(P<0.05);从第6周龄开始,两种饲养条件下的SD1HS2母鸡体重均显著高于 HS1 HS2母鸡体重(P<0.05)。两种饲养方式下,SD1 HS2存活率及蛋黄比例均高于 HS1 HS2(P<0.05),而 HS1HS2的产蛋量及蛋白高度则高于 SD1HS2(P<0.05);同时两群体鸡平养存活率均高于笼养(P<0.05),而

  10. Balanço de cálcio e fósforo e estudo dos níveis desses minerais em dietas para codornas japonesas (45 a 57 semanas de idade Balance of calcium and phosphorus and study of these minerals in diets for Japanese quails (from 45 to 57 weeks of age

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    Carlos Henrique Rocha Costa

    2010-08-01

    available phosphorus (aP in the diet on the performance, quality of eggs and the mineral excretion in Japanese quails during the final third of the production cycle. A total of 384 quails at 313 days of age was used. They were distributed in a complete random design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme composed of four levels of calcium (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5% and two levels of available phosphorus (0.15 and 0.35%, so each combination was evaluated in six replicates of eight birds. The experimental diets were isoprotein (19.31% CP, isocaloric (2,800 kcal/kg and isoaminoacids. It was evaluated the production, weight, mass, height and diameter of the eggs, ration consumption, feed conversion, viability, specific weight, the components of eggs (weight and percentage of shell, albumen and yolk, the balance of calcium and total phosphorus and excretion of mineral matter. There was no interaction between the used levels of calcium and available phosphorus. The increase in the level of calcium in the diet linearly improved the conversion by dozen and it reduced the consumption. It also promoted an increase on the specific weight, on the weight and on the percentage of shell and linear reduction on the weight of yolk and it increased the calcium content in the excreta. The viability and content of phosphorus in the excreta increased as the available phosphorus increased, whereas the other variables were not influenced by the levels of calcium and available phosphorus in the diet. The levels of 3.5% of calcium and 0.15% of available phosphorus are sufficient to provide good productive performance and satisfactory maintenance of the quality of eggs of Japanese quails in the final third of laying (45 to 57 weeks of age, and they correspond to a daily consumption of 899 mg of calcium and 40 mg of available phosphorus per bird.

  11. Effects of Different Contents of Herbal Additives on the Laying Performance and Intestine Morphology of Gaoyou Ducks%中草药制剂对高邮鸭生产性能及肠道健康状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 邹剑敏; 童海兵; 施寿荣; 卢建; 罗从彦; 俞锋; 戴荣亮

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different contents of herbal addatives in diets on growth performance and small intestine morphology of Gaoyou ducks.A total of 400 280-day-old Gaoyou ducks were randomly assigned to 8 groups with 5 replicates per group and 10 ducks per replicate.The control group was fed with basal diet,and the other groups were fed with basal diet enriched with 0.08%,0.10%,0.12%,0.14%,0.16%,0.18% and 0.20% of the herbal additive,respectively.The experiment lasted 35 days.Compared with the control group,all the experiment groups had higher feed intake except the 0.08% group,which had lower feed intake.The two groups with 0.10% and 0.20% herbal additives had lower mass egg weight than the control group,while the others had higher mass egg weight,the highest(632.85 grams) being obtained in the 0.14% group.Only the 0.10% group had lower average laying rate than the control group.The mass egg weight of the groups fed with the herbal additive was higher than thecontrol group,except the 0.10% and 0.20% groups.The mass egg weight of the 0.14% group was higher than others,being 632.85 grams.The feed/egg weight ratio of the 0.10% and 0.20% groups was higher than that of the control group,while the other groups’ was lower than control group.The 0.14% group gave the best feed/egg weight ratio of 2.86∶1.There were no differences between groups fed with the herbal additive and the control group in egg weight,albumen height,Hu and yolk weight(p〉0.05).There was a significant difference in egg yolk color between the 0.18% group and the 0.08% and 0.12% groups(p0.05).Only the 0.12% group gained higher villus height value,deeper crypt depth,more slender villus width,and better V/C value more better.The number of coliform of 0.08%,0.10% and 0.20% groups was greater than the control group.There was a significant difference between the 0.08% and 0.12% groups(p〈0.05) in the number of E.coil.The number of salmonella of the

  12. Contribución al conocimiento de la Epizootiología y Biología del Cathartes aura Lin (Contribution to the knowledge of the Epizootiology and Biology of the Cathartes aura Lin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isacc J. Rotella

