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Sample records for albopictus potential implications

  1. Indoor-breeding of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia and its potential epidemiological implications.

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    Hamady Dieng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density. These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention.

  2. Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

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    Hamady Dieng; Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Ahmad Abu Hassan; Che Salmah, M. R.; Michael Boots; Tomomitsu Satho; Zairi Jaal; Sazaly AbuBakar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity du...

  3. Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dieng, Hamady; Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, M. R. Che; Boots, Michael; Satho, Tomomitsu; Jaal, Zairi; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due...

  4. Interspecific Competition between Aedes albopictus and A. sierrensis: potential for Competitive Displacement in the Western United States.

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    Banugopan Kesavaraju

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, was first detected in North America twenty five years ago. It utilizes water-holding container habitats as immature development sites, and has rapidly spread throughout the eastern United States. Aedes albopictus has occasionally been detected in the western United States, but until recently no established populations of A. albopictus were reported. The western tree-hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis, is the most common tree-hole mosquito throughout the western United States, and is expected to more frequently encounter A. albopictus. In this study, competition between A. albopictus from the eastern United States and A. sierrensis from the western United States was tested in order to better understand the potential for either competitive displacement of A. sierrensis by A. albopictus or competitive resistance of A. sierrensis to A. albopictus. Varying densities of each species were reared with limited resources in a response surface design. Consistent with a prior study, we found that A. albopictus was clearly a superior larval competitor than A. sierrensis. Aedes sierrensis λ' (finite rate of increase decreased with increasing A. albopictus density, but in contrast, A. albopictus λ' actually increased with increasing A. sierrensis density; a result that was not reflected by individual fitness parameters. These results indicate that A. sierrensis will not be an effective barrier to A. albopictus invasion into tree-holes in the western United States.

  5. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse: a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

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    Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  6. Predatory potential of Platynectes sp. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) on Aedes albopictus, the vector of dengue/chikungunya in Kerala, India.

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    Kumar, N P; Bashir, A; Abidha, S; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P

    2014-12-01

    Unused and discarded latex collection containers (LCCs) are the major breeding habitats of Aedes albopictus in the rubber plantations of Kerala, India. Platynectes sp. (Family: Dytiscidae) was observed to invade these habitats during the monsoon season and voraciously devour the larval instars of this major vector species of arbo-viral diseases. Field observations showed a reduction of 70.91% (p = 0.0017) and 100% in Aedes larval density, on the first and four days post release of eight beetles per LCC respectively. In laboratory, a beetle was found to devour 17.75 + 5.0 late larval instars of Ae. albopictus per day. Our findings indicate Platynectes sp. could be a potential bio-control agent against Ae. albopictus, the vector of chikungunya/dengue fevers, in rubber plantations. PMID:25776599

  7. Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

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    Linda Grigoraki; Jacques Lagnel; Ilias Kioulos; Anastasia Kampouraki; Evangelia Morou; Pierrick Labbé; Mylene Weill; John Vontas

    2015-01-01

    Background The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible fo...

  8. Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

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    Linda Grigoraki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE, but not target site resistance (altered AChE, with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain; these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs, cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic

  9. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): A Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Singapore

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    Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-Zhi Irene; Chong, Chee-Seng; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Cheong-Huat

    2013-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of t...

  10. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida

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    Revay, Edita E.; Müller, Gunter C.; Qualls, Whitney A; Kline, Daniel; Naranjo, Diana P.; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yfremova, Zoya; Hausmann, Axel; Beier, John C.; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. Aedes albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait s...

  11. Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications.

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    Moore, C G; Mitchell, C J

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in Houston, Texas, in 1987, the Asian "tiger mosquito" Aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. This species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental United States in shipments of scrap tires from northern Asia. The early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. The Public Health Service Act of 1988 requires shipments of used tires from countries with Ae. albopictus to be treated to prevent further importations. Given the extensive spread of the mosquito in the United States, it is questionable whether such a requirement is still justified. Ae. albopictus, a major biting pest throughout much of its range, is a competent laboratory vector of at least 22 arboviruses, including many viruses of public health importance. Cache Valley and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses are the only human pathogens isolated from U.S. populations of Ae. albopictus. There is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the United States. PMID:9284377

  12. Reproductive strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) and implications for the sterile insect technique

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    Oliva, Clelia F; David Damiens; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Guy Lemperière; Jérémie Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducte...

  13. Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, C. G.; Mitchell, C J

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in Houston, Texas, in 1987, the Asian "tiger mosquito" Aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. This species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental United States in shipments of scrap tires from northern Asia. The early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. The Public Health Service Act of 1988 requ...

  14. Aedes albopictus em área rural do Brasil e implicações na transmissão de febre amarela silvestre Aedes albopictus in rural zone of Brazil and its implication in the sylvatic yellow fever transmission

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos ecológicos sobre mosquitos anofelíneos no município de Bataguassu, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram encontradas larvas e adultos de Aedes albopictus. Pela primeira vez sua introdução ocorre numa área enzoótica do vírus selvático da febre amarela no Brasil. Isto sugere risco potencial para transferência desse vírus para área urbana infestada com Aedes aegypti.Larvae and adult forms of Aedes albopictus were found during ecological study of anopheline mosquitos in the rural zone of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. This occurrence was registered, for the first time in Brazil, in an enzoootic area if sylvatic yellow fever virus. This implies a potential risk of the transfer of this virus to an urban area infested with Aedes aegypti.

  15. Synthesis of some novel phosphorylated and thiophosphorylated benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles and their evaluation for larvicidal potential to Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Sathe, Manisha; Tikar, Sachin N; Yadav, Ruchi; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok; Kaushik, M P

    2014-07-01

    Series of benzimidazole and benzothiazole linked phosphoramidates and phosphoramidothioates (5a-j) and benzimidazole linked phenylphosphoramidates and phenylphosphoramidothioates (10a-e) were synthesized. The title compounds were preliminary screened for mosquito larvicidal properties against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentration from 40 to 5 mg/L. Among the screened compounds three compounds revealed potential larvicidal effects with 100% mortality in the order of 10e>5j>5e. Compound 10e was found to be the most toxic compound to Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 of 10e against Ae. albopictus was found to be 6.42 and 5.25 mg/L at 24 and 48 h, respectively, whereas it was 7.01 and 3.88 mg/L, respectively in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Temephos was used as positive control. PMID:24857290

  16. Reproductive strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and implications for the sterile insect technique.

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    Clelia F Oliva

    Full Text Available Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducted to study the effect of time lapsed or an oviposition event between two copulations on the likelihood of a female double-insemination and the use of sperm for egg fertilization; untreated fertile males and radio-sterilised males were used for this purpose. Multiple inseminations and therefore the possibility of sperm competition were limited to matings closely spaced in time. When two males consecutively mated the same female within a 40 min interval, in ca. 15% of the cases did both males sire progeny. When the intervals between the copulations were longer, all progeny over several gonotrophic cycles were offspring of the first male. The mating behavior of males was examined during a rapid sequence of copulations. Male Ae. albopictus were parceling sperm allocation over several matings; however they would also attempt to copulate with females irrespective of the available sperm supply or accessory gland secretion material. During each mating, they transferred large quantities of sperm that was not stored for egg fertilization, and they attempted to copulate with mated females with a low probability of transferring their genes to the next generation. The outcomes of this study provided in addition some essential insights with respect to the sterile insect technique (SIT as a vector control method.

  17. Potential Risk of Dengue and Chikungunya Outbreaks in Northern Italy Based on a Population Model of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frédéric Alexandre; Metz, Markus; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Pugliese, Andrea; Rosà, Roberto; Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The rapid invasion and spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. We used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern Italy to calibrate a population model for Aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the absence of control interventions. The model captured intra-year seasonality and heterogeneity across sites in mosquito abundance, based on local temperature patterns and the estimated site-specific mosquito habitat suitability. A robust negative correlation was found between the latter and local late spring precipitations, indicating a possible washout effect on larval breeding sites. The model predicts a significant risk of chikungunya outbreaks in most sites if a case is imported between the beginning of summer and up to mid-November, with an average outbreak probability between 4.9% and 25%, depending on the site. A lower risk is predicted for dengue, with an average probability between 4.2% and 10.8% for cases imported between mid-July and mid-September. This study shows the importance of an integrated entomological and medical surveillance for the evaluation of arboviral disease risk, which is a precondition for designing cost-effective vector control programs. PMID:27304211

  18. Human Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Salivary Proteins: A Potential Biomarker to Evaluate the Efficacy of Vector Control in an Area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Transmission

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    Souleymane Doucoure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluatedbefore and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker.

  19. Human antibody response to Aedes albopictus salivary proteins: a potential biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of vector control in an area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus transmission.

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    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Drame, Papa Makhtar; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab) response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluated before and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker. PMID:24822216

  20. Unusual developing sites of dengue vectors and potential epidemiological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamady Dieng; Ronald Enrique Morales; Rahman GM Saifur; Abu Hassan Ahmad; MR Che Salmah; Al Thbiani Aziz; Tomomitsu Satho; Fumio Miake; Zairi Jaal; Sazaly Abubakar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unusual breeding sites of two dengue vectors, i.e. Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: During the second half of 2010, we performed an occasional survey in rural (Teluk Tempoyak) and urban (Gelugor) areas of Penang Island, Malaysia, to identify cryptic breeding sites. Results: In the rural area, we found heterogeneous immature stages of Ae. albopictus in the water bowl of an encaged bird. We also observed Ae. aegypti eggs deposited in the flush tank of a toilet in the urban area. Conclusions:It can be concluded that both breeding patterns can increase contact with hosts (humans and birds) and presumably population densities of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, thereby potentially boosting the risks for spread and transmission of arboviral diseases.

  1. Comparative host feeding patterns of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in urban and suburban Northeastern USA and implications for disease transmission.

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    Ary Faraji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is an invasive species which continues expanding its geographic range and involvement in mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue. Host selection patterns by invasive mosquitoes are critically important because they increase endemic disease transmission and drive outbreaks of exotic pathogens. Traditionally, Ae. albopictus has been characterized as an opportunistic feeder, primarily feeding on mammalian hosts but occasionally acquiring blood from avian sources as well. However, limited information is available on their feeding patterns in temperate regions of their expanded range. Because of the increasing expansion and abundance of Ae. albopictus and the escalating diagnoses of exotic pathogens in travelers returning from endemic areas, we investigated the host feeding patterns of this species in newly invaded areas to further shed light on its role in disease ecology and assess the public health threat of an exotic arbovirus outbreak.We identified the vertebrate source of 165 blood meals in Ae. albopictus collected between 2008 and 2011 from urban and suburban areas in northeastern USA. We used a network of Biogents Sentinel traps, which enhance Ae. albopictus capture counts, to conduct our collections of blooded mosquitoes. We also analyzed blooded Culex mosquitoes collected alongside Ae. albopictus in order to examine the composition of the community of blood sources. We found no evidence of bias since as expected Culex blood meals were predominantly from birds (n = 149, 93.7% with only a small proportion feeding on mammals (n = 10, 6.3%. In contrast, Aedes albopictus fed exclusively on mammalian hosts with over 90% of their blood meals derived from humans (n = 96, 58.2% and domesticated pets (n = 38, 23.0% cats; and n = 24, 14.6% dogs. Aedes albopictus fed from humans significantly more often in suburban than in urban areas (χ(2, p = 0.004 and cat-derived blood meals were greater in urban habitats (χ(2, p

  2. Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Reiskind, Michael H.; Zarrabi, Ali A.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between invasive species can have important consequences for the speed and impact of biological invasions. Containers occupied by the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse, may be sensitive to invasive plants whose leaves fall into this larval habitat. To examine the potential for interactions between invasive leaf species and larval A. albopictus, we conducted a field survey of leaf material found with A. albopictus in containers in Palm Beach County, Florida and measured de...

  3. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

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    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed. PMID:11758282

  4. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

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    Markus Neteler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

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    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (rhamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions. PMID:26576934

  6. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems. (letter)

  7. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, R. A.; Hayhoe, K.; Presley, S. M.; Allen, L. J. S.; Long, K. R.; Cox, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems.

  8. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  9. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  10. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF. Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power protection of pandan leaves (N. scutellarium was 93.55%, while mangkokan leaves (P. amaryllifolius was 87.5%. Based on ANOVA analysis, there was not significantly different of power protection between N. scutellarium leaves and P. amaryllifolius leaves extracts against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both of these test, plants has showed the potential to be a repellent and eliminate the emergence of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, so it may effectively reduce contact between host and dengue vector.

  11. Consequences of the expanding global distribution of Aedes albopictus for dengue virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lambrechts

    Full Text Available The dramatic global expansion of Aedes albopictus in the last three decades has increased public health concern because it is a potential vector of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including the most prevalent arboviral pathogen of humans, dengue virus (DENV. Ae. aegypti is considered the primary DENV vector and has repeatedly been incriminated as a driving force in dengue's worldwide emergence. What remains unresolved is the extent to which Ae. albopictus contributes to DENV transmission and whether an improved understanding of its vector status would enhance dengue surveillance and prevention. To assess the relative public health importance of Ae. albopictus for dengue, we carried out two complementary analyses. We reviewed its role in past dengue epidemics and compared its DENV vector competence with that of Ae. aegypti. Observations from "natural experiments" indicate that, despite seemingly favorable conditions, places where Ae. albopictus predominates over Ae. aegypti have never experienced a typical explosive dengue epidemic with severe cases of the disease. Results from a meta-analysis of experimental laboratory studies reveal that although Ae. albopictus is overall more susceptible to DENV midgut infection, rates of virus dissemination from the midgut to other tissues are significantly lower in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti. For both indices of vector competence, a few generations of mosquito colonization appear to result in a relative increase of Ae. albopictus susceptibility, which may have been a confounding factor in the literature. Our results lead to the conclusion that Ae. albopictus plays a relatively minor role compared to Ae. aegypti in DENV transmission, at least in part due to differences in host preferences and reduced vector competence. Recent examples of rapid arboviral adaptation to alternative mosquito vectors, however, call for cautious extrapolation of our conclusion. Vector status is a dynamic

  12. Genetic structure and Wolbachia genotyping in naturally occurring populations of Aedes albopictus across contiguous landscapes of Orissa, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswadeep Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus has recently been implicated as a major vector in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya in several parts of India, like Orissa, which is gradually gaining endemicity for arboviral diseases. Ae. albopictus is further known to be naturally infected with Wolbachia (maternally inherited bacterium, which causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI in mosquitoes leading to sperm-egg incompatibility inducing the death of embryo. Knowledge of genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus, along with revealing the type of Wolbachia infection in Ae. albopictus is important to explore the genetic and biological characteristics of Ae. albopictus, prior to exploring the uses of CI-based vector control strategies. In this study, we assessed the population genetic structure and the pattern of Wolbachia infection in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes of Orissa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from 15 districts representing the four physiographical regions of Orissa from 2010-2012, analyzed for genetic variability at seven microsatellite loci and genotyped for Wolbachia strain detection using wsp gene primers. Most microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structure among all geographic populations (FST = 0.088. Genetic diversity was high (FST = 0.168 in Coastal Plains populations when compared with other populations, which was also evident from cluster analyses that showed most Coastal Plains populations consisted of a separate genetic cluster. Genotyping analyses revealed that Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus field populations of Orissa were mostly superinfected with wAlbA and wAlbB strains. Wolbachia superinfection was more pronounced in the Coastal Plain populations. CONCLUSION: High genetic structure and Wolbachia superinfection, observed in the Coastal Plain populations of Orissa suggested it to be genetically and biologically more unique than other

  13. How dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) survive during the dry season in Dhaka City, Bangladesh?

    OpenAIRE

    Rajib Chowdhury; Vashkar Chowdhury; Shyla Faria; M. Mamun Huda; Runa Laila; Indrani Dhar; Maheswary, Narayan P.; Aditya Prasad Dash

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: In 2000, a dengue outbreak occurred in Bangladesh that included Dhaka City. Both dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Bangladesh. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mainly breed in and around houses and Ae. albopictus is an outside breeder. There are many old trees throughout Dhaka City in different parks, streets and the university campus which may have holes that can contribute as potential breeding habitat for the dengue vector. Therefore, a survey...

  14. Primer registro de Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el Estado Carabobo, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available First record of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 ( Diptera: Culicidae in Carabobo State, Venezuela. Aedes albopictus or “Asian tiger mosquito” is an invasive species consider the second most important dengue vector. Due to public health relevance and the recent findings in several areas from Venezuela, we sampled in seven localities in the Carabobo State from june to august, 2013. This is the first report of Aedes albopictus in four localities of Carabobo State associated to larvitraps and flower vases. This increases to 15 the number of occurrences in the country. This finding in urban areas of Carabobo represents a potentiality risk for arboviruses emergence and transmission, because that we recommended vector monitoring, entomological and epidemiological surveillance and the vectorial control in the country. This finding shows the importance of further studies of mosquito’s geographical distribution, arboviruses detection, vector ecological aspects, and their possible medical and epidemiological link with emerging and reemerging diseases.

  15. [Occurrence of Aedes albopictus in the state of Pará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira; Monteiro, Hamilton Antonio de Oliveira; Lopes, Ernani da Silva; da Silva, Orlando Vaz; Castro, Francisco Corrêa; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2003-06-01

    It is first reported the detection of Aedes (Stg) albopictus mosquitoes in state of Par , Brazil, in the urban area of Medicil ndia, a municipality far 90 km from Altamira, where 42 adult mosquitoes were baited using human attraction. All mosquitoes were pooled and inoculated into C6/36 and suckling mice in attempts for virus isolation. No virus was isolated. The occurrence of Aedes albopictus in urban areas of the Amazon region is of concern since dengue and yellow fever viruses are endemic in the Amazon and thus there is a potential risk for this mosquito species to become infected with both viruses. PMID:12792693

  16. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  17. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cianci; N. Hartemink; C.B. Zeimes; S.O. Vanwambeke; A. Ienco; B. Caputo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  18. Aedes albopictus and the reemergence of Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezza Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue is a vector-borne disease that is estimated to affect millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas, and it is reemerging in areas that have been disease-free for relatively long periods of time. In this issue of the journal, Peng et al. report on a Dengue outbreak in a city in southern China that had been disease-free for more than two decades. The infection, which was due to serotype 1, was introduced by a traveler from South-east Asia and transmitted by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Compared to Aedes aegypti, which is the most important vector of Dengue, Ae albopictus is a less competent vector of arboviruses, and the epidemics it causes are milder. However, Ae albopictus is becoming an increasingly important vector because of its rapidly changing global distribution. In particular, the worldwide trade in second hand tires, which often contain water and are an ideal place for eggs and larvae, has been a key factor in the large-scale conquest of Ae albopictus, which easily adapts to new environments, even in a temperate climate. This expansion is creating new opportunities for viruses to circulate in new areas, becoming a common cause of epidemics in Ae aegypti-free countries, from Hawaii to Mauritius. The outbreak in China, like similar events, was mild and short-lived. Because epidemics due to Ae albopictus are milder, the replacement of Ae aegypti with the tiger mosquito could even result in public-health benefits. However, there is no solid evidence of this, and the milder course of the outbreak could be in part explained by the relatively short duration of the hot season in some affected areas. Since it is almost impossible to prevent Ae albopictus from being introduced in a country, mosquito-control measures at local level remain the most effective means of controlling arbovirus outbreaks.

  19. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly...

  20. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany. PMID:26634351

  1. Population genetics and ecological niche of invasive Aedes albopictus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-May, Angélica; Moo-Llanes, David A; Puerto-Avila, María Belem; Casas, Mauricio; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Ponce, Gustavo; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; Pinto-Castillo, José Francisco; Villegas, Alejandro; Ibáñez-Piñon, Clemente R; González, Cassandra; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-05-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is one of the most invasive mosquito species worldwide. In Mexico it is now recorded in 12 states and represents a serious public health problem, given the recent introduction of Chikungunya on the southern border. The aim of this study was to analyze the population genetics of A. albopictus from all major recorded foci, and model its ecological niche. Niche similarity with that from its autochthonous distribution in Asia and other invaded countries were analyzed and its potential future expansion and potential human exposure in climate change scenarios measured. We analyzed 125 sequences of a 317bp fragment of the cyt b gene from seven A. albopictus populations across Mexico. The samples belong to 25 haplotypes with moderate population structuring (Fst=0.081, p<0.02) and population expansion. The most prevalent haplotype, found in all principal sites, was shared with the USA, Brazil, France, Madagascar, and Reunion Island. The ecological niche model using Mexican occurrence records covers 79.7% of the country, and has an 83% overlap with the Asian niche projected to Mexico. Both Neotropical and Nearctic regions are included in the Mexican niche model. Currently in Mexico, 38.6 million inhabitants are exposed to A. albopictus, which is expected to increase to 45.6 million by 2070. Genetic evidence supports collection information that A. albopictus was introduced to Mexico principally by land from the USA and Central and South America. Prevalent haplotypes from Mexico are shared with most invasive regions across the world, just as there was high niche similarity with both natural and invaded regions. The important overlap with the Asian niche model suggests a high potential for the species to disperse to sylvatic regions in Mexico. PMID:26814619

  2. Features and implications of the plateau inflationary potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalianis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    After the last PLANCK CMB data the plateau inflationary potentials are favored. I give some examples of such inflationary models emphasizing particularly on the Starobinsky model and its supergravity embedding. I discuss the crucial implications, regarding the initial conditions problem, of this new sort of potentials for the standard picture of the inflationary theory.

  3. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. PMID:26518035

  4. Effect of Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the essential oil and an isolated compound from the leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. against dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus L. The plant material was macerated and steam distilled using clavenger apparatus for oil extraction. The essential oil was tested at different concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 ppm concentrations against the larvae of Ae. albopictus. The isolated compound was tested for larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent, oviposition deterrent and adulticidal activities at 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 ppm concentrations. The essential oil exhibited LC₅₀ values of 194.63 and 199.65 and confertifolin exhibited LC₅₀ values of 2.02 and 3.16 against the second and fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus, respectively. The ovicidal activity of 100% on 0- to 6-h-old eggs, repellent activity of 320.6 min, oviposition deterrent activity of 98.51% and adulticidal activity of 100% at 10 ppm concentration of confertifolin were recorded. No mortality of was observed in negative control. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the potential mosquitocidal activities of confertifolin against Ae. albopictus. PMID:25033815

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  7. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, Lala Harivelo; Andrianiaina Razafindraleva, Herisolo; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Rasoahantaveloniaina, Beby; Ravelonandro, Pierre Hervé; Mavingui, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP Technique. Larvea and adults of Aedes albopictus and Cule...

  8. Nanomedicine: techniques, potentials, and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Mette; Jensen, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel physical, chemical, and biological properties due to their nanoscale size. This paper focuses on what is known as nanomedicine, referring to the application of nanotechnology to medicine. We consider the use and potentials of emerging nanoscience techniques in medicine such as nanosurgery, tissue engineering, and targeted drug delivery, and we discuss the ethical questions that these techniques raise. The ethical considerations involved in nanomedicine are related to risk assessment in general, somatic-cell versus germline-cell therapy, the enhancement of human capabilities, research into human embryonic stem cells and the toxicity, uncontrolled function and self-assembly of nanoparticles. The ethical considerations associated with the application of nanotechnology to medicine have not been greatly discussed. This paper aims to balance clear ethical discussion and sound science and so provide nanotechnologists and biotechnologists with tools to assess ethical problems in nanomedicine. PMID:17489016

  9. Effects of Cohabitation on the Population Performance and Survivorship of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus and the Resident Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; Russell, R C; Webb, C E; Cook, A; Zalucki, M P; Williams, C R; Ward, P; van den Hurk, A F

    2015-05-01

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Torres Strait of northern Australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. However, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of Ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in Australia. Cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), which has been found occupying the same larval habitats as Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait and is the most widespread container-inhabiting Aedes species in Australia. The influence of environmental factors and cohabitation between the two species was examined using different climates, food resource levels, food resource types, and species densities. Survivorship proportions and a population performance index (λ') were calculated and compared. The consequences of increased Ae. notoscriptus densities were reduced survivorship and λ' for Ae. albopictus. Despite this, the mean λ' of Ae. albopictus and Ae. notoscriptus was consistently ≥ 1.06, indicating both species could increase under all conditions, potentially due to increasing conspecific densities negatively affecting Ae. notoscriptus. The outcomes from this study suggest that the preexisting presence of Ae. notoscriptus may not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Australia. PMID:26334811

  10. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  11. Native Wolbachia from Aedes albopictus Blocks Chikungunya Virus Infection In Cellulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Raquin

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of terrestrial arthropods, can protect its host against viral and parasitic infections, a phenotype called "pathogen blocking". However, in some cases Wolbachia may have no effect or even enhance pathogen infection, depending on the host-Wolbachia-pathogen combination. The tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbA and wAlbB, and is a competent vector for different arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Interestingly, it was shown in some cases that Ae. albopictus native Wolbachia strains are able to inhibit DENV transmission by limiting viral replication in salivary glands, but no such impact was measured on CHIKV replication in vivo. To better understand the Wolbachia/CHIKV/Ae. albopictus interaction, we generated a cellular model using Ae. albopictus derived C6/36 cells that we infected with the wAlbB strain. Our results indicate that CHIKV infection is negatively impacted at both RNA replication and virus assembly/secretion steps in presence of wAlbB. Using FISH, we observed CHIKV and wAlbB in the same mosquito cells, indicating that the virus is still able to enter the cell in the presence of the bacterium. Further work is needed to decipher molecular pathways involved in Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction at the cellular level, but this cellular model can be a useful tool to study the mechanism behind virus blocking phenotype induced by Wolbachia. More broadly, this put into question the ecological role of Wolbachia symbiont in Ae. albopictus, but also the ability of the CHIKV to counteract Wolbachia's antiviral potential in vivo.

  12. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?

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    Gilda Grard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus, were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV. The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

  13. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany. PMID:27112761

  14. Distribution and dynamics of Wolbachia infection in Malaysian Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Yugavathy, Nava; Leong, Cherng-Shii; Wong, Meng-Li; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria found in most arthropods and nematodes, but little is known about their distribution and reproductive dynamics in the Malaysian dengue vector Aedes albopictus. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of Wolbachia from field collected Ae. albopictus from various parts of the country using wsp specific primers. Ae. albopictus had Wolbachia infection ranging from 60 to 100%. No sequence diversity of wsp gene was found within all wAlbA and wAlbB sequences. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia infection amongst the Malaysian Ae. albopictus were not homogenously distributed in all districts in Malaysia. The presence of Wolbachia in different organs of Ae. albopictus was also determined. Wolbachia were only found in the ovaries and midguts of the mosquitoes, while absent in the salivary glands. The effects of Wolbachia on Ae. albopictus fecundity, longevity and egg viability were studied using infected and uninfected colonies. The removal of Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus resulted in reduced fecundity, longevity and egg viability, thus. Wolbachia seem to play a vital role in Ae. albopictus reproductive system. PMID:25899523

  15. The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jennifer M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michaud, M. Robert; Denlinger, David L.; Armbruster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day (LD) photoperiods in mature oocyte tissue of replicate temperate, but not tropical, A. albopictus populations. Fatty acyl CoA elongases are involved in the synthesis of long chain fatty acids (hydrocarbon precursors). Diapause eggs from a temperate population had one-third more surface hydrocarbons and one-half the water loss rates of non-diapause eggs. Eggs from a tropical population reared under SD and LD photoperiods did not differ in surface hydrocarbon abundance or water loss rates. In both a temperate and tropical population, composition of hydrocarbon chain lengths did not differ between eggs from SD versus LD conditions. These results implicate the expression of fatty acyl coA elongase and changes in quantity, but not composition, of egg surface hydrocarbons as important components of increased desiccation resistance during diapause in A. albopictus. PMID:20410035

  16. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

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    Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: These results clearly indicate that the acetone extract of G. renghas could be served as potential larvicide, whereas M. fasciculiflora has better sub-lethal effect for oviposition deterrence and against Ae. albopictus as an oviciding agent.

  17. How dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae survive during the dry season in Dhaka City, Bangladesh?

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    Rajib Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In 2000, a dengue outbreak occurred in Bangladesh that included Dhaka City. Both dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Bangladesh. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mainly breed in and around houses and Ae. albopictus is an outside breeder. There are many old trees throughout Dhaka City in different parks, streets and the university campus which may have holes that can contribute as potential breeding habitat for the dengue vector. Therefore, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of eggs of the dengue vector mosquitoes in treeholes during the dry season in February 2001 to know their contribution on dengue outbreaks. Methods: All treeholes in 10 different localities (parks, streets and university campus of Dhaka City were surveyed. All trees were examined for treeholes up to the height of approximately 3 m and sampled. Debris were collected and packed in poly bags and brought to the laboratory for detailed studies. These were then soaked with tap water to observe egg hatching. The soaked materials were kept up to 20 days covered by a fine mosquito net. After 2-3 days, the eggs started hatching and larvae were separated from the sample for rearing up to IV instar. Results: A total of 245 treeholes were surveyed in 49 identified tree species and 18 unidentified trees. Altogether, 1365 Aedes larvae were found, of which 1096 were Aedes albopictus and 269 were other Aedes species. The largest number of larvae was observed in Delonix regia of Leguminosae family. The number of Aedes albopictus found in the treeholes have perfect positive correlation with the number of other Aedes species. Not a single egg of Aedes aegypti was found in this survey. Interpretation & conclusion: This information will inform public health workers as well as the national control programme to help to solve mosquito borne diseases specially that of dengue. This is critical in planning for vector control operations due to

  18. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II- A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release

    OpenAIRE

    Dongjing Zhang; Rosemary Susan Lees; Zhiyong Xi; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.; Kostas Bourtzis

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC), double-infected (GUA) and uninfected (GT) female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictu...

  19. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael RusselleAlvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates) for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100%after 24 and 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h) and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h). On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h) and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h). Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  20. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayachandra; Shwetha, R; Chandrashekar, K R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The aril was extracted with chloroform and ethanol; the kernel was extracted with ethanol and hexane. The extracts were tested against the 3rd-4th instar larvae collected from Bunder area, Mangalore, India, which is a well-known fishing harbour, where several mosquito-borne diseases were reported. All the graded concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) showed significant larval mortality after 24 h of observation. Chloroform extracts of aril showed 100% mortality against both larval forms of A. albopictus and A. stephensi at the concentration of 500 ppm. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extracts of aril and ethanol extracts of kernel exhibited higher toxicity against both A. albopictus (LC(50), 141 ppm and 159 ppm; LC(90), 290 ppm and 342 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50), 160 ppm and 162 ppm; LC90, 445 ppm and 458 ppm). Hexane extracts of kernel exhibited least toxicity against A. albopictus (LC50, 239 ppm; LC(90), 484 ppm), whereas ethanol extracts of aril showed the least toxicity against A. stephensi (LC(50), 290; LC(90), 498). A preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenes, resins, and glycolipids in all the extracts. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were absent. The lower LC(50) value of the chloroform extracts of K. attenuata aril indicates its potentiality as a larvicide against A. albopictus and A. stephensi mosquito larvae. PMID:21559763

  1. Future perspectives and potential implications of cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunstetter, A; Izumo, S

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis has gained increasing interest in the cardiovascular research community. Apoptotic myocyte loss has been detected in different cardiac disease states such as ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. In addition, some evidence for the molecular mechanisms in cardiac myocyte apoptosis has been evolving, although at present the implications thereof for clinical cardiac disease are not known in most of the cases. Based on these new insights, it is the intention of this article to highlight some topics in apoptosis research that might be of particular interest to define the future role and potentials of new therapeutic approaches aimed at preventing myocyte apoptosis. PMID:10728403

  2. Defective Homocysteine Metabolism: Potential Implications for Skeletal Muscle Malfunction

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    Suresh C. Tyagi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy is a systemic medical condition and has been attributed to multi-organ pathologies. Genetic, nutritional, hormonal, age and gender differences are involved in abnormal homocysteine (Hcy metabolism that produces HHcy. Homocysteine is an intermediate for many key processes such as cellular methylation and cellular antioxidant potential and imbalances in Hcy production and/or catabolism impacts gene expression and cell signaling including GPCR signaling. Furthermore, HHcy might damage the vagus nerve and superior cervical ganglion and affects various GPCR functions; therefore it can impair both the parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation in the blood vessels of skeletal muscle and affect long-term muscle function. Understanding cellular targets of Hcy during HHcy in different contexts and its role either as a primary risk factor or as an aggravator of certain disease conditions would provide better interventions. In this review we have provided recent Hcy mediated mechanistic insights into different diseases and presented potential implications in the context of reduced muscle function and integrity. Overall, the impact of HHcy in various skeletal muscle malfunctions is underappreciated; future studies in this area will provide deeper insights and improve our understanding of the association between HHcy and diminished physical function.

  3. Detection of novel insect flavivirus sequences integrated in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Northern Italy

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    Tenorio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of DNA sequences integrated from a new flavivirus related to Cell Fusing Agent and Kamiti River Virus was identified in wild Aedes albopictus mosquito populations from the provinces of Trentino and Padova, Northern Italy. Field work was developed during August–October 2007 with BG-traps, and mosquitoes were screened for flavivirus and alphavirus. No alphavirus was detected, indicating that Chikungunya virus is not present in these mosquitoes in Trentino and Padova area. However, 21% of the pools were positive for flavivirus, further recognised with BLAST as similar to Kamiti River Virus. Phylogenetical analysis with 708 nucleotides from the NS5 gene identified this virus as a new member of the insect flavivirus clade, together with others like Kamiti River Virus, Cell Fusing Agent or Culex flavivirus, and in the group of those transmitted by Aedes. Furthermore, the treatment with RNAse, indicated that this flavivirus should be integrated in the genome of Ae. albopictus. These results propose that these sequences are transmitted by both sexes, and with different prevalence in the studied populations, and support the idea of a widespread distribution of integrated genomes in several mosquitoes from different areas, as first demonstrated with Cell Silent Agent. Evolutionary implications of this discovery and application in flavivirus phylogeny are discussed.

  4. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family:Cyperaceae) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh Kamiabi; Zairi Jaal; Chan Lai Keng

    2013-01-01

    ratio of the adult population either parental or F1 generation of the Aedes mosquito species was not significantly affected by the EI50 dosage of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells. A significant decrease in the wing length of the treated adult (female and male) of Aedes aegypti as well as the treated female of Ae. albopictus were observed. Longevity of the adult female of the parental generation of both Aedes mosquitoes as well as females of F1 generation of Ae. albopictus were significantly decreased. Conclusions: The present study revealed the potential of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells in controlling vector mosquito populations in the effort to reduce the transmission of vector borne diseases.

  5. Effects on male fitness of removing Wolbachia infections from the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvitti, M; Moretti, R; Porretta, D; Bellini, R; Urbanelli, S

    2009-06-01

    Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria is a potential tool for the suppression of insect pest species with appropriate patterns of infection. The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to be infected by two strains of Wolbachia pipientis Hertig (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), wAlb A and wAlb B, throughout its geographical distribution. This infection pattern theoretically restricts the application of CI-based control strategies. However, Wolbachia can be horizontally transferred using embryonic microinjection to generate incompatible transfected lines harbouring a single new strain of Wolbachia. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach, the effects of Wolbachia removal on mosquito fitness need to be clearly evaluated as the removal of natural superinfection is an inescapable step of this approach. Previous research has shown that uninfected females, produced by antibiotic treatment, showed a decrease in fitness compared with those infected with Wolbachia. In this study, the effect of Wolbachia removal on male fitness was investigated. Longevity and reproductive potential (mating competitiveness and sperm capacity) were assessed in both laboratory cages and greenhouses. No differences were observed between uninfected and infected males with respect to longevity, mating rate, sperm capacity and mating competitiveness in either laboratory conditions or greenhouses. The preservation of fitness in males of Ae. albopictus deprived of natural Wolbachia infection is discussed in relation to the development of incompatible insect technique suppression strategies. Finally, the potential application of aposymbiotic males in mark-release-recapture studies is suggested. PMID:19292821

  6. Increased detection of Aedes albopictus in Belgium: no overwintering yet, but an intervention strategy is still lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Demeulemeester, Julie; De Witte, Jacobus; Hendy, Adam; Sohier, Charlotte; Madder, Maxime

    2015-09-01

    In 2013 and 2014, routine surveillance for invasive mosquito species was implemented in Belgium at 13 potential points of entry. Following the introduction of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1895) to Belgium via a used tyre import company (Vrasene, Province of East Flanders) in July 2013, one female and 17 larvae were collected outdoors during a period of intensive surveillance in summer and autumn 2013, but no control measures were implemented. Although climatic conditions were suitable during the winter of 2013-2014, this reproducing population did not overwinter. Lack of genetic variation, incomplete diapause adaptation and egg desiccation due to long dry periods during diapause or competition with endemic species are possible reasons. More studies on the diapause/longevity of Ae. albopictus eggs in northern temperate climatic conditions and on the competition with endemic species in western and central Europe are warranted to assess the potential for this invasive mosquito to overwinter. Furthermore, following the detection of four Ae. albopictus larvae in a shipment of lucky bamboo at the port of Antwerp in August 2014, one female, one male, 11 pupae and six larvae were collected at the destined lucky bamboo company (Lochristi, Province of East Flanders) in autumn 2014. In this case, immediate control measures were successfully implemented at the nursery. Because of increasing threats and the absence of an invasive mosquito species control policy in Belgium, the need for a permanent vector surveillance and control plan has never been so high. PMID:26113506

  7. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths. PMID:26047197

  8. Protein expression in the midgut of sugar-fed Aedes albopictus females

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    Saboia-Vahia Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus is a vector for several fatal arboviruses in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The midgut of the mosquito is the first barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection and represents one of the main immunologically active sites of the insect. Nevertheless, little is known about the proteins involved in the defense against pathogens, and even in the processing of food, and the detoxification of metabolites. The identification of proteins exclusively expressed in the midgut is the first step in understanding the complex physiology of this tissue and can provide insight into the mechanisms of pathogen-vector interaction. However, identification of the locally expressed proteins presents a challenge because the Ae. albopictus genome has not been sequenced. Methods In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE was combined with liquid chromatography in line with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and data mining to identify the major proteins in the midgut of sugar-fed Ae. albopictus females. Results Fifty-six proteins were identified by sequence similarity to entries from the Ae. aegypti genome. In addition, two hypothetical proteins were experimentally confirmed. According to the gene ontology analysis, the identified proteins were classified into 16 clusters of biological processes. Use of the STRING database to investigate protein functional associations revealed five functional networks among the identified proteins, including a network for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, a group associated with ATP production and a network of proteins that interact during detoxification of toxic free radicals, among others. This analysis allowed the assignment of a potential role for proteins with unknown function based on their functional association with other characterized proteins. Conclusion Our findings represent the first proteome map of the Ae. albopictus midgut and denotes the

  9. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de ambiente antrópico no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Aedes albopictus in bromeliads of anthropic environment in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Marques Gisela RA Monteiro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As populações de Aedes albopictus podem colonizar os mais variados tipos de recipientes, e sua presença tem sido registrada, inclusive, em vegetais Bromeliaceae. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o significado epidemiológico dessas plantas como criadouros potenciais de Ae. albopictus e registrar a entomofauna culicidiana associada nesse micro-habitat. MÉTODOS: Foram efetuadas quinzenalmente, durante os anos de 1998 e 1999, coletas de larvas de culicídeos em conteúdo aquático de bromélias, localizadas em áreas urbana e periurbana de Ilhabela e Ilha Comprida, no Estado de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 26.647 larvas de culicídeos nas duas localidades de estudo, 14.575 na área urbana e 10.987 na área periurbana de Ilhabela. As 1.085 restantes foram provenientes da área periurbana de Ilha Comprida. Não houve diferença estatística na quantidade de larvas capturadas em ambiente urbano e periurbano de Ilhabela. Com relação a Ae. albopictus, houve maior freqüência e quantidade de larvas no ambiente urbano de Ilhabela, seguido pelo periurbano na mesma localidade, enquanto que, no periurbano de Ilha Comprida, essa presença foi apenas acidental, sendo capturada apenas nos três primeiros meses. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados revelam que as bromélias, atualmente muito utilizadas em paisagismo, podem contribuir para a dispersão de Aedes albopictus. O encontro freqüente dessa espécie, em bromélias domesticadas e domiciliadas, sugere que esse culicídeo participe da fauna regional, podendo promover condições propícias para o contato entre a população humana e os agentes causadores de doenças do ecossistema natural.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus populations can breed in several kinds of containers, and its presence has also been reported in Bromeliaceae. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological importance of the Bromeliaceae plants as potential breeding sites of Aedes albopictus and to document the

  10. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

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    Ke-Xin Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed’s toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism. In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL. LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

  11. A Wolbachia wMel transinfection in Aedes albopictus is not detrimental to host fitness and inhibits Chikungunya virus.