    2006-01-01

    principal defensa antimicrobiana. In order to clarify the epizoodemic role of Catharthes aura Lin. (turkey vulture and the basis of its resistance against microorganisms and toxins it ingests, a study was made with 53 subjects. This included the artificial infection of 12 the birds with B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus and S. typhimurium, and non-inoculated birds were studied by bacteriology, parasitology, serology (brucellosis and leptospirosis, serum electrophoresis, hematology and pH measuring of the organs in the digestive tract. In the birds only infected orally, the microorganism was recovered in the case of one which M. bovis was isolated from oral fluids; intramuscularly, a bird infected with S. aureus exhibited lesions at the point of inoculation, and another one with S. typhimurium, macroscopic alterations compatible with salmonelosis. The general bacteriology was negative in 72.5% of the birds; the most frequently isolated germ was hemolytic E. coli (12.5%. The serology tests were negative. In the proventricles, parasites were found similar to avian tetrameters (7.5%, and Coccidia sp. oocysts (19.4% in the intestines. No hemoparasites were detected in the blood, nor ectoparasites in the feathers. According to the serum electrophoresis, the fractions alpha 1 and beta are not distinctly defined: the first runs very close to the albumen, the second one to the gamma. The digestive tract pH was found to be more acidic the further from the beak the testing went. The greatest level of acidity was found in the rudimentary muscular stomach (2.9. The turkey vulture has a formidable destructive capacity of the microorganisms it ingests, so it does not pose a serious epizoodemic threat, but on the contrary, it helps eliminate refuse that could be sources of illness. Apparently, its resistance is independent from the globulinic character of its serum, and the acidity of the rudimentary muscular stomach constitutes its main antimicrobial defense.

  13. Relationship between the ende mic arsenism and the liver,renal damage%地方性砷中毒与肝肾功能损伤关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 王素萍; 冯永亮; 罗宏; 周继华; 王建武

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the endemic arsenism and the liver,renal damage.Methods Some permanent residents were selected as investigated subjects who lived at 3 villages in Datong in Shanxi Province,an arseniasis-endemic areas,These objects were divided into arsenic poisoning and control group on the basis of Diagnosis Standard for Endemic Arsenism(WS/T 211-2001).Then blood and urine samples were collected in the surveyed people.Serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase(ALT)were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as the indicator of the impaired hepatic function.The microdosis albumen (mAlb)and acetylglucosaminidase(NAG)in urine were detected by end-point method and alkaline picric acid as the renal damage indicators.Results A total of 661 people investigated,of which 144 cases were arsenic poisoning patients.The rates of abnormal liver function were significant hisher in arsenic poisoning group[10.42% (15/144)]than that in control[5.22%(27/517)],and both wag significant[X2=5.107,P<0.05;OR=2.11,95%CI (1.09-4.08)].The geometric mean of mAlb/Ucr was 2.16 mg/g Cr in control,and 2.31 mg/g Cr in arsenic poisoning group,and both was not significant(t=-1.71,P>0.05).The geometric mean of NAG waft higher in arsenic poisoning group(2.43 U/g Cr)than that in the control(2.22 U/g Cr),and both was significant(t=-3.55, P<0.05).Conclusions The damage of the liver and renal function were related with endemic arsenism,and NAG is the early indicators suggesting impaired renal function due to endemic arsenism.%目的 探讨地方性砷中毒与肝、肾功能损伤的关系.方法 以山西省大同地区3个病村的部分居民为调查对象,依据WS/T 211-2001将调查对象分为砷中毒组、非病例(对照)组.采集调查对象血样和尿样;血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)用酶联免疫法测定,以血清ALT评价肝功能;尿微量白蛋白(mAlb)、N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶(NAG)分别用终点法、碱性苦味酸法测定,以

  14. Effect and Mechanism of Rosmarinic Acid on Depressive-like Behaviors in Rats%迷迭香酸对大鼠抑郁样行为的作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋翔; 刘鹏; 张雅红

    2014-01-01

    levels of extracellular regulated protein kinase ( ERK1/2 ) and phosphorylation extracellular regulated protein kinase (pERK1/2) were detected by Western-blot method. The remaining animals ( n=8 for each group) underwent the Morris water maze ( MWM) test. Results The differences in results of e-thology test, ELISA detection for hippocampal tissue, albumen quantitations of pERK1/2 and ERK1/2 and retention per-centage of target quadrant in water maze experiment in group D were statistically significant (P0. 05), and the differences between group A, B and C showed no statistical sig-nificances (P>0. 05). Conclusion CUS rat models have depression-like behaviors, and RA can have an antidepres-sant-like effect. The antidepressant-like effect of RA may be achieved by increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation level in hip-pocampus astroglia cells and improving BDNF releasing.

  15. Efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca em rações para poedeiras comerciais Effect of corn replacement with cassava shaving flour in commercial laying hen diets

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    Frank George Guimarães Cruz

    2006-12-01

    flour were evaluated in 200 Lohmann LSL laying hens with 46 weeks old, kept in 25 cages. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with five treatments and five replicates of eight birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of five levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of corn replacement with cassava shavings flour. Quadractic effect on daily feed intake, with averages of 100.68, 101.00, 100.72, 99.42, and 99.50 g, in the respective replacement levels, was observed. Viability, egg production and feeding conversion (kg/dz and g/g showed no significant differences. It was observed treatment effect (quadractic effect on egg weight, albumen percentage, shell percentage, shell thickness and specific gravity. Egg mass and yolk percentage were not affected by the treatments. The 50% level treatment provided the lowest shell percentage in spite of presenting the highest egg weight. The egg yolk colour was affected by the treaments and showed linear decrease (7.84, 7.52, 7.35, 5.32, and 5.12 as the corn replacement level increased. From an economical viewpoint, the 100% level treatment presented higher difference on the cost per kilogram of feed, egg-dozen, and egg-box in relation to the other treatments. It is possible to replace up to 100% of corn by with cassava shavings flours with no changes on egg yield and feeding conversion. However, the replacement will depend on the relative cost of corn and pigments to be used for correcting egg yolk pigmentation.

  16. 散养对产蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及繁殖系统发育的影响%Free Range: Effects on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Reproductive System Growth of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海明; 曹玉娟; 朱晓春; 王志跃; 王宽华; 侯帮红

    2013-01-01

    of cage-reared birds (P < 0.01),but the average egg weight was distinctly lower than that of cage-reared birds (P < 0.05).2) The albumen height and eggshell thickness of eggs of free-range hens were significantly higher than those of cage-reared birds (P < 0.01),and there was a tendency that the yolk color of free-range hens was higher than that of cage-reared birds (P > 0.05).The yolk immunoglobulin content of free-range hens was higher than that of cage-reared birds,but there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05).3) The oviduct weight and follicle weight of free-range hens were significantly higher than those of cage-reared birds (P <0.01),and oviduct length of free-range hens was lower than that of cage-reared birds (P < 0.05).It is concluded that comparing with cage rear,free range can make the birds weight lighten,reduce reproduction performance,and meliorate the egg quality.

  17. Vitaminas D e C para poedeiras na fase inicial de produção de ovos Vitamins D and C for laying hens at the initial phase of egg production

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    Daniely Salvador

    2009-05-01

    quality, and bone strength characteristics. In addition, the total and ionic blood calcium concentrations, bone ash and calcium were determined. Two hundred and eighty eight 23-week-old ISA Babcock B-300® laying hens were used during the 12-week study in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: vitamin D sources (cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol - 25(OHD3 and vitamin C levels (0, 100 and 200 ppm resulting in six treatments with eight replicates of six hens each. The basal cholecalciferol level was 2,756 IU/kg, corresponding to 5.51 g Hy.D®/t, as source of 25(OHD3. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass were not influenced by the treatments. An interaction was observed for feed conversion, which was improved when 25(OHD3 was added without vitamin C. Haugh unit and yolk index were not influenced, however, interactions were observed for albumen percent and yolk percent, which were improved when 200 ppm of vitamin C was supplemented. Egg specific gravity, serum calcium, bone ash and bone strength resistance were not influenced by the treatments. There was an interaction for shell percent and shell thickness, which were improved when vitamin C was added in association with 25(OHD3. It was concluded, for laying hens at initial phase of egg production, that feed conversion is improved when 25(OHD3 was the vitamin D source, and that shell thickness and shell percent are improved when the vitamin D source was 25(OHD3 with diets supplemented with vitamin C (100 or 200 ppm, respectively.

  18. Expanded Cottonseed Meal Affects Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Laying Hens%膨化棉籽粕对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱婷; 朱巧明; 顾林英; 谢鹏; 朱莎; 代腊; 邹晓庭

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of expanded cottonseed meal on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens. Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line laying hens, 40 weeks old, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 18 hens per replicate. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, trial group 1 was used 6% cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal of the control group diet, and trial groups 2,3,4 were used 6% , 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal, respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) different dietary expanded cottonseed had no significant effect on the performance of laying hens (P >0. 05). Compared with the control group, laying rate and average egg weight in trial group 1 were significantly decreased (P 0.05). Albumen height in trial groups 1 and 4 was significantly decreased than that in control group (P 0. 05). In conclusion, diets with 8% expanded cottonseed meal have no negative effect on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens. Expanding treatment can decrease the harm of free gossypol to laying hens, which can improve the efficiency of cottonseed meal utilization by laying hens.%本试验旨在研究不同比例膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响.选取40周龄海兰褐蛋鸡360羽,随机分成5组,每组4个重复,每个重复18羽.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验1组用6%普通未膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕,试验2、3、4组分别用6%、8%、10%的膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕,试验期8周.结果表明:1)饲粮中不同比例膨化棉籽粕对蛋鸡生产性能影响不显著(P>0.05),而试验1组产蛋率和平均蛋重显著低于对照组(P<0.05),料蛋比显著高于对照组(P<0.05).2)与对照组相比,各试验组蛋黄颜色均显著加深(P<0.05),而试验1、4

  19. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine on Performance, Egg Quality and Lipid Metabolism in Laying Hens%饲粮中添加L-肉碱对产蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及脂质代谢的影响