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    Marcus S C Blagrove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia inherited intracellular bacteria can manipulate the reproduction of their insect hosts through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI, and certain strains have also been shown to inhibit the replication or dissemination of viruses. Wolbachia strains also vary in their relative fitness effects on their hosts and this is a particularly important consideration with respect to the potential of newly created transinfections for use in disease control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transinfected with the wMel strain from Drosophila melanogaster, which we previously reported to be unable to transmit dengue in lab challenges, no significant detrimental effects were observed on egg hatch rate, fecundity, adult longevity or male mating competitiveness. All these parameters influence the population dynamics of Wolbachia, and the data presented are favourable with respect to the aim of taking wMel to high population frequency. Challenge with the chikungunya (CHIKV virus, for which Ae. albopictus is an important vector, was conducted and the presence of wMel abolished CHIKV dissemination to the saliva. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data suggest that introducing wMel into natural Ae. albopictus populations using bidirectional CI could be an efficient strategy for preventing or reducing the transmission of arboviruses by this species.

  12. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide. PMID:26247928

  13. The Spread of Aedes albopictus in Metropolitan France: Contribution of Environmental Drivers and Human Activities and Predictions for a Near Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Benjamin; Léger, Lucas; L'Ambert, Grégory; Lacour, Guillaume; Foussadier, Rémi; Besnard, Gilles; Barré-Cardi, Hélène; Simard, Frédéric; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of new territories by insect vector species that can transmit pathogens is one of the most important threats for human health. The spread of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Europe is emblematic, because of its major role in the emergence and transmission of arboviruses such as dengue or chikungunya. Here, we modeled the spread of this mosquito species in France through a statistical framework taking advantage of a long-term surveillance dataset going back to the first observation of Ae. albopictus in the Metropolitan area. After validating the model, we show that human activities are especially important for mosquito dispersion while land use is a major factor for mosquito establishment. More importantly, we show that Ae. albopictus invasion is accelerating through time in this area, resulting in a geographic range extending further and further year after year. We also show that sporadic "jump" of Ae. albopictus in a new location far from the colonized area did not succeed in starting a new invasion front so far. Finally, we discuss on a potential adaptation to cooler climate and the risk of invasion into Northern latitudes. PMID:25962160

  14. Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:26220560

  15. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  16. Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: a host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tortosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia bacteria have invaded many arthropod species by inducing Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI. These symbionts represent fascinating objects of study for evolutionary biologists, but also powerful potential biocontrol agents. Here, we assess the density dynamics of Wolbachia infections in males and females of the mosquito Aedes albopitcus, an important vector of human pathogens, and interpret the results within an evolutionary framework. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wolbachia densities were measured in natural populations and in age controlled mosquitoes using quantitative PCR. We show that the density dynamics of the wAlbA Wolbachia strain infecting Aedes albopictus drastically differ between males and females, with a very rapid decay of infection in males only. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Theory predicts that Wolbachia and its hosts should cooperate to improve the transmission of infection to offspring, because only infected eggs are protected from the effects of CI. However, incompatible matings effectively lower the fertility of infected males, so that selection acting on the host genome should tend to reduce the expression of CI in males, for example, by reducing infection density in males before sexual maturation. The rapid decay of one Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus males, but not in females, is consistent with this prediction. We suggest that the commonly observed reduction in CI intensity with male age reflects a similar evolutionary process. Our results also highlight the importance of monitoring infection density dynamics in both males and females to assess the efficiency of Wolbachia-based control strategies.

  17. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan; Fatma; Zuharah; Chan; Jia; Ling; Nurfazlina; Zulkifly; Nik; Fadzly

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the lethal concentration, oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of acetone extracts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora(M. fasciculiflora) leaf and Gluta renghas(G. renghas) leaf against Aedes albopictus(Ae. albopictus). Methods: To determine the lethal concentration of Anacardiaceae, ten test concentrations of the extracts ranging from 200 to 650 mg/L were selected for larvicidal bioassays and 25 early fourth instar larvae were exposed to the extracts for 24 h. The sub-lethal concentrations used for oviposition deterrence was the value of LC25, LC50 and LC75 from above study which is 235 mg/L, 470 mg/L and 705 mg/L for M. fasciculiflora extract and 187.5 mg/L, 375 mg/L and 562.5 mg/L for G. renghas extract, respectively. Twenty gravid Ae. albopictus were allowed to oviposit in different treated concentrations. For oviciding procedure, a total of 300 eggs of Ae. albopictus were soaked in solution with each treated concentration as mentioned above for 24 h. After 24 h, eggs were sieved and soaked in seasoned water, and hatching rates were calculated. For comparison, only seasoned water was used in control experiment.Results: G. renghas demonstrated lower LC50 value of 372.80 mg/L compared to M. fasciculiflora(467.90 mg/L). The activity index of negative oviposition revealed the deterrent effect and thus, caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of fewer eggs compared with control(without plant extract). The acetone extract of M. fasciculiflora was more effective than G. renghas extract in displaying oviposition deterrence potential since the latter did not possess the deterring effect within the concentration range tested. However, both plant extracts exhibited excellent oviciding effect as 92.33% of eggs failed to be hatched when treated with 705.0 mg/L of M. fasciculiflora and 86.67% with 562.5 mg/L of G. renghas. The oviposition deterrence and percentage of egg mortality were directly proportional to the

  18. Digital exclusion: potential implications for social work education

    OpenAIRE

    Watling, Sue

    2012-01-01

    QAA Subject Benchmark 5.9 requires social work students to demonstrate the ability to have a critical understanding of the social impact of ICT, including an awareness of the impact of the 'digital divide'. In the twenty-first century, the implications of digital exclusion may become increasingly relevant for the social work profession with its values of empowerment and anti-oppressive practices. As governments and organisations move closer to the provision of online services, the social work...

  19. Breeding patterns of Aedes stegomyia albopictus in periurban areas of Calicut, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Bhaskar; George, Biju

    2010-05-01

    Aedes albopictus has been shown to be a vector for diseases which have been on the increase, such as dengue fever and chikungunya infection. We conducted a study of 100 homes from 2006-2009 to determine the breeding sites for Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Calicut, Kerala, India. We found the larvae of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes most often in coconut shells and plastic waste, followed by tires, flower pots, glass products, egg shells and dumped grinding stones. Ae. albopictus control programs in Calicut, Kerala, India should target these objects as part of a control program. PMID:20578539

  20. Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stephanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. Up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. However, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. Projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent days with frost and a shorter frost-season in Europe at the end of the century. Nevertheless, single cold extremes are also expected to persist under warming scenarios, which have a strong impact on reproduction success. Methods Here, the temperature constraints of European Aedes albopictus eggs, which had passed through a diapause, compared to non-diapausing eggs were examined systematically under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally, one tropical strain of Ae. albopictus and of Ae. aegypti was used in the comparison. Results The lower temperature threshold tolerated by the European eggs of Ae. albopictus which have undergone a diapause, was -10°C for long term exposures (12 and 24h and -12°C for 1h exposure. Non-diapausing eggs of European Ae. albopictus were found to hatch after a -7°C cold treatment (8, 12 and 24h exposure. Both tropical aedine species only tolerated the long term treatment at -2°C. Neither Ae. albopictus nor Ae. aegypti eggs hatched after being exposed to -15°C. Survival was mainly influenced by temperature (F = 329.2, df = 1, p  Conclusions Here, low temperature thresholds for aedine mosquito egg survival were detected. The compilation of risk maps for temperate regions can substantially be improved by considering areas where an establishment of a vector population is unlikely due to winter conditions.

  1. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Cristina L. Archer

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal...

  2. Seasonal monitoring of Aedes albopictus: practical applications and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Gavaudan; Anna Duranti; Francesca Barchiesi; Sara Ruschioni; Elisa Antognini; Erica Calandri; Paolo Mancini; Paola Riolo

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomya) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into temperate regions poses serious concerns for the risk of the spreading of arboviral epidemics, as confirmed by the Chikungunya fever outbreak in Italy. This article describes the implementation and the results of a strategy for the pest management implemented over 4 years in Pesaro (a city in the Marche region, Italy). The strategy used 60 integrated wide‑sized ovitraps for monitoring purposes. ...

  3. Mental Imagery in Depression: Phenomenology, Potential Mechanisms, and Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Renner, Fritz; Raes, Filip

    2016-03-28

    Mental imagery is an experience like perception in the absence of a percept. It is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition, yet it has been relatively neglected in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of depression. Imagery abnormalities in depression include an excess of intrusive negative mental imagery; impoverished positive imagery; bias for observer perspective imagery; and overgeneral memory, in which specific imagery is lacking. We consider the contribution of imagery dysfunctions to depressive psychopathology and implications for cognitive behavioral interventions. Treatment advances capitalizing on the representational format of imagery (as opposed to its content) are reviewed, including imagery rescripting, positive imagery generation, and memory specificity training. Consideration of mental imagery can contribute to clinical assessment and imagery-focused psychological therapeutic techniques and promote investigation of underlying mechanisms for treatment innovation. Research into mental imagery in depression is at an early stage. Work that bridges clinical psychology and neuroscience in the investigation of imagery-related mechanisms is recommended. PMID:26772205

  4. Potential Clinical Implications of the Urotensin II Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Kane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Urotensin-II (UII, which binds to its receptor UT, plays an important role in the heart, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal gland and CNS. In the vasculature, it acts as a potent endothelium-independent vasoconstrictor and endothelium-dependent vasodilator. In disease states, this constriction-dilation equilibrium is disrupted. There is an upregulation of the UII system in heart disease, metabolic syndrome and kidney failure. The increase in UII release and UT expression suggest that UII system may be implicated in the pathology and pathogenesis of these diseases by causing an increase in ACAT-1 activity leading to SMC proliferation and foam cell infiltration, insulin resistance (DMII, as well as inflammation, high blood pressure and plaque formation. Recently, UT antagonists such as SB-611812, palosuran, and most recently a piperazino-isoindolinone based antagonist have been developed in the hope of better understanding the UII system and treating its associated diseases.

  5. Persistent Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria infection in the reproductive and somatic tissues of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Zouache

    . albopictus. Improved understanding of the vectorial system, including the role of bacteria in the vector's biology and competence, could have major implications for understanding viral emergences and for disease control.

  6. Modified technique of Wolbachia removal from Malaysian Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvia; Joanne; Indra; Vythilingam; Nava; Yugavathy; Jonathan; Inbaraj; Doss

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop an artificial and modified Wolbaehia removal technique using tetracycline from naturally Wolbachia infected Aedes albopictus(Ae.albopictus)so as to be able to produce generations of Wolbaehia free offsprings.Methods:In this study,seven different tetracycline treatment methods were conducted to obtain the best removal method.Four methods focused on larvae tetracycline treatment,one method on both larvae and adult tetracycline treatment and the last two methods on adult mosquito sucrose treatment.Results:All larval tetracycline treatments resulted in either high larvae mortality,sterile F_o adult mosquitoes or unsuccessful Wolbaehia removal.Treatment of both larvae and adults resulted in reduced larvae mortality,successful Wolbachia removal but slow mosquito fecundity.As for the adult treatment,1.0 mg/mL as previously published was not aisle to completely remove Wolbaehia in F,generation whereas 1.25 mg/mL successfully removed Wolbachia from F,and F,mosquitoes in 2 weeks.Conclusions:This method is different from the previously published methods as it provides an improved Watbachia removal technique from Ae.albopictus with high egg hatchability.low larvae mortality,increased fecundity and better Wolbaehia removal rate.

  7. Modified technique of Wolbachia removal from Malaysian Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvia Joanne; Indra Vythilingam; Nava Yugavathy; Jonathan Inbaraj Doss

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an artificial and modified Wolbachia removal technique using tetracycline from naturally Wolbachia infected Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) so as to be able to produce generations of Wolbachia free offsprings.Methods:In this study, seven different tetracycline treatment methods were conducted to obtain the best removal method. Four methods focused on larvae tetracycline treatment, one method on both larvae and adult tetracycline treatment and the last two methods on adult mosquito sucrose treatment.Results:All larval tetracycline treatments resulted in either high larvae mortality, sterile F0 adult mosquitoes or unsuccessful Wolbachia removal. Treatment of both larvae and adults resulted in reduced larvae mortality, successful Wolbachia removal but slow mosquito fecundity. As for the adult treatment, 1.0 mg/mL as previously published was not able to completely remove Wolbachia in F1 generation whereas 1.25 mg/mL successfully removed Wolbachia from F1 and F2 mosquitoes in 2 weeks. Conclusions: This method is different from the previously published methods as it provides an improved Wolbachia removal technique from Ae. albopictus with high egg hatchability, low larvae mortality, increased fecundity and better Wolbachia removal rate.

  8. Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Khangura, Jagmeet

    2011-09-15

    We assess developable on-shore wind potential in India at three different hub-heights and under two sensitivity scenarios – one with no farmland included, the other with all farmland included. Under the “no farmland included” case, the total wind potential in India ranges from 748 GW at 80m hub-height to 976 GW at 120m hub-height. Under the “all farmland included” case, the potential with a minimum capacity factor of 20 percent ranges from 984 GW to 1,549 GW. High quality wind energy sites, at 80m hub-height with a minimum capacity factor of 25 percent, have a potential between 253 GW (no farmland included) and 306 GW (all farmland included). Our estimates are more than 15 times the current official estimate of wind energy potential in India (estimated at 50m hub height) and are about one tenth of the official estimate of the wind energy potential in the US.

  9. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353

  10. Detection of Wolbachia from field collected Aedes albopictus Skuse in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Noor Afizah

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicated that Wolbachia infection was widespread in Ae. albopictus population both in female and male Ae. albopictus. All the infected females were superinfected with both A and B strains while the infected males showed a combination of superinfection of A and B strains and single infection of B strain.

  11. Educational Attainment and Child Abuse Potential: Implications for Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…

  12. Implications of imaginary chemical potential for model building of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kashiwa, Kouji

    2016-01-01

    Properties of QCD at finite imaginary chemical potential are revisited to utilize for the model building of QCD in low energy regimes. For example, the electric holonomy which is closely related to the Polyakov-loop drastically affects thermodynamic quantities beside the Roberge-Weiss transition line. To incorporate several properties at finite imaginary chemical potential, it is important to introduce the holonomy effects to the coupling constant of effective models. This extension is possible by considering the entanglement vertex. We show justifications of the entanglement vertex based on the derivation of the effective four-fermi interaction in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model and present its general form with the local approximation. To discuss how to remove model ambiguities in the entanglement vertex, we calculate the chiral condensate with different $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ sectors and the dual quark condensate.

  13. Potential Arbovirus Emergence and Implications for the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Ernest Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; Buckley, Alan; Gritsun, Tamara Sergeevna

    2006-01-01

    Arboviruses have evolved a number of strategies to survive environmental challenges. This review examines the factors that may determine arbovirus emergence, provides examples of arboviruses that have emerged into new habitats, reviews the arbovirus situation in western Europe in detail, discusses potential arthropod vectors, and attempts to predict the risk for arbovirus emergence in the United Kingdom. We conclude that climate change is probably the most important requirement for the emerge...

  14. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie de Thonel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat Shock Factors (HSF form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  15. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonel, Aurelie de [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); Mezger, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [CNRS, UMR7216 Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Paris (France); University Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France); Garrido, Carmen, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); CHU, Dijon BP1542, Dijon (France)

    2011-03-07

    Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  16. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo; Herisolo Andrianiaina Razafindraleva; Fara Nantenaina Raharimalala; Beby Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre Hervé Ravelonandro; Patrick Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using micro-reactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes a...

  17. Intermolecular potential for Ar + D2O from differential scattering cross sections, and its implications for the water pair potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A velocity selected molecular beam of D2O was crossed with a nozzle beam of Ar and the angular distribution of the scattered D2O was measured mass spectrometrically. By varying the velocity of the D2O beam, the differential cross section was measured at two collision energies. The experimental results were compared with synthetic differential cross sections calculated from Lennard-Jones and Kihara-Stockmayer trial potentials to determine potential parameters. Implications for the H2O pair potential are discussed

  18. Modelling evolving fault zones: Fragmentation processes, products and potential implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, K.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Exhumed fault rocks display a wide variety of textural fabrics whose signatures may provide clues to the deformation processes operating during a fault's life. In an active fault, the products of intense fracturing or the development of strong fabrics can themselves be game changers in terms of macroscopic mechanical behaviour. Here we investigate the fragmentation processes operating in evolving faults during shear and the signatures they leave behind, using a numerical model. We consider: (i) what drives the production and evolution of granular debris commonly found along faults; (ii) the nature of the fragmentation products; and (iii) the potential influence of these features on subsequent sliding. Our discrete element (DEM) 3D fault gouge fragmentation models consist of aggregate grains, composed of several thousand spherical particles stuck together with breakable elastic bonds. The aggregate grains are confined between rough fault walls that can themselves potentially breakup leading to fault roughness evolution. During shear, under a given normal stress, the aggregate gouge grains can fragment and evolve in a somewhat natural way. The grain breakage in our models appears to be driven by two distinct comminution mechanisms: grain splitting and grain abrasion. The relative importance of these mechanisms changes with the applied normal stress, the accumulated slip and the boundary roughness in the model. Grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at higher normal stresses, particularly during the initial stages of simulations. Conversely, grain abrasion prevails at lower normal stresses and is the main comminution mechanism operating in the later stages of all simulations. In terms of fragmentation products, the different mechanisms generate distinct grain size distributions. Grain splitting rapidly generates a power law size distribution, whereas grain abrasion (acting alone) tends to produce a bimodal size distribution (lacking intermediate

  19. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options

  20. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  1. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhong Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART.

  2. Embryonic–maternal cross-talk via exosomes: potential implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadeldin IM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam M Saadeldin,1 Hyun Ju Oh,2 Byeong Chun Lee2,3 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 2Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine and the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeong Chang, Kangwon do, Republic of KoreaAbstract: A myriad of locally produced factors into the microenvironment of the reproductive tract is regulated, not one-way but rather, through embryonic–maternal cross-talk. In this minireview, we focused on the exosomes, which are cell-derived vesicles of 30–100 nm in diameter, as a communicating language facilitating this dialog. These nanovesicles are secreted from preimplantation embryos, oviduct epithelium, and endometrium as well as from the placenta, and contain proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA, microRNA, and DNA cargoes, and have pleiotropic effects on both embryonic and maternal environments. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating this cross-talk will lead to the development of new regulating agents, with novel diagnostic, biological, and therapeutic potential for either supporting or hindering the normal reproductive functions. Keywords: embryo, endometrium, placenta, mRNA, miRNA

  3. Could Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) become established in California tree holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, J O; Hartmann, E U

    1992-11-01

    The ability of temperate zone-adapted Aedes albopictus (Skuse) to survive and complete development in California tree holes was evaluated in laboratory experiments that assessed development under simulated wet-season conditions, larval competition with Aedes sierrensis at different food levels, temporal survivorship of eggs stored under different humidities and temperatures, and suitability of larvae as hosts for the indigenous parasite Lambornella clarki. At all resource levels, Ae. albopictus completed development at temperatures similar to those in natural tree hole water in spring and early summer (> or = 16 degrees C), but not those during the rainy winter months (4-11 degrees C). In competition studies at 21 degrees C, the population performance (i.e., survivorship, pupation time, and adult size) of Ae. albopictus at all resource levels was as good or better when larvae developed with Ae. sierrensis compared with when reared with only conspecifics. Egg survivorship declined with increased storage time, increased temperature, and decreased humidity; > 55% of eggs hatched following 24-wk storage at 11 degrees C with relative humidities > 78%. In host suitability tests, parasitic theronts of L. clarki consistently attacked Ae. albopictus larvae at rates significantly lower than Ae. sierrensis. L. clarki that successfully invaded Ae. albopictus larvae failed to multiply and kill their hosts; thus, Ae. albopictus is not a suitable host for L. clarki. The protracted drying of most tree holes and low water temperatures during the rainy season will hinder but not preclude establishment of Ae. albopictus in California. PMID:1460642

  4. Effects of diapause and cold acclimation on egg ultrastructure: new insights into the cold hardiness mechanisms of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreß, Aljoscha; Kuch, Ulrich; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, SKUSE), is an important threat to public health due to its rapid spread and its potential as a vector. The eggs of Ae. albopictus are the most cold resistant life stage and thus, the cold hardiness of eggs is used to predict the future occurrence of the species in distribution models. However, the mechanism of cold hardiness has yet to be revealed. To address this question, we analyzed the layers of diapausing and cold acclimatized eggs of a temperate population of Ae. albopictus in a full factorial test design using transmission electron microscopy. We reviewed the hypotheses that a thickened wax layer or chorion is the cause of cold hardiness but found no evidence. As a result of the induced diapause, the thickness of the dark endochorion as a layer of high electron density and thus an assumed location for waxes was decreasing. We therefore hypothesized a qualitative alteration of the wax layer due to compaction. Cold acclimation was causing an increase in the thickness of the middle serosa cuticle indicating a detachment of serosa membrane from the endochorion as a potential adaptation strategy to isolate inoculating ice formations in the inter-membranous space. PMID:27232137

  5. Differential responses of the mosquito Aedes albopictus from the Indian Ocean region to two chikungunya isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Failloux Anna-Bella

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV. The two Aedes species co-exist in the Indian Ocean region and were involved in the 2005-2006 CHIKV outbreaks. In the Reunion Island, a single mutation in the viral envelope has been selected that leads to high levels of replication in Ae. albopictus, and a short extrinsic incubation period as the virus could be found in saliva as early as two days after infection. An important question is whether this variant is associated with adverse effects impacting some mosquito life-history traits such as survival and reproduction. Results We performed experimental infections using three mosquito strains of Ae. aegypti Mayotte and Ae. albopictus (Mayotte and Reunion, and two CHIKV strains (E1-226A and E1-226V. Ae. aegypti Mayotte were similarly susceptible to both viral strains, whereas Ae. albopictus Mayotte and Ae. albopictus Reunion were more susceptible to CHIKV E1-226V than to E1-226A. In terms of life-history traits measured by examining mosquito survival and reproduction, we found that: (1 differences were observed between responses of mosquito species to the two viruses, (2 CHIKV infection only affected significantly some life-history traits of Ae. albopictus Reunion and not of the other two mosquito strains, and (3 CHIKV reduced the lifespan of Ae. albopictus Reunion and shortened the time before egg laying. Conclusion We demonstrated that CHIKV only reduces the survival of Ae. albopictus from the Reunion Island. By laying eggs just before death, reproduction of Ae. albopictus from the Reunion Island is not reduced since other parameters characterizing oviposition and hatching were not affected.

  6. The native Wolbachia symbionts limit transmission of dengue virus in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mousson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chikungunya (CHIK outbreak that struck La Reunion Island in 2005 was preceded by few human cases of Dengue (DEN, but which surprisingly did not lead to an epidemic as might have been expected in a non-immune population. Both arboviral diseases are transmitted to humans by two main mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In the absence of the former, Ae. albopictus was the only species responsible for viral transmission on La Reunion Island. This mosquito is naturally super-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. While Wolbachia does not affect replication of CHIK virus (CHIKV in Ae. albopictus, a similar effect was not observed with DEN virus (DENV. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the weak vectorial status of Ae. albopictus towards DENV, we used experimental oral infections of mosquitoes from La Reunion Island to characterize the impact of Wolbachia on DENV infection. Viral loads and Wolbachia densities were measured by quantitative PCR in different organs of Ae. albopictus where DENV replication takes place after ingestion. We found that: (i Wolbachia does not affect viral replication, (ii Wolbachia restricts viral density in salivary glands, and (iii Wolbachia limits transmission of DENV, as infectious viral particles were only detected in the saliva of Wolbachia-uninfected Ae. albopictus, 14 days after the infectious blood-meal. CONCLUSIONS: We show that Wolbachia does not affect the replication of DENV in Ae. albopictus. However, Wolbachia is able to reduce viral infection of salivary glands and limit transmission, suggesting a role of Wolbachia in naturally restricting the transmission of DENV in Ae. albopictus from La Reunion Island. The extension of this conclusion to other Ae. albopictus populations should be investigated.

  7. POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS OF PRODUCTION VARIABILITY ON AGRIBUSINESS: THE CASE OF COTTON GINNING IN MISSISSIPPI

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Shawn; Hudson, Darren

    1999-01-01

    Cotton ginning represents an agribusiness that is heavily dependent on production agriculture. Recent changes in farm legislation and other government policies may have a long run impact on the variability of cotton production. This paper examines the potential impacts of increased production variability on the cotton ginning industry in Mississippi. A programming model is used to derive the optimal structure of the ginning industry under certainty. Potential implications of production variab...

  8. Occurrence of a mosquito vector in bird houses: Developmental consequences and potential epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Rahimah Binti; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Ghani, Idris Abd; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Hamdan; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Hashim, Nur Aida; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Kassim, Nur Faeza Abu; Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Selvarajoo, Rekha; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Ajibola, Olaide Olawunmi; Tuen, Andrew Alek

    2015-05-01

    Even with continuous vector control, dengue is still a growing threat to public health in Southeast Asia. Main causes comprise difficulties in identifying productive breeding sites and inappropriate targeted chemical interventions. In this region, rural families keep live birds in backyards and dengue mosquitoes have been reported in containers in the cages. To focus on this particular breeding site, we examined the capacity of bird fecal matter (BFM) from the spotted dove, to support Aedes albopictus larval growth. The impact of BFM larval uptake on some adult fitness traits influencing vectorial capacity was also investigated. In serial bioassays involving a high and low larval density (HD and LD), BFM and larval standard food (LSF) affected differently larval development. At HD, development was longer in the BFM environment. There were no appreciable mortality differences between the two treatments, which resulted in similar pupation and adult emergence successes. BFM treatment produced a better gender balance. There were comparable levels of blood uptake and egg production in BFM and LSF females at LD; that was not the case for the HD one, which resulted in bigger adults. BFM and LSF females displayed equivalent lifespans; in males, this parameter was shorter in those derived from the BFM/LD treatment. Taken together these results suggest that bird defecations successfully support the development of Ae. albopictus. Due to their cryptic aspects, containers used to supply water to encaged birds may not have been targeted by chemical interventions. PMID:25617636

  9. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  10. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Marina; Endang Puji Astuti

    2012-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power prote...

  11. Detection of Wolbachia from field collected Aedes albopictus Skuse in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A Noor Afizah; Roziah, A.; Nazni, W.A.; Lee, H L

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a mean to augment the existing measures for controlling dengue vector. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia in novel vector control strategies, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. Many studies have only focused on the prevalence of Wolbachia in female Aedes albopictus with lack of attention on Wolbachia infection on the male Ae. albopictus which also affects the effective expression o...

  12. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gómez; Emilia Seccacini; Eduardo Zerba; Susana Licastro

    2011-01-01

    A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated i...

  13. Interspecific Larval Competition Between Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Armistead, J. S.; Arias, J. R.; Nishimura, N; Lounibos, L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) are two of the most recent and widespread invasive mosquito species to have become established in the United States. The two species co-occur in water-filled artificial containers, where crowding and limiting resources are likely to promote inter- or intraspecific larval competition. The performance of northern Virginia populations of Ae. japonicus and Ae. albopictus competing as larvae under field conditions was evaluated. Per capita ra...

  14. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Rizzo, Caterina; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel. PMID:27171034

  15. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L.; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures ...

  16. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  17. Temephos resistance in field Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) from Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Norma-Rashid, Y; Lardizabal, M L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-06-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus obtained from dengue endemic areas in Selangor, Malaysia were evaluated for their susceptibility to operational dosage of temephos (1 mg/L). Larval bioassays were carried out in accordance to modified WHO standard methods. Biochemical microassay of enzymes in Ae. albopictus was conducted to detect the emergence of insecticide resistance and to define the mechanisms involved in temephos resistance. The 50% mortality lethal time (LT50) for Ae. albopictus tested against temephos ranged between 58.65 to 112.50 minutes, with resistance ratio ranging from 0.75 - 1.45. This study addressed the fluctuation of time-related susceptibility status of Ae. albopictus towards insecticide. Significant difference on the weekly enzyme levels of non-specific esterases, mixed function oxidases and glutathione S-transferases was detected (p ≤ 0.05). No significant correlation was found between temephos resistance and enzyme activity (p > 0.05). Only glutathione S-transferases displayed high level of activity, indicating that Ae. albopictus may be resistant to other groups of insecticide. The insensitive acetylcholinesterase was detected in some field collected Ae. albopictus populations, indicating the possibility of emergence of carbamate or other organophosphate resistance in the field populations. Continuous resistance monitoring should be conducted regularly to confirm the efficacy of insecticides for dengue control. PMID:23959487

  18. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-07-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  19. TNT biotransformation potential of the clinical isolate of Salmonella typhimurium - potential ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litake Geetanjali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of fifty-six isolates screened three bacterial strains enriched with TNT either as sole source of nitrogen (for Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae or along with co-substrate (for Acinetobacter baumannii, have been carried out nitro group reduction under aerobic conditions. During studies, S. typhimurium found to have high potential (100% of 50 mg l-l in removal of TNT, than K. pneumoniae (70% of 20 mg l-l and A. baumannii (52% of 40 mg l-l, in presence of co-substrate. Therefore studies were focused on S. typhimurium, which had shown good growth, and protein contents, with disappearance of TNT, and concomitantly release of nitrite over the period of time. Removal of TNT was analyzed by HPLC, and nitrite liberation was consistently found coincided with TNT disappearance from the medium. As compared to earlier reports, 100% disappearance of TNT within 30 h by S. typhimurium is encouraging, and may indicate its potential in bioremediation of TNT. This is the first report on S. typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii for transformation of TNT with nitrite release into the medium.

  20. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Flooding: Implications for Transportation Infrastructure and Travel Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Heejun; Lafrenz, Martin; Jung, II-Won; Figliozzi, Miguell; Platman, Deena

    2009-01-01

    Climate change in the Pacific Northwest of America is likely to bring more frequent, heavier winter precipitation as temperature rises. These changes in precipitation patterns have significant implications in hydrology and socioeconomic sectors that could be affected by changes in hydrology. Transportation infrastructure and travel patterns are also vulnerable to potential changes in runoff regimes and stream geomorphology. The 2006 and 2007 winter storms resulted in massive flooding, causing...

  1. Economic Implications of a Potential Free Trade Agreement between India and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fukase, Emiko; Martin, Will

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of a potential free trade agreement between India and the United States. A series of simulations is conducted assuming 100 percent ad valorem equivalent tariff cuts for goods and 50 percent cuts for services. The overall impacts are likely to be positive for the United States and India. While gains from trade creation are offset by trade diversion on the import side, both countries appear to gain from improved access on the export side. The United...

  2. Twenty-eight years of Aedes albopictus in Brazil: a rationale to maintain active entomological and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Gabriel Menezes Pancetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aedes albopictus was first detected in Brazil in 1986. This mosquito species presents a major threat to public health because Brazilian populations have shown substantial vector competence for arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. METHODS: We updated the records of Ae. albopictus in several States of Brazil, focusing on areas in which its presence had been reported after 2002. RESULTS: Twenty-eight years after its arrival in Brazil, Ae. albopictus has been detected in 24 of 27 States. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid spread of this species and its high vector competence demonstrate the danger of Ae. albopictus in Brazil.

  3. Evidence of multiple inseminations in the field in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available Studies on the biology and mating behaviour of male mosquitoes are of major importance in a frame of a Sterile Insect Technique which could be used against mosquito vector species. Most particularly, the assumption of possible multiple inseminations in mosquito species must be investigated in order to optimize alternative mosquito control methods (Sterile Insect Techniques with genetically modified mosquitoes, cytoplasmic incompatibility, radiation…. The occurrence of multiple insemination events was investigated after 2 field samplings of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in La Reunion Island using microsatellite markers. Respectively, 14 and 13 females after the first and the second sampling laid eggs. Seven wild females out of the 27 laying females were found with a progeny involving more than one father. This result is important for the new alternative mosquito control methods and raises the importance of pre- and post-copulatory competition.

  4. Modelling the Dynamics of an Aedes albopictus Population

    CERN Document Server

    Basuki, Thomas Anung; Barbuti, Roberto; Maggiolo-Schettini, Andrea; Milazzo, Paolo; Rossi, Elisabetta; 10.4204/EPTCS.33.2

    2010-01-01

    We present a methodology for modelling population dynamics with formal means of computer science. This allows unambiguous description of systems and application of analysis tools such as simulators and model checkers. In particular, the dynamics of a population of Aedes albopictus (a species of mosquito) and its modelling with the Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (Stochastic CLS) are considered. The use of Stochastic CLS to model population dynamics requires an extension which allows environmental events (such as changes in the temperature and rainfalls) to be taken into account. A simulator for the constructed model is developed via translation into the specification language Maude, and used to compare the dynamics obtained from the model with real data.

  5. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC), double-infected (GUA) and uninfected (GT) female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA) populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression. PMID:26252474

  6. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC, double-infected (GUA and uninfected (GT female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression.

  7. On the excitation of action potentials by protons and its potential implications for cholinergic transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Fillafer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most conserved mechanisms for transmission of a nerve pulse across a synapse relies on acetylcholine. Ever since the Nobel-prize winning works of Dale and Loewi, it has been assumed that acetylcholine - subsequent to its action on a postsynaptic cell - is split into inactive by-products by acetylcholinesterase. Herein, this widespread assumption is falsified. Excitable cells (Chara australis internodes), which had previously been unresponsive to acetylcholine, became acetylcholine-sensitive in presence of acetylcholinesterase. The latter was evidenced by a striking difference in cell membrane depolarisation upon exposure to 10 mM intact acetylcholine (deltaV=-2plus/minus5 mV) and its hydrolysate respectively (deltaV=81plus/minus19 mV) for 60 sec. This pronounced depolarization, which also triggered action potentials, was clearly attributed to one of the hydrolysis products: acetic acid (deltaV=87plus/minus9 mV at pH 4.0; choline ineffective in range 1-10 mM). In agreement with our findings, numerou...

  8. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano Productivity of container-breeding Aedes albopictus in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  9. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D'Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  11. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy, which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are

  12. Climatic factors driving invasion of the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus into new areas of Trentino, northern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus, vector of several emerging diseases, is expanding into more northerly latitudes as well as into higher altitudes in northern Italy. Changes in the pattern of distribution of the tiger mosquito may affect the potential spread of infectious diseases transmitted by this species in Europe. Therefore, predicting suitable areas of future establishment and spread is essential for planning early prevention and control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the areas currently most suitable for the occurrence of the tiger mosquito in the Province of Trento, we combined field entomological observations with analyses of satellite temperature data (MODIS Land Surface Temperature: LST and human population data. We determine threshold conditions for the survival of overwintering eggs and for adult survival using both January mean temperatures and annual mean temperatures. We show that the 0°C LST threshold for January mean temperatures and the 11°C threshold for annual mean temperatures provide the best predictors for identifying the areas that could potentially support populations of this mosquito. In fact, human population density and distance to human settlements appear to be less important variables affecting mosquito distribution in this area. Finally, we evaluated the future establishment and spread of this species in relation to predicted climate warming by considering the A2 scenario for 2050 statistically downscaled at regional level in which winter and annual temperatures increase by 1.5 and 1°C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MODIS satellite LST data are useful for accurately predicting potential areas of tiger mosquito distribution and for revealing the range limits of this species in mountainous areas, predictions which could be extended to an European scale. We show that the observed trend of increasing temperatures due to climate change could facilitate further

  13. The CWKB approach to non-reflecting potential and cosmological implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Biswas; I Chowdhury

    2004-06-01

    We discuss the method of calculating the reflection coeffcient using complex trajectory WKB (CWKB) approximation to understand the non-reflecting nature of the potential $U(x) = -U_{0}= \\text{cosh}^{2}(x=a)$. We show that the repeated reflections between the turning points whose paths are in conformity with Bogolubov transformation technique are essential in obtaining the non-reflecting condition. We also discuss the implications of the results when applied to the particle production scenario. We use the CWKB technique developed by one of the authors (SB) to obtain the results which agree very well with those obtained by exact quantum mechanical calculations.

  14. Temperature Characterization of Different Urban Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in Central-Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallorani, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Carrieri, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Mascali Zeo, Silvia; Messeri, Gianni; Venturelli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species that has spread to many countries in temperate regions bordering the Mediterranean basin, where it is becoming a major public health concern. A good knowledge of the thermal features of the most productive breeding sites for Ae. albopictus is crucial for a better estimation of the mosquitoes' life cycle and developmental rates. In this article, we address the problem of predicting air temperature in three microhabitats common in urban and suburban areas and the air and water temperature inside an ordinary catch basin, which is considered the most productive breeding site for Ae. albopictus in Italy. Temperature differences were statistically proven between the three microhabitats and between the catch basin external and internal temperature. The impacts on the developmental rates for each life stage of Ae. albopictus were tested through a parametric function of the temperature, and the aquatic stages resulted as being the most affected using the specific temperature inside a typical catch basin instead of a generic air temperature. The impact of snow cover on the catch basin internal temperature, and consequently on the mortality of diapausing eggs, was also evaluated. These data can be useful to improve epidemiological models for a better prediction of Ae. albopictus seasonal and population dynamics in central-northern Italian urban areas. PMID:26314064

  15. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  16. Breeding sites of Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cruz Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aedes albopictus is a vector mosquito of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and other arboviruses that has been increasing its spread in Jesús Menéndez municipality, Las Tunas, during the last years.Objectives: to identify the breeding sites of the Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality.Methods: the houses were entirely inspected between January and December, 2014, in work cycles of 44 days according to planning. During the inspections all the available probable tanks for Aedes albopictus were checked and treated by the personnel in charge of the integrated management of vectors. In each visit all the water containers were checked, looking for larvae of this species. Samples were taken from each kind of container where there were larvae.Results: presence of Aedes albopictus was identified in 11 of the Popular Councils mainly in the three urban areas during the whole year. It was observed that the breeding places are diverse; the artificial tanks were the ones that prevailed.Conclusions: the variety of breeding places used by the Aedes albopictus was demonstrated in Jesús Menéndez municipality during every month of the year.