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    徐少辉; 武书庚; 张海军; 齐广海

    2011-01-01

    albumen height and Haugh unit at week 3 of the experiment (P < 0. 05), and 25 mg/kg group was the best among them; the supplementation of L-carnitine in the diet significantly increased the eggshell strength at week 6 of the experiment (P <0.05 ), and 25 and 200 mg/kg groups were better than the others; there was a tendency to increase the yolk color at week 3 ( P = 0. 07 ) and week 6 ( P = 0. 06) of the experiment, but no significant effects were found on eggshell thickness and egg shape index ( P > 0. 05 ); 3 ) the supplementation of L-carnitine in the diet significantly decreased the contents of TC and HDLC at week 6 and the contents of TG and LDLC in serum ( P < 0. 05 ). In conclusion, the supplementation of L-carnitine in the diet can improve the egg quality and lipid metabolism in laying hens, meanwhile, it has no significant effects on performance. According to the egg quality and the cost of feed, it is recommended that 25 mg/kg L-carnitine should be added to the laying hen diet. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ,2011,23 (4): 640-646

  20. Effects of Tea Polyphenols on Performance, Egg Quality and Yolk Cholesterol Content of Laying Hens%茶多酚对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质和蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 蒋桂韬; 王向荣; 胡艳; 李昊帮; 戴求仲

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of tea polyphenols (TP) on performance, egg quality and cholesterol content in yolk of laying hens. Three hundred and eighty-four 56-week-old Roman brown laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups with six replicates per group and sixteen hens per replicate.The laying hens in group 1 (the control group) were fed a basal diet, and those in groups 2 to 4 were separately fed the basal diets with 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg TP. The experiment lasted for 63 days, including 7 days for pretest. The results showed as follows: compared with the control group, adding 100 mg/kg TP significantly increased the average egg weight ( P<0.05); adding 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg TP did not change the average daily feed intake, laying rate, qualified rate of egg, feed/egg, mortality, yolk and albumen ratios, egg shell thickness, egg shape index, yolk color and Haugh unit ( P>0.05 ), but delayed the decline of Haugh unit during storage ( P<0.05). TP did not change the crude fat content in yolk ( P > 0.05 ), but reduced the contents of cholesterol (P<0.01 ) and MDA (P<0.05) in yolk. These results indicate that TP can increase the average egg weight to some extent, delay the decline of egg Haugh unit during storage and prolong the shelf life of eggs,and decline the contents of the cholesterol and MDA in yolk, so it can be used to produce eggs with low cholesterol content, and 100 mg/kg is the best supplemental amount of TP. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition,2011, 23(5):869-874]%本文旨在研究茶多酚对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质和蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响.以384羽56周龄罗曼褐蛋鸡作为试验动物,随机分成4组,每组6个重复,每个重复16羽.试验1组为对照组,饲喂基础饲粮,试验2、3、4组分别在基础饲粮中添加100、150和200 mg/kg茶多酚.试验期63 d,预试期7 d,正试期56 d.结果表明:与对照组相比,添加100 mg/kg茶多酚显著提高了平均蛋重(P<0.05);

  1. Preparation of Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strain Containing pCMV-IL-2-IRES-NK4 Plasmid and Its Stability%含 pCMV-IL-2-IRES-NK4质粒减毒沙门菌的制备及其稳定性研究

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    杨志华; 哈小琴; 张尚弟; 冯强生; 薛荣利; 杨淑娟; 赵勇; 杨迎桂

    2014-01-01

    albumen cells were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Goal genes IL-2 and NK4 were obtained by extraction, enzyme digestion and PCR amplification; goal genes IL-2 and NK4 were obtained in 40 generations TPIN on both Ampicillin ( + ) and Ampicillin ( - ) of LB nutritional medium plate by enzyme digestion and PCR amplification;levels of IL-2 and NK4 were significantly increased after TPIN was transfected into HepG2 cells in vitro. Conclusion An attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain (TPIN) containing IL-2 / NK4 expression vector pCMV-IL-2-IRES-NK4 can stably construct, and the plasmids can pass stably in spite of the selective pression, and IL-2 / NK4 genes can be efficient-ly expressed in vitro.

  2. Clinical, endoscopic and pathologic characteristics of food allergy inducing upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage in 35 infants%婴儿食物过敏致上消化道出血35例分析

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    万盛华; 李香莲; 张双红; 杨文萍; 罗丽娟; 朱春晖

    2012-01-01

    anemia, among whom 19 cases were with high eosinophile granulocyte, 6 cases with mild hypoproteinemia and 20 cases with high immunoglobin E level in serum;2 cases had positive antibody to H. Pylori in serum. At the same time , food allergen-specific immunoglobin G was detected, among which 2 milk-feeding infants were hypersensitive to milk, and 1 breast-feeding patient was hypersensitive to albumen/yolk, while the platelet counting, liver function and the blood clot test were normal. All the patients had erosive gastritis and multiple focus,among which 21 cases had multiple erosion mostly in fundus ventriculi and sinuses ventriculi and 14 cases in body and sinuses; 3 cases had sinuses ventriculi and canalispyloricus edema, and 1 had esophagitis. All the 35 patients showed eosinophilia in gastric mucosa histopathologically, and recovered effectively after an elimination diet. Conclusion Food allergy inducing upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage in infants has no specific clinical symptoms; patients are mainly milk-feeding, hemorrhage of digestive tract is one of common manifestations, and gastric mucosal erosion is frequently seen under endoscope; elimination diet is the primary diagnostic and therapeutic method and gets favorable effect; pathological observation of gastric mucosa and eosinophile granulocyte counting contribute to the diagnosis .