  17. Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Koderma, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Dua, V K

    2011-09-01

    Entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Koderma district of Jharkhand with a view to study the prevalence, distribution and stratification of areas for Aedes mosquito species. A total of 233 houses were covered during house to house larval and adult survey. Aedes breeding could be detected in 157 houses. In all, a total of 942 domestic water containers were searched, out of which 461 were found positive. The overall house index(HI) container index(CI) breteau index(B1) and pupal index(PI) were 67.38%, 48.94%, 197.85% and 79.4%, respectively. The survey revealed that Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse are well established in Koderma with most of the areas showing high adult and larval indices. The preventive strategy needs to be directed towards minimizing the breeding potential of Aedes and water management practice by individuals along with implementation of urban bye-laws as well as IEC activities to contain Aedes breeding in future. PMID:23781636

  18. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  19. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil Adults Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis behavior (Diptera: Culidae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis were found living together in the Pedrinhas Village, Southeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. This finding was a good opportunity to make observations about the mosquitoes' behavior. METHODS: From October 1996 to

  20. Sodium channel gene expression in mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (S.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A mosquito strain of Aerdes albopictus,HAmAalG0,from Huntsville,Alabama,USA,showed a normal susceptibility and low tolerance to permethrin and resmethrin (pyrethroid insecticides) compared to a susceptible Ikaken strain,even though these pyrethroid insecticides have been used in the field for a long period of time in Alabama.Recently,we treated HAmAalG0 in the laboratory with permethrin for five generations and detected no significant change in the level of resistance to permethrin in the selected mosquitoes,HAmAalG5,compared with the parental strain HAmAalG0. We then examined the allelic expression at the L-to-F kdr site of the sodium channel gene in the Aedes mosquitoes to address our hypothesis that the L-to-F kdr mutation was not present in HAmAalG0 and HAmAalG5 mosquitoes. We found that every tested individual in Ikaken,HAmAalG0,and HAmAalG5 populations expressed a codon of CTA at the L-to-F kdr site encoding Leu,strongly corresponding to their susceptibility to insecticides.

  1. Structure comparisons of Aedes albopictus densovirus with other parvoviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviridae is a family of the smallest viruses known with a wide variety of hosts. The capsid structure of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV) at 1.2-nm resolution was obtained by elec-tron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. Structure compari-sons between the C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses reveal that the degree of structural similarity be-tween C6/36 DNV and the human parvovirus B19 is higher than that between C6/36 DNV and other in-sect parvoviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons of structural and non-structural proteins also reveal higher levels of similarity between C6/36 DNV and parvovirus B19 than those between C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses. These findings indicate that C6/36 DNV is closely related to the human virus B19, and the former might evolve from the human species other than from other insect viruses.

  2. Structure comparisons of Aedes albopictus densovirus with other parvoviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG LingPeng; CHEN SenXiong; Z. H. ZHOU; ZHANG JingQiang

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviridae is a family of the smallest viruses known with a wide variety of hosts. The capsid structure of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV) at 1.2-nm resolution was obtained by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. Structure comparisons between the C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses reveal that the degree of structural similarity between C6/36 DNV and the human parvovirus B19 is higher than that between C6/36 DNV and other insect parvoviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons of structural and non-structural proteins also reveal higher levels of similarity between C6/36 DNV and parvovirus B19 than those between C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses. These findings indicate that C6/36 DNV is closely related to the human virus B19, and the former might evolve from the human species other than from other insect viruses.

  3. Avaliação preliminar de óleos essenciais de plantas como repelentes para Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae Preliminary evaluation of plant essential oils as repellents against Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S Bueno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais de plantas têm sido formulados de forma caseira ou colocados no mercado de forma artesanal para repelir mosquitos hematófagos. O presente trabalho avaliou o possível efeito repelente de alguns excipientes normalmente usados em formulações comerciais e de óleos essenciais de nove plantas, sobre fêmeas de Aedes albopictus. Os testes foram realizados em caixas contendo mosquitos, oferecendo-se uma área definida de dedos da mão tratados ou não. Exceto pelo creme Lanatte e os géis de carbopol, as substâncias excipientes avaliadas mostraram ação repelente. Apenas os óleos provenientes de citronela (5 e 10% resultaram em repelência expressiva, com índices médiosde proteção acimade 98%. Os resultados indicam que a metodologia empregada é adequada para a avaliação preliminar de produtos com potencial para a repelência de mosquitos.Plant essential oils have been domestically formulated or marketed as handcraft products to repel hematophagous mosquitoes. This work evaluated the possible repellent effect of both excipients normally used in commercial formulations and essential oils from nine plants against Aedes albopictus females. The assays were carried out in boxes containing mosquitoes, where a defined area of treated or non-treated fingers was offered. Except for Lanatte cream and carbopol gels, the evaluated excipients had repellent action. Only the oils from citronella (5 and 10% presented expressive repellent action, with mean protection indexes above 98%. The results indicate that the used methodology is appropriate for the preliminary evaluation of products with potential to repel mosquitoes.

  4. Primeira Ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) no Estado de Sergipe

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio César Santana; Catarina Dantas de Araujo; José Novaes; Maria da Glória Santos; Waltemir Santana

    2014-01-01

    O mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), vetor de várias arboviroses, foi registrado pela primeira vez no estado de Sergipe, Brasil, no município de Areia Branca, localizado no centro-leste, nas coordenadas 10°45'29”S e 37°18'45”W e a 36 km da capital Aracaju. A primeira larva de Ae. albopictus foi coletada na 32ª semana epidemiológica de 2011, no Povoado Terra Preta de Cima durante as atividades de Controle de Qualidade do Programa de Controle da Febre Amarela e da Dengue (PCFAD). Ma...

  5. Seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus in selected urban and suburban areas in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozilawati, H; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R

    2007-06-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918). PMID:17568381

  6. [The risk of urban yellow fever outbreaks in Brazil by dengue vectors. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, B; da Rosa, A P; Vasconcelos, P F

    1996-01-01

    Urban yellow fever (YF) epidemics have disappeared from Brazil since about 50 years, but a selvatic cycle still exist. In many States, cases are more or less numerous each year. Ae. aegypti was eradicated in 1954, re-appeared temporarily in 1967, and then definitively in 1976-1977. Ae. aegypti is a vector of yellow few (YF), but also of dengue, whose first cases were reported in 1982. Today, dengue is endemic in many regions. A second Flavivirus vector, Aedes albopictus is present since about ten years in some States, from which Säo Paulo. The analysis of the YF cases between 1972 and 1994 allowed us to determine the epidemiologic regions. In the first region, the endemic area, the YF virus is circulating "silently" among monkeys, and the emergence of human cases is rare. In the second region, the epidemic area, some epizootics occur in a more or less cyclic way, and human cases can be numerous. Nevertheless, these outbreaks are considered "selvatic" epidemics, as long as Ae. aegypti is not concerned. From the Amazonian region, the virus moves forward along the forest galleries of the Amazone tributaries, from North to South. Actually, dengue epidemics appear in quite all States, and reflect the geographical distribution of Ae. aegypti. Recently, Ae. aegypti was found in the southern part of the Pará State, in the Carajás region considered to be the source of the main YF epidemics. In another hand, Ae. albopictus is now increasing its distribution area, specially in the suburban zones. The ecology of this potential vector, which seems to have a great adaptative capacity, give this vector an intermediate position between the forest galleries, where the YF virus circulates, and the agglomerations infested with Ae. aegypti. Since a few years, the possibility of urban YF is threatening Brazil, it is more and more predictable and we must survey very carefully the epidemiological situation in some regions of the country. PMID:8924767

  7. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Hager

    Full Text Available In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  8. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses. PMID:24337544

  9. The aging diver: endothelial biochemistry and its potential implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji Ardestani, Simin; Buzzacott, Peter; Eftedal, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Divers are exposed to circulatory stress that directly affects the endothelial lining of blood vessels, and even asymptomatic dives are associated with inflammatory responses, microparticle release and endothelial dysfunction. As humans age, there is a relative increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, attributed in part to declining endothelial function. Whether extensive diving in the older diver increases the risk of disease as a result of accumulated circulatory stress or provides protection through processes of acclimatization remains an open question. We provide a brief review of current knowledge about the separate effects of diving and aging on the vascular endothelium in humans and rodents, and discuss the available data on their combined effects. The aim is to elucidate possible outcomes of the interplay between exogenous and endogenous stress factors for endothelial function and to question potential implications for cardiovascular health in the aging diver. PMID:26687310

  10. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection

  11. The obesity paradox in the elderly: potential mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Antigone; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sharma, Arya M; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the elderly has become a growing concern. Recent evidence indicates that in the elderly, obesity is paradoxically associated with a lower, not higher, mortality risk. Although obesity in the general adult population is associated with higher mortality, this relationship is unclear for persons of advanced age and has lead to great controversy regarding the relationship between obesity and mortality in the elderly, the definition of obesity in the elderly, and the need for its treatment in this population. This article examines the evidence on these controversial issues, explores potential explanations for these findings, discusses the clinical implications, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:19944265

  12. Improving understanding of chromatin regulatory proteins and potential implications for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Khan, Abdul Waheed; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-04-01

    Many epigenetic-based therapeutics, including drugs such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, are now used in the clinic or are undergoing advanced clinical trials. The study of chromatin-modifying proteins has benefited from the rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing methods, the organized efforts of major consortiums and by individual groups to profile human epigenomes in diverse tissues and cell types. However, while such initiatives have carefully characterized healthy human tissue, disease epigenomes and drug-epigenome interactions remain very poorly understood. Reviewed here is how high-throughput sequencing improves our understanding of chromatin regulator proteins and the potential implications for the study of human disease and drug development and discovery. PMID:26923902

  13. Potential health implications of water resources depletion and sewage discharges in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Pacemska-Atanasova, Tatjana; Olson, Larry W; Markovski, Jasmina; Mitev, Trajce

    2016-08-01

    Potential health implications of deficient sanitation infrastructure and reduced surface water flows due to climate change are examined in the case study of the Republic of Macedonia. Changes in surface water flows and wastewater discharges over the period 1955-2013 were analyzed to assess potential future surface water contamination trends. Simple model predictions indicated a decline in surface water hydrology over the last half century, which caused the surface waters in Macedonia to be frequently dominated by >50% of untreated sewage discharges. The surface water quality deterioration is further supported by an increasing trend in modeled biochemical oxygen demand trends, which correspond well with the scarce and intermittent water quality data that are available. Facilitated by the climate change trends, the increasing number of severe weather events is already triggering flooding of the sewage-dominated rivers into urban and non-urban areas. If efforts to develop a comprehensive sewage collection and treatment infrastructure are not implemented, such events have the potential to increase public health risks and cause epidemics, as in the 2015 case of a tularemia outbreak. PMID:27441863

  14. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuo Kobayashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan.

  15. Primeira Ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse no Estado de Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio César Santana

    2014-12-01

    Abstract. The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, a vector for several arboviral diseases, was recorded for the first time in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, in the municipality of Areia Branca, located in the central-eastern part of the state at the coordinates 10°45'29"S and 37°18'45"W and 36 km from the state capital, Aracaju. The first larva of Ae. albopictus was collected in the 32nd epidemiological week of 2011, in the settlement of Terra Preta de Cima and was identified systematically in the Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN-SE during quality control activities within the yellow fever and dengue control program (PCFAD. In the 50th epidemiological week of 2012, another larva of Ae. albopictus was found, this time in the settlement of Manilha de Baixo. In the neighboring municipality of Campo do Brito, three larvae and two pupae of Ae. Albopictus were found in the settlement of Garangau (10º44'55"S and 37º29'40"W, 28 km from the main center of the municipality. As in the abovementioned records, systematic identification was only made at a late stage, given that the samples from the 47th epidemiological week of 2012 arrived at LACEN/SE in January, 2013. This technical note serves alert public health managers to the importance of quality control for endemic disease control programs, with the aim of effecting rapid and efficient control and prevention measures for mosquito-borne diseases.

  16. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu g/c

  17. Population genetics of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions. PMID:27273325

  18. The biology and demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Nur Aida; Hamady Dieng; AT Nurita; MR Che Salmah; Fumio Miake; B Norasmah

    2011-01-01

    To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A.albopictus ) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages. Methods: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2). Results: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation. Conclusions: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

  19. The tale of two buckets and associated containers: impact on aedes albopictus oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species. Its oviposition behavior is the subject of several projects in our research unit. The main emphasis of this presentation is a study which utilizes two five gallon buckets, one heated and one with ambient temperature. The heat is provided by an aquarium hea...

  20. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  1. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwane Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 are the main vectors of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea and Gabon (Libreville. Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95 suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%. Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality. All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95 was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in

  2. The two-component model of memory development, and its potential implications for educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Myriam C; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Gerjets, Peter; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-02-15

    We recently introduced a two-component model of the mechanisms underlying age differences in memory functioning across the lifespan. According to this model, memory performance is based on associative and strategic components. The associative component is relatively mature by middle childhood, whereas the strategic component shows a maturational lag and continues to develop until young adulthood. Focusing on work from our own lab, we review studies from the domains of episodic and working memory informed by this model, and discuss their potential implications for educational settings. The episodic memory studies uncover the latent potential of the associative component in childhood by documenting children's ability to greatly improve their memory performance following mnemonic instruction and training. The studies on working memory also point to an immature strategic component in children whose operation is enhanced under supportive conditions. Educational settings may aim at fostering the interplay between associative and strategic components. We explore possible routes towards this goal by linking our findings to recent trends in research on instructional design. PMID:22682913

  3. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chuanping [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Gao Yun [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Fangbai, E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.c [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Lin Lanwen; Wu Changan [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-15

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg{sup -1} with the mean value of 129 mg kg{sup -1}. In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 mug L{sup -1} in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg{sup -1} for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg{sup -1} and 164 mug L{sup -1}, respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  4. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg-1 with the mean value of 129 mg kg-1. In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 μg L-1 in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg-1 for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg-1 and 164 μg L-1, respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  5. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides. PMID:26464387

  6. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Ahn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  7. Knockdown of cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 leads to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential: implication in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Saeed

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction including that caused by oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1, a cytosolic thiol disulfide oxido-reductase, reduces glutathionylated proteins to protein thiols and helps maintain redox status of proteins during oxidative stress. Grx1 downregulation aggravates mitochondrial dysfunction in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and motor neuron disease. We examined the mechanism underlying the regulation of mitochondrial function by Grx1. Downregulation of Grx1 by shRNA results in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, which is prevented by the thiol antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid, or by cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition. The thiol groups of voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC, an outer membrane protein in mitochondria but not adenosine nucleotide translocase (ANT, an inner membrane protein, are oxidized when Grx1 is downregulated. We then examined the effect of beta-N-oxalyl amino-L-alanine (L-BOAA, an excitatory amino acid implicated in neurolathyrism (a type of motor neuron disease, that causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Exposure of cells to L-BOAA resulted in loss of MMP, which was prevented by overexpression of Grx1. Grx1 expression is regulated by estrogen in the CNS and treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with estrogen upregulated Grx1 and protected from L-BOAA mediated MMP loss. Our studies demonstrate that Grx1, a cytosolic oxido-reductase, helps maintain mitochondrial integrity and prevents MMP loss caused by oxidative insult. Further, downregulation of Grx1 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction through oxidative modification of the outer membrane protein, VDAC, providing support for the critical role of Grx1 in maintenance of MMP.

  8. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States. PMID:22897041

  9. Validation of a new larval rearing unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae mass rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Balestrino

    Full Text Available The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895 mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms.

  10. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Mounted Cold Mist Spray of Permethrin and Tetramethylfluthrin Targeting Aedes albopictus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Dong, Yan-De; Zhou, Ming-Hao; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Chen, Hong-Na; Tian, Ye; Yang, Wei-Fang; Wu, Xiao-Qun; Chu, Hong-Liang; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in China. Although there are previous studies on the application of adulticides to control this species, the application methods have either been back-pack or vehicle-mounted systems. However, many sites are too large to be effectively treated with back-pack sprayers, and the lack of roads restricts the use of vehicle-mounted sprayers. This paper provides the first study of using unmanned aerial vehicles to conduct cold mist sprays on Ae. albopictus habitats. A spray containing 4% permethrin and 1% tetramethylfluthrin was applied at an effective application rate of 9.0 mg/m(2). This method reduced Ae. albopictus populations by more than 90%. The results indicate this novel spray system is a powerful method to achieve a rapid decline of mosquito population in Ae. albopictus habitats in China. PMID:27105218

  11. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fara Nantenaina Raharimalala; Beby Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre Herv Ravelonandro; Patrick Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using micro-reactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids. On adult mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested. The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  12. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bara, Jeffrey; Rapti, Zoi; Cáceres, Carla E.; Muturi, Ephantus J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions ...

  13. Radiation-induced bystander effect: The important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wideł

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the “bystander effect” or “radiation-induced bystander effect” (RIBE. This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy, but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not defi nitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effectmay have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation fi eld and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The

  14. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  15. The American Opioid Epidemic: Population Health Implications and Potential Solutions. Report from the National Stakeholder Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Janice L; Skoufalos, Alexis; Scranton, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The American Opioid Epidemic: Population Health Implications and Potential Solutions. Report from the National Stakeholder Panel Janice L. Clarke, RN, Alexis Skoufalos, EdD, and Richard Scranton, MD, MPH Editorial: David B. Nash, MD, MBA   S-1 Introduction   S-1 The Evolution of Opioid Use in the United States   S-2 Unintended Consequences of Postsurgical Pain Management   S-2 Pivotal Role of Postsurgical Prescribing Practices   S-3 • Population health and societal implications   S-4 The Case for Multimodal Pain Management for Surgical Patients   S-4 Optimizing Health Outcomes   S-4 • Emerging profile of opioids: pros and cons   S-5 • Planning for perioperative pain   S-5 • Minimizing risk of postsurgical overuse and misuse of opioids   S-5 Optimizing Economic Outcomes by Managing Pain Differently   S-6 Expert Panel Insights   S-7 Conclusion   S-7. PMID:26908092

  16. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason D. K.; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C.; Hellmann, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate MaxEnt models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. PCA analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species versus population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered.

  17. Trichinella spiralis, potential model nematode for epigenetics and its implication in metazoan parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eGAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of DNA methylation in the nematode T. spiralis may raise the possibility of using it as a potential model organism for epigenetic studies instead of C. elegans, which is deficient in this important epigenetic modification. In contrast to the free-living nematode C. elegans, T. spiralis is a parasitic worm that possesses a complicated life cycle and undergoes a complex developmental regulation of genes. We emphasise that the differential methylomes in the different life-history stages of T. spiralis can provide insight on how DNA methylation is triggered and regulated. In particular, we have demonstrated that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of its parasitism-related genes. Further computational analyses indicated that the regulatory machinery for DNA methylation can also be found in the T. spiralis genome. By a logical extension of this point, we speculate that comprehensively addressing the epigenetic machinery of T. spiralis may help to understand epigenetics in invertebrates. Furthermore, considering the implication of epigenetics in metazoan parasitism, using T. spiralis as an epigenetic model organism may further contribute to drug development against metazoan parasites.

  18. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  19. The unfolded protein response in retinal vascular diseases: implications and therapeutic potential beyond protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sarah X; Ma, Jacey H; Bhatta, Maulasri; Fliesler, Steven J; Wang, Joshua J

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Yet, retinal neovascularization is causally and dynamically associated with vasodegeneration, ischemia, and vascular remodeling in retinal tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of retinal neovascularization is an urgent unmet need for developing new treatments for these devastating diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a vital role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulation of angiogenesis, in part through coordinating the secretion of pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF, and modulating endothelial cell survival and activity. Herein, we summarize current research in the context of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR signaling in retinal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, highlighting potential implications of targeting these stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of retinal vascular diseases that result in visual deficits and blindness. PMID:25529848

  20. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  1. Simple Indices Provide Insight to Climate Attributes Delineating the Geographic Range of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Prior to Worldwide Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Motoyoshi; Armbruster, Peter; Tuno, Nobuko; Campos, Raúl; Eritja, Roger

    2015-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) has expanded its distribution worldwide during the past decades. Despite attempts to explain and predict its geographic occurrence, analyses of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the context of broad climatic regions (biomes) has not been performed. We analyzed climate conditions at its distribution sites in the range before the worldwide invasions (from the easternmost Hawaii through westernmost Madagascar) by using thermal and aridity-humidity indices descriptive of major biomes. A significant advantage of this approach is that it uses simple indices clearly related to the population dynamics of Ae. albopictus. Although Ae. albopictus has been regarded as a forest species preferring humid climate, in areas with significant human habitation, the distribution sites extended from the perhumid, rain forest zone to the semiarid, steppe zone. This pattern was common from the tropics through the temperate zone. Across the distribution range, there was no seasonal discordance between temperature and precipitation; at sites where winter prevents Ae. albopictus reproduction (monthly means10°C) under the Asian summer monsoon. Absence of the species in northern and eastern coastal Australia and eastern coastal Africa was not attributable solely to climate conditions. However, Asia west of the summer monsoon range was climatically unsuitable because of low precipitation throughout the year or in warm months favorable to reproduction (concentration of precipitation in winter). We hypothesized that Ae. albopictus originated in continental Asia under the monsoon climate with distinct dry seasons and hot, wet summer, enabling rapid population growth. PMID:26335471

  2. Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumot Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is being monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown. Findings According to data from the literature and our own observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007, either on the Cook Islands or on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga. Conclusions The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever.

  3. Evaluating spatial patterns of dioxins in sediments to aid determination of potential implications for marine reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanussen, S.; Gaus, C. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane (Australia); Limpus, C.J. [Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane (Australia); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Blanshard, W. [Sea World, Gold Coast (Australia); Connell, D. [School of Public Health, Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Recent investigations have identified elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) in marine sediments and wildlife of Queensland, Australia. While it has been demonstrated that the contamination is widespread and predominantly land-based, limited information exists on the pathways and fate of these compounds within the near-shore marine system. This environment supports unique and threatened species including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Adult green turtles are predominantly herbivorous, feeding on seagrass and algae. Apart from initial migration to feeding grounds (at {proportional_to}10 years of age) and intermittent migrations to breeding grounds (at {proportional_to}30-50 years and thereafter), green turtles remain and feed within relatively small home ranges. Long life-span (50 years or more), near-shore feeding grounds and highly specialized food requirements render green turtles potentially vulnerable to contaminant exposure. Recent studies have shown a relationship between PCDD/F concentrations found in herbivorous marine wildlife and concentrations in sediments of their habitats. Hence, the spatial evaluation of sediment PCDD/F distribution may assist the assessment of green turtle exposure and its potential implications. The present study provides baseline information on green turtle PCDD/F concentrations in Queensland, Australia and investigates exposure pathways. In addition, spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs in sediments from known green turtle feeding regions is assessed using geographic information systems. This represents the first stage of a large scale investigation into the exposure and sensitivity of marine reptiles to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to evaluate whether poor health status observed in some populations may be related to contaminant exposure.

  4. Tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a distinct aqueous spearmint extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Nieman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive function can decline during the aging process and significantly reduce quality of life. Although a number of interventions have been investigated for cognitive dysfunction, including antioxidants, this prominent health concern emphasizes a need to explore methods to support cognitive health later in the life span. An aqueous extract from a proprietary spearmint line has been developed which contains a number of antioxidant compounds, including rosmarinic acid, at levels that are higher than found in commercially-bred spearmint. Therefore, this pilot trial assessed the tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a proprietary spearmint extract in men and women with self-reported memory impairment. Methods: Subjects consumed 900 mg/day spearmint extract for 30 days. The sample population (N = 11 was 73% female and 27% male with a mean age of 58.7 ± 1.6 y. Tolerability parameters were assessed at baseline and end of treatment visits. Computerized cognitive function tests were completed and blood was drawn at pre- and post-dose (0.5 to 4 h timepoints during baseline and end of treatment visits. Subjective cognition was also assessed at end of treatment. Results: No serious adverse events or clinically relevant findings were observed in any tolerability parameters. Plasma vanillic, caffeic, and ferulic acid sulfates, rosmarinic acid, and methyl rosmarinic acid glucuronide were detected in plasma following acute administration of the spearmint extract. Computerized cognitive function scores improved in reasoning (P =0.023 and attention/concentration (P = 0.002 after 30 days of supplementation. After acute administration, subjects had improved attention/concentration in two tests at 2 (P = 0.042 and P = 0.025 and 4 h (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002. Conclusions: The results from this pilot trial suggest that the spearmint extract, which contains higher rosmarinic acid content relative to extracts from

  5. Encontro de Aedes albopictus no Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez é registrada a presença do Aedes (Stg albopictus no Estado do Pará, Brasil, em área urbana no município de Medicilândia distante cerca de 90 km de Altamira, onde foram capturados por meio de isca humana 42 exemplares de mosquitos adultos. Estes foram inoculados em C6/36 e em camundongos recém-nascidos na tentativa de isolamento viral, não tendo sido isolado nenhum vírus. A presença de Aedes albopictus em áreas da Amazônia onde circulam os vírus de dengue e de febre amarela é preocupante e representa um risco potencial desta espécie de mosquito se tornar infectada com tais vírus.

  6. Detection of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes albopictus in Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2012-10-01

    We detected Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection among wild populations of Aedes albopictus female specimens during the CHIKV outbreaks of 2009 and 2006 collected in different localities in Kerala State, India. The envelope 1 gene (E1) sequences of the virus isolate 2009 from the mosquito species showed close genetic relatedness (Kimura 2 Parameter genetic distance=0.0013) to CHIKV-positive isolates from human serum samples from the same area. E1 gene sequences from Ae. albopictus, as well as from human isolates, had the crucial non-synonymous C/T mutation at position 10670, leading to the A226V amino acid change. This natural inclination indicated the role of this mosquito species in the transmission of CHIKV during its recent outbreaks in Kerala State. PMID:22925018

  7. Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina species in the breeding containers of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniaraj, M; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Mariappan, T; Philip Samuel, P; Rajamannar, V

    2012-12-01

    The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food. PMID:23202612

  8. Role of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus during the 2011 dengue fever epidemics in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham; Thi; Kim; Lien; Vu; Trong; Duoc; Laurent; Gavotte; Emmanuel; Cornillot; Phan; Thi; Nga; Laurence; Briant; Roger; Frutos; Tran; Nhu; Duong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the human cases of dengue fever(DF) and investigate the Aedes mosquito species circulating during the Hanoi 2011 DF epidemics. Methods: 24 different outbreak points were recorded in 8 districts between August and December 2011. Results: 140 patients were hospitalized following dengue diagnostic with a predominance of males(59.3%) and the 15-34 age class. Only DENV-1(11.27%) and DENV-2(88.73%) serotypes were detected in human samples. Mosquito sampling performed in and around patients households revealed the predominance of Aedes aegypti(95.15%) versus Aedes albopictus(4.85%). There is a positive correlation between the population density of Aedes aegypti and the number of human cases and duration of outbreaks. Conclusions: This was not observed for Aedes albopictus. 3 pools of Aedes aegypti were positive with dengue virus, two with DENV-1 and one with DENV-2.

  9. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengduan; Xing, Dan; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is presented using traditional Sanger sequencing. Its mitogenome are 16,660 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding A + T rich region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition on heavy strand was as follows - A: 40.1%, G: 8.2%, C: 11.9%, T: 39.8% and the A + T content 79.9%. The results of phylogenetic analyzes showed that the Ae. albopictus has closed relationship with the family Culicidae and order Diptera. PMID:26114325

  10. Results of a survey to detect the mosquito Aedes albopictus in the French Riviera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauran, P; Marty, P; Izri, M A; Le Fichoux, Y

    1998-09-01

    A programme of surveillance was initiated in 1992, in the French Riviera, to detect a possible introduction of Aedes albopictus from Italy and to prevent nuisances caused by mosquitoes in the touristic localities of the Côte d'Azur. In five years, numerous mosquito breeding places have been located. Nine species have been collected: Anopheles claviger, An. plumbeus, Aedes geniculatus, Ae. vittatus, Culex hortensis, Cx. impudicus, Cx. pipiens, Culiseta fumipennis, Cs. longiareolata but no Ae. albopictus was found. Nuisances were mainly due to hypogean populations of Cx. pipiens. Breeding places in urban sites have been controlled or suppressed. The discovery of an important larval population of An. plumbeus in an urban area might further stress the importance of this species already suspected to transmit indigenous malaria in cities. PMID:10376290

  11. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  12. Resting and Energy Reserves of Aedes albopictus Collected in Common Landscaping Vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Dayana M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P.; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C.; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-01-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during Ju...

  13. Adaptation of the BG-Sentinel trap to capture male and female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, R.; Delatte, Hélène; Hue, T.; Dehecq, J. S.; Reiter, P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the remarkable spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout the world has drawn attention to this hitherto poorly studied species, particularly after its role in outbreaks of chikungunya fever in the western Indian Ocean and in Italy. Variants of sterile insect technique (SIT), including the release of transgenic males with a dominant lethal gene (RIDL), have been proposed in the search for new and innovative methods of control. Knowledge of male dispers...

  14. Proteomic profiling of a robust Wolbachia infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Witthuhn, Bruce A.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W.; FALLON, ANN M.

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis a widespread vertically transmitted intracellular bacterium, provides a tool for insect control through manipulation of host-microbe interactions. We report proteomic characterization of wStr, a Wolbachia strain associated with a strong cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype in its native host, Laodelphax striatellus. In the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 mosquito cell line, wStr maintains a robust, persistent infection. MS/MS analyses of gel bands revealed a protein “footprint” ...

  15. A RE-SURVEY OF AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN SABAH, MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Feffrey Hii Lu King

    2012-01-01

    Di Sabah, Malaysia telah diadakan survey nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus dari bulan Agustus s/d September 1974 dan Maret-April 1975. Survey dilakukan pada 5 daerah di Kudat. Pantai Barat, Pedalaman Sandahan danTawan dengan tujuan untuk melihat distribusi dan density dari kedua jenis nyamuk tsb. Hasil survey menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk A. aegypti telah menyebar pada hampir seluruh daerah pantai Sabah, dan ditemukan hampir pada sebagian besar kotal dan daerah pedesaan di banyak desa. Di ...

  16. The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanski, Jennifer M.; BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; Michaud, M. Robert; Denlinger, David L.; Armbruster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day...

  17. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mohiddin; Asmalia Md Lasim; Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two selected larvicides, temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) which are commonly used by Penang Health Department for vector control. Methods: The mosquito larvae were tested against two types of larvicides: (1) temephos (Abate®) with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L)...

  18. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pierrick Labbé; Cyrille Lebon; Mylène Weill; Riccardo Moretti; Francesca Marini; Louis Clément Gouagna; Maurizio Calvitti; Pablo Tortosa

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in seve...

  19. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007 : a new threat from Aedes albopictus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Grard, Gilda; Caron, Mélanie; Mombo, Illich Manfred; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Mboui Ondo, Statiana; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Paupy, Christophe; Leroy, Eric Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human se...

  20. COEXISTENCE, EXCLUSION, OR NEUTRALITY? A META-ANALYSIS OF COMPETITION BETWEEN AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND RESIDENT MOSQUITOES

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Competition experiments estimating the relative effects of inter- and intraspecific competition can help to resolve whether interspecific competition results in coexistence or exclusion. For mosquitoes, most such experiments have focused on invasive Aedes albopictus and its interactions with resident Aedes. A meta-analysis of such experiments tested whether the effect of interspecific competition is greater than, less than, or equal to that of intraspecific competition, and whether competitiv...

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Several Attractants and Spatial Repellents for the Mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an Olfactometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Further...

  2. Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene Sequence Analysis of Aedes Albopictus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nurul-Ain; Dom, Nazri Che; Ismail, Rodziah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Zaki, Afiq; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to establish polymorphic variation of the mitochondrial DNA encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene in Aedes albopictus isolated from 2 hot spot dengue-infested areas in the Subang Jaya District, Malaysia. A phylogenetic analysis was performed with the use of sequences obtained from USJ6 and Taman Subang Mas (TSM). Comparison of the local CO1 sequences with a laboratory strain (USM), alongside reference strains derived from the GenBank database revealed low genetic variation in terms of nucleotide differences and haplotype diversity. Four methods were used to construct a phylogenetic tree and illustrate the genetic relationship of the 37 Ae. albopictus populations based on the CO1 sequences, namely neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian method, which revealed a distinct relationship between isolates from USJ6 and TSM. Our findings provide new information regarding the genetic diversity among morphologically similar Ae. albopictus, which has not been reported to date. PMID:26675451

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijie Wang; Xiaobang Hu; Donghui Zhang; Jianhua Jiao; Yan Sun; Lei Ma; Changliang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the complete β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from C6/36 cells. Degenerate primers were designed based on the β-actin sequences of An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, Cx. pipiens pallens and D.melanogaster. By RT-PCR, the product was amplified, purified, cloned into the pGT vector and sequenced. The β-actin sequence was aligned and phylogenetically analyzed by the BLAST program and the CLUSTAL W program. Results: A sequence of 1132 bp including an open reading frame of 1131 bp was obtained (GenBank DQ657949). The deduced protein had 376 amino acids.Aligned to SWISS-PROT, it exhibited a high level of identity with β-actins from Anopheles, Drosophila and Culex at the amino acid sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ae. albopictus β-actin was much more homologous with invertebrate β-actin than with vertebrate β-actin. Conclusion: The gene may be used as the internal control in the experiments of Ae. albopictus.

  4. Preliminary evidences on SIT application against Aedes albopictus Skuse in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian Tiger Mosquito, has invaded several countries, during the last years, mainly due to the passive transportation in used tires. In Europe the species firstly arrived in Albany in 1979, then in Italy in 1990, in France in 1999 (Schaffner and Karch 1999), in Belgium in 2000, in Montenegro in 2001. Other countries have already been colonised or are under colonisation in Africa and the Americas. In Italy the colonisation process appears to be very quick mainly due to the passive transportation of adults inside vehicles, to be currently found in seven regions. In its original distribution, Ae. albopictus is known to be a very important vector of many arboviruses including yellow fever and dengue. Moreover it is also capable of transmitting indigenous arboviruses in newly colonised areas, as well as filariasis (Dirofilaria immitis Leidy and D. repens Railleiet and Henry) and other arboviruses like Sindbis, Chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley. Finally this species can also cause severe annoyance because of its anthropophily and painful bite. The species is mainly exploiting man-made containers showing an urban and periurban distribution. This 'island' distribution and the low active dispersal capability make it possible considering as convenient the application of SIT as a component of the IPM programmes already implemented. In 1999 we therefore started a project financed with local funds in order to investigate the feasibility of SIT application against Ae. albopictus in Italy

  5. Multiscale visualization of the structural and characteristic changes of sewage sludge biochar oriented towards potential agronomic and environmental implication

    OpenAIRE

    Jining Zhang; Fan Lü; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao; Dezhen Chen; Pinjing He

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge biochars were obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 900°C and their macro- and microscale properties were analyzed. The biochar's plant-available nutrients and humus-like substances in the water-extractable phase and fixed nutrients in the solid fraction were evaluated for their potential agronomic implications. FT-IR, Raman, XRD, XPS, and SEM techniques were used to investigate the chemical structure, functional groups, and microcrystal structure on the sur...

  6. Potential vulnerability implications of sea level rise for the coastal zones of Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    that coastal cities are facing now, implications of exacerbated pressures from the prospects of climate change and associated sea level rise will be of serious concern in future. Despite the magnitude and urgency of the issue, scientific understanding... of climate change and potential risks to coastal cities have not been fulfilled – though, since very long it has been recognized that these perspectives are required for a range of purposes. It is well known that the land areas adjacent to the shorelines...

  7. Potential implications of Helicobacter pylori-related neutrophil-activating protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jannis Kountouras; Ioannis Venizelos; Christos Zavos; Georgia Deretzi; Emmanuel Gavalas; Dimitrios Chatzopoulos; Panagiotis Katsinelos; Elena Tsiaousi; Stergios Gagalis; Stergios A Polyzos

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence factors promote the release of various chemoattractants/inflammatory mediators, including mainly the neutrophilattractant chemokine interleukin-8 and neutrophilactivating protein (NAP), involved in H. pylori-induced gastric pathologies. Co-administration of Chios mastic gum (CMG), which inhibits H. pylori NAP, with an H. pylori eradication regimen might add clinical benefits against H. pylori-related gastric pathologies, but possibly not CMG as main therapy. Although H. pylori NAP and other H. pylori-related cytotoxins [i.e., vaculating cytotoxin (VacA)] appear to play a major role in generating and maintaining the H. pylori-associated gastric inflammatory response and H. pylori NAP is a promising vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection (H. pylori-I), concerns regarding its potential drawbacks, particularly neurogenic ones, due to possible crossmimicry, should be considered. Possible cross-mimicry between H. pylori NAP and/or bacterial aquaporin (AQP) and neural tissues may be associated with the anti-AQP-4 antibody-related neural damage in multiple sclerosis (MS)/neuromyelitis optica patients. Moreover, the sequence homology found between H. pylori VacA and human Na+/K+-ATPase A subunit suggests that antibodies to VacA involve ion channels in abaxonal Schwann cell plasmalemma resulting in demyelination in some patients. A series of factors have been implicated in inducing blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, including inflammatory mediators (e.g., cytokines and chemokines induced by H. pylori-I) and oxidative stress. BBB disruption permits access of AQP4-specific antibodies and T lymphocytes to the central nervous system, thereby playing a major role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Relative studies show a strong association between H. pylori-I and MS. H. pylori-I induces humoral and cellular immune responses that, owing to the sharing of homologous epitopes (molecular mimicry), cross-react with components of

  8. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  9. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps

  10. Aedes albopictus in northeast Mexico: An update on adult distribution and first report of parasitism by Ascogregarina taiwanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Reyes-Villanueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aedes albopictus has been known as efficient vector of dengue in Asian countries and its wide displacement of Ae. aegypti has been documented in many parts of the world. The present survey was carried out to update the distribution of Ae. albopictus in northeast Mexico and to report the first record of parasitism of mosquitoes by Ascogregarina taiwanensis in Mexico. Methods: Human landing collections were conducted in the month of May every year between 2007 and 2009 across the three states, Nuevo Leon (NL, Tamaulipas and Coahuila in northeast Mexico. Six human bait collections were also organized at the cemetery of Gomez Farias (GF, a village in southern Tamaulipas during the rainy and dry seasons in 2010. Aedes albopictus caught in 2010 were dissected for parasitic protozoan gregarines. Results: The results of human landing collections carried out during 2007-10 across the three states of northeast zone of Mexico revealed that Ae. albopictus is invading along the route between Monterrey City in NL and Tampico, Tamaulipas, but not into the arid state of Coahuila. Aedes albopictus was recorded in nine new municipalities in addition to the 15 municipalities reported before 2005. Furthermore, six human-bait collections performed during the dry and rainy seasons in 2010 at the cemetery of GF suggest the exclusion of Ae. aegypti on that site. Dominance was shared by Ae. quadrivittatus, another container-inhabitant but indigenous species, and Ae. albopictus during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The results of dissection of the mosquitoes for gregarines revealed the parasitism of Ae. albopictus by A. taiwanensis. Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed that Ae. albopictus has spread to all the municipalities in the northeastern Mexico except the arid area and reported the first record of parasitic protozoan A. taiwanensis in Mexico. We recommend further studies on larval and adult populations of

  11. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  12. Seasonal variation and bioactivity of the essential oils of two Juniperus species against Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evergetis, E; Michaelakis, A; Papachristos, D P; Badieritakis, E; Kapsaski-Kanelli, V N; Haroutounian, S A

    2016-06-01

    The seasonal variation in respect to the yield and chemical composition of 24 essential oils (EOs) isolated from various parts (leaves and fruits) of two indigenous Greece Juniperus species (family Cupressaceae), namely Juniperus drupacea and Juniperus phoenica, were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) at one screening dose (29 mg L(-1)). Moreover, the repellent activity against adult mosquitoes was also evaluated at one screening dose. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic and to a lesser percent diterpenes. The EOs yield was sharply increased when the plant material was subjected to pre-treatment before steam distillation. Finally, the influence of plant material collection period on their yield and chemical content was also determined. Bioactivity assessments indicated that three EOs possess very potent larvicidal properties and 12 EOs display significant repellent activities since they were proved to be "DEET-like." Therefore, they represent an inexpensive source of natural mixtures of larvicidal and repellent mixture of natural compounds, with potentials for application for utilization in mosquito control schemes in order to prevent the expansion of viral infections. PMID:26911148

  13. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

  14. The propagation potential. An axonal response with implications for scalp-recorded EEG.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudell, A P; Fox, S E

    1991-01-01

    An electrophysiological response of axons, referred to as the "propagation potential," was investigated. The propagation potential is a sustained voltage that lasts as long as an action potential propagates between two widely spaced electrodes. The sign of the potential depends on the direction of action potential propagation. The electrode towards which the action potential is propagating is positive with respect to the electrode from which it is receding. For normal frog sciatic nerves the ...

  15. Long-Term Implications of Sustained Wind Power Growth in the United States: Potential Benefits and Secondary Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Lantz, Eric; Macknick, Jordan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev

    2016-10-01

    We model scenarios of the U.S. electric sector in which wind generation reaches 10% of end-use electricity demand in 2020, 20% in 2030, and 35% in 2050. As shown in a companion paper, achieving these penetration levels would have significant implications for the wind industry and the broader electric sector. Compared to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, under the primary scenario modeled, achieving these penetrations imposes an incremental cost to electricity consumers of less than 1% through 2030. These cost implications, however, should be balanced against the variety of environmental and social implications of such a scenario. Relative to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, our analysis shows that the high-penetration wind scenario yields potential greenhouse-gas benefits of $85-$1,230 billion in present-value terms, with a central estimate of $400 billion. Air-pollution-related health benefits are estimated at $52-$272 billion, while annual electric-sector water withdrawals and consumption are lower by 15% and 23% in 2050, respectively. We also find that a high-wind-energy future would have implications for the diversity and risk of energy supply, local economic development, and land use and related local impacts on communities and ecosystems; however, these additional impacts may not greatly affect aggregate social welfare owing to their nature, in part, as resource transfers.

  16. Indoor and outdoor airborne particles. An in vitro study on mutagenic potential and toxicological implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdt, van J.J.

    1988-01-01

    IntroductionAir pollution components are present as gases and as particulate matter. As particle deposition takes place in various parts of the respiratory system particulate matter may have other toxicological implications than gaseous pollutants, which all may penetrate in the low

  17. First molecular genotyping of A302S mutation in the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in Aedes albopictus from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Vinnie-Siow, W Y; Lim Y, A L; Tan, T K; Leong, C S; Chen, C D; Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2015-09-01

    Given the lack of molecular evidence in altered target-site insecticide resistance mechanism in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) worldwide, the present study aims to detect the presence of A302S mutation in the gene encoding the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor resistant to dieldrin (Rdl) in Ae. albopictus for the first time from its native range of South East Asia, namely Malaysia. World Health Organization (WHO) adult susceptibility bioassay indicated a relatively low level of dieldrin resistance (two-fold) in Ae. albopictus from Petaling Jaya, Selangor. However, PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing methods revealed the presence of the A302S mutation with the predomination of heterozygous genotype (40 out of 82 individuals), followed by the resistant genotype with 11 individuals. This study represents the first field evolved instance of A302S mutation in Malaysian insect species. PMID:26695218

  18. Indoor and outdoor airborne particles. An in vitro study on mutagenic potential and toxicological implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Houdt, van, R.

    1988-01-01

    IntroductionAir pollution components are present as gases and as particulate matter. As particle deposition takes place in various parts of the respiratory system particulate matter may have other toxicological implications than gaseous pollutants, which all may penetrate in the lower part of the respiratory tract. In addition, suspended particulate matter represents a group of pollutants of variable physical as well as chemical composition. Therefore airborne particulate matter cannot be reg...

  19. Changing Domesticity of Aedes aegypti in Northern Peninsular Malaysia: Reproductive Consequences and Potential Epidemiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings This yearlon...

  20. PERPETUAL FOREIGNER IN ONE’S OWN LAND: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR IDENTITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; SMALARZ, LAURA

    2011-01-01

    The perpetual foreigner stereotype posits that members of ethnic minorities will always be seen as the “other” in the White Anglo-Saxon dominant society of the United States (Devos & Banaji, 2005), which may have negative implications for them. The goal of the present research was to determine whether awareness of this perpetual foreigner stereotype predicts identity and psychological adjustment. We conducted a series of studies with 231 Asian Americans and 211 Latino/as (Study 1), 89 African...

  1. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  2. Diversidade de criadouros e tipos de imóveis freqüentados por Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti Diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei C da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a diversidade de criadouros e tipos de imóveis freqüentados por fêmeas de Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado nos anos de 2002 e 2003 no bairro de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Realizou-se pesquisa larvária em diferentes tipos de imóveis. As larvas encontradas foram identificadas em laboratório. A freqüência de larvas dessas duas espécies foi computada nos diversos criadouros disponíveis. Foram calculados os índices de infestação predial e de Breteau, as diferenças foram testadas pelo qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Os tipos de imóveis positivos para os aedinos foram: residências (83,9% do total; igrejas, escolas, clubes (6,8%; terrenos baldios (6,4%; e comércios (2,8%. Das 9.153 larvas, 12,0% eram de Aedes albopictus e 88,0% de Aedes aegypti. Para aquela espécie, os recipientes onde foram mais encontradas foram ralos (25,4%, latas, garrafas, vasilhames (23,9% e vasos com plantas (16,2%. Aedes aegypti mostrou-se mais freqüente nos criadouros que Aedes albopictus (chi2=145,067, pOBJECTIVE: To assess the diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where females of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found. METHODS: A study was carried out in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southern Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Larvae in different types of buildings were investigated, and immature forms found were then sent to the laboratory for identification. The larval frequency for both mosquitoes was estimated in the oviposition containers available. The Breteau index and the building infestation index were calculated and differences were tested using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: The types of buildings that were positive for Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were: dwellings (83.9%; churches, schools, clubs (6.8%; vacant land (6.4%; and businesses (2.8%. Of 9,153 larvae collected, 12.0% were Aedes albopictus and 88.0% were Aedes aegypti. Aedes albopictus were mostly found in drains

  3. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  4. The Wolbachia WO bacteriophage proteome in the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 cell line: evidence for lytic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Markowski, Todd W; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in insects, manipulates host reproduction to maximize invasion of uninfected insect populations. Modification of host population structure has potential applications for control of pest species, particularly if Wolbachia can be maintained, manipulated, and genetically engineered in vitro. Although Wolbachia maintains an obligate mutualism with genome stability in nematodes, arthropods can be co-infected with distinct Wolbachia strains, and horizontal gene transfer between strains is potentially mediated by WO phages encoded within Wolbachia genomes. Proteomic analysis of a robust, persistent infection of a mosquito cell line with wStr from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, revealed expression of a full array of WO phage genes, as well as nine of ten non-phage genes that occur between two distinct clusters of WOMelB genes in the genome of wMel, which infects Drosophila melanogaster. These non-phage genes encode potential host-adaptive proteins and are expressed in wStr at higher levels than phage structural proteins. A subset of seven of the non-phage genes is flanked by highly conserved non-coding sequences, including a putative promoter element, that are not present in a syntenically arranged array of homologs in plasmids from three tick-associated Rickettsia spp. These studies expand our understanding of wStr in a host cell line derived from the mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and provide a basis for investigating conditions that favor the lytic phase of the WO phage life cycle and recovery of infectious phage particles. PMID:26427709

  5. Repellent Activity of Bitter Almond Oil Against Aedes albopictus%苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉花; 赵忠; 江志利; 魏丽萍; 郭婵娟; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    采用个体涂肤有效保护时间试验研究了苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避活性.结果表明,含HCN和去除HCN的苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊都具有很强的驱避活性,涂药8h后,2种苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避率均在96.76%以上,作为对照的隆力奇花露水的驱避率为58.28%.另外,2种精油对人体的有效保护时间分别为6h和7h,高于隆力奇花露水4h.可见苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊具有很强的驱避效果,且其有效保护时间高于隆力奇花露水,因而有望开发成为新型的蚊虫驱避剂.%The repellent activity of bitter almond oil with and without HCN and toilet water (with the main component of DEET) against Aedes albopictus were studied with human body. The results showed that both of bitter almond oils had strong repellent activity against A. Albopictus, after 8 h the repellent rate of bitter almond oil with and without HCN was 96. 76% while the repellent rate of toilet water was 58. 28%. The available protective time of two types of bitter almond oil was 6 h and 7 h, respectively, higher than that of toilet water, indicating the potential of bitter almond oil to be developed as a new mosquito repellent agent.

  6. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata(Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lala; Harivelo; Raveloson; Ravaomanarivo; Herisolo; Andrianiaina; Razafindraleva; Fara; Nantenaina; Raharimalala; Beby; Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre; Herv; Ravelonandro; Patrick; Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds.Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP techniques.Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar.WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes.Results:Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties.CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids.On adult mosquitoes,significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin,an insecticide used as reference.Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested.The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1%to 5%for adults and 0.5%to 1%for larvae.Conclusions:The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly,practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  7. The Emission Reduction Potential of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in China and its Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Delin; Cai, Songfeng; Wang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Using the improved Energy-Environmental Version of the GTAP Model (GTAP-E) and the sixth version of emission database of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, we simulate the emission reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in China and its policy implications. The results show that at present, China is a country with the greatest emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the world, and the emission will account for about 20% of the world's total emission in 2020. The proportion of emission of non-...

  8. Technology transfer in medical information systems. The potential for "groupware" and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, R A

    1993-01-01

    The practice of medicine is intrinsically a cooperative activity, involving not only a number of individuals but requiring access to a wide variety of types of data, produced and maintained by different people. Achieving seamless, integrated access to these data requires a new infrastructure of information systems that supports the construction of applications designed to incorporate and use external information resources. The term groupware may be used to connote this collective set of information resources and tools for access to them. Groupware will generate a variety of new kinds of products and services with implications for medical libraries, electronic publishing, and academic and professional collaboration. PMID:8340198

  9. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi S; Wang, Yi; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9%) and fully embryonated (74.7%) eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days) compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days). The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations. PMID:26090954

  10. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  11. miRNA genes of an invasive vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Gu

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a vector of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, is a robust invasive species in both tropical and temperate environments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression and biological processes including embryonic development, innate immunity and infection. While a number of miRNAs have been discovered in some mosquitoes, no comprehensive effort has been made to characterize them from different developmental stages from a single species. Systematic analysis of miRNAs in Ae. albopictus will improve our understanding of its basic biology and inform novel strategies to prevent virus transmission. Between 10-14 million Illumina sequencing reads per sample were obtained from embryos, larvae, pupae, adult males, sugar-fed and blood-fed adult females. A total of 119 miRNA genes represented by 215 miRNA or miRNA star (miRNA* sequences were identified, 15 of which are novel. Eleven, two, and two of the newly-discovered miRNA genes appear specific to Aedes, Culicinae, and Culicidae, respectively. A number of miRNAs accumulate predominantly in one or two developmental stages and the large number that showed differences in abundance following a blood meal likely are important in blood-induced mosquito biology. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of the targets of all Ae. albopictus miRNAs provides a useful starting point for the study of their functions in mosquitoes. This study is the first systematic analysis of miRNAs based on deep-sequencing of small RNA samples of all developmental stages of a mosquito species. A number of miRNAs are related to specific physiological states, most notably, pre- and post-blood feeding. The distribution of lineage-specific miRNAs is consistent with mosquito phylogeny and the presence of a number of Aedes-specific miRNAs likely reflects the divergence between the Aedes and Culex genera.

  12. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Chouin-Carneiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe, North America (southern United States, South America (Brazil, French Guiana for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia.Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132. Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28° ± 1 °C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi. Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen, heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level.This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

  13. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak. PMID:26938868

  14. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  15. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Duncombe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF. Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. and Ae. (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines.

  16. The OPTN Deceased Donor Potential Study: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, D K; Edwards, L B; Stewart, D E; Glazier, A K; Orlowski, J P; Berg, C L

    2016-06-01

    The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Deceased Donor Potential Study, funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, characterized the current pool of potential deceased donors and estimated changes through 2020. The goal was to inform policy development and suggest practice changes designed to increase the number of donors and organ transplants. Donor estimates used filtering methodologies applied to datasets from the OPTN, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and used these estimates with the number of actual donors to estimate the potential donor pool through 2020. Projected growth of the donor pool was 0.5% per year through 2020. Potential donor estimates suggested unrealized donor potential across all demographic groups, with the most significant unrealized potential (70%) in the 50-75-year-old age group and potential Donation after Circulatory Death (DCD) donors. Actual transplants that may be realized from potential donors in these categories are constrained by confounding medical comorbidities not identified in administrative databases and by limiting utilization practices for organs from DCD donors. Policy, regulatory, and practice changes encouraging organ procurement and transplantation of a broader population of potential donors may be required to increase transplant numbers in the United States. PMID:26813036

  17. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, S.; DSF Abang Kamarudin; Othman, H

    2008-01-01

    Background: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory.Methods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse) in the laboratory.Results: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. T...

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Replication and Tropisms of Dengue Virus Type 2 in Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Meichun; Zheng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yu; Gan, Ming; He, Ai; Li, Zhuoya; Liu, Jing; Zhan, Ximei

    2010-01-01

    Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) RNA replication profiles and tropisms were studied by using quantitative RT-PCR (q-RTPCR) in intrathoracically infected Aedes albopictus. The virus RNA replication profiles were diverse in mosquito organs. In fat body, brain, salivary gland, and malpighian tubes, it peaked at 8, 23, 23, and 27 days post-infection, respectively, and then, all declined. In midgut, it increased all the time and had no trend of decline. In ovary, it had no apparent increase. Subse...

  19. Biology and Role of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) 1894 as Vector of Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Boesri

    2011-01-01

    Behavior of the mosquito Aedes albopictus is generally res ting outside the home with the brood in a natural or artificial containers protected from sunlight. Human biting activity between the hours of9:00 to 11:00 and between the hours of 17:00 to 18:00 inside and outside the home. The period of rest after sucking the blood 4-5 days and is ready to lie. Habitat or the environment that most coveted of th is mosquito is a forest or gar­den with temperatures of 24-30 0 C. eggs hatch after 4-5 d...

  20. Inhibition of Mayaro virus replication by cerulenin in Aedes albopictus cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antibiotic cerulenin, an inhibitor of lipid synthesis, was shown to suppress Mayaro virus replication in Aedes albopictus cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Cerulenin blocked the incorporation of [3H]glycerol into lipids when present at anytime post infection. Cerulenin added at the beginning of infection inhibited the synthesis of virus proteins. However, when this antibiotic was added at later stages of infection, it had only a mild effect on the virus protein synthesis. The possibility that cerulenin acts by blocking an initial step in the Mayaro virus replication after virus entry and before late viral translation is discussed. (authors)

  1. Successional mosquito dynamics in surrogate treehole and ground-container habitats in the northeastern United States: where does Aedes albopictus fit in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B J; Sukhdeo, M V K

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the risk of larval displacement of the eastern treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus, and the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, during the establishment and successional stages of novel larval mosquito treehole and ground-container habitats in the state of New Jersey, U.S.A. Culex pipiens and Culex restuans were the first mosquito species to colonize ground-container habitats and were the dominant larval species throughout the study period, whereas Ae. albopictus was late to colonize ground habitats and accounted for less than 15% of weekly larval collections once established. Ae. albopictus had a much stronger community presence within treehole ovitraps; however, Ae. albopictus never reached the average larval densities of the expected primary colonizer, Ae. triseriatus. Throughout the study period, the weekly abundances of Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus were positively correlated and there were no significant differences between the abundances of each species. The larval dominance of Ae. triseriatus appears to be enhanced by the presence of Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, a large predatory mosquito species. When Tx. rut. septentrionalis was present, mature larvae (3(rd) -4(th) instar) of Ae. albopictus were also present in only 16.7% of collections, whereas mature larvae of Ae. triseriatus were collected concurrently with Tx. rut. septentrionalis in 53.8% of collections. These data suggest that Ae. triseriatus is at a greater risk of displacement by Ae. albopictus than are Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. PMID:23701622

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Attractive Self-Marking Ovitrap to Measure Dispersal and Determine Skip Oviposition in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Field Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kaufman, Phillip E; Tatem, Andrew J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding species with considerable public health importance. To date, Ae. albopictus oviposition behavior has been assessed in outdoor conditions, but only with laboratory-reared specimens. In outdoor large-cage and field studies, we used an attractive self-marking ovipositional device to assess Ae. albopictus skip oviposition behavior. In field studies, 37 wild Ae. albopictus that visited an attractive self-marking ovisite were subsequently captured at a sticky ovitrap within a 4-d period. Because the average Ae. albopictus gonotrophic period is 4.5-6 d, the wild-caught Ae. albopictus visited at least two oviposition sites within a single gonotrophic period. This provided field-based indirect evidence of skip oviposition. The mean distance traveled (MDT) during the 20-d evaluations ranged from 58 to 78 m. The maximum observed distance traveled was 149 m, which was the outer edge of our trapping ability. As populations of Ae. albopictus increased, the MDT during the 4- and 20-d post-marking period increased significantly. Additional observations of wild-marked and captured Aedes triseriatus (Say) are discussed. PMID:26534725

  3. India’s long-term growth potential and the implications for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ralston; Wilson Au-Yeung; Bill Brummitt

    2011-01-01

    After 20 years of economic reform this article discusses India’s long-term growth potential and canvasses some of the challenges that Indian policy makers will need to overcome to realise this potential. Some of the consequences of India’s growth for Australia are also explored.

  4. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: Implication for arrhythmogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Verkerk; H.M. den Ruijter; N. de Jonge; R. Coronel

    2009-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased pre

  5. Potential implications of the objectification of women's bodies for women's sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2009-03-01

    The present study tested a sociocultural model of women's sexual satisfaction grounded in Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). One hundred and one college women attending university in the UK completed measures of media internalization, body surveillance, body shame, sexual self-esteem, and sexual satisfaction. Consistent with predictions, the results of a path analysis indicated that greater internalization of appearance ideals from media sources leads to more body surveillance, which leads to higher body shame and lower sexual self-esteem, which, in turn, predicts less sexual satisfaction (only reached marginal significance for sexual self-esteem). In addition, body surveillance and body shame directly predicted sexual satisfaction. These results further implicate the sociocultural practices that objectify women in the disruption of women's experiences of sexual satisfaction. PMID:19233750

  6. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  7. Vectorial Capacity of Aedes aegypti : Effects of Temperature and Implications for Global Dengue Epidemic Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but mo...

  8. Atividade antropofílica de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em área sob controle e vigilância Anthropophilic activity of Aedes aegypti and of Aedes albopictus in area under control and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a atividade de hematofagia de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em área submetida ao controle e à vigilância entomológica. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de abril de 1993 a setembro de 1994, na cidade de Cosmópolis, Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se isca humana para coleta dos exemplares. Calculou-se o número médio mensal de fêmeas capturadas por domicílio segundo as áreas central e periférica do município e os locais intra e peridomiciliar. Apresenta-se o índice pluviométrico mensal sem ajuste de modelo. RESULTADOS: Observou-se a presença de fêmeas das espécies em 83% (Ae. albopictus e 61% (Ae. aegypti do período estudado. Os meses de janeiro, fevereiro e março apresentaram maior atividade de fêmeas para as duas espécies, com maior presença de Ae. albopictus do que de Ae. aegypti. Os exemplares foram capturados na área central e periférica da cidade, nos períodos matutino, das 9:00 às 12:00 e crepuscular vespertino, das 16:00 às 19:00. Com utilização de modelo de regressão de Poisson, observou-se que fêmeas de Ae. albopictus foram mais capturadas no peridomicílio, independente se área central ou periférica. CONCLUSÕES: Foi detectada diferença no perfil de atividade da hematofagia somente para o Ae. albopictus, sendo de relevância o peridomicílio.OBJECTIVE: To describe the hematophagous activity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in an area under control and surveillance. METHODS: The study was conducted during 18 months, from April, 1993 to October, 1994, in Cosmópolis, São Paulo state, Brazil. Human baits were used to collect mosquitoes. The number of females captured is presented monthly by area of the city and local in the household. The rainfall was measured and indices are presented without model adjustment. RESULTS: The presence of females of both species was observed in 83% (Ae albopictus and 61% (Ae. aegypti of the period studied. The months of January, February and March

  9. Measured basal water pressure variability of the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Implications for hydraulic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick J.; Harper, Joel T.; Humphrey, Neil F.; Meierbachtol, Toby W.

    2016-06-01

    The gradient of the hydraulic potential field at the ice-bedrock interface beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) dictates the routing and energetics of subglacial water, thereby influencing drainage system characteristics and sliding dynamics. In the ablation zone of the GrIS, variable water pressure due to an active subglacial drainage system and basal topography with high relief potentially interact to drive unknown spatial patterns and temporal changes in the hydraulic potential field. Here we present a suite of water pressure measurements collected in 13 boreholes along a 46 km transect on the western GrIS to investigate the role of spatial and temporal basal water pressure adjustments in hydraulic potential gradient dynamics. All borehole sites show pressures with similar seasonality, having relatively steady and high values during winter, variable and irregular behavior during spring and fall, and diurnal cycles that can persist for multiple weeks during the peak melt season. Despite much higher variability during the melt season, the median pressure of the summer period is nearly the same as the median pressure of the winter period. However, time variability of water pressure due to basal drainage processes can force changes in the magnitude and orientation of the hydraulic potential field over diurnal periods. We find that the basal water pressure across the transect generally mimics the ice thickness field but with superimposed large pressure gradients that develop at shorter scales within the basal drainage system. This leads to a complex hydraulic potential field across regions of similar ice thickness.

  10. Behavioral responses of two dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), to DUET TM and its components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultralow volume (ULV) droplets of DUET TM, prallethrin and sumithrin at a sublethal dose were applied to unfed (non bloodfed) and bloodfed female Aedes aegypti Linn. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a wind tunnel. Control spray droplets only contained inactive ingredients. Individual mosquitoes wer...

  11. Prevalence of Ascogregarina spp. in the container breeding Aedes albopictus from Chikungunya fever affected areas of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniaraj, M; Rajendran, R; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Samuel, P Philip

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of protozoan, Ascogregarina sp. had been determined in the container breeding mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus. Since, the cyst of Ascogregarina might play role in the maintenance of the Chik virus during silent period, the presence of Ascogregarina has gained importance in recent days. The prevalence was found to be 71.62. PMID:22471176

  12. Spatial and temporal heterogeneities of Aedes albopictus density in La Reunion Island: rise and weakness of entomological indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available Following the 2006 Chikungunya disease in La Reunion, questions were raised concerning the monitoring survey of Aedes albopictus populations and the entomological indexes used to evaluate population abundance. The objectives of the present study were to determine reliable productivity indexes using a quantitative method to improve entomological surveys and mosquito control measures on Aedes albopictus. Between 2007 and 2011, 4 intervention districts, 24 cities, 990 areas and over 850,000 houses were used to fulfil those objectives. Four indexes including the classical Stegomyia index (House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index plus an Infested Receptacle Index were studied in order to determine whether temporal (year, month, week and/or spatial (districts, cities, areas heterogeneities existed. Temporal variations have been observed with an increase of Ae. albopictus population density over the years, and a seasonality effect with a highest population during the hot and wet season. Spatial clustering was observed at several scales with an important autocorrelation at the area scale. Moreover, the combination among these results and the breeding site productivity obtained during these 5 years allowed us to propose recommendations to monitor Aedes albopictus by eliminating not the most finding sites but the most productive ones. As the other strategies failed in La Reunion, this new approach should should work better.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the response of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults, uninfected and infected with four serotypes of dengue virus, to a repellent containing 5% deet. The results showed that mosquitoes infected with the four serotypes of dengue respond i...

  14. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.

  15. Evaluation of DeltaGard® Ground Application Against Aedes albopictus in a Residential Area in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Lisa L; Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Farooq, Muhammad; Sallam, Mohamed F; Xue, Rui-De

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species that poses a health threat in many residential neighborhoods throughout Florida. Aedes albopictus is a high priority for mosquito control efforts in the state. The efficacy of DeltaGard(®) (AI 2% deltamethrin) application against Ae. albopictus was evaluated in a residential area in St. Augustine, FL. DeltaGard was applied using a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume aerosol generator along 3 streets in a residential neighborhood. Caged mosquito mortality and droplet density data were recorded. Leaf clippings from houses on treated streets were bioassayed against laboratory-reared Ae. albopictus. Overall, the DeltaGard application was found to be more effective in the front yard of the houses, resulting in 78.3% mortality in caged mosquitoes, 42 % mortality in leaf bioassays, and 50.5 nl/cc in spray density. Based on the amount of vegetation and residential barriers around the houses, the application caused only 46.3% mortality in caged mosquitoes, 7.5% mortality in leaf bioassays, and 5.4 nl/cc in spray density in the back yard sites. PMID:27280356

  16. Evaluation of a New Thermal Fog Machine for Control of Adult Aedes albopictus in a Large Enclosed Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De; Ren, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Testing of the PSO BASDKA-AC1200 multifunction ultrafine particle atomization machine, a thermal fog machine, with Aqualuer 20-20(®) (permethrin 20.6%, piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) was conducted against Aedes albopictus. The machine was set at a 40 sec maximum burst interval dispersing 36 ml of chemical with an average droplet volume of 50%. Female adult Ae. albopictus were placed into cylindrical paper cages and adhered to poles at 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 m from the center point of the machine. Control cages consisted of 1 cage placed at 5, 10, and 25 m. Control and treatment groups were left in the experiment area for 15 min. Initial knockdown after 15 min and 24 h mortality were documented. At 15 min post-treatment, Ae. albopictus displayed less than 50% knockdown. After 24 h, all treatment cages displayed greater than 90% mortality. Further bottle bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest chemical dose possible to achieve a lethal dose of 90%. A 1% dilution (10 ml Aqualuer 20-20 to 1,000 ml of polyether) of Aqualuer showed high mortality in the laboratory. However, after running 3 repetitions of a 1% dilution, there was no significant difference between the mortality of the mosquitoes at any of the distances 24 h post-treatment. This study indicates that the test machine would be an applicable and suitable machine for control of Ae. albopictus in enclosed spaces. PMID:27280358

  17. X-ray-induced sterility in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and male longevity following irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Parker, A G; Oliva, C F; Balestrino, F; Gilles, J R L

    2014-07-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses > 40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility. PMID:25118413

  18. A RE-SURVEY OF AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN SABAH, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feffrey Hii Lu King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Di Sabah, Malaysia telah diadakan survey nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus dari bulan Agustus s/d September 1974 dan Maret-April 1975. Survey dilakukan pada 5 daerah di Kudat. Pantai Barat, Pedalaman Sandahan danTawan dengan tujuan untuk melihat distribusi dan density dari kedua jenis nyamuk tsb. Hasil survey menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk A. aegypti telah menyebar pada hampir seluruh daerah pantai Sabah, dan ditemukan hampir pada sebagian besar kotal dan daerah pedesaan di banyak desa. Di bandingkan dengan hasil survey yang pernah dilakukan pada tahun 1970 oleh Ramalingam ternyata terdapat pertambahan 24 persen daerah A. aegypti, dari 58.7 persen daerah A. albopictus selama 4 tahun. A. aegypti sangat biasa terdapat di desa2 pantai sebelah timur, dan ditempat-tempat lainnya menunjukkan Breteau index yang tinggi. Diduga adanya perahu2 dan tempat2 penampungan air merupakan faktor yang penting dalam penyebaran nyamuk. Walaupun tidak terdapat epidemi dengue dan demam berdarah di Sabah, tetapi ada indikasi risiko trahsmissi yang besar di daerah2 dimana Breteau index lebih dari 50. Dari hasil survey ini strategi pemberantasan A. aegypti dapat dikembangkan untuk mencegah terjadinya epidemi dengue dan demam berdarah.

  19. Dose-dependent behavioral response of the mosquito Aedes albopictus to floral odorous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The value of using plant volatiles as attractants for trapping and spatial repellents to protect hosts against mosquitoes has been widely recognized. The current study characterized behavioral responses of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) to different concentrations, ranging from 6 to 96%, of several common floral odorous compounds, including linalool, geraniol, citronellal, eugenol, anisaldehyde, and citral, using a wind tunnel olfactometer system. The results indicated that female mosquitoes reacted differently to different concentrations of the tested compounds, and the reactions also were different when those chemicals were tested alone or in the presence of human host odor. When tested alone, anisaldehyde was attractive at all tested concentrations, eugenol was attractive only at concentrations of 48-96%, while citronellal, linalool, citral, and geraniol were attractive at lower concentrations and repellent at higher concentrations. When tested in the presence of a human host, all compounds except for anisaldehyde at all tested concentrations showed host-seeking inhibition to certain degrees. Based on the results, it was concluded that anisaldehyde was effective in attracting Ae. albopictus when used alone but could also remarkably inhibit the host-seeking ability at a concentration of 96%, while citral, geraniol, linalool, citronellal, and eugenol are suitable as spatial repellents. PMID:24779928

  20. Preliminary analysis of several attractants and spatial repellents for the mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an olfactometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Furthermore, 5-10 day old mosquitoes were relatively strongly attracted, with bloodsucking rate 75.8%. The random capture rate (entered trap in absence of odor) was less than 20% for the 20-40 tested insects. Capture rates and systematic errors increased as the number of testing insects increased. Wind speed affected the capture rate significantly, whereas variations in temperature between 25-28°C did not result in significant difference. The wind speed of 0.2 m/s exhibited a higher capture rate, which was significantly different from those at either 0.1 m/s or 0.4 m/s (P mosquitoes to successfully trace human odor or 1% of L-lactic acid in dichloromethane. The results of these two tests indicate that the L-lactic acid/dichloromethane mixture may be used as an effective attractant to evaluate the effect of possible spatial repellents on Ae. albopictus. PMID:23418948

  1. Biology and Role of Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894 as Vector of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of the mosquito Aedes albopictus is generally res ting outside the home with the brood in a natural or artificial containers protected from sunlight. Human biting activity between the hours of9:00 to 11:00 and between the hours of 17:00 to 18:00 inside and outside the home. The period of rest after sucking the blood 4-5 days and is ready to lie. Habitat or the environment that most coveted of th is mosquito is a forest or gar­den with temperatures of 24-30 0 C. eggs hatch after 4-5 days with a temperature of 24-30 0 C, the eggs usually form elus ters of 49-60 eggs Larvae and pupae usually found in contain­ers, pieces of bambo containing water. The period of the larvae to adults between 20-25 days. The spread of Ae albopictus mosquitoes from Africa, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thai­land, Malaysia, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and Indonesia. Role in disease transmission is a secondary vector or as the primary vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. On viral diseases that attack the nerves like encephalistis Japanese, Western or East­ern encephalistis, and Chikuguya has been demonstrated by laboratories, as well as on ani­mal diseases caused by Dirofilaria immitis agent, Plasmodium lophurae, P. gallinaceum, and P. fallax.

  2. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-11-15

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  3. An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Sara; Giliberti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present an educational path on the magnetic vector potential A addressed to undergraduate students and to pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampere-Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical referent, i. e. the conduction current. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows a clear and univocal physical determination of A overcoming the mathematical indeterminacy due to the gauge transformations. We have no need to fix a gauge, since for slowly varying time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, the natural gauge for A is the Coulomb one. We stress the difference between our approach and those usually presented in the literature. Finally, a physical interpretation of the magnetic vector potential is discussed and some examples of calculation of A are analysed.

  4. Implications of an assessment of potential organic contamination of ground water at an inactive uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws and regulations concerning remedial actions at inactive uranium mills explicitly recognize radiological and nonradiological hazards and may implicitly recognize the potential presence of hazardous wastes at these mill sites. Ground-water studies at the sites have placed an increasing emphasis on screening for priority pollutants. The Grand Junction, Colorado, mill site was deemed to have a high potential for the presence of organic compounds in ground water, and was chosen as a prototype for assessing the presence of organic compounds in ground water at inactive sites. Lessons learned from the assessment of organics at the Grand Junction site were used to develop a screening procedure for other inactive mill sites

  5. Changing domesticity of Aedes aegypti in northern peninsular Malaysia: reproductive consequences and potential epidemiological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman G M Saifur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors, the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence.

  6. Mupirocin resistance: clinical implications and potential alternatives for the eradication of MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovelikunnel, T; Gethin, G; Humphreys, H

    2015-10-01

    Mupirocin 2% ointment is used either alone or with skin antiseptics as part of a comprehensive MRSA decolonization strategy. Increased mupirocin use predisposes to mupirocin resistance, which is significantly associated with persistent MRSA carriage. Mupirocin resistance as high as 81% has been reported. There is a strong association between previous mupirocin exposure and both low-level and high-level mupirocin resistance. High-level mupirocin resistance (mupA carriage) is also linked to MDR. Among MRSA isolates, the presence of the qacA and/or qacB gene, encoding resistance to chlorhexidine, ranges from 65% to 91%, which, along with mupirocin resistance, is associated with failed decolonization. This is of significant concern for patient care and infection prevention and control strategies as both these agents are used concurrently for decolonization. Increasing bacterial resistance necessitates the discovery or development of new antimicrobial therapies. These include, for example, polyhexanide, lysostaphin, ethanol, omiganan pentahydrochloride, tea tree oil, probiotics, bacteriophages and honey. However, few of these have been evaluated fully or extensively tested in clinical trials and this is required to in part address the implications of mupirocin resistance. PMID:26142407

  7. Energy conservation potential in China’s petroleum refining industry: Evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A long-term equilibrium relationship of energy demand in China’s petroleum refining industry is established. • The sectoral energy conservation potential is evaluated by using scenarios analysis. • Energy prices, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure affect electricity intensity. • Future policy for energy conservation in China’s petroleum refining industry is suggested. - Abstract: China is currently the second largest petroleum refining country in the world due to rapid growth in recent years. Because the petroleum refining industry is energy-intensive, the rapid growth in petroleum refining and development caused massive energy consumption. China’s urbanization process will guarantee sustained growth of the industry for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to study the energy conservation potential of the petroleum industry. This paper estimates the energy conservation potential of the industry by applying a cointegration model to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption and some factors such as energy price, enterprise scale, R and D investment and ownership structure. The results show that R and D investment has the greatest reduction impact on energy intensity, and the growth of market participants (i.e. the decline of the share of state-owned companies) can improve energy efficiency of this industry. Under the advanced energy-saving scenario, the accumulated energy conservation potential will reach 230.18 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Finally, we provide some targeted policy recommendations for industrial energy conservation

  8. Neyman’s causal model with stochastic potential outcomes: implications for the completely randomized design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Scosyrev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Neyman’s causal model (NCM, each subject participating in a two-arm randomized trial has a pair of potential outcomes – one outcome would be observed under treatment and another under control. In the stochastic version of NCM the two potential outcomes are viewed as possibly non-degenerate random variables with finite expectations and variances. The subject-level treatment effect is the expected outcome under treatment minus that under control, and the average treatment effect is the arithmetic mean of the subject-level effects. In the present paper properties of the ordinary “difference of means” estimator and its associated variance estimator are examined in the completely randomized design with stochastic potential outcomes. Estimation theory is developed under randomization distribution without commitment to any particular probability model for enrollment, because in real trials subjects are not enrolled by a sampling mechanism with known selection probabilities. It is shown that in this theoretical framework, the “difference of means” estimator is asymptotically normal and consistent for the average treatment effect in the study cohort, while its associated variance estimator is conservative, producing confidence intervals with at least nominal asymptotic coverage. The proofs are not trivial because in the randomization framework sample means under treatment and control are correlated random variables. Keywords: Causality; Clinical Trials; Internal Validity; Neyman’s Causal Model; Randomization-Based Inference; Stochastic Potential Outcomes.

  9. Aedes albopictus (Skuse en la Región Huetar Atlántica de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón Arguedas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características de los hábitats larvales de Ae. albopictus y su culicidofauna asociada en la comunidad “La Primavera”. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta larval en 20 de 28 casas ubicadas en un área de 10 000 m², en la cual se evaluaron los entornos intra y peridomiciliares para la ubicación de posibles criaderos de mosquitos. El material entomológico se fijó en etanol al 70 % y se procesó para su análisis por microscopía de luz. Resultados: En 15 viviendas los criaderos de mosquitos resultaron positivos. En dichas viviendas se encontraron 48 criaderos, de los cuales 31,2 % estuvieron positivos por larvas o pupas de mosquitos. Se encontró Aedes albopictus en cinco criaderos en coexistencia con otras especies como Culex coronator, Haemagogus regalis y Limatus durhamii. También fueron observados Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex corniger, Culex interrogator, Trichoprosopon compressum y Aedes motoecopus. No se observó Aedes aegypti en la muestra. Discusión: Los resultados preliminares muestran que Ae. albopictus tiene gran afinidad por compartir el hábitat con otros culícidos en entornos rurales y semi-rurales, donde los criaderos se encuentran preferencialmente en el peridomicilio. La ausencia de Ae. aegypti podría reflejar algún grado de exclusión competitiva que genera Ae. albopictus sobre esta última. Queda pendiente determinar el papel que podría jugar Ae. albopictus en la transmisión local del dengue en la región.