  3. 不同运动补剂配伍服用对举重运动员血尿素含量和训练水平的影响%Effect of blood urea contents and training level to take on the weightlifting athletes of different sports supplements of compatibility taking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建喜; 王培玉; 熊正英; 王棣; 陈运虎; 周侗; 窦盼飞

    2012-01-01

    Through carries on the nutrition to the weightlifter to supplement that the research many kinds of nutritional supplement blend take to the blood urea content influence,to improve the movement result to provide the experiment to rest on. Selects the Shanxi Province team male,female heavy athletics weightlifter each 8 people, the athlete altogether carry on 12 week training,simultaneously and carries on the puncture vine soap glucoside,long Bai Jingxian the spirit,the creatine and the whey albumen dried and so on many kinds of nutritional supplement,and after taking the tonic the 2nd,5 、8、11 weeks weekend carries on the blood urea content the test,and carries on the training level in training period before,during and fter the test.The results showed:training initial period,male,the female athlete′s blood urea content obviously elevates,showed that the movement training initial period the load and the intensity are big,athlete′s bodily function has not restored completely;From the second stage start,male,the female athlete blood urea content has reduces,showed that the athlete under the compound tonic′s function,the bodily function already obtained the restoration,adapts to the training load,the training level improves.indicated different movement tonic blends takes may promote organism protein synthesis,reduces the protein to decompose,after reducing the great intensity training,the blood urea content,is advantageous in the athlete organism restoration;The different movement tonic blends takes may enhance male,the female athlete obviously very,the snatch result,demonstrated that different movement tonic function supplementary,enhances the athlete body function and the movement level function comprehensively.%通过对举重运动员进行营养补充,研究多种营养补剂配伍服用对血尿素含量的影响.选取陕西省举重队男女运动员各8人进行实验,时间为12周,同时服用蒺藜皂甙、长白景仙灵、肌酸和乳清蛋白粉

  4. 低聚异麦芽糖对产蛋鸡生产性能、盲肠微生物和免疫机能的影响%Effect of Dietary Isomalto-oligosaccharide on Performance, Caecal Microflora and Immune Function of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武书庚; 高春起; 张海军; 田方; 齐广海

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) on performance, caecal microflora, antioxidation and immune function of laying hens. Six hundred Hy-Line variety brown laying hens aged 200 days were randomly allotted into 5 groups, and each group was replicated 6 times, with 20 birds per replicate. Laying hens in the five groups were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.1% , 0.2% , 0.4% and 0.8% of IMO, respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The re sults showed as follows: compared with the control group, average egg weight, laying rate, egg mass, feed/ egg ratio, albumen height and Haugh unit of laying hens in 0.1% and 0. 2% IMO groups were improved to a certain extent. The laying performance and egg quality of laying hens in 0. 8% IMO group were lower than those in 0.1% and 0. 2% IMO groups. Globulin/albumin ratio (Gib/Alb) in plasma of laying hens in 0. 2% and 0.4% IMO groups was increased (P <0. 05), while urea nitrogen content was reduced (P <0. 05). The number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in caecum of laying hens in 0. 2% IMO group was increased (P < 0.05), while that of E. Coli was decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the activities of superoxidedismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum of laying hens were significantly increased by 0. 2% and 0.4% IMO supplementation in diets (P < 0.05). When 0.2% to 0.8% IMO was added in diets, the contents of IgA, IgM and IgG and lysozyme activity in plasma of laying hens were all increased (P <0. 05). In conclusion, dietary IMO can improve the performance,optimize caecal microflora, and enhance the anti-oxidative ability and immunological function of laying hens. The appropriate supplemental level of IMO in the diet of laying hens was 0.2%.%本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加低聚异麦芽糖(IMO)对产蛋鸡生产性能、盲肠微生物菌群、机体抗氧化和免

  5. Study on the Tolerance of Jinghong Laying Hens to Dietary Sodium Sulfate%京红蛋鸡对硫酸钠的耐受性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫舒敏; 岳洪源; 武书庚; 张海军; 王晶; 齐广海