  10. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A F; Crowhurst, J C

    2005-09-19

    Raman measurements of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) have been made under simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high static pressure. Measurements have been made on H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} to 50 GPa and 1600 K, and on N{sub 2} to 50 GPa and 2000 K. In all three materials the familiar molecular stretching mode (vibron) is accompanied in the high-temperature Raman spectra by one or more lower-frequency peaks due to transitions from excited vibrational states. We find that the frequency differences between these bands decreases with pressure, implying that the anharmonicity of the corresponding part of the intramolecular potential also decreases. This is accompanied by an increase in the measured linewidths of the bands that is consistent with a decrease of the depth of the potential and an approaching molecular dissociation.

  11. Potential environmental implications of nano-enabled medical applications: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Indrani; Clark, J; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Richard; Lead, Jamie R

    2013-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology and nanoscience for medical purposes is anticipated to make significant contributions to enhance human health in the coming decades. However, the possible future mass production and use of these medical innovations exhibiting novel and multifunctional properties will very likely lead to discharges into the environment giving rise to potentially new environmental hazards and risks. To date, the sources, the release form and environmental fate and exposure of nano-enabled medical products have not been investigated and little or no data exists, although there are a small number of currently approved medical applications and a number in clinical trials. This paper discusses the current technological and regulatory landscape and potential hazards and risks to the environment of nano-enabled medical products, data gaps and gives tentative suggestions relating to possible environmental hotspots. PMID:24592432

  12. Measuring the solar potential of a city and its implications on energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh; Ho, Anna; Sharp, Basil; Nair, Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the maximum potential energy that can be made available by efficiently installing PV systems on buildings throughout a city, from the central business district (CBD) out to low density suburbs. The purpose of this is to evaluate the contribution that electricity from PVs can make to reduce the electricity load of a city, supply the needs of a mixture of building types, reduce peak electricity demand and contribute towards the charging of electric vehicles (EVs). ...

  13. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-01-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are sh...

  14. Academic potential among African American adolescents in juvenile detention centers: Implications for reentry to school

    OpenAIRE

    Toldson, Ivory A.; Woodson, Kamilah M.; Braithwaite, Ronald; Holliday, Rhonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The study explores Black adolescent detainees academic potential and motivation to return to school to inform best practices and policies for juvenile reentry to educational settings. Adolescent detainees (N = 1,576) who were recruited from one male and one female youth detention facility, responded to surveys that assessed post-detention educational plans, as well as social and emotional characteristics, and criminal history. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare factors acro...

  15. Frugal Innovation in Scholarly and Social Discourse: An Assessment of Trends and Potential Societal Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Rajnish; Fischer, Luise; Kalogerakis, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The topic of frugal innovation is increasingly gaining relevance in social as well as scholarly discourse. Frugal innovations have been perceived by many to be a phenomenon generally confined to emerging economies where there are large groups of unserved consumers with unmet needs. But there is increasing evidence that this phenomenon is getting relevant also in the industrialized nations potentially affecting the long-term competitiveness of domestic firms not only overseas but also at home....

  16. Potential health implications for acid precipitation, corrosion, and metals contamination of drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1985-01-01

    Potential health effects of drinking water quality changes caused by acid precipitation are presented. Several different types of water supply are discussed and their roles in modifying acid rain impacts on drinking water are explained. Sources of metals contamination in surface water supplies are enumerated. The authors present some results from their research into acid rain impacts on roof-catchment cisterns, small surface water supplies, and lead mobilization in acid soils. A good correlat...

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hazrat Bilal; Waseem Akram; Soaib Ali-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars test...

  18. How to assess species richness along single environmental gradients? Implications of potential versus realized species distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches. - Highlights: • We compared three methods to derive species richness response curves from field data. • The methods quantified species richness of grasslands in relation to soil pH. • Potential species richness appeared most sensitive to acidification. • Differences in corresponding environmental quality standards for were small. • Background pH is more important in deriving the standards than the choice in method. - We compared three methods to derive field-based species sensitivity distributions (f-SSDs) from presence-absence data

  19. Host-Feeding Patterns of Native Culex pipiens and Invasive Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Urban Zones From Barcelona, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Eritja, Roger; Alcaide, Miguel;

    2011-01-01

    mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) represents an example of how an invasive species can alter the risk of viral transmission to humans. Blood meal molecular identiÞcation from two sympatric mosquito species (the invasive Ae. albopictus and the native Culex pipiens) was carried out by polymerase chain...... tropical viruses such as dengue and chikungunya. However, in the studied area, the presence of this invasive species would have a negligible effect on the transmission of zoonotic agents such as West Nile virus. However, Cx. pipiens could amplify and transmit West Nile virus, but avian contribution to its...... reaction-based methods. Samples were collected in Barcelona metropolitan area, Spain, from June to October 2009 as part of a monitoring-control program. Blood meals were identiÞed to the species level in 30 Ae. albopictus and 43 Cx. pipiens. Ae. albopictus acquired blood exclusively from human hosts (100...

  20. Underground autocatalytic-criticality potential and its implications to weapons fissile- material disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several options for weapons fissile-material disposition, such as once-through mixed- oxide (MOX) fuel in reactors or immobilisation in waste glass, would result in end products requiring geologic disposal. The criticality potential of the fissile end products containing U-235 and Pu-239 and the associated consequences in a geologic setting are important considerations for the final disposal of these materials. The possibility of underground criticality, and especially autocatalytic criticality, is affected by (1) groundwater leaking into a failed waste container, (2) preferential leaching of neutron absorbers or of fissile material from a failed container, and (3) preferential deposition of fissile material in the surrounding rock. Bowman and Venneri have pointed out that fissile material mixed with varying compositions of water and silica can undergo a nuclear chain reaction. Some configurations can become autocatalytically supercritical resulting in considerable energy release, terminated finally by disassembly. Some reviews rejected the Bowman and Venneri warning as implausible because of low probabilities of scenarios that could lead to such configurations. Sanchez et al. reported possible supercritical conditions in systems of Pu-SiO2-H2O and Pu-tuff-H2O but concluded that the probability of forming such combinations is extremely low. Kastenberg et al. studied the potential for autocatalytic criticality of plutonium or highly enriched uranium in the proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. They concluded that plutonium or uranium could, theoretically, become supercritical, but that such criticality is unlikely given the hydrology, geology and geochemistry of the Yucca Mountain site. These studies are not definitive. The possibility of criticality exists. Detailed mechanisms have not been sufficiently studied for clear conclusions on the probabilities of occurrence. More technical analysis is needed to understand the potential for underground autocatalytic

  1. Cretaceous carbonaceous rocks from the Norfolk Ridge system, Southwest Pacific : implications for regional petroleum potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late Cretaceous carbonaceous rocks have been dredged from two sites on the Norfolk Ridge system northwest of New Zealand. On the West Norfolk Ridge, Raukumara Series (Late Cenomanian to Late Coniacian, 95-86.5 Ma) coal measure sandstones and mudstones contain dispersed, immature (RO 0.37%), terrestrial (type III) organic matter and have poor petroleum generative potential (TOC 2.2-2.8%, S2 1.2-1.6 mg HC/g rock). However, the in situ coal measure sequence may contain abundant coal seams with excellent generative potential, and thus constitutes a potential source rock formation for the adjacent New Caledonia and Reinga basins that have thick sections of sediments. The coal measures probably formed in a coastal plain environment subjected to episodic marine incursions. At the second dredge site, near the junction of the Norfolk and Reinga ridges, a Late Piripauan to Early Haumurian (Santonian-Campanian, 85-75 Ma) marine shale contains sparse, mixed marine and terrestrial (type II/III) organic matter. Hopane and sterane parameters imply a maturity equivalent to at least 0.6% RO, but the analysed shale has poor generative potential (TOC 0.9%, S2 1.4 mg HC/g rock). Biomarkers suggest that the terrestrial contribution to bitumen in the shale is minor compared with the marine, but kinetic parameters are more consistent with a type III kerogen than the type II/III kerogen identified. A likely explanation of the discrepancy is that early oil generation has occurred in the sample, possibly associated with sulphur incorporated into the kerogen during diagenesis. In addition, a high saturated:aromatic hydrocarbon ratio suggests that mature bitumen may have migrated into the shale. Given greater TOC contents and sufficient volume, the shale could be a potential source rock within the Reinga Basin and Norfolk and Three Kings ridges. A simple thermal model at a pseudo-well site in the Reinga Basin shows that at depths >4.5km below seabed, potential source rocks with the kerogen

  2. Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti: effects of temperature and implications for global dengue epidemic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3°C when DTR was 0°C and at 20°C when DTR was 20°C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29°C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29°C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29°C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29°C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901-2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC. PMID:24603439

  3. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims. PMID:6511869

  4. Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in the UK-Potential Radiological Implications for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Government has identified up to eight locations for the construction of new nuclear power plants by 2025. Five of these locations are on the Irish Sea coast. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, RPII was requested by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government to undertake an assessment of the potential radiological impacts on Ireland from this New Build Programme. This report presents the findings of the potential impacts on Ireland of both the anticipated routine radioactive discharges and of a range of postulated nuclear accident scenarios. The following points are the principal findings of the report. Given the prevailing wind direction in Ireland, radioactive contamination in the air, either from routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants or accidental releases, will most often be transported away from Ireland. The routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants will have no measurable radiological impact on Ireland or the Irish marine environment. The severe accident scenarios assessed ranged in their estimated frequency of occurrance from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 33 million per year. The assessment used a weather pattern that maximised the transfer of radioactivity to Ireland. For the severe accident scenarios assessed, food controls or agriculture protective measures would generally be required in Ireland to reduce exposure of the population so as to mitigate potential long-term health effects. In the accident scenario with an estimated 1 in 33 million chance of occurring, short-term measures such as staying indoors would also be advised as a precautionary measure. In general, the accidents with higher potential impact on Ireland are the ones least likely to occur. Regardless of the radiological impact, any accident at the proposed nuclear power plants leading to an increase of radioactivity levels in Ireland would have a socio-economic impact on Ireland. A major accidental release of radioactivity to

  5. Seasonal variation in size estimates of Aedes albopictus population based on standard mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area on Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dehecq, J. S.; Fontenille, Didier; Dumont, Y.; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the sterile insect technique for area-wide vector control requires that natural population density be accurately estimated to determine both the appropriate time to treat and the adequate number of sterile males for release. Herein, we used mark-release-recapture (MRR) to derive seasonal abundance estimates of Aedes albopictus population sizes within a delimited geographical area in Reunion Island. Population size of Ae. albopictus was estimated through four mark-release...

  6. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    microspectroscopy (CLRM. Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members.

  7. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    microspectroscopy (CLRM). Quantitative chemical analysis of both fragments and available tissues was conducted employing ICP-MS. Results: Over 800 fragments have been characterized and included as part of the Joint Pathology Center Embedded Fragment Registry. Most fragments were obtained from penetrating wounds sustained to the extremities, particularly soft tissue injuries. The majority of the fragments were primarily composed of a single metal such as iron, copper, or aluminum with traces of antimony, titanium, uranium, and lead. One case demonstrated tungsten in both the fragment and the connected tissue, together with lead. Capsular tissue and fragments from a case from the 1991 Kuwait conflict showed evidence of uranium that was further characterized by uranium isotopic ratios analysis to contain depleted uranium. Conclusions: The present study provides a systematic approach for obtaining a full chemical characterization of retained embedded fragments. Given the vast number of combat casualties with retained fragments, it is expected that fragment analysis will have significant implications for the optimal short and long-term care of wounded service members. PMID:24464236

  8. Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De

    2004-07-01

    Four synthetic mosquito repellents (Autan [10% KBR3023], IR3535 [7.5%], Off! [15% deet], Skinsations [7% deet]) and eight natural (primarily plant extracts and/or essential oils) product-based repellents (Bite Blocker [2% soybean oil], ByGone, GonE!, Natrapel [10% citronella], Neem Aura, Sunswat, MosquitoSafe [25% geraniol], and Repel [26% p-menthane-3,8-diol]) were tested in the laboratory against Aedes albopictus Skuse, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). When estimated mean protection time (eMPT) responses for each repellent were averaged for all three mosquito species, Autan, Bite Blocker, Off!, and Repel prevented biting for > or =7.2 h; IR3535, MosquitoSafe, and Skinsations for 3.2-4.8 h; and ByGone, Natrapel, GonE, NeemAura, and SunSwat for 0.9-2.3 h. Against Ae. albopictus, the eMPT for Off! and Repel exceeded 7.0 h and ranged from 5.0 to 5.7 h for Autan, Bite Blocker, and Skinsations. Bygone, GonE, NeemAura, and SunSwat provided 0.2 h protection against Ae. albopictus and Oc. triseriatus, whereas Autan, Bite Blocker, Off., and Repel prevented bites by Oc. triseriatus for > or =7.3 h. All 12 repellents provided an eMPT > or =2.8 h against Cx. nigripalpus (maximum: 8.5 h for Bite Blocker). When the average eMPT for each repellent (for all species) was divided by the eMPT for 7% deet (Skinsations), the order of repellent effectiveness and the corresponding repellency index (R,) was Repel (1.7) > Bite Blocker (1.5) = Autan (1.5) = Off! (1.5) > Skinsations (1.0) > IR3535 (0.8) > MosquitoSafe (0.6) > Natrapel (0.5) > Neem Aura (0.3) = SunSwat (0.3) = Bygone (0.3) > GonE (0.2). PMID:15311467

  9. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.;

    2015-01-01

    Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...... active radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in...

  10. Potential synergistic implications for stromal-targeted radiopharmaceuticals in bone-metastatic prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Sartor

    2011-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity and chemotherapy-resistant 'stem cells' represent two of the most pressing issues in devising new strategies for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Though curative strategies have long been present for men with localized disease, metastatic prostate cancer is currently incurable. Though substantial improvements in outcomes are now possible through the utilization of newly approved therapies, novel combinations are clearly needed. Herein we describe potentially synergistic interactions between bone stromal-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and other therapies for treatment of bone-metastatic prostate cancer. Radiation has long been known to synergize with cytotoxic chemotherapies and recent data also suggest the possibility of synergy when combining radiation and immune-based strategies. Combination therapies will be required to substantially improve survival for men with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer and we hypothesize that bone-targeted radiopharmaceuticals will play an important role in this process.

  11. The maternal brain under stress: Consequences for adaptive peripartum plasticity and its potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David A; Hillerer, Katharina M

    2016-04-01

    The peripartum period represents a time during which all mammalian species undergo substantial physiological and behavioural changes, which prepare the female for the demands of motherhood. In addition to behavioural and physiological alterations, numerous brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, olfactory bulb, medial amygdala and hippocampus are subject to substantial peripartum-associated neuronal, dendritic and synaptic plasticity. These changes, which are temporally- and spatially-distinct, are strongly influenced by gonadal and adrenal hormones, such as estrogen and cortisol/corticosterone, which undergo dramatic fluctuations across this period. In this review, we describe our current knowledge regarding these plasticity changes and describe how stress affects such normal adaptations. Finally, we discuss the mechanisms potentially underlying these neuronal, dendritic and synaptic changes and their functional relevance for the mother and her offspring. PMID:26828151

  12. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet II: Implications of a non-zero baryon chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Goethe-University, Ruth-Moufang Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Mishustin, Igor N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Goethe-University, Ruth-Moufang Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Kurchatov Institute, Russian Research Center, Akademika Kurchatova Sqr., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Døssing, Thomas [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    We present an extended version of the dynamical model for a multi-quark droplet evolution described in our proceeding paper. The model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension, and now a non-zero baryon number. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical model. We consider evolutions of droplets with different initial temperatures and net baryon number. It is found that the introduction of a non-zero net baryon number does not change the lifetime of the droplets significantly. Only when we consider an initially very baryon-rich, low-temperature droplets is the lifetime is decreased significantly. We have, furthermore, found a convergence of both baryon chemical potential and temperature toward the values μ{sub B}≈450 MeV and T≈150 MeV. This convergence is linked to the competing emission of baryons versus mesons.

  13. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet II: Implications of a non-zero baryon chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J; Døssing, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present an extended version of the dynamical model for a multi-quark droplet evolution described in our proceeding paper. The model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension, and now a non-zero baryon number. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical model. We consider evolutions of droplets with different initial temperatures and net baryon number. It is found that the introduction of a non-zero net baryon number does not change the lifetime of the droplets significantly. Only when we consider an initially very baryon-rich, low-temperature droplets is the lifetime is decreased significantly. We have, furthermore, found a convergence of both baryon chemical potential and temperature toward the values $T \\approx 150$ MeV and $\\mu_{\\rm B} \\approx$ 450 MeV. This convergence seems to be linked to the competing emission of baryons versus mesons.

  14. Outlier identification in urban soils and its implications for identification of potential contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaosheng

    2010-05-01

    Outliers in urban soil geochemical databases may imply potential contaminated land. Different methodologies which can be easily implemented for the identification of global and spatial outliers were applied for Pb concentrations in urban soils of Galway City in Ireland. Due to its strongly skewed probability feature, a Box-Cox transformation was performed prior to further analyses. The graphic methods of histogram and box-and-whisker plot were effective in identification of global outliers at the original scale of the dataset. Spatial outliers could be identified by a local indicator of spatial association of local Moran's I, cross-validation of kriging, and a geographically weighted regression. The spatial locations of outliers were visualised using a geographical information system. Different methods showed generally consistent results, but differences existed. It is suggested that outliers identified by statistical methods should be confirmed and justified using scientific knowledge before they are properly dealt with.

  15. THE ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL OF WEST AND NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perticas Razvan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy crises of the 70s led to the vigorous interventions of the industrialized states in the energy sector. On the European political agenda a new problem appeared, namely the one regarding the security of the energy supply. Romania is the third geothermal power in Europe, after Italy and Greece. The energy potential produced by means of geothermal resources of the West and North - West regions is approximately of 144 MWt. The production of a MWt of electricity through conventional sources (in our case study we chose diesel emits into the atmosphere about 21,673 tons of CO2. If it’s used the entire installed capacity in these areas Romania reduces pollution by approximately 6,935,552 TCO2.

  16. Measuring the solar potential of a city and its implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research investigates the maximum potential energy that can be made available by efficiently installing photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings throughout a city, from the central business district (CBD) out to low density suburbs. The purpose of this is to evaluate the contribution that electricity from PVs can make to reduce the electricity load of a city, supply the needs of a mixture of building types, reduce peak electricity demand and contribute towards the charging of electric vehicles (EVs). Having established the maximum potential, intermediate stages in PV penetration can be backcasted. The results indicate that low dense suburbia is not only the most efficient collector of solar energy but that enough excess electricity can be generated to power daily transport needs of suburbia and also contribute to peak daytime electrical loads in the city centre. This challenges conventional thinking that suburbia is energy inefficient. While a compact city may be more efficient for the internal combustion engine vehicles, a dispersed city is more efficient when distributed generation of electricity by PVs is the main energy source and EVs are the means of transport. - Highlights: • A method for analysing the contribution of photovoltaics to a whole city is described. • Maps are presented that compare net-metering of energy throughout a city. • These maps provide a useful tool for renewable energy policy in urban areas. • In the case of Auckland, suburbia can be a net energy provider to the city. • Suburbia can produce electricity to charge all its electric vehicle travel needs

  17. Modification of trout sperm membranes associated with activation and cryopreservation. Implications for fertilizing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, P H; Barbosa, E A; Praamsma, C J; Schisler, G J

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of two trout sperm activation solutions on sperm physiology and membrane organization prior to and following cryopreservation using flow cytometry and investigated their impact on in vitro fertility. Overall, frozen-thawed samples had greater phospholipid disorder when compared with fresh samples (high plasma membrane fluidity; P < 0.0001) and sperm activated with water also had high plasma membrane fluidity when compared to sperm activated with Lahnsteiner solution (LAS; P < 0.0001). Following cryopreservation water activated samples had membranes with greater membrane protein disorganization compared with LAS but the membrane protein organization of LAS samples was similar to samples prior to freezing (P < 0.0001). Post-thaw water activation resulted in significant increases in intracellular calcium compared to LAS (P < 0.002). In vitro fertility trials with frozen-thawed milt and LAS activation resulted in greater fertility (45%) compared to water activated samples (10%; P < 0.0001). Higher fertility rates correlated with lower intracellular calcium with water (R(2) = -0.9; P = 0.01) and LAS (R(2) = -0.85; P = 0.03) activation. Greater plasma membrane phospholipid (R(2) = -0.89; P = 0.02) and protein (R(2) = -0.84; P = 0.04) disorder correlated with lower water activation fertility rates. These membrane organization characteristics only approached significance with LAS activation in vitro fertility (P = 0.09, P = 0.06, respectively). Potentially the understanding of sperm membrane reorganizations and the physiology associated with activation following cryopreservation may enable users in a repository or hatchery setting to estimate the fertilizing potential of a sample and determine its value. PMID:27234987

  18. Climatic driven variability of surface water energy potential and implications for future hydroelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, A. L. E.; Lindstrom, G.

    2014-12-01

    An average year the production in Norway and Sweden is around 190 TWh and these two countries stand for about 70% of the hydropower energy stored in the available reservoirs of Europe. There are large challenges for the future use of this regulatory capacity with regard to balancing the electricity production in Europe under climate variability, compliance to water management plans under the Water Framework Directive and to the shifts to more renewable, but intermittent, energy sources required by the Renewable Energy Directive. A main aim of this project is to describe the variation over time of hydrological fluxes across Scandinavia in terms of their energy properties and to link that information to climatic factors and the regulation of hydroelectricty. Along these lines we explored daily data of digitalized hydro-climatological data from 1961, which were used to calibrate the HBV-model for 1001 watersheds in Sweden and the energy potential has been estimated as an average for that period (Figure below). These tentative results show that the surface water energy potential constitutes about one per mille of the latent heat flux due to evapotranspiration and it is, therefore, very sensitive to any fluctuation in the energy quantities of the hydrometeorological system. Tentative analysis suggests that the energy availability of surface water in Sweden exhibits significant decadal long fluctuations from 115 TWh/year up to 180 TWh/year, which follow several different time scales and periodicities, ranging from century-long trends to fluctuations occurring on time scales of a decade and shorter. In addition, recent investigations show that land-use changes and hydropower regulation has caused significant changes in the annual runoff periodicity in Swedish rivers during the 20th century. Those changes in the annual periodicities are caused by structural alterations in river basins affected by intense agriculture and hydropower regulation.

  19. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Ivanov, Boris V.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2015-03-01

    EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river runoff into the Arctic Ocean. Role of attenuation of light by CDOM in determining underwater light regime will become more important, with a potential for future increase in marine productivity in the area of EGC due to elevated PAR and lowered UV light exposures.

  20. Geochemical indicators of hydrogeologically isolated structures in the Danube Basin; implications for potential gas storage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Lánczos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for underground gas storage (UGS objects establishment is the presence of hydrogeologically isolated structures. These are mainly exhausted hydrocarbon deposits and aquifers in the Cenozoic fill and the basement of the Danube Basin. The geochemical indicators used to determine the aquifer isolation level of potential underground gas storage objects are based on the ratio of stagnant and dynamic water components. The most widely used indicator is the rHCO3/rCl molar ratio, assuming that the HCO3 - concentration represents the dynamic origin of dissolved rock material by meteoric water and that the Cl- concentration is the stagnant marine component. To distinguish these two components of the water in the aquifers the rHCO3/rCl indicator was combined with other parameters, such as rCl/rSO4 and rCl/rBr molar ratios. As for more aquifers of the Danube Basin contain higher amounts of carbon-dioxide we attempted to quantify the influence of the carbon dioxide on the water chemistry. The numerical model simulating rock-marine water interactions under different PCO2 temperature and ion-exchange conditions proved the rHCO3/rCl molar ratio increase caused higher carbon dioxide partial pressure for this purpose. Consequently under the conditions of higher partial carbon dioxide pressure the rHCO3/rCl ratio is indicating a lower isolation level of the structure. Taking in account signs of the higher carbon dioxide pressure based on the numerical model combined with the abovementioned geochemical indicators the most convenient aquifers for UGS establishment were identified within the Slovak part of the Danube Basin. These are located within Badenian sediments in the Trakovice and Sereď areas, due to the presence of hydrogeologically isolated structures buried at depth intervals of 800 to 1150 m below ground level. Other potential convertible aquifers are present in the Lower and Middle Badenian sediments in the Komjatice and

  1. Forest policy implications of climate change: Economic impacts and potential mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing mean global temperatures due to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other ''greenhouse'' gases in the atmosphere could affect the distribution of commercially important forests in North America significantly. The temperature increases might outpace the ability of forests to adapt, causing considerable stress and mortality to trees in the southern part of their range without a commensurate increase in growth across the expanding range. If realized, these potential biological impacts on forest distribution and health would affect management decisions substantially and could adversely impact forest-based economies in the United States. Specific effects on forest management include changes in the methods and costs of fire, insect, and disease protection; greater demands on forest lands for conversion to food production; and uncertain changes in site quality. One means of mitigating the effects of CO2 emissions is to establish tree plantations for carbon sequestration. Preliminary analyses suggest that a program aimed at marginal cropland in the South could store more than 563 million tons of carbon over 45 years, although 90 million tons would be lost due to risks associated with plantations

  2. The effects of pituitary and thyroid disorders on haemostasis: potential clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakakis, Nikolaos; Lynch, Julie; Ajjan, Ramzi; Murray, Robert D

    2016-04-01

    Disturbances of coagulation and fibrinolysis are usually multifactorial and growing evidence suggests that endocrinopathies modulate the haemostatic balance. The thrombotic alterations in endocrine disorders range from mild laboratory clotting abnormalities with little clinical significance to serious thrombotic and bleeding disorders directly related to hormonal disturbances. This literature review focuses on presenting the current data on the effects of thyroid and pituitary disorders on various parameters of the haemostatic system. With the exception of overt hypothyroidism which appears to cause a bleeding tendency, the rest of the endocrinopathies discussed in this review (subclinical hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, endogenous hypercortisolaemia, growth hormone deficiency, acromegaly, prolactinoma/hyperprolactinaemia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism) are associated with a hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state, increasing the overall cardiovascular risk and thromboembolic potential in these patients. In most studies, the haemostatic abnormalities seen in endocrine disorders are usually reversible with successful treatment of the underlying condition and biochemical disease remission. High-quality studies on larger patient cohorts are needed to produce robust evidence on the effects of endocrine disorders and their therapeutic interventions on coagulation and fibrinolysis, as well as on the long-term mortality and morbidity outcomes in association with endocrine-related haemostatic imbalance. Given the rarity of some of the endocrine disorders, multicentre studies are required to achieve this target. PMID:25753252

  3. Voluntary immunomodulation: potentiality and implications for long-duration manned space-flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano

    The influence of psychological and neural factors on immunologic activity has been dedicated a growing interest over the past fifteen years, since the publication ofPsychoneuroimmunology by Robert Ader in 1981. Studies on this topic gave evidence for bi-directional communication between psychosocial, behavioural, neuroanatomical and neuroendocrine processes with the immune system and the detrimental effects of various stressors, physical and psychological, on immune reactions were widely investigated with reports of stress-induced changes in immune paramenters and immunocompetence. Much of the evidence support the notion that stress is associated with an increase in those diseases against which the immune system defends. Recently, several studies showed that immune functions can be influenced voluntarily and the term voluntary immunomodulation was coined to describe the use of various hypnosis-like and relaxation/imagery techniques for the self-regulation of immune activity. Alterations in the immune regulatory system are one of the most critical issues to be addressed in relation to crew health management during space missions, especially long-term ones. Providing crewmembers with a tool to enhance immunocompetence might be of great value to defend against some severe diseases, such as cancer and infectious illness, which may be elicited in outer space. In this view, a critical assessment of the potential usefulness of voluntary immunomodulation for crew health maintenance during manned space-flight is presented and discussed.

  4. Interaction of the 106-126 prion peptide with lipid membranes and potential implication for neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation in the brain of an abnormally misfolded, protease-resistant, and β-sheet rich pathogenic isoform (PrPsc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPc). In the present work, we were interested to study the mode of prion protein interaction with the membrane using the 106-126 peptide and small unilamellar lipid vesicles as model. As previously demonstrated, we showed by MTS assay that PrP 106-126 induces alterations in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We demonstrated for the first time by lipid-mixing assay and by the liposome vesicle leakage test that PrP 106-126, a non-tilted peptide, induces liposome fusion thus a potential cell membrane destabilization, as supported by membrane integrity assay (LDH). By circular dichroism (CD) analysis we showed that the fusogenic property of PrP 106-126 in the presence of liposome is associated with a predominantly β-sheet structure. These data suggest that the fusogenic property associated with a predominant β-sheet structure exhibited by the prion peptides contributes to the neurotoxicity of these peptides by destabilizing cellular membranes. The latter might be attached at the membrane surface in a parallel orientation as shown by molecular modeling

  5. Molecular and Cellular Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Human Lung Cancer Cells: Potential Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has a very high mortality-to-incidence ratio, representing one of the main causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Several diseases including lung cancer have been associated with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most studied. Despite the fact that H2O2 may have opposite effects on cell proliferation depending on the concentration and cell type, it triggers several antiproliferative responses. H2O2 produces both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA lesions, increases the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and increases p53 activity and other transcription factors orchestrating cancer cell death. In addition, H2O2 facilitates the endocytosis of oligonucleotides, affects membrane proteins, induces calcium release, and decreases cancer cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the MAPK pathway and the expression of genes related to inflammation including interleukins, TNF-α, and NF-κB are also affected by H2O2. Herein, we will summarize the main effects of hydrogen peroxide on human lung cancer leading to suggesting it as a potential therapeutic tool to fight this disease. Because of the multimechanistic nature of this molecule, novel therapeutic approaches for lung cancer based on the use of H2O2 may help to decrease the mortality from this malignancy. PMID:27375834

  6. Ultrasmall Peptides Self-Assemble into Diverse Nanostructures: Morphological Evaluation and Potential Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A.E. Hauser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we perform a morphological evaluation of the diverse nanostructures formed by varying concentration and amino acid sequence of a unique class of ultrasmall self-assembling peptides. We modified these peptides by replacing the aliphatic amino acid at the C-aliphatic terminus with different aromatic amino acids. We tracked the effect of introducing aromatic residues on self-assembly and morphology of resulting nanostructures. Whereas aliphatic peptides formed long, helical fibers that entangle into meshes and entrap >99.9% water, the modified peptides contrastingly formed short, straight fibers with a flat morphology. No helical fibers were observed for the modified peptides. For the aliphatic peptides at low concentrations, different supramolecular assemblies such as hollow nanospheres and membrane blebs were found. Since the ultrasmall peptides are made of simple, aliphatic amino acids, considered to have existed in the primordial soup, study of these supramolecular assemblies could be relevant to understanding chemical evolution leading to the origin of life on Earth. In particular, we propose a variety of potential applications in bioengineering and nanotechnology for the diverse self-assembled nanostructures.

  7. Ultrasmall peptides self-assemble into diverse nanostructures: morphological evaluation and potential implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we perform a morphological evaluation of the diverse nanostructures formed by varying concentration and amino acid sequence of a unique class of ultrasmall self-assembling peptides. We modified these peptides by replacing the aliphatic amino acid at the C-aliphatic terminus with different aromatic amino acids. We tracked the effect of introducing aromatic residues on self-assembly and morphology of resulting nanostructures. Whereas aliphatic peptides formed long, helical fibers that entangle into meshes and entrap >99.9% water, the modified peptides contrastingly formed short, straight fibers with a flat morphology. No helical fibers were observed for the modified peptides. For the aliphatic peptides at low concentrations, different supramolecular assemblies such as hollow nanospheres and membrane blebs were found. Since the ultrasmall peptides are made of simple, aliphatic amino acids, considered to have existed in the primordial soup, study of these supramolecular assemblies could be relevant to understanding chemical evolution leading to the origin of life on Earth. In particular, we propose a variety of potential applications in bioengineering and nanotechnology for the diverse self-assembled nanostructures. PMID:22016623

  8. Behavioral and neural impairments of frontotemporal dementia: Potential implications for criminal responsibility and sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stages of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by atrophy to the brain's frontal regions, exhibit severe disturbances to social and moral processing and decision-making after the onset of the disorder. These behavioral impairments, underlain by the neural deficits associated with the disorder, can often lead individuals with bvFTD to criminally offend. As such, behavioral and frontotemporal lobe abnormalities exhibited by offenders with bvFTD potentially represent several complex challenges for the legal system. This paper examines some of the ways in which the behavioral and neural impairments associated with bvFTD may influence issues surrounding the criminal responsibility, specifically legal insanity, and sentencing of offenders with bvFTD in the U.S. legal system. As there is very little literature in these areas concerning bvFTD, the existing academic dialogue on psychopathy, a disorder with similar behavioral symptoms and neural deficits, is used to frame the discussion on these issues. PMID:27039661

  9. Update on the Pathogenic Implications and Clinical Potential of microRNAs in Cardiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Notari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available miRNAs, a unique class of endogenous noncoding RNAs, are highly conserved across species, repress gene translation upon binding to mRNA, and thereby influence many biological processes. As such, they have been recently recognized as regulators of virtually all aspects of cardiac biology, from the development and cell lineage specification of different cell populations within the heart to the survival of cardiomyocytes under stress conditions. Various miRNAs have been recently established as powerful mediators of distinctive aspects in many cardiac disorders. For instance, acute myocardial infarction induces cardiac tissue necrosis and apoptosis but also initiates a pathological remodelling response of the left ventricle that includes hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes and fibrotic deposition of extracellular matrix components. In this regard, recent findings place various miRNAs as unquestionable contributing factors in the pathogenesis of cardiac disorders, thus begging the question of whether miRNA modulation could become a novel strategy for clinical intervention. In the present review, we aim to expose the latest mechanistic concepts regarding miRNA function within the context of CVD and analyse the reported roles of specific miRNAs in the different stages of left ventricular remodelling as well as their potential use as a new class of disease-modifying clinical options.

  10. Update on the Pathogenic Implications and Clinical Potential of microRNAs in Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Mario; Pulecio, Julián; Raya, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    miRNAs, a unique class of endogenous noncoding RNAs, are highly conserved across species, repress gene translation upon binding to mRNA, and thereby influence many biological processes. As such, they have been recently recognized as regulators of virtually all aspects of cardiac biology, from the development and cell lineage specification of different cell populations within the heart to the survival of cardiomyocytes under stress conditions. Various miRNAs have been recently established as powerful mediators of distinctive aspects in many cardiac disorders. For instance, acute myocardial infarction induces cardiac tissue necrosis and apoptosis but also initiates a pathological remodelling response of the left ventricle that includes hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes and fibrotic deposition of extracellular matrix components. In this regard, recent findings place various miRNAs as unquestionable contributing factors in the pathogenesis of cardiac disorders, thus begging the question of whether miRNA modulation could become a novel strategy for clinical intervention. In the present review, we aim to expose the latest mechanistic concepts regarding miRNA function within the context of CVD and analyse the reported roles of specific miRNAs in the different stages of left ventricular remodelling as well as their potential use as a new class of disease-modifying clinical options. PMID:26221581

  11. The EMPA-REG outcome study: critical appraisal and potential clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseghin, Gianluca; Solini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes health care professionals have to face a study with results of incomparable success in secondary and tertiary cardiovascular disease prevention. In the past, no studies in patients with type 2 diabetes resulted to be successful in inducing an improvement of cardiovascular prognosis, no matter whether they were focused on a target, on life-style or on pharmacological intervention. On a clinical perspective, should the diabetologist's way to think about the anti-diabetic therapy of patients on secondary cardiovascular prevention change based on the results of Empa-Reg outcome? Due to the complexity of the clinical picture of patients with type 2 diabetes, a tailored therapy based on targets, complications, co-morbidity, familial and social environment, personal and cultural features must be conceived and applied in starting pharmacological therapy; however, the question whether should we consider empagliflozin as first choice therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes exposed to high cardiovascular risk, the Empa-Reg outcome-like patient, awaits now for an answer. Waiting for data confirming the results of the Empa-Reg outcome study, this report goes through the good reasons in support of this way of thinking, but at the same time explores the many unanswered questions raising potential concerns about this clinical choice. PMID:27260022

  12. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000-36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  13. Frictional properties of simulated anhydrite-dolomite fault gouge and implications for seismogenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymakers, A. M. H.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-03-01

    The frictional properties of anhydrite-dolomite fault gouges, and the effects of CO2 upon them, are of key importance in assessing the risks associated with CO2 storage in reservoir formations capped by anhydrite-dolomite sequences, and in understanding seismicity occurring in such formations (such as the Italian Apennines). Therefore, we performed velocity-stepping direct-shear experiments on simulated dolomite, anhydrite and 50:50 anhydrite/dolomite gouges, at representative in-situ conditions (120 °C and σne = 25 MPa). They were conducted under vacuum, or else using water or CO2-saturated water as pore fluid (Pf = 15 MPa). Friction coefficients varied between 0.55 and 0.7. All dry samples exhibited velocity-weakening behavior, whereas all wet samples exhibited velocity-strengthening behavior, without or with CO2. This is consistent with trends previously reported for such gouges. A compilation of literature data shows that the transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening occurs in these materials between 80 and 120 °C when dry, and between 100 and 150 °C when wet. This implies little seismogenic potential for wet dolomite, anhydrite and mixed gouges under CO2 storage conditions at 2-4 km depth. Seismic slip in the Italian Apennines at depths of ∼6 km and beyond may be explained by the velocity-weakening behavior expected in anhydrite and especially dolomite at temperatures above 150 °C.

  14. Penile intracavernosal pillars: lessons from anatomy and potential implications for penile prosthesis placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M J; Weinberg, A C; Deibert, C M; Hernandez, K; Alukal, J; Zhao, L; Wilson, S K; Egydio, P H; Valenzuela, R J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to anatomically describe the relationship of penile intracavernosal pillars to penile surgery, specifically corporal dilation during penile prosthesis placement. Corpora cavernosa from four embalmed male cadavers were dissected and subjected to probe dilation. Corpora were cross-sectioned and examined for the gross presence and location of pillars and dilated spaces. Infrapubic penile prosthesis insertion was performed on one fresh-frozen cadaveric male pelvis, followed by cross-sectioning. A single patient had intracavernosal pillars examined intraoperatively during Peyronie's plaque excision and penile prosthesis insertion. Intracavernosal pillars were identified in all cadavers and one surgical patient, passing obliquely from the dorsolateral tunica albuginea across the sinusoidal space to the ventral intercorporal septum. This delineated each corpus into two potential compartments for dilation: dorsomedial and ventrolateral. Dorsal dilation seated instruments and prosthetics satisfactorily in the dorsal mid glans and provided additional tissue coverage over weak ventral areas of the tunica albuginea, while ventrolateral dilation appeared to result in ventral seating and susceptibility to perforation. Intracavernosal pillars are an important anatomic consideration during penile prosthesis placement. Dorsal dilation appears to result in improved distal seating of cylinder tips, which may be protective against tip malposition, perforation or subsequent erosion. PMID:27053154

  15. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: > Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. > Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. > Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  16. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar, E-mail: popp@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), PO Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  17. Early transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana to polymetallic contamination: implications for the identification of potential biomarkers of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Ribas, Griselda; Garbisu, Carlos; Becerril, José M

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contaminated sites are frequently characterized by the simultaneous presence of several heavy metals. However, many studies report metal-induced plant responses after long-term exposure to just one metal. By contrast, whole genome expression microarrays were employed here to investigate the early (3 h) transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to polymetallic treatment (Pb, Hg, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn) at low (L) and high (H) concentrations. After 3 h of exposure to polymetallic treatment, a total of 1315 noticeably (≥2-fold) and significantly (P sulphur and nitrogen transport were also modulated. RT-qPCR analysis of four downregulated (AOP2, SAUR16, BBX31, and MTPC3) and upregulated genes (ASN1, DIN2, BT2, and EXL5), markedly responsive to both L and H treatments, validated our microarray data and suggested the potential of some of these genes (AOP2, SAUR16, ASN1, and DIN2) as early biomarkers of metal exposure. Relevant changes in gene expression occur as early as 3 h after exposure to polymetallic treatment. Four genes deserve further studies as novel putative biomarkers of early metal exposure and also owing to their potential implications in stress-related mechanisms: sulphur balance (AOP2), phytohormone regulation of plant growth and development (SAUR16), ammonium detoxification (ASN1) and senescence (DIN2). PMID:27118254

  18. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  19. Dynamics of demography and development in Turkey: implications to the potential for migration to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koray, S

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the influence of demographic trends and economic development within Turkey on emigration to Europe. Turkey negotiated migration recruitment agreements with Germany in 1961; with the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, France, and Sweden during 1964-67. About 3 million Turks presently live in Western Europe, which is the largest foreign population in Europe. 4.8% of the Turkish population are migrants to Europe. The largest Turkish population resides in Germany (2 million migrant Turks). The Turkish government supported emigration due to high unemployment and the need for remittances. During the late 1990s, migration to Europe has been mostly related to spouse selection of Turks by Turkish emigrants, political motivations, and clandestine labor emigration. New Turkish emigrants outnumbered return migrants during 1973-81 and 1986-94. Migration patterns showed more return migrants than emigrants during 1982-85. The balance between emigrants and return migrants was 17,347 emigrants (to Germany) in 1994. During the 1990s, Turks migrated mostly to the Commonwealth of Independent States, followed by North African and Persian Gulf countries. Most recent migrations are project-related among semiskilled and skilled men. Turkey is the 17th most populous country in the world. 59% of Turks in 1990 lived in cities. The median age is 22 years, which creates an imbalance of more persons seeking to enter the job market than those retiring. During the 1990s, Turkey was the destination of Iranians, Bulgarians, Iraqis, Bosnians, and Africans from Ghana and Nigeria. Turkish migration potential is determined by insufficient employment opportunities, the welfare gap, and perceived income differences between Turkey and Europe. Other key factors include institutional factors and the distribution of power in Turkey. PMID:12321337

  20. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. PMID:25917290

  1. Thermally induced cation redistribution in Fe-bearing oxy-dravite and potential geothermometric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Ferdinando; Skogby, Henrik; Hålenius, Ulf

    2016-05-01

    Iron-bearing oxy-dravite was thermally treated in air and hydrogen atmosphere at 800 °C to study potential changes in Fe, Mg and Al ordering over the octahedrally coordinated Y and Z sites and to explore possible applications to intersite geothermometry based on tourmaline. Overall, the experimental data (structural refinement, Mössbauer, infrared and optical absorption spectroscopy) show that heating Fe-bearing tourmalines results in disordering of Fe over Y and Z balanced by ordering of Mg at Y, whereas Al does not change appreciably. The Fe disorder depends on temperature, but less on redox conditions. The degree of Fe3+-Fe2+ reduction is limited despite strongly reducing conditions, indicating that the f O2 conditions do not exclusively control the Fe oxidation state at the present experimental conditions. Untreated and treated samples have similar short- and long-range crystal structures, which are explained by stable Al-extended clusters around the O1 and O3 sites. In contrast to the stable Al clusters that preclude any temperature-dependent Mg-Al order-disorder, there occurs Mg diffusion linked to temperature-dependent exchange with Fe. Ferric iron mainly resides around O2- at O1 rather than (OH)-, but its intersite disorder induced by thermal treatment indicates that Fe redistribution is the driving force for Mg-Fe exchange and that its diffusion rates are significant at these temperatures. With increasing temperature, Fe progressively disorders over Y and Z, whereas Mg orders at Y according to the order-disorder reaction: YFe + ZMg → ZFe + YMg. The presented findings are important for interpretation of the post-crystallization history of both tourmaline and tourmaline host rocks and imply that successful tourmaline geothermometers may be developed by thermal calibration of the Mg-Fe order-disorder reaction, whereas any thermometers based on Mg-Al disorder will be insensitive and involve large uncertainties.

  2. Macroscopic electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts: Potential implications for planetary paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The production of transient magnetic fields by hypervelocity meteoroid impact has been proposed to possibly explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields in certain lunar samples as well as across broader areas of the lunar surface. In an effort to understand the lunar magnetic record, continued experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range allow characterizing magnetic fields produced by the 5 km/s impacts of 0.32-0.64 cm projectiles over a broad range of impact angles and projectile/target compositions. From such studies, another phenomenon has emerged, macroscopic electric charge separation, that may have importance for the magnetic state of solid-body surfaces. This phenomenon was observed during explosive cratering experiments, but the magnetic consequences of macroscopic electric charge separation (as opposed to plasma production) during explosion and impact cratering have not, to our knowledge, been explored before now. It is straightforward to show that magnetic field production due to this process may scale as a weakly increasing function of impactor kinetic energy, although more work is needed to precisely assess the scaling dependence. The original intent of our experiments was to assess the character of purely electrostatic signals for comparison with inferred electrostatic noise signals acquired by shielded magnetic sensors buried within particulate dolomite targets. The results demonstrated that electrostatic noise does affect the magnetic sensors but only at relatively short distances (less than 4 cm) from the impact point (our magnetic studies are generally performed at distances greater than approximately 5.5 cm). However, to assess models for magnetic field generation during impact, measurements are needed of the magnetic field as close to the impact point as possible; hence, work with an improved magnetic sensor design is in progress. In this paper, we focus on electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts as a potential transient

  3. Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Molloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

  4. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18degrees C to 22degrees C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  5. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18° C to 22° C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  6. Naturally occurring arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, southwestern Florida: Potential implication for phosphate mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fluorapatite) matrix with As concentrations as high as 3730 mg/kg and as a trace mineral in the sediment matrix concentrations varying from <1 to 8260 mg/kg; (5) hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) contained As concentrations as high as 540 mg/kg; (6) francolite, organic material, and clays contained substantially less As than pyrite; (7) thus, the release of As from pyrite could pose a potential problem for the phosphate industry

  7. Naturally occurring arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, southwestern Florida: Potential implication for phosphate mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareva, Olesya [Department of Geology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Pichler, Thomas [Department of Geology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)]. E-mail: pichler@shell.cas.usf.edu

    2007-05-15

    (carbonate fluorapatite) matrix with As concentrations as high as 3730 mg/kg and as a trace mineral in the sediment matrix concentrations varying from <1 to 8260 mg/kg; (5) hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) contained As concentrations as high as 540 mg/kg; (6) francolite, organic material, and clays contained substantially less As than pyrite; (7) thus, the release of As from pyrite could pose a potential problem for the phosphate industry.

  8. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestine M Atyame

    Full Text Available The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to

  9. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  10. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  11. Primeiras observações sobre o Aedes Albopictus no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil First observations on Aedes albopictus in the State of Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. Ferreira Neto

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Observações realizadas no Estado do Espírito Santo mostraram que o Aedes albopictus, ao ser introduzido no Brasil, não modificou, significativamente, o seu comportamento. Os criadouros são os mesmos utilizados na Ásia e situados, de preferência, em áreas abertas. Os mosquitos adultos se abrigam em vegetação baixa e freqüentam pouco o domicílio.Observations performed at the State of Espirito Santo showed that Aedes albopictus did not change its behaviour to a significant extent after being introduced in Brazil. The breeding places are the same as those described in Asia and can be found more frequently in open areas. The adult mosquitoes rest in short vegetation and only sporadically penetrate into the human habitations.

  12. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    should: 1) provide meaningful, authoritative climate-relevant measures about the status, rates, and trends of key physical, ecological, and societal variables and values to inform decisions on management, research, and education at regional to national scales; 2) identify climate-related conditions and impacts to help develop effective mitigation and adaptation measures and reduce costs of management; and 3) document and communicate the climate-driven dynamic nature and condition of Earth's systems and societies, and provide a coordinated. This presentation will provide an overview of possible climate impacts on the built environment. Also, given that spatial analysis and remote sensing techniques will be of paramount importance in assessing these impacts and in preparing adaptation strategies, the presentation will provide examples of how these techniques can be used to identify potential impacts of climate change on the built environment.

  13. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  14. Ricerche di campo per lo sviluppo della tecnologia del maschio sterile nella lotta ad Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Medici, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse), comunemente detta Zanzara Tigre, ha invaso, negli ultimi anni, molti paesi, soprattutto in modo passivo attraverso il commercio di pneumatici usati. Questa specie è particolarmente adatta all'applicazione della tecnica dell'insetto sterile (SIT), basata su allevamento massale, sterilizzazione e rilascio in campo di un gran numero di maschi della specie vettrice. I maschi sterili rilasciati devono essere in grado di volare, di disperdersi sul territorio, di sopravvive...

  15. Allevamento massale di Aedes albopictus (Skuse) nell’ambito della tecnica SIT (Tecnica dell’Insetto Sterile)

    OpenAIRE

    Puggioli, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Dal 1999 presso il laboratorio del Centro Agricoltura Ambiente “G. Nicoli” a Crevalcore (BO) è in corso una sperimentazione finalizzata a verificare la possibilità di attuare la tecnica del maschio sterile (SIT) in Italia contro Aedes albopictus. Alcuni aspetti per migliorare l’efficienza di questa struttura pilota, oggetto della presente ricerca, sono stati: 1) studio degli effetti di determinati costituenti della dieta larvale a) sullo sviluppo larvale stesso, per individuare intervalli lim...

  16. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Ke-Xin Yu; Ching-Lee Wong; Rohani Ahmad; Ibrahim Jantan

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed’s toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvi...

  17. Contrasting patterns of insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) in the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Intan H; Jaal, Zairi; Ranson, Hilary; Charles S Wondji

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge on the extent, distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance is essential for successful insecticide-based dengue control interventions. Here, we report an extensive resistance profiling of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Malaysia and establish the contribution of knockdown resistance mechanism revealing significant contrast between both species. Methods Aedes mosquitoes were collected from four states in Malaysia in 2010 using ovitrap...

  18. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mutsuo Kobayashi; Osamu Komagata; Mayuko Yonejima; Yoshihide Maekawa; Kimio Hirabayashi; Toshihiko Hayashi; Naoko Nihei; Masahiro Yoshida; Yoshio Tsuda; Kyoko Sawabe

    2014-01-01

    A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is consid...

  19. Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse on Aedes aegypti (L. in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso Portela Camara

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses.

  20. Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) on Aedes aegypti (L.) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Riback, Thais Irene Souza; Pereira, Glaucio Rocha; Honorio, Nildimar Alves

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density) suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species) in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. PMID:27322537

  1. Natural Oxidant Demand Variability, Potential Controls, and Implications for in Situ, Oxidation-Based Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, A.; Cruz, S.; Dungan, B.; Holguin, F. O.; Ulery, A. L.; Hunter, B.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring reduced species associated with subsurface materials can impose a significant natural oxidant demand (NOD), which is the bulk consumption of oxidants by soil water, minerals, and organic matter. Although injection of oxidants has been used for chemical transformation of organic contaminants, NOD represents a challenge for the in-situ delivery of oxidants as a remediation alternative. Co-injection of complexation agents with oxidants has been proposed to facilitate the delivery of oxidants for in situ chemical oxidation remediation of contaminated groundwater. This study investigates variability of NOD for different oxidants and sediments. The effect of the addition of various complexation agents, including EDTA, tween 80, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), humic acid, and four generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, on the NOD was also examined. NOD was measured for a clay loam (collected from Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, AZ). Varying amounts of biosolids were mixed with subsamples of the clay loam to create three additional reference soils in order to study the effect of organic matter and other soil characteristics on the NOD. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the NOD for various oxidants, using the four soils, and replicated with and without various delivery agents. Measured NOD showed variability for each soil and oxidant composition. Additionally, significant differences were observed in NOD with the addition of delivery agents. The results support the elucidation of potential controls over NOD and have implications for in situ, oxidation-based remediation of contaminated groundwater.

  2. Multiscale visualization of the structural and characteristic changes of sewage sludge biochar oriented towards potential agronomic and environmental implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming; Chen, Dezhen; He, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge biochars were obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 900°C and their macro- and microscale properties were analyzed. The biochar's plant-available nutrients and humus-like substances in the water-extractable phase and fixed nutrients in the solid fraction were evaluated for their potential agronomic implications. FT-IR, Raman, XRD, XPS, and SEM techniques were used to investigate the chemical structure, functional groups, and microcrystal structure on the surface of the biochar. The results revealed minor chemical changes and dramatic mass loss in the biochar obtained at 300-500°C, whereas significant chemical changes in the biochar were obtained at 600-900°C. The concentrations of plant-available nutrients as well as fulvic- and humic-acid-like materials decreased in the biochar samples obtained at higher temperatures. These results implied that the biochar samples pyrolyzed at 300-500°C could be a direct nutrient source and used to neutralize alkaline soil. The surface area and porosity of the biochar samples increased with temperature, which increased their adsorption capacity. Rearrangement occurred at higher temperature 600-900°C, resulting in the biochar becoming increasingly polyaromatic and its graphite-like carbon becoming organized. PMID:25802185

  3. Multiscale visualization of the structural and characteristic changes of sewage sludge biochar oriented towards potential agronomic and environmental implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jining; Lü, Fan; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming; Chen, Dezhen; He, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge biochars were obtained at different pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 900°C and their macro- and microscale properties were analyzed. The biochar's plant-available nutrients and humus-like substances in the water-extractable phase and fixed nutrients in the solid fraction were evaluated for their potential agronomic implications. FT-IR, Raman, XRD, XPS, and SEM techniques were used to investigate the chemical structure, functional groups, and microcrystal structure on the surface of the biochar. The results revealed minor chemical changes and dramatic mass loss in the biochar obtained at 300–500°C, whereas significant chemical changes in the biochar were obtained at 600–900°C. The concentrations of plant-available nutrients as well as fulvic- and humic-acid-like materials decreased in the biochar samples obtained at higher temperatures. These results implied that the biochar samples pyrolyzed at 300–500°C could be a direct nutrient source and used to neutralize alkaline soil. The surface area and porosity of the biochar samples increased with temperature, which increased their adsorption capacity. Rearrangement occurred at higher temperature 600–900°C, resulting in the biochar becoming increasingly polyaromatic and its graphite-like carbon becoming organized. PMID:25802185

  4. Epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells by Bisphenol-A, a model endocrine disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena eKhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system.

  5. Potential Implications of Research on Genetic or Heritable Contributions to Pedophilia for the Objectives of Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children’s vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future. PMID:25557668

  6. Sink plot for runoff measurements on semi-flat terrains: preliminary data and their potential hydrological and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidron Giora J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid regions where water is the main limiting factor, water redistribution is regarded as an important hydrological process of great ecological value. By providing additional water to certain loci, moist pockets of great productivity are formed, characterized by high plant biomass and biological activity. These moist pockets are often a result of runon. Yet, although runoff may take place on semi-flat undulating surfaces, runoff measurements are thus far confined to slopes, where a sufficient gradient facilitates downslope water harvesting. On undulating surfaces of mounds and depressions, such as in interdunes, no quantification of the amount of water reaching depressions is feasible due to the fact that no reliable method for measuring the runoff amounts in semi-flat terrains is available. The current paper describes specific runoff plots, designed to measure runoff in depressions (sinks. These plots, termed sink plots (SPs, were operative in the Hallamish dunefield (Negev Desert, Israel. The paper presents measurements of runoff yield that were carried out between January 2013 and January 2014 on SPs and compared them to runoff obtained from crusted slope plots and fine-grained (playa surfaces. The potential hydrological and ecological implications of water redistribution within semi-flat terrains for this and other arid ecosystems are discussed.

  7. Potential implications of research on genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the objectives of criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children's vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future. PMID:25557668

  8. The Emission Reduction Potential of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases in China and Its Policy Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delin; HUANG; Songfeng; CAI; Zhen; WANG

    2013-01-01

    Using the improved Energy-Environmental Version of the GTAP Model (GTAP-E) and the sixth version of emission database of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, we simulate the emission reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in China and its policy implications. The results show that at present, China is a country with the greatest emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the world, and the emission will account for about 20% of the world’s total emission in 2020. The proportion of emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector reaches 73%. In the next 10 years, the emission of non-CO2 gases from cattle and sheep, industry and service industry will experience the highest growth rate; the growth rate of emission from service industry will be higher than that of emission from industry, and the emission from service industry will exceed that from industry after 2010. China can implement emission reduction policy of non-CO2 greenhouse gases to ease the international pressure of CO2 emission reduction. Although the high carbon tax collected can reduce considerable non-CO2 emission, there is little difference in policy efficiency between high carbon tax and low carbon tax. So, in the implementation of emission reduction carbon tax policy of non-CO2 gases, it is necessary to control the carbon tax at a low level.

  9. Potential T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can instigate molecular mimicry against host: implications in autoimmune pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Chodisetti Sathi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and host-proteins is one of the etiological enigmas for the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. T cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes may trigger autoimmune reactions. Intriguingly, autoimmune diseases have been reported to be prevalent in tuberculosis endemic populations. Further, association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis has been implicated in different autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Although, in silico analyses have identified a number of M. tuberculosis specific vaccine candidates, the analysis on prospective cross-reactive epitopes, that may elicit autoimmune response, has not been yet attempted. Here, we have employed bioinformatics tools to determine T cell epitopes of homologous antigenic regions between M. tuberculosis and human proteomes. Results Employing bioinformatics tools, we have identified potentially cross-reactive T cell epitopes restricted to predominant class I and II alleles of human leukocyte antigens (HLA. These are similar to peptides of mycobacterial proteins and considerable numbers of them are promiscuous. Some of the identified antigens corroborated with established autoimmune diseases linked with mycobacterial infection. Conclusions The present study reveals many target proteins and their putative T cell epitopes that might have significant application in understanding the molecular basis of possible T cell autoimmune reactions during M. tuberculosis infections.

  10. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Bara

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2 extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced.

  11. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey; Rapti, Zoi; Cáceres, Carla E; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced. PMID:25951173

  12. Impact of climate change on the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northern Japan: retrospective analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Motoyoshi; Tuno, Nobuko

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was analyzed in northern Japan, where chronological distribution records are incomplete. We analyzed local climate data using linear regression of the thermal suitability index (TSI) for the mosquito and mean annual temperature as functions of time. In northern Japan, thermal conditions since the early 20th century have become increasingly suitable for Ae. albopictus, more as a result of decreasing coldness in the overwintering season than increasing warmth in the reproductive season. Based on recent discovery records of Ae. albopictus in the northern border range, we determined thermal criteria for estimating when its persistent establishment became thermally possible. Retrospective analyses indicated that those criteria were reached in most coastal lowlands of northern Honshu before the accelerated temperature increase after the mid-1980s and the first records of this species after 1990; at some sites, temperature criteria were reached during or before the early 20th century. Expansion of the thermally suitable range after 1990 was supported only for inland areas and the northernmost Pacific coast. The estimated expansion rate was approximately 26 km per decade. Our analyses also demonstrated the importance of local climate heterogeneity (apart from north-south or altitudinal temperature gradients) in determining the expansion pattern. PMID:24897849

  13. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad Khurram

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. Results For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control.

  14. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Marini, Francesca; Desiderio, Angiola; Puggioli, Arianna; Moretti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP) females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus. PMID:25812130

  15. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with pyriproxyfen sprayed on plants against adult and larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ali; Scott, Jodi M; Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-07-01

    The effect of spraying a mixture of the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen (1 mg/liter) and either 1% boric acid sugar bait or eugenol sugar bait on croton petra plants (Codiaeum variegatum L.) was evaluated against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Treatments were applied to plants and evaluated against adult and larval Ae. albopictus in the laboratory through contact and wash off experiments, respectively. The control treatment lacked an active ingredient and were treated with an attractive sugar bait. The plants treated with attractive toxic sugar baits plus the IGR resulted in 60-100% mortality of laboratory-reared adult Ae. albopictus. The pyriproxyfen solutions collected from the plant wash experiment resulted in 80-100% emergence inhibition to the exposed third- and fourth-instar larvae, compared with the untreated control. Attractive toxic sugar baits mixed with the IGR not only provide effective control of adult mosquitoes, but also provide additional control of larval mosquitoes after being washed off from the treated plants. PMID:25118427

  16. Potential impacts of global warming on Australia's unique tropical biodiversity and implications for tropical biodiversity in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies

  17. Biting Density and Distribution of Aedes albopictus during the September 2014 Outbreak of Dengue Fever in Yoyogi Park and the Vicinity of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Ogawa, Kohei; Itokawa, Kentaro; Komagata, Osamu; Sasaki, Toshinori; Isawa, Haruhiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2016-01-21

    A total of 160 autochthonous dengue cases transmitted by Aedes albopictus were reported between August and October of 2014 in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. Ae. albopictus is a medically important vector of dengue virus, which has expanded its geographic distribution in temperate regions. Understanding the distribution and biting density of Ae. albopictus during the 2014 dengue outbreak in Tokyo is important to evaluate the epidemic risks of dengue fever in other highly populated cities in Europe and Asia. Of the 160 patients, 134 visited the same park (Yoyogi park) located in central Tokyo. Mosquitoes infected with dengue virus were collected from this park, suggesting that it was the exclusive location for the transmission of dengue. This study aimed to collect referential data to estimate the transmission threshold of dengue virus in terms of biting density of Ae. albopictus and determined high transmission risk areas of dengue virus in Yoyogi Park and its vicinity. The overall mean density of biting Ae. albopictus (7.13/man/8 min) was sufficiently high for successful transmission of dengue virus, and areas with biting densities higher than the overall mean density were classified as high risk areas for the transmission of dengue virus in Yoyogi Park. PMID:25766613

  18. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gul Zamin Khan; Inamullah Khan; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Alamzeb; Muhammad Salman; Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the relative efficacy of pyriproxyfen and methoprene on mortality, deformity, inhibition and emergence to adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Serial dilutions (0.01–0.05 mg/L) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules (WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each concentration and control was replicated four times in completely randomized design. Data on larval mortality, growth inhibition, deformities and adult's emergence was recorded weekly. On the basis of best comparative performance, the efficacy of pyr-iproxyfen 1.0 WDG at 0.1 g/m3 was also tested in the field by collecting treated water samples monthly for 1–6 months after field application. Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of Aedes and Culex spp. of the same cohorts were used for bioassays and compared with larvae in control cups containing 1 L of untreated tap water. Results: Results revealed variations in fatality of different insect growth regulators (IGRs) to the 3rd instar larvae of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. Among the IGRs, pyr-iproxyfen 1.0 WDG was found best that exhibited significantly high emergence inhibition against Culex and Aedes spp. Based on the results, the IGRs were classified in terms of the tested parameters in order of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG > pyriproxyfen 0.5 WDG > methoprene. In case of field studies, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG, pool data of the entire target treated sites showed minimum adult emergence from water sampled of habitats treated with 0.1 g/m3 of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG. Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.

  19. Molecular cloning and xenobiotic induction of seven novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Wajidi, Mustafa Fadzil Farid; Zairi, Jaal

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) is a superfamily of enzymes that is important in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In insects, these enzymes confer resistance to insecticides through its metabolic activities. Members of P450 from family 6 in insects are known to play a role in such function. In this study, we have isolated seven novel family 6 P450 from Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. Induction profile of these seven genes was studied using several insecticides and xenobiotics. It was found that deltamethrin and permethrin did not induce expression of any genes. Another insecticide, temephos, inhibited expression of CYP6P15 for fivefold and twofold for CYP6N29, CYP6Y7, and CYP6Z18. In addition, copper II sulfate induced expression of CYP6M17 and CYP6N28 for up to sixfold. Benzothiazole (BZT), a tire leachate induced the expression of CYP6M17 by fourfold, CYP6N28 by sevenfold, but inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 for threefold and CYP6Y7 for twofold. Meanwhile, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) induced the expression CYP6N28 (twofold), while it inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 (fivefold) and CYP6Y7 (twofold). Remarkably, all seven genes were induced two- to eightfold by acetone in larval stage, but not adult stage. Expression of CYP6N28 was twofold higher, while expression of CYP6P15 was 15-fold lower in adult than larva. The other five P450s were not differentially expressed between the larvae and adult. This finding showed that acetone can be a good inducer of P450 in Ae. albopictus. On the other hand, temephos can act as good suppressor of P450, which may affect its own bioefficacy because it needs to be bioactivated by P450. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on acetone-inducible P450 in insects. Further study is needed to characterize the mechanisms involved in acetone induction in P450. PMID:25399430

  20. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    that complex geomorphological processes, consisting of a glacier advance and followed by glacier lake outbursts and ice avalanches, contributed to the formation of the hummocky debris landforms. The Kit-ke-Jerav and Yishkuk Glaciers in the upper Chapursan Valley seem to have experienced extraordinary fluctuations in historical and recent times. The new findings on past processes forming large-scaled debris accumulations have wider implications for the recent hazard potential of settlements located in glaciated high mountain regions, especially in seismic active regions.

  1. Mesozoic break-up of SW Gondwana: implications for regional hydrocarbon potential of the southern South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). CASP; University of Abderdeen (United Kingdom). Kings College; Gomez-Perez, I. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). CASP; Franzese, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas, La Plata (AR)] (and others)

    2003-04-01

    This work provides new palinspastic palaeofacies reconstructions of SW Gondwana incorporating rotation of a Falkland/Malvinas microplate. We discuss the implications of this for the tectonic evolution of the southern South Atlantic and hence for the regional hydrocarbon potential. Existing Gondwana reconstructions display good fits of major continents but poorly constrained fits of microcontinents. In most continental reconstructions, the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau was assumed to be a rigid fragment of pre-Permian South American crust. However, it has been suggested, on the basis of palaeomagnetic data, that the Falkland/Malvinas Islands were rotated by {approx} 180{sup o} after 190 Ma. This rotation hypothesis has been successfully tested on the basis of Devonian stratigraphy and palaeontology, Permian stratigraphy and sedimentology and Late Palaeozoic and Early Mesozoic structure, making it unlikely that the plateau behaved as a rigid structure during breakup. We have explored the consequences of accepting this hypothesis for the tectonic evolution of SW Gondwana by compiling new palaeogeographic maps for the Permian-Cretaceous of the southern Atlantic area. To achieve a realistic close fit, we have devised a pre-rift proxy for the ocean-continent boundary for the South Atlantic. In order to produce the best fit, it is necessary to subdivide South America into four plates. The consequences of this are far-reaching. Our work suggests that although sedimentary basins were initiated at different times, three major tectonic phases can be recognised; in regional terms these can be thought of as pre-, syn- and post-rift. During the pre-rift time (until the Late Triassic), the area was dominated by compressional tectonism and formed part of the Gondwana foreland. The Falkland/Malvinas Islands lay cast of Africa, the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau was {approx} 33% shorter and Patagonia was displaced east with respect to the rest of South America, in part along the line of the

  2. Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Leticia A M; Travassos, Leonardo H

    2016-03-01

    Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015). The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months. PMID:26774331

  3. The use of andiroba Carapa guianensis as larvicide against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Onilda S; Romão, Pedro R T; Blazius, Rene D; Prohiro, Josiane S

    2004-12-01

    Andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. Meliacea is known to possess repellent activity against many mosquito species. We evaluated the larvicidal effect of dry-scratched seed kernels of andiroba against a sylvatic F1 progeny and a laboratory-colonized population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The 3rd instar of F1 treated with 0.5 to 2% of C. guianensis for 24 and 48 hours, had mortality with LC50 of 0.74 (0.56-0.90%) and 0.68 (0.53-0.84%), respectively, and the 4th instar 0.66 (0.52-0.80%) and 0.55 (0.20-0.91%), respectively. For the 3rd instars of laboratory-colonized larvae, the treatment with 0.5 to 4% of C. guianensis induced mortality after 24 hours with LC50 of 1.81 (1.39-2.22%), and an LC50 of 1.82 (1.57-2.07%) to the 4th instar. This is the 1st report of the larvicidal effect of C. guianensis on mosquitoes. PMID:15669392

  4. The Importance of Interspecific Interactions on the Present Range of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Persistence of Resident Container Species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) established in the United States over 30 yr ago and quickly spread throughout the entire eastern half of the country. It has recently spread into western regions and projected climate change scenarios suggest continued expansion to the west and north. Aedes albopictus has had major impacts on, and been impacted by, a diverse array of resident mosquito species. Laying eggs at the edges of small, water-holding containers, hatched larvae develop within these containers feeding on detritus-based resources. Under limited resource conditions, Ae. albopictus has been shown to be a superior competitor to essentially all native and resident species in the United States. Adult males also mate interspecifically with at least one resident species with significant negative impacts on reproductive output for susceptible females. Despite these strong interference effects on sympatric species, competitor outcomes have been highly variable, ranging from outright local exclusion by Ae. albopictus, to apparent exclusion of Ae. albopictus in the presence of the same species. Context-dependent mechanisms that alter the relative strengths of inter- and intraspecific competition, as well as rapid evolution of satyrization-resistant females, may help explain these patterns of variable coexistence. Although there is a large body of research on interspecific interactions of Ae. albopictus in the United States, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the most important species interactions. Addressing these gaps is important in predicting the future distribution of this species and understanding consequences for resident species, including humans, that interact with this highly invasive mosquito. PMID:27354436

  5. Chikungunya viral fitness measures within the vector and subsequent transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V-Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors.

  6. Llegada de Aedes albopictus a España: un nuevo reto para la salud pública Introduction of Aedes albopictus in Spain: a new challenge for public health

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Giménez; Marta Barahona; Albert Casasa; Albert Domingo; Montserrat Gavagnach; Carles Martí

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: En el Centro de Atención Primaria de Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona) se detectó un espectacular aumento de consultas por picaduras de insectos. El posterior estudio de las especies del área permitió identificar a Aedes albopictus. Objetivo: Analizar las consultas por picaduras de insecto (1998-2004). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo. Consultaron 2.760 pacientes durante el período 1998-2004. Resultados: Se detectó un continuo aumento de consultas por picad...

  7. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.

  8. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Calvitti

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20. Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%-50% depending on the site and period. ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However, crosses between wild males having low wAlbA density and ARwP females may be partially fertile. In the case of local establishment of the transinfected mosquito line, this occurrence may favor the replacement of the wild-type mosquitoes with the ARwP line, thus reducing the long-term efficacy of incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus.

  9. A de novo transcriptome of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, to identify candidate transcripts for diapause preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poelchau Monica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many temperate insects survive the harsh conditions of winter by undergoing photoperiodic diapause, a pre-programmed developmental arrest initiated by short day lengths. Despite the well-established ecological significance of photoperiodic diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, represents an outstanding emerging model to investigate the molecular basis of photoperiodic diapause in a well-defined ecological and evolutionary context. Ae. albopictus is a medically significant vector and is currently considered the most invasive mosquito in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to the rapid spread of this mosquito. To generate novel sequence information for this species, as well as to discover transcripts involved in diapause preparation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Ae. albopictus oocytes destined to become diapausing or non-diapausing pharate larvae. Results 454 GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing yielded >1.1 million quality-filtered reads, which we assembled into 69,474 contigs (N50 = 1,009 bp. Our contig filtering approach, where we took advantage of strong sequence similarity to the fully sequenced genome of Aedes aegypti, as well as other reference organisms, resulted in 11,561 high-quality, conservative ESTs. Differential expression estimates based on normalized read counts revealed 57 genes with higher expression, and 257 with lower expression under diapause-inducing conditions. Analysis of expression by qPCR for 47 of these genes indicated a high correlation of expression levels between 454 sequence data and qPCR, but congruence of statistically significant differential expression was low. Seven genes identified as differentially expressed based on qPCR have putative functions that are consistent with the insect diapause syndrome; three genes have unknown function and represent

  10. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

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    Pedro María Alarcón-Elbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.

  11. Inhibition of SIRT2 Potentiates the Anti-motility Activity of Taxanes: Implications for Antineoplastic Combination Therapies12

    OpenAIRE

    Bonezzi, Katiuscia; Belotti, Dorina; North, Brian J.; Ghilardi, Carmen; Borsotti, Patrizia; Resovi, Andrea; Ubezio, Paolo; Riva, Antonella; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Verdin, Eric; Taraboletti, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes are potent inhibitors of cell motility, a property implicated in their antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activity and unrelated to their antiproliferative effect. The molecular mechanism of this anti-motility activity is poorly understood. In this study, we found that paclitaxel induced tubulin acetylation in endothelial and tumor cells, at concentrations that affected cell motility but not proliferation (10-8 to 10-9 M, for 4 hours). Induction of tubulin acetylation correlated with i...

  12. Assessment of Potential Shifts in Europe's Natural Vegetation due to Climatic Change and some Implications for Nature Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, R.S. de

    1988-01-01

    One of the objectives of IIASA's Study "The Future Environments for Europe: Some Implications of Alternative Development Paths" is to characterize the large-scale and long-term environmental transformations that could be associated with plausible scenarios of Europe's socio-economic development over the next century. An important environmental transformation is the expected climatic change which will place additional stresses on the natural ecosystems in Europe. This Working Paper describes a...

  13. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were m

  14. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  15. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito. PMID:23263388

  16. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion. Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS: Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.

  17. A differentially displayed mRNA related to restistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis of Aedes albopictus selected in vitro-activated CYT1AA6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Huang, E.; Li, M.; Huang, T.; Xu, L.; Wu, Ch.; Guan, X.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2012), s. 327-329. ISSN 8756-971X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis * resistence * Aedes albopictus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2987/12-6263R.1

  18. Integrated analysis of miRNAs and transcriptomes in Aedes albopictus midgut reveals the differential expression profiles of immune-related genes during dengue virus serotype-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Fen-Xiang; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Jia, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Yan-He; Zhang, Hao; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Xian-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-virus interaction, and have been reported to be altered by dengue virus (DENV) infection in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Aedes albopictus midgut-the first organ to interact with DENV-involved in its resistance to DENV. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns in Aedes albopictus midgut in response to dengue virus serotype 2. A total of three miRNAs and 777 mRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed upon DENV infection. For the mRNAs, we identified 198 immune-related genes and 31 of them were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses also showed that the differentially expressed immune-related genes were involved in immune response. Then the differential expression patterns of six immune-related genes and three miRNAs were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, seven known miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs were identified by aligning our two datasets. These analyses of miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes provide valuable information for uncovering the DENV response genes and provide a basis for future study of the resistance mechanisms in Aedes albopictus midgut. PMID:27029517

  19. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  20. Genome sequence of the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, reveals insights into its biology, genetics, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Guang; Jiang, Xuanting; Gu, Jinbao; Xu, Meng; Wu, Yang; Deng, Yuhua; Zhang, Chi; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dermauw, Wannes; Vontas, John; Armbruster, Peter; Huang, Xin; Yang, Yulan; Zhang, Hao; He, Weiming; Peng, Hongjuan; Liu, Yongfeng; Wu, Kun; Chen, Jiahua; Lirakis, Manolis; Topalis, Pantelis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Jiang, Xiaofang; Thorpe, Chevon; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Sun, Cheng; Waterhouse, Robert Michael; Yan, Guiyun; Tu, Zhijian Jake; Fang, Xiaodong; James, Anthony A

    2015-11-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly successful invasive species that transmits a number of human viral diseases, including dengue and Chikungunya fevers. This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. The complete genome sequence was determined for the Foshan strain, an established laboratory colony derived from wild mosquitoes from southeastern China, a region within the historical range of the origin of the species. The genome comprises 1,967 Mb, the largest mosquito genome sequenced to date, and its size results principally from an abundance of repetitive DNA classes. In addition, expansions of the numbers of members in gene families involved in insecticide-resistance mechanisms, diapause, sex determination, immunity, and olfaction also contribute to the larger size. Portions of integrated flavivirus-like genomes support a shared evolutionary history of association of these viruses with their vector. The large genome repertory may contribute to the adaptability and success of Ae. albopictus as an invasive species. PMID:26483478

  1. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes. PMID:25424262

  2. Modelling the breeding of Aedes Albopictus species in an urban area in Pulau Pinang using polynomial regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Ali, Zalila; Noor, Norlida Mohd.; Baharum, Adam; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Sulaiman, Husna Mahirah; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir W.

    2014-07-01

    Polynomial regression is used to model a curvilinear relationship between a response variable and one or more predictor variables. It is a form of a least squares linear regression model that predicts a single response variable by decomposing the predictor variables into an nth order polynomial. In a curvilinear relationship, each curve has a number of extreme points equal to the highest order term in the polynomial. A quadratic model will have either a single maximum or minimum, whereas a cubic model has both a relative maximum and a minimum. This study used quadratic modeling techniques to analyze the effects of environmental factors: temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall distribution on the breeding of Aedes albopictus, a type of Aedes mosquito. Data were collected at an urban area in south-west Penang from September 2010 until January 2011. The results indicated that the breeding of Aedes albopictus in the urban area is influenced by all three environmental characteristics. The number of mosquito eggs is estimated to reach a maximum value at a medium temperature, a medium relative humidity and a high rainfall distribution.

  3. The four serotypes of dengue recognize the same putative receptors in Aedes aegypti midgut and Ae. albopictus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho-Nuez Minerva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV attach to the host cell surface and subsequently enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several primary and low affinity co-receptors for this flavivirus have been identified. However, the presence of these binding molecules on the cell surface does not necessarily render the cell susceptible to infection. Determination of which of them serve as bona fide receptors for this virus in the vector may be relevant to treating DENV infection and in designing control strategies. Results (1 Overlay protein binding assay showed two proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 67 kDa (R80 and R67. (2 Specific antibodies against these two proteins inhibited cell binding and infection. (3 Both proteins were bound by all four serotypes of dengue virus. (4 R80 and R67 were purified by affinity chromatography from Ae. aegypti mosquito midguts and from Ae albopictus C6/36 cells. (5 In addition, a protein with molecular mass of 57 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography from the midgut extracts. (6 R80 and R67 from radiolabeled surface membrane proteins of C6/36 cells were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against Ae. aegypti midgut. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that R67 and R80 are receptors for the four serotypes of dengue virus in the midgut cells of Ae. aegypti and in C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells.