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究京红蛋鸡对饲粮硫酸钠的耐受剂量。采用单因子随机区组设计,选用健康、体重均匀的21周龄京红蛋鸡360只,随机分为5个组(每个组6个重复,每个重复12只鸡)。分别饲喂添加0、0.6%、1.2%、1.8%和3.0%硫酸钠的饲粮,预试期1周,正试期8周。结果显示:试验后期(第5~8周),1.8%和3.0%组产蛋率降低,与0.6%组差异显著(P<0.05)。第4周,硫酸钠对蛋壳强度、蛋白高度、哈氏单位均有显著影响( P<0.05);0.6%组蛋壳强度最佳,极显著高于其他组( P<0.01)。第8周,1.8%和3.0%蛋壳强度极显著低于对照组( P<0.01)。饲粮中添加硫酸钠显著降低血液钾离子含量(P<0.05),并有提高氯离子含量的趋势(P<0.10)。3.0%组红细胞数量极显著高于对照组( P<0.01)。生化指标中,3.0%组的血液总蛋白、白蛋白、葡萄糖含量均显著低于其他各组( P<0.05)。器官切片观察可见,1.8%和3.0%组肾小球水肿、肾小囊萎缩、肾间质发炎,肠道炎症。综上,饲粮中添加硫酸钠≥1.8%,会损害产蛋鸡的健康生长及生产,因此京红蛋鸡对饲粮硫酸钠的耐受剂量为1.2%。%The current study was conducted with the aim to explore the tolerant dosage of dietary Na2SO4 in laying hens. Three hundred and sixty 21-week-age Jinghong laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups and were fed based diet with 0 (control), 0.6%, 1.2%, 1.8%, 3.0% Na2SO4 for 8 weeks, respectively. Each group consisted of 6 replicates per group and 12 hens per replicate. The pre-test lasted for 1 week, and the test lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: in the later stage ( from 5 to 8 week) , layers fed 1.8% or 3. 0% Na2SO4 diet had significantly increased ratio of feed to egg compared with those fed 0. 6%Na2SO4(P<0. 05). On week 4 of experiment, dietary 0. 6% Na2SO4 significantly increased the eggshell strength, albumen height and Haugh unit than other groups (P<0.01). On week 8 of experiment

  6. Soja integral processada em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura Processed whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2010-09-01

    female quails at 29 weeks of age with an average weight of 186.1 ± 4.0 g distributed in a complete randomized experimental design, with 8 replicates, each one with 10 quails per experimental unit. Diets were isocaloric and isonutritives for crude protein, digestible lysine, digestible methionine + cystine, calcium, available phosphorus and sodium. Thus, it was evaluated a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and three other diets with partial substitution of the soybean meal for roasted whole soybean, extruded or micronized, so the whole soybean supplied 50% of the crude protein provided by soybean meal in control diet. No differences were observed on egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, viability of the birds, percentage of commercial eggs, egg specific weight, percentage of yolk and albumen neither on egg shell percentage. Substitution of soybean meal for roasted whole soybean reduced feed intake. It was not observed any differences in the studied parameters when soybean meal was replaced by extruded whole soybean. Substitution of soybean meal for micronized whole soybean reduced body weight variation of the quails, resulting in weight loss of the birds. Soybean meal can be substituted, in 50% of the protein, by roasted or extruded whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails. However, substitution of the soybean meal for micronized whole soybean, in 50% of the protein, is not recommended, because it worsens the performance results, mainly causing weight loss of the birds.

  7. Níveis de fósforo e cálcio em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura Levels of phosphorus and calcium in diets of laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Rocha Costa

    2007-12-01

    objective to verify the effect of different levels of available phosphorus (aP and of calcium (Ca in the diet on the performance, the quality of eggs and the nutritional status of the bone tissue of japanese quails during the initial laying phase. A total of 700 japanese quails, with 61 days of age, distributed in 70 experimental units with 10 birds each were used. A completely randomized experimental design was use, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement with five levels of aP (0.15; 0.25; 0.35; 0.45 e 0,55% and two levels of Ca (2.5 e 3.2%, with seven replicates per treatments. The experimental diets were isoprotéicas (20.0% CP, isocalóricas (2.900 kcal ME/kg and isoaminoacids. The levels of aP influenced by a quadratic form, the height and the average diameter of the eggs, the Ca egg shell content and percentage of Ca (2.5% Ca and P (3.2% Ca in the bones. There was a linear improvement for the commercial egg production and percentage of P in the bones (lower level of tested Ca, up to the level of 0.31% and of 0.51% P, respectively, in the diet. As aP levels increased in the diet, the conversion for dozen of eggs linearly decreased and the percentage and yolk weight reduced up to the levels of 0.40 and 0.25% of aP, respectively, in the diet. The shell weight, percentage and thickness, specific weight, shell Ca content and percentage of Ca in the bones were influenced by the Ca levels in the diet. There was no influence of the Ca and a aP levels on eggs production, ration consumption, egg mass, feed conversion per eggs mass, viability, final average weight of the birds and percentage and weight of albumen in the eggs. Dietary levels of 2.5 and 0.31% aP are enough to provide good productive performance and satisfactory maintenance of the quality of eggs and nutritional status of bone tissues of Japanese quails during the initial laying period.