  4. Surveillance and Control of Aedes albopictus in the Swiss-Italian Border Region: Differences in Egg Densities between Intervention and Non-intervention Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias T Suter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. Over the recent decades it has been passively spread across the globe, primarily through the used tyre trade and passive transportation along major traffic routes. A. albopictus is a proven vector for many arboviruses, most notably chikungunya and dengue, with recent outbreaks also in continental Europe. In southern Switzerland, in the Canton of Ticino A. albopictus was spotted for the first time in 2003. Since then the local authorities have implemented a control programme based on larval source reduction. Despite these efforts, mosquito densities have increased over the last decade, casting doubts on the effectiveness of such larval control programmes.The Italian communities just across the Swiss-Italian border lack a control programme. This motivated us to compare the intervention and the non-intervention areas side by side in an attempt to find evidence for, or against, the effectiveness of larval A. albopictus control. Using ovitraps and a randomised sampling scheme, we examined the seasonal and spatial abundance of A. albopictus in sylvatic and urban environments across the Swiss-Italian border in 2012 and 2013. In the urban environments of the non-intervention area, egg densities were 2.26 times higher as compared to the intervention area. In the sylvatic environments, as compared to the urban environments, egg densities were 36% in the intervention area and 18% in the non-intervention area.Though alternative explanations are also valid, the results support the hypothesis that the Ticino intervention programme does have an impact. At the same time the data also suggest that current larval interventions fall short in gaining full control over the mosquito, calling for the evaluation of additional, or alternative, approaches. Ideally, these should also consider inclusion of the neighbouring Italian communities in the

  5. Culicídeos associados a entrenós de bambu e bromélias, com ênfase em Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Culicids associated with bamboo internodes and bromeliads, with emphasis on Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Martins da Silva; Valdecir Nunes; José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) larvae were recorded for the first time in the internodes of bamboo cuts found in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The bamboo, Bambusa sp., was introduced in the area of Imbucuí-Mirim town, across the municipal district of Paranaguá and towards the interior of the Atlantic Forest. A total of 251 larvae of Aedes albopictus (37.9%), Culex (Microculex) spp. (13.9%), Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901 (39.8%), Toxorhynchites sp. (0.4%) and...

  6. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: I-Impact of Wolbachia Infection on the Fitness of Triple- and Double-Infected Strains of Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Dongjing Zhang; Xiaoying Zheng; Zhiyong Xi; Kostas Bourtzis; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple...

  7. In situ Colonization of Marine Biofilms on UNS S32760 Duplex Stainless Steel Coupons in Areas with Different Water Qualities:Implications for Corrosion Potential Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana VR de Messano; Barbara LIgnacio; Maria HCB Neves; Ricardo Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of biofilms, stainless steels (SS) exhibits an increase in corrosion potential, called ennoblement. In the present study, the corrosion potential (Ecor ) behavior of the duplex SS UNS S32760 was recorded simultaneously with the in situ marine biofilm formation in two areas at Arraial do Cabo, Southeastern Brazil. The biofilm at Forno Harbor (an anthropogenically disturbed area) was characterized by higher relative abundances of Bacteria at day 2, followed by diatoms (especially Navicula sp.) on day 10 and dinoflagellates on day 18, whereas no clear trend was recorded at Cabo Frio Island (an undisturbed area). The ennoblement of Ecor values was site-dependent. In a complementary laboratory assay, biofilms were removed and the Ecor values registered in sterile conditions for the subsequent 10 days and corroborated in situ results. Understanding biofilms and SS interactions has important implications for materials science and engineering decisions as well as helping to fill in important gaps in this knowledge.

  8. In situ colonization of marine biofilms on UNS S32760 duplex stainless steel coupons in areas with different water qualities: Implications for corrosion potential behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messano, Luciana V. R. de; Ignacio, Barbara L.; Neves, Maria H. C. B.; Coutinho, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    In the presence of biofilms, stainless steels (SS) exhibits an increase in corrosion potential, called ennoblement. In the present study, the corrosion potential ( E corr) behavior of the duplex SS UNS S32760 was recorded simultaneously with the in situ marine biofilm formation in two areas at Arraial do Cabo, Southeastern Brazil. The biofilm at Forno Harbor (an anthropogenically disturbed area) was characterized by higher relative abundances of Bacteria at day 2, followed by diatoms (especially Navicula sp.) on day 10 and dinoflagellates on day 18, whereas no clear trend was recorded at Cabo Frio Island (an undisturbed area). The ennoblement of E corr values was site-dependent. In a complementary laboratory assay, biofilms were removed and the E corr values registered in sterile conditions for the subsequent 10 days and corroborated in situ results. Understanding biofilms and SS interactions has important implications for materials science and engineering decisions as well as helping to fill in important gaps in this knowledge.

  9. Statistical evidence of the geological control over radon soil gas concentrations and its implications for mapping radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining how radon varies spatially over a given area in the natural environment is important for defining high risk areas and has implications for building practice. To achieve the former, radon concentrations in three areas of the English Midlands were surveyed. The first area comprised a single rock formation near Hereford (described elsewhere). The others, reported here, were areas where elevated concentrations of radon were expected. One was an area comprising two major rock types near Buxton in Derbyshire where a multistage sampling design was used to determine the approximate spatial scale of variation in soil radon concentration. The third was an area of more complex geology near Nottingham, where sampling along a transect enabled the structure and scale of variation to be determined. In all of the areas radon concentrations varied considerably, both over large and small distances. The data were analysed using methods embodied in geostatistics. The results showed that structure in the spatial variation of radon for the Buxton and Nottingham surveys at the longer scale could be attributed to the effect of lithology. The latter appears to account for approximately 50% of the total variation in both surveys. These results have important implications for mapping radon and also for building programmes, insurance, etc. They also suggest that to estimate radon reliably at the local level by interpolation would generally require very intensive sampling, i.e. at a scale of metres rather than kilometres. However, stratification of an area based on geology, with sampling within the strata designed to estimate average radon concentrations optimally, would provide reasonable estimates in certain situations for somewhat less sampling effort. (author)

  10. Implication of post-glacial warming for Northern Alberta heat flow - correcting for the underestimate of the geothermal potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Gosnold, W.; Gray, A.; Šafanda, Jan; Klenner, R.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 693-698. ISSN 0193-5933 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geothermal energy potential * Canadian sedimentary basin * heat flow * paleoclimatic correction Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  11. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  12. Atividade antropofílica de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em área sob controle e vigilância Anthropophilic activity of Aedes aegypti and of Aedes albopictus in area under control and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Almério de Castro Gomes; José M. P. Souza; Denise Pimentel Bergamaschi; Jair L F dos Santos; Valmir Roberto Andrade; Odair F. Leite; Osias Rangel; Savina S L de Souza; Nair S N Guimarães; Virgília L. C. de Lima

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a atividade de hematofagia de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em área submetida ao controle e à vigilância entomológica. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de abril de 1993 a setembro de 1994, na cidade de Cosmópolis, Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se isca humana para coleta dos exemplares. Calculou-se o número médio mensal de fêmeas capturadas por domicílio segundo as áreas central e periférica do município e os locais intra e peridomiciliar. Apresenta-se o índice pluviométr...

  13. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  14. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC Gene in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr. Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established.A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested.A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations.Two novel kdr

  15. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC) Gene in Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiabao; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa; Cai, Songwu; Li, Yiji; Wang, Xiaoming; Lo, Eugenia; Lee, Rebecca; Sheen, Roger; Duan, Jinhua; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr). Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established. Methods A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested. Results A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T) was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S) was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5–22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations

  16. Analytical Approach to the Local Contact Potential Difference on (001) Ionic Surfaces:~Implications for Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquet, Franck; Nony, Laurent; Loppacher, Christian; Glatzel, Thilo

    2008-01-01

    An analytical model of the electrostatic force between the tip of a non-contact Atomic Force Microscope (nc-AFM) and the (001) surface of an ionic crystal is reported. The model is able to account for the atomic contrast of the local contact potential difference (CPD) observed while nc-AFM-based Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) experiments. With the goal in mind to put in evidence this short-range electrostatic force, the Madelung potential arising at the surface of the ionic crystal is p...

  17. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  18. Potential implications of a monosynaptic pathway from mossy cells to adult-born granule cells of the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Scharfman

    2015-08-01

    Here we first review fundamental information about MCs and the current hypotheses for their role in the normal DG and in diseases that involve the DG. Then we review previously published data which suggest that MCs are a source of input to a subset of GCs that are born in adulthood (adult-born GCs. In addition, we discuss the evidence that adult-born GCs may support the normal inhibitory 'gate' functions of the DG, where the GCs are a filter or gate for information from the entorhinal cortical input to area CA3. The implications are then discussed in the context of seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. In TLE, it has been suggested that the DG inhibitory gate is weak or broken and MC loss leads to insufficient activation of inhibitory neurons, causing hyperexcitability. That idea was called the “dormant basket cell hypothesis.” Recent data suggest that loss of normal adult-born GCs may also cause disinhibition, and seizure susceptibility. Therefore, we propose a reconsideration of the dormant basket cell hypothesis with an intervening adult-born GC between the MC and basket cell and call this hypothesis the “dormant immature granule cell hypothesis.”

  19. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence of Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurida): avenues for potential implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Costanzo, Francesca; Iorio, Raffaella; Aroch, Itamar; Lavy, Eran

    2007-05-31

    Canine spirocercosis is a life-threatening parasitosis caused by Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurida) that is presently emerging in several countries. This study characterised an informative region within the mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene encoding for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of S. lupi by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-coupled sequencing. Specimens from five different countries in Europe, Asia and Africa were examined and two different sequence variants of cox1 (i.e. haplotypes) were determined, displaying nucleotidic variation at 6 of 689 positions. All of these positions were invariable among all the parasite individuals from Europe (haplotype 1) and among the African and Asian individuals (haplotype 2), but differed between Europe and Asia/Africa. The S. lupi cox1 sequences were consistent with those of other common Spirurida previously reported at both nucleotidic and phylogenetic levels. This study provides molecular information essential for identification of the nematode, irrespective of its life cycle stage. Crucial implications for the specific molecular diagnosis of clinical spirocercosis and investigation of the evolution, population genetics, ecology and epidemiology of S. lupi are discussed. PMID:17428608

  20. The Potential Impacts of Climate Change Factors on Freshwater Eutrophication: Implications for Research and Countermeasures of Water Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water eutrophication has become one of the most serious aquatic environmental problems around the world. More and more research has indicated climate change as a major natural factor that will lead to the acceleration of eutrophication in rivers and lakes. However, understanding the mechanism of climate change’s effect on water eutrophication is difficult due to the uncertainties caused by its complex, non-linear process. There is considerable uncertainty about the magnitude of future temperature changes, and how these will drive eutrophication in water bodies at regional scales under the effect of human activities. This review collects the existing international and domestic literature from the last 10 years, discussing the most sensitive factors of climate change (i.e., temperature, precipitation, wind, and solar radiation and analyzing their interaction with water eutrophication. Case studies of serious eutrophication and algal bloom problems in China are discussed to further demonstrate the conclusion. Finally, adaptation countermeasures and related implications are proposed in order to foster the development of sustainability strategies for water management in China.

  1. Molecular crowding impacts the structure of apolipoprotein A-I with potential implications on in vivo metabolism and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrlova, Jitka; Hilt, Silvia; Budamagunta, Madhu; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Voss, John C; Lagerstedt, Jens O

    2016-10-01

    The effect molecular crowding, defined as the volume exclusion exerted by one soluble inert molecule upon another soluble molecule, has on the structure and self-interaction of lipid-free apoA-I were explored. The influence of molecular crowding on lipid-free apoA-I oligomerization and internal dynamics has been analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements of nitroxide spin label at selected positions throughout the protein sequence and at varying concentrations of the crowding agent Ficoll-70. The targeted positions include sites previously shown to be sensitive for detecting intermolecular interaction via spin-spin coupling. Circular dichroism was used to study secondary structural changes in lipid-free apoA-I imposed by increasing concentrations of the crowding agent. Crosslinking and SDS-PAGE gel analysis was employed to further characterize the role molecular crowding plays in inducing apoA-I oligomerization. It was concluded that the dynamic apoA-I structure and oligomeric state was altered in the presence of the crowding agent. It was also found that the C-terminal was slightly more sensitive to molecular crowding. Finally, the data described the region around residue 217 in the C-terminal domain of apoA-I as the most sensitive reporter of the crowding-induced self-association of apoA-I. The implications of this behavior to in vivo functionality are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 683-692, 2016. PMID:27122373

  2. High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl / NOx Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, James B.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-07-15

    Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and aerobic oxidation catalysis. In the present study, we investigate the electrochemical reduction of O2 with soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl), nor NOx species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective mediators of electrochemical O2 reduction. The combination of nitroxyl/NOx species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction at electrochemical potentials of 0.19–0.33 V (vs. Fc/Fc+) in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The high potentials observed with this ORR system benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NOx species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NOx species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. Teaching and Technology Transfer as Alternative Revenue Streams: A Primer on the Potential Legal Implications for UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…

  4. Health Care Expenditure among People with Disabilities: Potential Role of Workplace Health Promotion and Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpur, Arun; Bruyere, Susanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace health-promotion programs have the potential to reduce health care expenditures, especially among people with disabilities. Utilizing nationally representative survey data, the authors provide estimates for health care expenditures related to secondary conditions, obesity, and health behaviors among working-age people with disabilities.…

  5. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia F Oliva

    Full Text Available Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs.

  6. Larvicidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against aedes albopictus and formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Sung-Woong; Hyun, Jinho; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-11-18

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase with their components. Of the 12 plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), caraway seed (Carum carvi), carrot seed (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) resulted in >90% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Of the compounds identified, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, γ-terpinene, cuminaldehyde, neral, (S)-+-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, carvacrol, myristicin, apiol, and carotol resulted in >80% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Two days after treatment, 24.69, 3.64, and 12.43% of the original amounts of the celery, cumin, and parsley oils, respectively, remained in the water. Less than 50% of the original amounts of α-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, cuminaldehyde, and trans-antheole were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. Carvacrol, α-pinene, and β-pinene inhibited the activity of Ae. albopictus acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.190 mg/mL, respectively. A spherical microemulsion of parsley essential oil-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared, and the larvicidal activity of this formulation was shown to be similar to that of parsley oil. PMID:26500081

  7. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  8. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for "natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  9. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Hammond, John I.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for “natural” DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject’s hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  10. Chikungunya Viral Fitness Measures within the Vector and Subsequent Transmission Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wearing, Helen J.; Mores, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein) was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South A...

  11. Replication of GWAS Coding SNPs Implicates MMEL1 as a Potential Susceptibility Locus among Saudi Arabian Celiac Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Omar I.; Shaik, Noor Ahmad; Banaganapalli, Babajan; Salama, Mohammed A.; Al-Harthi, Sameer E.; Wang, Jun; Shawoosh, Harbi A.; Alghamdi, Sharifa A.; Bin-Taleb, Yagoub Y.; Alhussaini, Bakr H.; Elango, Ramu; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD), a gluten intolerance disorder, was implicated to have 57 genetic susceptibility loci for Europeans but not for culturally and geographically distinct ethnic populations like Saudi Arabian CD patients. Therefore, we genotyped Saudi CD patients and healthy controls for three polymorphisms, that is, Phe196Ser in IRAK1, Trp262Arg in SH2B3, and Met518Thr in MMEL1 genes. Single locus analysis identified that carriers of the 518 Thr/Thr (MMEL1) genotype conferred a 1.6-fold increased disease risk compared to the noncarriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.22–5.54; P < 0.01). This significance persisted even under allelic (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.05–2.28; P = 0.02) and additive (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.17–0.71; P = 0.03) genetic models. However, frequencies for Trp262Arg (SH2B3) and Phe196Ser (IRAK1) polymorphisms were not significantly different between patients and controls. The overall best MDR model included Met518Thr and Trp262Arg polymorphisms, with a maximal testing accuracy of 64.1% and a maximal cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10 (P = 0.0156). Allelic distribution of the 518 Thr/Thr polymorphism in MMEL1 primarily suggests its independent and synergistic contribution towards CD susceptibility among Saudi patients. Lack of significant association of IRAK and SH2B3 gene polymorphisms in Saudi patients but their association in European groups suggests the genetic heterogeneity of CD. PMID:26843707

  12. Germination of Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow seeds in relation to soil water potential: implications for rehabilitation of a threatened ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Arnold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Initial soil water conditions play a critical role when seeding is the primary approach to revegetate post-mining areas. In some semi-arid climates, such as the Brigalow Belt Bioregion in eastern Australia, extensive areas are affected by open-cut mining. Together with erratic rainfall patterns and clayey soils, the Brigalow Belt denotes a unique biome which is representative of other water-limited ecosystems worldwide. Apart from other environmental stressors, germination is governed by the water potential of the surrounding soil material. While previous studies have confirmed the high tolerance of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla seeds to a broad range of temperature and salinity, the question of how soil water potential triggers seed germination remains. In this study, we used three replicates of 50 seeds of Brigalow to investigate germination in relation to water potential as an environmental stressor. Solutions of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000 were applied to expose seeds to nine osmotic water potentials ranging from soil water saturation (0 MPa and field capacity (−.01 to −.03 MPa to the permanent wilting point (−1.5 MPa. We measured germinability (number of germinated seeds relative to total number of seeds per lot and mean germination time (mean time required for maximum germination of a seed lot to quantify germination. Based on the empirical data of the germination we estimated the parameters of the hydrotime model which simulates timing and success of seed emergence. Our findings indicate that Brigalow seeds are remarkably tolerant to water stress, with germination being observed at a water potential as low as −1.5 MPa. Likewise, the average base water potential of a seed population (hydrotime model was very low and ranged between −1.533 and −1.451 MPa. In general, Brigalow seeds germinate opportunistically over a broad range of abiotic conditions related to temperature, salinity, and water availability. Direct seeding and

  13. Germination of Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow) seeds in relation to soil water potential: implications for rehabilitation of a threatened ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Sven; Kailichova, Yolana; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Initial soil water conditions play a critical role when seeding is the primary approach to revegetate post-mining areas. In some semi-arid climates, such as the Brigalow Belt Bioregion in eastern Australia, extensive areas are affected by open-cut mining. Together with erratic rainfall patterns and clayey soils, the Brigalow Belt denotes a unique biome which is representative of other water-limited ecosystems worldwide. Apart from other environmental stressors, germination is governed by the water potential of the surrounding soil material. While previous studies have confirmed the high tolerance of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) seeds to a broad range of temperature and salinity, the question of how soil water potential triggers seed germination remains. In this study, we used three replicates of 50 seeds of Brigalow to investigate germination in relation to water potential as an environmental stressor. Solutions of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000) were applied to expose seeds to nine osmotic water potentials ranging from soil water saturation (0 MPa) and field capacity (-.01 to -.03 MPa) to the permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa). We measured germinability (number of germinated seeds relative to total number of seeds per lot) and mean germination time (mean time required for maximum germination of a seed lot) to quantify germination. Based on the empirical data of the germination we estimated the parameters of the hydrotime model which simulates timing and success of seed emergence. Our findings indicate that Brigalow seeds are remarkably tolerant to water stress, with germination being observed at a water potential as low as -1.5 MPa. Likewise, the average base water potential of a seed population (hydrotime model) was very low and ranged between -1.533 and -1.451 MPa. In general, Brigalow seeds germinate opportunistically over a broad range of abiotic conditions related to temperature, salinity, and water availability. Direct seeding and germination of native

  14. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.; La Cour Jansen, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but the...... inhibition was reduced by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of the included pharmaceuticals could be seen....

  15. Language Processing in Reading and Speech Perception is Fast and Incremental: Implications for Event Related Potential Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Keith; Clifton, Charles

    2008-01-01

    An overview of language processing during reading and listening is provided. Evidence is reviewed indicating that language processing in both domains is fast and incremental. We also discuss some aspects of normal reading and listening that are often obscured in event related potential (ERP) research. We also discuss some apparent limitations of ERP techniques, as well as some recent indications that EEG measures can be used to probe how lexical knowledge and lexical or structural expectation...

  16. On the implication of environmental policy on growth in an OLG model with pollution permits and potential irreversible pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie, Alain; Prieur, Fabien; Tidball, Mabel; European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists

    2007-01-01

    We consider an OLG model with emissions arising from production and potential irreversible pollution. Pollution control goes through a system of permits and private agents can also maintain the environment. In this setting, we prove that there exist multiple equilibria. Due to the possible irreversibility, the economy can be dragged into both stationary and asymptotic poverty traps. First, we show that choosing a global quota on emissions at the lowest level beyond a critical threshold is a m...

  17. On the implication of environmental policy on growth in an OLG model with pollution permits and potential irreversible pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie, Alain; Prieur, Fabien; Tidball, Mabel

    2007-01-01

    International audience This paper develops an OLG model with emissions arising from production and potential irreversible pollution. Pollution control goes through a system of permits and private agents can also maintain the environment. In this setting, we prove that there exist multiple equilibria. Due to the possible irreversibility, the economy can be dragged into both stationary and asymptotic poverty traps. First, we show that choosing a global quota on emissions at the lowest level ...

  18. Micronutrient malnutrition, obesity, and chronic disease in countries undergoing the nutrition transition: potential links and program/policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhardt, Cara L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential long-term effects of micronutrient malnutrition in early childhood on obesity and related disease outcomes. The links between early micronutrient malnutrition, stunting, and subsequent short adult stature — emerging risk factors for obesity and associated chronic diseases—are reviewed. This paper also explores recent literature linking micronutrient malnutrition in adults to increased risk and severity of chronic disease. Finally, this paper discusses the pr...

  19. Teaching and technology transfer as alternative revenue streams: a primer on the potential legal implications for UK universities

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to the prestige of their university and departmental brand. Design: A theoretical and analytical approach is adopted ...

  20. Trace element geochemistry of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo silicic melts, Philippines: Implications for ore-forming potential of adakitic magmatism.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Y. Borisova; M. Pichavant; M. Polve; Michael Wiedenbeck; Freydier, R.; F. Candaudap

    2006-01-01

    The dacite pumice erupted from Mt. Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 (whole-rock, rhyolitic groundmass glasses and homogenized melt inclusions) has been analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation ICP-MS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to evaluate its ore-forming potential. Data suggest that adakite magmas are metal-rich and concentrate ore metals during magmatic differentiation. Sulfides segregate in limited amounts under...

  1. Potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil of the Kurdistan region of Iraq and implications for human health

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Karzan

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly increasing human population has resulted in the expansion of urban areas and an associated increase in the demand for food . Consequently, urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA), using waste water as a source for irrigation, is increasingly common around the world, particularly in developing countries. Although UPA plays a crucial role in supplying food to urban populations, the quality of that food may be affected by accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the soil a...

  2. Analytical Approach to the Local Contact Potential Difference on (001) Ionic Surfaces: Implications for Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, Franck; Loppacher, Christian; Glatzel, Thilo

    2008-01-01

    An analytical model of the electrostatic force between the tip of a non-contact Atomic Force Microscope (nc-AFM) and the (001) surface of an ionic crystal is reported. The model is able to account for the atomic contrast of the local contact potential difference (CPD) observed while nc-AFM-based Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) experiments. With the goal in mind to put in evidence this short-range electrostatic force, the Madelung potential arising at the surface of the ionic crystal is primarily derived. The expression of the force which is deduced can be split into two major contributions: the first stands for the coupling between the microscopic structure of the tip apex and the capacitor formed between the tip, the ionic crystal and the counter-electrode; the second term depicts the influence of the Madelung surface potential on the mesoscopic part of the tip, independently from its microscopic structure. These short-range electrostatic forces are in the range of ten pico-Newtons. When explicitly cons...

  3. The use of green waste from tourist attractions for renewable energy production: The potential and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying potential renewable energy sources from tourist attractions is a pivotal initial step in developing energy policies and strategies for low-carbon tourist industry development. Although solar energy and wind power have been in use for providing power for tourist attractions, the value of using waste biomass for energy production is still poorly understood. Here we advocate a promising approach that produces energy from green waste created by tourism attractions currently existing in large numbers and is still increasing dramatically. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China as an example, we evaluated the potential of utilizing green waste to produce energy from 385 tourist attractions in 16 cities of this region. Our results showed that the total potential energy production using the green waste biomass was estimated at 6740 TJ/yr (1 TJ=1012 J) with an average of 137 GJ/ha/yr (1 GJ=109 J), accounting for 6% (the average of the Yangtze River Delta, some scenic areas up to 93%) of YRD′s tourism industry′s energy consumption in 2008. The use of green waste for energy production is possible using current technology and could result in a win–win approach by reducing waste and increasing the renewable energy yields. -- Highlights: •Green waste from tourist attractions could help offset the tourist′s fossil fuel consumption. •Economic, technical, and social feasibility analysis of green waste for energy production. •Puts forward policy recommendations, from management regulations, public support etc

  4. Coral reef ecosystem decline: changing dynamics of coral reef carbonate production and implications for reef growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Global-scale deteriorations in coral reef health have caused major shifts in species composition and are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. It has been suggested that one effect of these ecological changes will be to lower reef carbonate production rates, which will impair reef growth potential and, ultimately, may lead to states of net reef erosion. However, quantitative data to support such assertions are limited, and linkages between the ecological state of coral reefs and their past and present geomorphic performance (in other words their growth potential) are poorly resolved. Using recently collected data from sites in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, and which have undergone very different post-disturbance ecological trajectories over the last ~20-30 years, the differential impacts of disturbance on contemporary carbonate production regimes and on reef growth potential can be explored. In the Caribbean, a region which has been severely impacted ecological over the last 30+ years, our datasets show that average carbonate production rates on reefs are now less than 50% of pre-disturbance rates, and that calculated accretion rates (mm yr-1) are an about order of magnitude lower within shallow water habitats compared to Holocene averages. Collectively, these data suggest that recent ecological declines are now propagating through the system to impact on the geomorphic performance of Caribbean reefs and will impair their future growth potential. In contrast, the carbonate budgets of most reefs across the Chagos archipelago (central Indian Ocean), which is geographically remote and largely isolated from direct human disturbances, have recovered rapidly from major past disturbances (specifically the 1998 coral bleaching event). The carbonate budgets on these remote reefs now average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, which were most severely impacted by the 1998 bleaching event, average +8.4 G

  5. Characterization of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera:Culicidae larval habitats near the Amazon River in Colombia Caracterización preliminar de los sitios de cría de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae en el municipio de Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alberto Olano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Because the role of Aedes albopictus as an incriminated vector of several viral pathogens, its control is important to human health. To establish appropriate control methods, characterization of the larval habitats is a necessary first step.
    Objective. Habitats of the immature stages of Ae. albopictus were characterized with respect to physical-chemical parameters and by floral and faunal arrays present.
    Materials and methods. Leticia is located at the southernmost tip of Colombia on the banks of the Amazon River. In the urban area, 154 houses were inspected in December 2002 and January 2003. Physical-chemical data were collected, including exposure to sunlight, location, container size and material, water conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. Macroinvertebrates and plankton samples were taken at each positive larval site. The results were compared using descriptive analysis, principal component analysis, classification dendrograms, and diversity indexes.
    Results. Twenty-one habitats were found positive for Diptera, and 13 were positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Most of the positive habitats (92% were located near the houses--they were small or medium size receptacles located in the shade. This water generally had low conductivity and low turbidity, although high values of these parameters were also identified. The habitats had low diversity indexes for macroinvertebrates and high diversity indexes for plankton. In the principal component analysis, significant correlation was found with mites, oligochaetes and hemipterans (the macroinvertebrates and with bacilarophyceaes, clorophyceaes and cianophyceas (the algal forms.
    Conclusion. In Leticia, females of Ae. albopictus were found in newly established habitats with sufficient availability of resources, low conductivity, and turbidity, lower intra-and interspecific competition.Introducción. Dada la importancia de Aedes albopictus en la salud pública, es necesario

  6. Assessing the volcanic styles of the North Atlantic Igneous Province and their potential implications for the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerram, Dougal; Reynolds, Peter; Jones, Morgan; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Millett, John; Galland, Olivier; Angkasa, Syahreza; Schofield, Nick; Howell, John

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the role that large igneous provinces play in changing climatic conditions, it is important to constrain the different styles of volcanism and their volumes, both temporally and spatially. Regional variations in palaeo-environment as well as different volcanic materials (basic-acidic) can all have effects on the eruption styles, and determine whether eruptions effectively release gases into the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) covers a vast area as well as a significant time span, having formed at 60-55 Ma. Importantly, its' formation is implicated in the climatic perturbations at the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The products of volcanism in the NAIP range from lava flows and hyaloclastites to more explosive tephra forming eruptions from both basaltic and more evolved eruptions. The explosive end member styles of both mafic and felsic volcanism also produce ash beds in the rock record at key times. Hydrothermal vent structures which are predominantly related with the emplacement of large (>1000 km3) intrusions into the subvolcanic basins in the NAIP are another style of eruption, where climate-forcing gases can be transferred into the atmosphere and hydrosphere. In this case, the types and volumes of gas produced by intrusions is heavily dependent on the host-rock sediment properties that they intrude through. The distribution of vent structures can be shown to be widespread on both the Norwegian and the Greenland margins of the NAIP. In this overview we assess the main eruption styles, deposits and their distribution within the NAIP using mapped examples from offshore seismic data as well as outcrop analogues, highlighting the variability of these structures and their deposits. As the availability of 3D data from offshore and onshore increases, the full nature of the volcanic stratigraphy from the subvolcanic intrusive complexes, through the main eruption cycles into the piercing vent

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest fragmentation and its potential implications for carbon dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, I.; Cochrane, M.

    2012-12-01

    Vast tracts of Amazonian tropical rain forest have been converted to human land uses in recent decades as regional development proceeds. Large losses of forest cover are exacerbated because remaining forests are fragmented into smaller habitats. The current basin-wide status and implications of forest fragmentation on remnant forests and regional carbon dynamics are not well known. We performed a regional forest fragmentation analysis for the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010 using INPE PRODES data. During the past decade, the number of forest fragments doubled, nearly 125,000 fragments were formed, with more than 50% being smaller than 10 ha. Forest edges increased by 36,335 km/year on average over the study period. However, the rate was much greater from 2001-2005 (50,046 km/year) than 2006-2010 (25,365 km/year) when deforestation rates dropped drastically. In 2010, 55% of basin-wide forest edges were Amazon. Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation varied according to annual deforestation rates and increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions in 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, respectively. As of 2010, 17% of Amazonian forests are within 1km of forest edges, making them easily accessible and vulnerable to degradation. On the other hand, 51% of remaining forests across the basin are within protected areas and only 1.5% has been deforested within 1 km of a forest edge, while, unprotected forests, 1km-edge forests averaged 34% deforestation. The state of Rondônia, where 95% of unprotected forests are within 1km of edges in 2010, emits the largest amount of carbon unit area of forest edge (4.7Mg/km2), while overall edge-related carbon across the Amazon is 2.7 Mg/km2. Our results indicate that the Brazilian Amazon now largely consists of two contrasting forest conditions: protected areas with vast

  8. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  9. Dispersion of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 in the rural zone of north Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-two tyres were placed in four transects (Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western, every 5 km, from the Londrina city limits to the rural areas, to verify the dispersion of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus vectors. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from August 1998 to August 1999. Data were organized according to the average number of larvae collected for each species in each collection site. A total of 62,517 mosquito larvae were collected and distributed into the following species: Aedes albopictus (21.71%; Ae. aegypti (5.54%; Ae. terrens (0.53%; Ae. fluviatilis (0.36%; Anopheles argyritarsi (0.01%; Culex quinquefasciatus (48.37%; Cx. mollis (8.88%; Cx. eduardoi (8.65%; Cx. corniger (0.61%; Cx. bigoti (0.24%; Cx. grupo coronator (0.12%; Limatus durhanii (4.61% e Toxorhynchites sp. (0.32%. There was a drastic decrease in the Ae. aegypti population from the city limits to the rural area (x1= 21.72 ± 4.71; x2=0.00 and an increase in the population of Ae. albopictus (x1 = 15.64 ± 2.73; x2 = 38.37 ± 8.87. Aedes aegypti was not present in the collection sites located 30 km away from the urban area; however, Ae. albopictus was found in all the sites. Although the frequency rate for the Aedes aegypti was low, both species were dispersed in the rural area studied. The redimensioning of these vectors’ control areas is recommended since rural areas can function as reservoirs for these species.Com o objetivo de avaliar a dispersão de Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus para a área rural, foram instalados pneus em quatro transectos (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste, a cada 5 Km, do limite da zona urbana de Londrina em direção a zona rural. Larvas de Culicidae foram coletadas quinzenalmente de agosto de 1998 a agosto de 1999. Um total de 62.517 larvas de Culicidae foram coletadas, distribuídas entre as seguintes espécies: Aedes albopictus (21.71%; Ae. aegypti (5.54%; Ae. terrens (0.53%; Ae. fluviatilis (0.36%; Anopheles argyritarsi (0

  10. The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

    2011-08-01

    The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (Pspp. (Pspp. PMID:22041743

  11. An atomic string model for a screw dislocation in iron: Implications for the development of interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally activated motion of screw dislocations is the rate-determining mechanism for plastic deformation and fracture of body centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys. Recent experimental observations by S.G. Roberts' group at Oxford showed that ductile-brittle behaviour of bcc vanadium, tungsten, pure iron, and iron-chromium alloys is controlled by an Arrhenius process in which the energy for thermal activation is proportional to the formation energy for a double kink on a b= 1/2 screw dislocation, where b is the Burgers vector of the dislocation. Interpreting these experimental observations and extending the analysis to the case of irradiated materials requires developing a full quantitative treatment for perfect and kinked screw dislocations. Modelling screw dislocations also presents a challenge for the development of interatomic potentials. Recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations have revealed that the ground-state structure of the core of screw dislocations in all the bcc transition metals is non-degenerate and symmetric, whereas inter-atomic potentials used in molecular dynamics simulations for these metals often predict a degenerate, symmetry-broken core-structure. In this work we show how, by treating the structure of a screw dislocation within a multistring Frenkel-Kontorova model, we can develop a criterion that guarantees the correct symmetric core of the dislocation. Extending this treatment, we find a systematic recipe for constructing Finnis-Sinclair-type potentials that are able, as a matter of routine, produce non-degenerate core structures of 1/2 screw dislocations. Modelling thermally activated mobility of screw dislocations also requires that the transition pathway between stable core positions of a dislocation is accurately reproduced. DFT data indicates that the shape of the 'Peierls energy barrier' is a single-hump curve, including transitional configurations close to the so-called 'hard' structure. Interatomic potentials have, up

  12. Implications of higher energy - summary of benefits, issues, commissioning cost, SEU, Cryo, QPS margins, Potential availability issues

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is technically almost ready to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012. Nevertheless, a review of the advantages and disadvantages of such an energy step should be carefully made before taking this decision. There fore, this paper will summarize the benefits from the physics point of view; the potential issues like a possible increase of Single Event Errors , Unidentified Flying Objects, or a significant decrease of the quench margin from beam losses that, all in all , could lead to availability issues, compromising the integrated luminosity. And last but not least, the commissioning cost will be addressed.

  13. Seasonal variation in size estimates of Aedes albopictus population based on standard mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area on Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier; Dumont, Yves; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the sterile insect technique for area-wide vector control requires that natural population density be accurately estimated to determine both the appropriate time to treat and the adequate number of sterile males for release. Herein, we used mark-release-recapture (MRR) to derive seasonal abundance estimates of Aedes albopictus population sizes within a delimited geographical area in Reunion Island. Population size of Ae. albopictus was estimated through four mark-release-recapture experiments carried out separately in different seasons. Marked males and females were released each time, and recaptured using BG sentinel traps for six consecutive days. Data were used to estimate the population size using a conceptual model that incorporates the variation in daily mortality rates. The likely influence of environmental factors on the magnitude of catches and on population fluctuation was analyzed. A total of 2827 mosquitoes (1914 males and 913 females) were marked and released on four occasions during dry and wet seasons. After release, 138 males (7.21%) and 86 females (9.41%) of the marked specimens were recaptured in subsequent samplings. The effectiveness of the daily captures of wild and released mosquitoes was significantly influenced by meteorological conditions such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and light intensity. The estimates of Ae. albopictus population size obtained with our model estimator ranged from 298 to 1238 males and 604 to 2208 females per ha, with seasonal variability - higher population size in the humid season. The presented results will be essential in designing more effective sterile male release strategies for long-term suppression of wild Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:25592432

  14. Effects of irradiation, presence of females, and sugar supply on the longevity of sterile males Aedes albopictus (Skuse) under semi-field conditions on Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, C. F.; Maier, M. J.; Gilles, J.; Jacquet, Maxime; Lempérière, Guy; Quilici, S.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Schooneman, F.; Chadee, D.D.; Boyer, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for reducing populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), (the vector of Chikungunya and Dengue fever), was studied in Reunion Island. For some mosquito species the sterilization process and mating activity may alter male survival. Most previous studies were carried out in the laboratory and may inadequately reflect the field situation. We conducted a semi-field experiment to evaluate the impact of sugar supply and mating activity ...

  15. The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63 ± 4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18 ± 1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39 ± 3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20 ± 2 s) or male's rejection (22 ± 2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7 ± 0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs. PMID

  16. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  17. Repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Hunter, James S; McCall, John W.; Kaufmann, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Young, David R.; Carroll, Scott P; McCall, Scott; Chester, S. Theodore; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Background Three laboratory studies were conducted to assess the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri- Act®/Frontect®) against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs. Methods In each study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the new topical spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin on Day 0 and the other eight dogs served as untreated control...

  18. Repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Hunter, James S; McCall, John W.; Kaufmann, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Young, David R.; Carroll, Scott P; McCall, Scott; Chester, S. Theodore; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three laboratory studies were conducted to assess the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri- Act®/Frontect®) against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs. METHODS: In each study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the new topical spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin on Day 0 and the other eight dogs served as untreated co...

  19. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational cei...

  20. Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O'Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ce...

  1. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro; Onilda Santos Silva; Jonny Edward Duque Luna; Carla Fernanda Piccoli; Luiz Alberto Kanis; Mario Antonio Navarro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggr...

  2. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gregory M.; Ary Faraji; Isik Unlu; Sean P Healy; Muhammad Farooq; Randy Gaugler; George Hamilton; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG)...

  3. 白纹伊蚊的全球分布及扩散趋势%Trend in global distribution and spread of Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒然; 刘起勇

    2013-01-01

    白纹伊蚊,亦称“亚洲虎蚊”,是我国常见蚊种之一;它是一种重要的病毒媒介,可以传播多种病原体.近年来,白纹伊蚊已从起源地亚洲扩散至全球70多个国家,成为过去20年间全球扩散速度最快的100种物种之一.白纹伊蚊的迁移和扩散已引起全世界的关注,现从时间和空间的角度对白纹伊蚊的全球分布和扩散趋势进行综述,并探讨白纹伊蚊扩散的影响及控制措施.%Aedes albopictus, also named "Asian Tiger mosquito, is a common mosquito species in China. Ae. Albopictus is an important vector for a large number of pathogens. In recent years, it has spread from Asia to at least 70 countries worldwide, among the world s top 100 animals that spread most rapidly over the past 20 years. The migration and spread of Ae. Albopictus have drawn global attention. This paper aims to review the trend in global distribution and spread of Ae. Albopictus from the perspectives of time and space and investigate the influence of its spread and the related control measures.