  8. Fibra na ração de crescimento e seus efeitos no desempenho de poedeiras nas fases de crescimento e postura Fiber in growth ration and its effects on performance of laying hens during the growing and laying phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia de Melo Braz

    2011-12-01

    , development of the digestive and reproductive systems, as well as the effects on sexual maturity, performance and egg quality in laying phase, which was assessed until the 35th week. A total of 1,296 pullets were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with four replicates of 54 birds. The levels of 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5% NDF in light and semi-heavy birds were tested. At the end of the growth phase, the birds were transferred to the laying house, keeping the same experimental design, consisting of 14 birds per plot. There was no interaction between levels of NDF and the lines on the variables. In the growth phase, increasing the level of NDF reduced the weight gain and final weight, decreased feed conversion and increased the weight of the intestines. In the laying period, the levels of NDF did not affect significantly performance, the constituents or quality of eggs. In the growth phase, the semi-heavy birds had higher feed intake, weight gain and final weight, feed conversion, bigger weight of gizzard and lower weight of liver and ovary. In the laying period, the light birds were more precocious, had lower weight and egg mass, lower feed conversion, eggs with more yolk, less albumen, higher specific gravity and lower Haugh units. Regardless of lines, the increased level of NDF in diets for growth can influence the growth performance of pullets, resulting in fewer birds without heavy influence on sexual maturity, performance or egg quality in the laying phase.

  9. Study on the Methionine Requirement of Linwu Laying Ducks in Peak Laying Period%临武鸭产蛋高峰期蛋氨酸需要量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璇; 李闯; 何平; 蒋桂韬; 张旭; 戴求仲

    2015-01-01

    study the effects of dietary methionine ( Met ) level on growth performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of Linwu ducks aged form 30 to 38 weeks, and to e⁃valuate Met requirement of Linwu ducks during the peak laying period. A total of 200 healthy Linwu ducks with nearly same body weight were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 8 ducks in each replicate. Ducks in the 5 groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 0.27%, 0.32%, 0.37%, 0.42%and 0.47% Met, respectively. The experiment lasted for 63 days. The results showed as follows: 1) dietary Met level had no significant effects on laying rate and qualified rate of egg ( P>0.05) . The average daily feed intake and feed/egg in 0.37%, 0.42% and 0.47% Met group were significantly lower than that in 0.27% Met group ( P0.05), but albumen height and Haugh unit in 0.42% Met group were highest and significantly higher than those in 0.27% and 0.32% Met group ( P0.05). Compared with 0.27% Met group, the serum superoxide dis⁃mutase content in the other four groups were significantly improved ( P<0.05) . The serum glutathione ( GSH) and glutathione peroxides content in 0.37%, 0.42% and 0.47% Met groups were significantly higher than that in 0.27% Met group ( P<0.05) . 4) There was a quadratic behavior for feed/egg and the content of GSH in se⁃rum according to the Met levels in the diets, with the requirements for those parameters established at 0.41%and 0.43%, respectively. In conclusion, dietary 0.41% to 0.43% Met level of Linwu ducks during the peak laying period can obtain the best performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices. The Met recommen⁃ded of Linwu ducks aged form 30 to 38 weeks is 0. 41% to 0. 43%.

  10. 不同蛋白来源对京红蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响%Effect of Dietary Protein Sources on Egg Performance and Egg Quality of Jinghong Laying Hens at Peak Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓翠; 张海军; 武书庚; 岳洪源; 李杰; 齐广海

    2015-01-01

    of 4%YM group was significantly reduced at 8w (P0.05). (4) Albumen percent of eggs in DCP group

  11. 纳米SiO2及TiO2改性复合涂膜提高松花蛋的保鲜效果%Preserved effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2 modified composite coating materials on pidan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊; 严文静; 赵见营; 章建浩; 王芳; 彭开明

    2015-01-01

    polyvinyl alcohol based composite film (Group B), and uncoated pidan (CK) were stored under the same preserved condition whose temperature was 25℃ and relative humidity was 75%±2%. During the storage the physical and chemical indicators included weight loss rate, albumen pH value, free alkalinity content, moisture, texture characteristics (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess), chromatic aberration, brown intensity, absorbance at 294 nm, reducing sugar content, free amino content, sensory evaluation, and total number of bacterial colony, which were detected every 2 or 3 weeks to determine the pidan quality. The results showed that physical and chemical indicators of pidan in each group significantly changed (P<0.05). Two kinds of coating materials both significantly reduced moisture loss and weight loss rate (P<0.05), retarded the change of pH value, free alkalinity content and textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess) of pidan, inhibited the growth of microorganisms, and improved the sensory evaluation of pidan. However,a* value, brown intensity, and absorbance at 294 nm of coated pidan were higher than uncoated pidan, andL* value,b* value, reducing sugar content and free amino content were less than uncoated group, which meant the development of brown color and the production of flavor substances were enhanced because of Maillard reaction. This paper provides the reference for the application of composite film materials in the preservation of pidan.%为研究松花蛋的涂膜保鲜,该文采用纳米SiO2和TiO2分别对聚偏二氯乙烯(polyvinylidene chloride,PVDC)和聚乙烯醇(polyvinyl alcohol,PVA)基蜂蜡石蜡复合涂膜材料进行功能改性并涂膜松花蛋,测定并分析贮藏过程中松花蛋质量损失率、含水率、菌落总数、质构和颜色等感官品质指标的变化,研究其对松花蛋的保鲜效果及感官品质的影

  12. 高效毛细管电泳技术同时检测随机尿中香草扁桃酸、高香草酸和肌酐含量%Simultaneous determination of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and creatinine in random urine by high performance capillary electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 吴惠毅; 杨晋; 赵绍林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for detecting urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and creatinine (Cr) simultaneously by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). Methods The separations were carried out using a 120 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.80) in a fused-silica capillary tube of 47 cm×75 μm I.D. by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Injections were made by using the pressure mode for 4 s at 1 p. s. i. after samples were centrifuged and diluted. The detections were monitored by a diode-array detector (DAD) at 200 nm after samples were separated at a voltage of 20 kV. The method developed was validated systematically and applied to urine samples from healthy adults (n = 100) and children (n = 100) for establishing the reference ranges of VMA/Cr and HVA/Cr, respectively. Results Under these conditions, the separations of VMA, HVA and Cr could be completed within 13 min. The linearity ranges of VMA, HVA and Cr were 0-500, 0-500 and 0-4 000 μmol/L, respectively, with the correlation coefficients (r) between 0.997 2 and 0. 999 1 (P < 0.01). The detection limits (S/N= 3) were 1.0 μmol/L for VMA, 1.0 μmol/L for HVA and 50.0 μmol/L for Cr. The mean within-run (n = 10) CVs of migration time for VMA, HVA and Cr in urine were 0.58%, 0.56% and 0.25% respectively, while the mean between-run (n = 10) CVs of migration time were 0.95%, 1.00% and 0.48% respectively. The mean within-run (n = 10) CVs of peak area for VMA, HVA and Cr were 3.78%, 3.97% and 2.76% respectively, while the mean between-rim (n = 10) CVs of peak area were 4.60%, 4.08% and 4.42% respectively. The average recoveries were 98.36% for VMA, 93.56% for HVA and 98.85% for Cr. Other compounds in human urine such as catecholamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine and albumen didn't interfere with the assay. The correlation between CE method and HPLC method was good. And the correlation coefficients (r) of VMA and HVA were 0.954 9(P <0.01) and 0.945 1 (P < 0.01), respectively

  13. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Performance and Egg Quality of Luxi Game Chickens%饲粮粗蛋白质水平对鲁西斗鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠军; 杨维仁; 杨在宾; 高翔; 张相伦

    2012-01-01

    five replicates per group and ten hens per replicate. Four dietary crude protein levels were 14.0% , 15. 5%, 17. 0% and 18. 5% . All birds were restrictively fed the same amount of diets. Results showed that average egg size of Luxi game chickens aged 26 to 41 weeks was not significantly affected by dietary crude protein level (P >0. 05). From 26 to 29 weeks of age, dietary crude protein level did not affect laying rate, the ratio of feed to egg and average weekly egg mass of Luxi game chickens (P > 0. 05). From 30 to 37 weeks of age, the ratio of feed to egg was not significantly affected by dietary crude protein level (P >0. 05). From 30 to 33 weeks of age, except 15.5% group at 30 to 31 weeks of age, average weekly egg mass of 17.0% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P <0. 05). From 30 to 31 weeks of age, laying rate of 17. 0% group was significantly higher than that of 14. 0% and 18. 5% groups (P <0. 05) , and the same result was recieved at 36 to 37 weeks of age as well. From 32 to 35 weeks of age, laying rate of 17.0% group was significantly higher than that of 15. 5% group (P <0. 05). From 38 to 41 weeks of age, average weekly egg mass of Luxi game chickens of 18. 5% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P < 0. 05) , laying rate was significantly higher than that of 14. 0% and 15.5% groups (P <0.05) , and the ratio of feed to egg was significantly higher than that of 15. 5% group ( P < 0. 05). Meanwhile, at 33 weeks of age, with the increase of dietary crude protein level, there was a downward trend in yolk color of Luxi game chickens (P=0.09);at41 weeks of age, albumen high and Haugh unit of Luxi game chickens of 17.0% and 18. 5% groups were significantly than those of 14. 0% and 15. 5% groups (P <0. 05). In conclusion, the dietary appropriate crude protein levels for Luxi game chickens during the early period (26 to 29 weeks of age) , middle period (30 to 37 weeks of age) , and late period (38 to 41 weeks of