  4. Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Seasonal-Long Insecticide-Based Control Strategy against Aedes albopictus Nuisance in an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Beniamino; Manica, Mattia; D’Alessandro, Antonello; Bottà, Giordano; Filipponi, Federico; Protano, Carmela; Vitali, Matteo; Rosà, Roberto; della Torre, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal-long larvicide treatments and/or outdoor space-spray applications of insecticides are frequently applied to reduce Aedes albopictus nuisance in urban areas of temperate regions, where the species has become a permanent pest affecting people’s quality of life and health. However, assessments of the effectiveness of sequential interventions is a difficult task, as it requires to take into account the cumulative and combined effect of multiple treatments, as well as the mosquito seasona...

  5. Oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica L. leaf extract against dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahbirami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Dieng, Hamady; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Fadzly, Nik; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2014-09-01

    Bioprospecting of plant-based insecticides for vector control has become an area of interest within the last two decades. Due to drawbacks of chemical insecticides, phytochemicals of plant origin with mosquito control potential are being utilized as alternative sources in integrated vector control. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica (L.) (Family: Convolvulaceae) crude leaf extract against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Ipomoea cairica is an indigenous plant that has demonstrated marked toxicity towards larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaves of I. cairica were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with acetone as solvent. Oviposition deterrent activity and ovicidal assay was carried out in oviposition site choice tests with three different concentrations (50, 100, 450 ppm). Acetone extract of I. cairica leaf strongly inhibited oviposition with 100% repellence to Ae. aegypti at lower concentration of 100 ppm, while for Ae. albopictus was at 450 ppm. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values which ranged from -0.69 to -1.00 revealed that I. cairica demonstrated deterrent effect. In ovicidal assay, similar trend was observed whereby zero hatchability was recorded for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus eggs at 100 and 450 ppm, respectively. It is noteworthy that I. cairica leaf extract had significantly elicited dual properties as oviposition deterrent and oviciding agent in both Aedes species. Reduction in egg number through oviposition deterring activity, reduction in hatching percentage and survival rates, suggested an additional hallmark of this plant to be integrated in Aedes mosquito control. Ipomoea cairica deserved to be considered as one of the potential alternative sources for the new development of novel plant based insecticides in future. PMID:25382472

  6. Comparison of Mutation Profiles in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene among Populations: Implications for Potential Molecular Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Berenice López-Hernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel therapeutic approaches are emerging to restore dystrophin function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD, a severe neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Some of the molecular therapies, such as exon skipping, stop codon read-through and internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation rely on the type and location of mutations. Hence, their potential applicability worldwide depends on mutation frequencies within populations. In view of this, we compared the mutation profiles of the populations represented in the DMD Leiden Open-source Variation Database with original data from Mexican patients (n = 162 with clinical diagnosis of the disease. Our data confirm that applicability of exon 51 is high in most populations, but also show that differences in theoretical applicability of exon skipping may exist among populations; Mexico has the highest frequency of potential candidates for the skipping of exons 44 and 46, which is different from other populations (p < 0.001. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive comparison of theoretical applicability of exon skipping targets among specific populations.

  7. African American Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials-Focus on Prostate Cancer: Implications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders. PMID:26786562

  8. Outlier identification and visualization for Pb concentrations in urban soils and its implications for identification of potential contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outliers in urban soil geochemical databases may imply potential contaminated land. Different methodologies which can be easily implemented for the identification of global and spatial outliers were applied for Pb concentrations in urban soils of Galway City in Ireland. Due to its strongly skewed probability feature, a Box-Cox transformation was performed prior to further analyses. The graphic methods of histogram and box-and-whisker plot were effective in identification of global outliers at the original scale of the dataset. Spatial outliers could be identified by a local indicator of spatial association of local Moran's I, cross-validation of kriging, and a geographically weighted regression. The spatial locations of outliers were visualised using a geographical information system. Different methods showed generally consistent results, but differences existed. It is suggested that outliers identified by statistical methods should be confirmed and justified using scientific knowledge before they are properly dealt with. - Outliers in urban geochemical databases can be detected to provide guidance for identification of potential contaminated land.

  9. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyas Kudukkil P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae. aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp, envelope E1 (505 bp and E2 (428 bp identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220 that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes.

  10. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyas, Kudukkil P; Abraham, Rachy; Unnikrishnan, Ramakrishnan Nair; Mathew, Thomas; Nair, Sajith; Manakkadan, Anoop; Issac, Aneesh; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR) and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp), envelope E1 (505 bp) and E2 (428 bp) identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220) that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT) of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes. PMID:20704755

  11. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  12. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Micrococcus luteus strain O'Kane implicates metabolic versatility and the potential to degrade polyhydroxybutyrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Radwa A; Couger, M B; Baker, Kristina; Murphy, Chelsea; O'Kane, Shannon D; Budd, Connie; French, Donald P; Hoff, Wouter D; Youssef, Noha

    2016-09-01

    Micrococcus luteus is a predominant member of skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Micrococcus luteus strain O'Kane that was isolated from an elevator. The partial genome assembly of Micrococcus luteus strain O'Kane is 2.5 Mb with 2256 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA genes. Genomic analysis revealed metabolic versatility with genes involved in the metabolism and transport of glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, serine, cysteine, methionine, arginine, proline, histidine, phenylalanine, and fatty acids. Genomic comparison to other M. luteus representatives identified the potential to degrade polyhydroxybutyrates, as well as several antibiotic resistance genes absent from other genomes. PMID:27583205

  14. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture

  15. Wellbore and groundwater temperature distribution eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Implications for groundwater flow and geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Richard P.; Smith, Robert W.; Blackwell, David D.; Roback, Robert C.; Sondrup, Andrus J.

    2016-06-01

    A map of groundwater temperatures from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) regional aquifer can be used to identify and interpret important features of the aquifer, including aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. The ESRP is an area of high heat flow, yet most of this thermal energy fails to reach the surface, due to the heat being swept downgradient by the aquifer to the major spring complexes near Thousand Springs, ID, a distance of 300 km. Nine deep boreholes that fully penetrate the regional aquifer display three common features: (1) high thermal gradients beneath the aquifer, corresponding to high conductive heat flow in low-permeability hydrothermally-altered rocks; (2) isothermal temperature profiles within the aquifer, characteristic of an actively flowing groundwater; and (3) moderate thermal gradients in the vadose zone with values that indicate that over half of the geothermal heat flow is removed by advective transport in the regional aquifer system. This study utilized temperature data from 250 ESRP aquifer wells to evaluate regional aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. Because the thermal gradients are typically low in the aquifer, any measurement of groundwater temperature is a reasonable estimate of temperature throughout the aquifer thickness, allowing the construction of a regional aquifer temperature map for the ESRP. Mapped temperatures are used to identify cold thermal plumes associated with recharge from tributary valleys and adjacent uplands, and warm zones associated with geothermal input to the aquifer. Warm zones in the aquifer can have various causes, including local circulation of groundwater through the deep conductively dominated region, slow groundwater movement in low-permeability regions, or localized heat flow from deeper thermal features.

  16. The effect of post-mastectomy radiation therapy on breast implants: Unveiling biomaterial alterations with potential implications on capsular contracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribuffo, Diego; Lo Torto, Federico [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Giannitelli, Sara M. [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Urbini, Marco; Tortora, Luca [Surface Analysis Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Physics, University “Roma Tre”, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); INFN — National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Mozetic, Pamela; Trombetta, Marcella [Tissue Engineering Unit, Department of Engineering, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia [Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00173 Rome (Italy); Tombolini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Spencer-Lorillard Foundation, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome (Italy); Cassese, Raffaele [Department of Radiation Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, Nicolò [Department of Plastic Surgery, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00166 Rome (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction with expanders and implants is recognized as an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Its main complication is represented by capsular contracture, which leads to poor expansion, breast deformation, and pain, often requiring additional surgery. In such a scenario, the debate continues as to whether the second stage of breast reconstruction should be performed before or after post-mastectomy radiation therapy, in light of potential alterations induced by irradiation to silicone biomaterial. This work provides a novel, multi-technique approach to unveil the role of radiotherapy in biomaterial alterations, with potential involvement in capsular contracture. Following irradiation, implant shells underwent mechanical, chemical, and microstructural evaluation by means of tensile testing, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high resolution stylus profilometry, and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Our findings are consistent with radiation-induced modifications of silicone that, although not detectable at the microscale, can be evidenced by more sophisticated nanoscale surface analyses. In light of these results, biomaterial irradiation cannot be ruled out as one of the possible co-factors underlying capsular contracture. - Highlights: • The debate continues whether to perform breast reconstruction before or after PMRT. • Radiation therapy may alter implant material, concurring to capsular contracture. • In this work, irradiated implants were investigated by a multi-technique approach. • Radiation-induced alterations could be evidenced by ATR/FTIR and ToF-SIMS. • Reported alteration might represent a co-factor underlying capsular contracture.

  17. Canine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Potential and the Importance of Dog Breed: Implication for Cell-Based Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolo, Alessandro; Steffen, Frank; Malonzo-Marty, Cherry; Stoyanov, Jivko

    2015-01-01

    The study of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a prominent position in veterinary cell-based applications. Yet the plethora of breeds, their different life spans, and interbreed variations provide unclearness on what can be achieved specifically by such therapies. In this study, we compared a set of morphological, physiological, and genetic markers of MSCs derived from large dog breeds, namely, Border collie, German shepherd, Labrador, Malinois, Golden retriever, and Hovawart. We compared colony-forming units (CFUs) assay, population doubling time (PDT), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, telomere length, and gene expression of MSCs, as well as the ability of cells to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic phenotypes. The influence of the culture media α-MEM, low-glucose DMEM, and high-glucose DMEM, used in cell isolation and expansion, was investigated in the presence and absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Initial cell yield was not affected by culturing medium, but MSCs expanded best in α-MEM supplemented with bFGF. After isolation, the number of MSCs was similar among breeds--as shown by equivalent CFUs--except in the Hovawart samples, which had fivefold less CFU. Telomere lengths were similar among breeds. MSCs divided actively only for 4 weeks in culture (PDT = ∼50 h/division), except Border collie cells divided for a longer time than cells from other groups. The percentage of senescent cells increased linearly in all breeds with time, with a faster rate in German shepherd, Labrador, and Golden retriever. Border collie cells underwent efficient osteogenic differentiation, Hovawart cells performed the best in chondrogenic differentiation, and Labrador cells in both, while German shepherd cells had the lower differentiation potential. MSCs from all breeds preserved the same adipogenic differentiation potential. In conclusion, despite variations, isolated MSCs can be

  18. Assessing Potential Implications of Climate Change for Long-Term Water Resources Planning in the Colorado River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munevar, A.; Butler, S.; Anderson, R.; Rippole, J.

    2008-12-01

    While much of the focus on climate change impacts to water resources in the western United States has been related to snow-dominated watersheds, lower elevation basins such as the Colorado River Basin in Texas are dependent on rainfall as the predominant form of precipitation and source of supply. Water management in these basins has evolved to adapt to extreme climatic and hydrologic variability, but the impact of climate change is potentially more acute due to rapid runoff response and subsequent greater soil moisture depletion during the dry seasons. The Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) - San Antonio Water System (SAWS) Water Project is being studied to conserve water, develop conjunctive groundwater supplies, and capture excess and unused river flows to meet future water needs for two neighboring regions in Texas. Agricultural and other rural water needs would be met on a more reliable basis in the lower Colorado River Basin through water conservation, surface water development and limited groundwater production. Surface water would be transferred to the San Antonio area to meet municipal needs in quantities still being evaluated. Detailed studies are addressing environmental, agricultural, socioeconomic, and engineering aspects of the project. Key planning activities include evaluating instream flow criteria, water quality, bay freshwater inflow criteria, surface water availability and operating approaches, agricultural conservation measures, groundwater availability, and economics. Models used to estimate future water availability and environmental flow requirements have been developed largely based on historical observed hydrologic data. This is a common approach used by water planners as well as by many regulatory agencies for permit review. In view of the project's 80-yr planning horizon, contractual obligations, comments from the Science Review Panel, and increased public and regulatory awareness of climate change issues, the project team is

  19. The incidence, root-causes, and outcomes of adverse events in surgical units: implication for potential prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We need to know the scale and underlying causes of surgical adverse events (AEs in order to improve the safety of care in surgical units. However, there is little recent data. Previous record review studies that reported on surgical AEs in detail are now more than ten years old. Since then surgical technology and quality assurance have changed rapidly. The objective of this study was to provide more recent data on the incidence, consequences, preventability, causes and potential strategies to prevent AEs among hospitalized patients in surgical units. Methods A structured record review study of 7,926 patient records was carried out by trained nurses and medical specialist reviewers in 21 Dutch hospitals. The aim was to determine the presence of AEs during hospitalizations in 2004 and to consider how far they could be prevented. Of all AEs, the consequences, responsible medical specialty, causes and potential prevention strategies were identified. Surgical AEs were defined as AEs attributable to surgical treatment and care processes and were selected for analysis in detail. Results Surgical AEs occurred in 3.6% of hospital admissions and represented 65% of all AEs. Forty-one percent of the surgical AEs was considered to be preventable. The consequences of surgical AEs were more severe than for other types of AEs, resulting in more permanent disability, extra treatment, prolonged hospital stay, unplanned readmissions and extra outpatient visits. Almost 40% of the surgical AEs were infections, 23% bleeding, and 22% injury by mechanical, physical or chemical cause. Human factors were involved in the causation of 65% of surgical AEs and were considered to be preventable through quality assurance and training. Conclusions Surgical AEs occur more often than other types of AEs, are more often preventable and their consequences are more severe. Therefore, surgical AEs have a major impact on the burden of AEs during hospitalizations

  20. Molecular mechanism of metal-independent decomposition of organic hydroperoxides by halogenated quinoid carcinogens and the potential biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Hua; Ren, Fu-Rong; Shan, Guo-Qiang; Qin, Hao; Mao, Li; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2015-05-18

    Halogenated quinones (XQ) are a class of carcinogenic intermediates and newly identified chlorination disinfection byproducts in drinking water. Organic hydroperoxides (ROOH) can be produced both by free radical reactions and enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. ROOH have been shown to decompose to alkoxyl radicals via catalysis by transition metal ions, which may initiate lipid peroxidation or transform further to the reactive aldehydes. However, it is not clear whether XQ react with ROOH in a similar manner to generate alkoxyl radicals metal-independently. By complementary applications of ESR spin-trapping, HPLC/high resolution mass spectrometric and other analytical methods, we found that 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) could significantly enhance the decomposition of a model ROOH tert-butylhydroperoxide, resulting in the formation of t-butoxyl radicals independent of transition metals. On the basis of the above findings, we detected and identified, for the first time, an unprecedented C-centered quinone ketoxy radical. Then, we extended our study to the more physiologically relevant endogenous ROOH 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and found that DCBQ could also markedly enhance its decomposition to generate the reactive lipid alkyl radicals and the genotoxic 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Similar results were observed with other XQ. In summary, these findings demonstrated that XQ can facilitate ROOH decomposition to produce reactive alkoxyl, quinone ketoxy, lipid alkyl radicals, and genotoxic HNE via a novel metal-independent mechanism, which may explain partly their potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. PMID:25789984

  1. Short-term memory of danger signals or environmental stimuli in mesenchymal stem cells: implications for therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Yang; Liu, Yang; Lu, Ying; Qin, Ya-Ru; Di, Guo-Hu; Lei, Yong-Hong; Liu, Hu-Xian; Li, Yan-Qi; Wu, Chutse; Hu, Xian-Wen; Duan, Hai-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) possess some characteristics of immune cells, including a pro-inflammatory phenotype, an immunosuppressive phenotype, antibacterial properties and the expression of Toll-like receptor proteins. Here we show that, similar to immune cells, MSCs retain information from danger signals or environmental stimuli for a period of time. When treated with the pro-inflammatory factors lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), MSCs display increased expression of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1. Following re-plating and several rounds of cell division in the absence of stimulating factors, the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 remained higher than in untreated cells for over 7 days. A spike in cytokine secretion occurred when cells were exposed to a second round of stimulation. We primed MSCs with LPS and LPS-primed MSCs had better therapeutic efficacy at promoting skin flap survival in a diabetic rat model than did unprimed MSCs. Finally, we found that several microRNAs, including miR146a, miR150 and miR155, along with the modification of DNA by 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), mediate the MSC response to LPS and TNF-α stimulation. Collectively, our data suggest that MSCs have a short-term memory of environmental signals, which may impact their therapeutic potential. PMID:25942600

  2. Recent actions taken on methyl bromide under the Montreal Protocol: Their potential economic implications on international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MB) produced and used by man is a versatile, highly effective, fastacting fumigant employed in a number of important ways to kill organisms destructive to plants. A wide spectrum of commodities is treated with MB. The compound is unique in that it provides a wide range of pest control, may be applied to a broad spectrum of both food and non-food commodities, can be used for fumigation of large and small quantities of materials, and, when applied properly, leaves no residues of toxicological significance. Recently, this compound has come under scientific scrutiny and has been identified as a potentially potent ozone depleting chemical. As a result, countries operating under the Montreal Protocol will be restricting its use, and, in some cases, eliminating its use altogether. To date there are no alternative chemical fumigants to replace methyl bromide. Non-chemical treatments such as irradiation, hot and cold treatments, modified atmosphere, etc., are the most promising. The paper focuses on the magnitude of the economic consequences on international trade and the necessity to have available alternative treatments that are highly effective, fast-acting, and practical. 8 refs, 12 tabs

  3. Lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid diffusivity as a potential neuroimaging marker of brain temperature in multiple sclerosis: a hypothesis and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia M; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study we tested the hypothesis that the net effect of impaired electrical conduction and therefore increased heat dissipation in multiple sclerosis (MS) results in elevated lateral ventricular (LV) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffusivity as a measure of brain temperature estimated in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We used validated DTI-based segmentation methods to obtain normalized LV-CSF volume and its corresponding CSF diffusivity in 108 MS patients and 103 healthy controls in the age range of 21-63 years. The LV CSF diffusivity was ~2% higher in MS compared to controls that correspond to a temperature rise of ~1°C that could not be explained by changes in the CSF viscosity due to altered CSF protein content in MS. The LV diffusivity decreased with age in healthy controls (r=-0.29; p=0.003), but not in MS (r=0.15; p=0.11), possibly related to MS pathology. Age-adjusted LV diffusivity increased with lesion load (r=0.518; p=1×10(-8)). Our data suggest that the total brain lesion load is the primary contributor to the increase in LV CSF diffusivity in MS. These findings suggest that LV diffusivity is a potential in vivo biomarker of the mismatch between heat generation and dissipation in MS. We also discuss limitations and possible confounders. PMID:25485790

  4. Evoked-potential recovery during double click stimulation in a beluga whale: implications for biosonar gain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supin, Alexander Ya; Popov, Vladimir V

    2015-05-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas using a double-pulse stimulation paradigm, specifically measuring the recovery (release from masking) of the second (test) response as a function of delay after the first (conditioning) pulse at various levels of the conditioning and test stimuli. The conditioning/test stimulus level ratio influenced the recovery time (the higher the ratio, the longer the recovery). This interrelation was used to evaluate the intensity/time trade in release from forward masking. Trade was evaluated as 32.2 dB per time decade. Data were considered as simulating interactions between the transmitted pulse and echo during echolocation, assuming that a transmitted sonar pulse produces forward masking of the echo response. With increased target distance, the attenuation of the echo may be compensated by the release from masking. According to the model, the compensation results in substantial stabilization of the echo response even if the intensity/time trade of release from masking is not precisely equal to the rate of echo attenuation with distance. PMID:25994684

  5. The Catalytic Potential of Cosmic Dust: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry in the Solar Nebula and Other Protoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Hugh G. M.; Nuth, Joseph A.

    2003-06-01

    The synthesis of important prebiotic molecules is fundamentally reliant on basic starting ingredients: water, organic species [e.g., methane (CH4)], and reduced nitrogen compounds [e.g., ammonia (NH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN) etc.]. However, modern studies conclude that the primordial Earth's atmosphere was too rich in CO, CO2, and water to permit efficient synthesis of such reduced molecules as envisioned by the classic Miller-Urey experiment. Other proposed sources of terrestrial nitrogen reduction, like those within submarine vent systems, also seem to be inadequate sources of chemically reduced C-H-O-N compounds. Here, we demonstrate that nebular dust analogs have impressive catalytic properties for synthesizing prebiotic molecules. Using a catalyst analogous to nebular iron silicate condensate, at temperatures ranging from 500K to 900K, we catalyzed both the Fischer-Tropsch conversion of CO and H2 to methane and water, and the corresponding Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia from N2 and H2. Remarkably, when CO, N2, and H2 were allowed to react simultaneously, these syntheses also yielded nitrogen-containing organics such as methyl amine (CH3NH2), acetonitrile (CH3CN), and N-methyl methylene imine (H3CNCH2). A fundamental consequence of this work for astrobiology is the potential for a natural chemical pathway to produce complex chemical building blocks of life throughout our own Solar System and beyond.

  6. Potential therapeutic implications of IL-6/IL-6R/gp130-targeting agents in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Tae-Hwe; Wahler, Joseph; Suh, Nanjoo

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with known multiple functions in immune regulation, inflammation, and oncogenesis. Binding of IL-6 to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) induces homodimerization and recruitment of glycoprotein 130 (gp130), which leads to activation of downstream signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that high levels of IL-6 are correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. IL-6 appears to play a critical role in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells, renewal of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and drug resistance of BCSCs, making anti–IL-6/IL-6R/gp130 therapies promising options for the treatment and prevention of breast cancers. However, preclinical and clinical studies of the applications of anti–IL-6/IL-6R/gp130 therapy in breast cancers are limited. In this review, we summarize the structures, preclinical and clinical studies, mechanisms of action of chemical and biological blockers that directly bind to IL-6, IL-6R, or gp130, and the potential clinical applications of these pharmacological agents as breast cancer therapies. PMID:26840088

  7. Engineered/designer biochar for contaminant removal/immobilization from soil and water: Potential and implication of biochar modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Ming; Vithanage, Meththika; Mandal, Sanchita; Gao, Bin; Bolan, Nanthi S; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The use of biochar has been suggested as a means of remediating contaminated soil and water. The practical applications of conventional biochar for contaminant immobilization and removal however need further improvements. Hence, recent attention has focused on modification of biochar with novel structures and surface properties in order to improve its remediation efficacy and environmental benefits. Engineered/designer biochars are commonly used terms to indicate application-oriented, outcome-based biochar modification or synthesis. In recent years, biochar modifications involving various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, amination, surfactant modification, impregnation of mineral sorbents, steam activation and magnetic modification have been widely studied. This review summarizes and evaluates biochar modification methods, corresponding mechanisms, and their benefits for contaminant management in soil and water. Applicability and performance of modification methods depend on the type of contaminants (i.e., inorganic/organic, anionic/cationic, hydrophilic/hydrophobic, polar/non-polar), environmental conditions, remediation goals, and land use purpose. In general, modification to produce engineered/designer biochar is likely to enhance the sorption capacity of biochar and its potential applications for environmental remediation. PMID:26820777

  8. Development and use of innovative approaches to waste management and environmental restoration: Potential liability and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, W.L.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established as its goal to have all of its facilities cleaned up and in compliance with all applicable environmental laws by the year 2019. As part of its plan to achieve that goal, DOE created, in November 1989, an Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and, within EM, an Office of Technology Development (OTD). Since the achievement of DOE's long-term objective in the area of waste management and environmental restoration is not possible utilizing only existing technology, the importance of OTD's mission is clear. A question has been raised regarding the nature of the potential liability associated with development, testing, and use of new technologies for waste management and environmental restoration; and the impact it may have on the ability or willingness of other parties to participate in DOE's technology development program. This report is intended to provide at least a preliminary answer to the question. Given the range of activities involved in the technology development process, there are many circumstances that could result in liability. Therefore, the discussion here is somewhat general. It may, however, provide a base for more detailed analysis, at a later time, of liability issues raised by specific circumstances.

  9. Development and use of innovative approaches to waste management and environmental restoration: Potential liability and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, W.L.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established as its goal to have all of its facilities cleaned up and in compliance with all applicable environmental laws by the year 2019. As part of its plan to achieve that goal, DOE created, in November 1989, an Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and, within EM, an Office of Technology Development (OTD). Since the achievement of DOE`s long-term objective in the area of waste management and environmental restoration is not possible utilizing only existing technology, the importance of OTD`s mission is clear. A question has been raised regarding the nature of the potential liability associated with development, testing, and use of new technologies for waste management and environmental restoration; and the impact it may have on the ability or willingness of other parties to participate in DOE`s technology development program. This report is intended to provide at least a preliminary answer to the question. Given the range of activities involved in the technology development process, there are many circumstances that could result in liability. Therefore, the discussion here is somewhat general. It may, however, provide a base for more detailed analysis, at a later time, of liability issues raised by specific circumstances.

  10. Steady-state motion visual evoked potentials produced by oscillating Newton's rings: implications for brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize a special visual stimulation protocol, called motion reversal, to present a novel steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP-based BCI paradigm that relied on human perception of motions oscillated in two opposite directions. Four Newton's rings with the oscillating expansion and contraction motions served as visual stimulators to elicit subjects' SSMVEPs. And four motion reversal frequencies of 8.1, 9.8, 12.25 and 14 Hz were tested. According to Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA, the offline accuracy and ITR (mean ± standard deviation over six healthy subjects were 86.56 ± 9.63% and 15.93 ± 3.83 bits/min, respectively. All subjects except one exceeded the level of 80% mean accuracy. Circular Hotelling's T-Squared test (T2 circ also demonstrated that most subjects exhibited significantly strong stimulus-locked SSMVEP responses. The results of declining exponential fittings exhibited low-adaptation characteristics over the 100-s stimulation sequences in most experimental conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that the proposed paradigm can provide comparable performance with low-adaptation characteristic and less visual discomfort for BCI applications.

  11. Unmet health needs in patients with coronary heart disease: implications and potential for improvement in caring services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packham Chris

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the quality of health care services requires tailoring facilities to fulfil patients' needs. Satisfying patients' healthcare needs, listening to patients' opinions and building a closer provider-user partnership are central to the NHS. Few published studies have discussed cardiovascular patients' health needs, but they are not comprehensive and fail to explore the contribution of outcome to needs assessment. Method A comprehensive self-administered health needs assessment (HNA questionnaire was developed for concomitant use with generic (Short Form-12 and EuroQOL and specific (Seattle Angina Questionnaire health-related quality of life (HRQL instruments on 242 patients admitted to the Acute Cardiac Unit, Nottingham. Results 38% reported difficulty accessing health facilities, 56% due to transport and 32% required a travelling companion. Mean HRQOL scores were lower in those living alone (P Conclusions Patients wanted more social (suitable accommodation, companionship, social visits and physical (help aids, access to healthcare services, house work support. The construct validity and intra-class reliability of the HNA tool were confirmed. Our results indicate a gap between patients' health needs and available services, highlighting potential areas for improvement in the quality of services.

  12. Transport and removal of viruses in saturated sand columns under oxic and anoxic conditions--Potential implications for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnert, Anne; Apelt, Susann; Klitzke, Sondra; Chorus, Ingrid; Szewzyk, Regine; Selinka, Hans-Christoph

    2014-11-01

    To protect groundwater as a drinking water resource from microbiological contamination, protection zones are installed. While travelling through these zones, concentrations of potential pathogens should decline to levels that pose no risks to human health. Removal of viruses during subsurface passage is influenced by physicochemical conditions, such as oxygen concentration, which also affects virus survival. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of redox conditions on the removal of viruses during sand filtration. Experiments in glass columns filled with medium-grained sand were conducted to investigate virus removal in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. Bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174, as surrogates for human enteric viruses were spiked in pulsed or in continuous mode and pumped through the columns at a filter velocity of about 1m/d. Virus breakthrough curves were analyzed by calculating total viral elimination and fitted using one-dimensional transport models (CXTFIT and HYDRUS-1D). While short-term experiments with pulsed virus application showed only small differences with regard to virus removal under oxic and anoxic conditions, a long-term experiment with continuous dosing revealed a clearly lower elimination of viruses under anoxic conditions. These findings suggest that less inactivation and less adsorption of viruses in anoxic environments affect their removal. Therefore, in risk assessment studies aimed to secure drinking water resources from viral contamination and optimization of protection zones, the oxic and anoxic conditions in the subsurface should also be considered. PMID:25024100

  13. Clomiphene and Its Isomers Block Ebola Virus Particle Entry and Infection with Similar Potency: Potential Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Elizabeth A; Barnes, Alyson B; Wiehle, Ronald D; Fontenot, Gregory K; Hoenen, Thomas; White, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in Western Africa highlighted the need for anti-EBOV therapeutics. Clomiphene is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug that blocks EBOV entry and infection in cells and significantly protects EBOV-challenged mice. As provided, clomiphene is, approximately, a 60:40 mixture of two stereoisomers, enclomiphene and zuclomiphene. The pharmacokinetic properties of the two isomers vary, but both accumulate in the eye and male reproductive tract, tissues in which EBOV can persist. Here we compared the ability of clomiphene and its isomers to inhibit EBOV using viral-like particle (VLP) entry and transcription/replication-competent VLP (trVLP) assays. Clomiphene and its isomers inhibited the entry and infection of VLPs and trVLPs with similar potencies. This was demonstrated with VLPs bearing the glycoproteins from three filoviruses (EBOV Mayinga, EBOV Makona, and Marburg virus) and in two cell lines (293T/17 and Vero E6). Visual problems have been noted in EBOV survivors, and viral RNA has been isolated from semen up to nine months post-infection. Since the clomiphene isomers accumulate in these affected tissues, clomiphene or one of its isomers warrants consideration as an anti-EBOV agent, for example, to potentially help ameliorate symptoms in EBOV survivors. PMID:27490565

  14. A new parametrization for ambient particle formation over coniferous forests and its potential implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, B.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.; Groth, A.; Trawny, K.; Borchert, S.; Jacobi, S.

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation is a general phenomenon observed over coniferous forests. So far nucleation is either parameterised as a function of gaseous sulphuric acid concentration only, which is unable to explain the observed seasonality of nucleation events at different measurement sites, or as a function of sulphuric acid and organic molecules. Here we introduce different nucleation parameters based on the interaction of sulphuric acid and terpene oxidation products and elucidate the individual importance. They include basic trace gas and meteorological measurements such as ozone and water vapour concentrations, temperature (for terpene emission) and UV B radiation as a proxy for OH radical formation. We apply these new parameters to field studies conducted at conducted at Finnish and German measurement sites and compare these to nucleation observations on a daily and annual scale. General agreement was found, although the specific compounds responsible for the nucleation process remain speculative. This can be interpreted as follows: During cooler seasons the emission of biogenic terpenes and the OH availability limits the new particle formation while towards warmer seasons the ratio of ozone and water vapour concentration seems to dominate the general behaviour. Therefore, organics seem to support ambient nucleation besides sulphuric acid or an OH-related compound. Using these nucleation parameters to extrapolate the current conditions to prognosed future concentrations of ozone, water vapour and organic concentrations leads to a significant potential increase in the nucleation event number.

  15. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  16. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:25265207

  17. Potential Regions of Strong Land-atmosphere Coupling Based on the S2S Project Database: Implications for the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, S.; Dirmeyer, P.; Cash, B. A.; Adams, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Advancing the understanding of land-ocean-atmosphere coupled processes and improving the prediction on the sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) time scale is important for several sectors such as agriculture, health, disaster management etc. The multi-model S2S database provides an ideal test bed for inter-comparison of model performance in this time scale and improving the understanding of coupled processes. Soil moisture and snow cover have been recognized as potential sources of predictability for temperature and precipitation on this time scale. They can play a crucial role through better initialization and improved representation of land surface processes. In this study, we focus on the identification of potential regions of strong land-atmosphere coupling during March-April-May (MAM) and June-July-August (JJA). A quantification of the land-atmosphere coupling strength in the models is also made on the basis of several coupling indices. Comparison with earlier studies helps us identify the regions where biases in the terrestrial and/or atmospheric segments may affect the overall land-atmosphere coupling strength in individual models. Better representation of land surface processes and accurate initialization of the land surface states during MAM has important implications for variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall on sub-seasonal time scales, which is also addressed in this study.

  18. Biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria in ponds with implications for potential competition with the native clam Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anguo; Yuan, Xiutang; Hou, Wenjiu; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Kai; Chen, Weixin; Su, Xiurong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential impacts of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria on estuarine ecosystem, and implications for the niche competition with a native clam Meretrix meretrix. The biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of M. mercenaria were determined seasonally using a sediment trap and a closed respirator in field. The biodeposition rates of M. mercenaria were 0.06-0.37 g/ (ind.·d), and the respiration rates were 0.31-14.66 mg/(ind.·d). The ammonia and phosphate excretion rates were 0.18-36.70 and 1.44-14.87 μg/(ind.·d), respectively. The hard clam M. mercenaria may discharge dry deposits up to 2.1×105 t, contribute 18.3 t ammonia and 9.0 t phosphate to culture ponds, and consume 7.9×103 t O2 from ponds annually. It suggested that the hard clam M. mercenaria might play an important role in pelagic-benthic coupling in pond ecosystem through biodeposition and excretion. A comparison of the key physiological parameters of the introduced clam M. mercenaria and the native clam Meretrix meretrix suggested that M. mercenaria had a niche similar to that of Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary and might have a potential competition with Meretrix meretrix for habitat and food if M. mercenaria species escaped from the culture pond or artificially released in estuarine ecosystem.

  19. Results of 226Ra brachytherapy for T1, T2 tongue carcinoma and the clinical implication of ploidy and potential doubling time as prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of 226Ra brachytherapy for 47 patients with T1 and T2 tongue carcinoma were estimated and the clinical implication of ploidy and potential doubling time (Tpot) was discussed. Dose estimation was performed by using the dose distribution obtained from computerized dose calculators, considering Paterson-Parker's system. For T2 carcinoma, external beam irradiation (20-50 Gy) was carried out in the 12 patients and intensive chemotherapy was combined in the 16 patients. Ipsilateral neck dissection was performed for 3 out of the 4 T2N1 patients. Ploidy was analysed with flow cytometer and Tpot was obtained from in vitro labeling with bromodeoxyuridine and immunohistochemical stain. A five-year cause specific survival was 92% for T1 and 91% for T2, respectively. A five-year tumor control probability was 86% for T1 and 88% for T2, respectively. Combined intensive chemotherapy and external beam irradiation showed poorer treatment results than those without the modalities. ''Down-staging'' with the preceding combined modalities before 226Ra brachytherapy possibly had a risk to cause a geographical miss of needle implant. The significant role of Tpot was unclear. Ploidy of the tumors showed some predictive potential for the therapeutic results and the frequency of occult neck node metastasis. Optimization of brachytherapy based on the computerized dose estimation and the clinical application of biological predictors of tumors including ploidy should be considered for the treatment of tongue carcinoma. (author)

  20. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  1. Potentially hypervirulent Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 lineage isolates in pigs and possible implications for humans in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jie; Tsai, Bo-Yang; Liu, Yi-Fen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Tien, Ni; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is a human and animal pathogen. Recently, the incidence of community-acquired C. difficile infection has increased, and many studies have indicated that C. difficile might be food-borne. The correlation between C. difficile infection in humans and in animals has been a topic of debate. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of C. difficile from human and pigs in Taiwan. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in healthy humans and pigs from 2011 to 2015. The isolation rate of C. difficile from pigs in 13 commercial farms was 49% (100/204), and a high proportion of hypervirulent (C. difficile carrying tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B genes and a 39-bp deletion in the tcdC gene) ribotype 078 lineage isolates (90%, 90/100; including 078, 126, 127, and 066-like isolates) were identified. In addition, the C. difficile ribotype 127 isolates from pigs typically exhibited moxifloxacin resistance (37/43; 86%). In healthy humans, the isolation rate was 4.3% (3/69), and all healthy human isolates were non-toxigenic. In particular, we compared the porcine isolates with two patient strains (ribotype 127) obtained from two hospitals in central Taiwan. The multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis revealed a high genetic relatedness between ribotype 127 from patients and pigs. This study indicated that isolates of the ribotype 078 lineage, and especially ribotype 127, were widely distributed in pig farms and showed a high frequency of moxifloxacin resistance. The closely related ribotype 127 from patients and pigs may have had a common origin or low diversity. In conclusion, C. difficile ribotype 127 is a noteworthy pathogen in pigs and poses a potential public health threat. PMID:26915500

  2. Fronto-limbic novelty processing in acute psychosis: disrupted relationship with memory performance and potential implications for delusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn H Schott

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent concepts have highlighted the role of the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe (MTL in positive symptoms like delusions in schizophrenia. In healthy individuals, the MTL is critically involved in the detection and encoding of novel information. Here, we aimed to investigate whether dysfunctional novelty processing by the MTL might constitute a potential neural mechanism contributing to the pathophysiology of delusions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 16 unmedicated patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 age-matched healthy controls. All patients experienced positive symptoms at time of participation. Participants performed a visual target detection task with complex scene stimuli in which novel and familiar rare stimuli were presented randomly intermixed with a standard and a target picture. Presentation of novel relative to familiar images was associated with hippocampal activation in both patients and healthy controls, but only healthy controls showed a positive relationship between novelty-related hippocampal activation and recognition memory performance after 24 hours. Patients, but not controls, showed a robust neural response in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC during presentation of novel stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis in the patients further revealed a novelty-related increase of functional connectivity of both the hippocampus and the OFC with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and the ventral striatum. Notably, delusions correlated positively with the difference of the functional connectivity of the hippocampus versus the OFC with the rACC. Taken together, our results suggest that alterations of fronto-limbic novelty processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of delusions in patients with acute psychosis.

  3. C5a enhances dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses to malaria in vitro: potential implications for placental malaria.

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    Andrea Conroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental malaria (PM is a leading cause of maternal and infant mortality. Although the accumulation of parasitized erythrocytes (PEs and monocytes within the placenta is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of PM, the molecular mechanisms underlying PM remain unclear. Based on the hypothesis that excessive complement activation may contribute to PM, in particular generation of the potent inflammatory peptide C5a, we investigated the role of C5a in the pathogenesis of PM in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using primary human monocytes, the interaction between C5a and malaria in vitro was assessed. CSA- and CD36-binding PEs induced activation of C5 in the presence of human serum. Plasmodium falciparum GPI (pfGPI enhanced C5a receptor expression (CD88 on monocytes, and the co-incubation of monocytes with C5a and pfGPI resulted in the synergistic induction of cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta and the anti-angiogenic factor sFlt-1 in a time and dose-dependent manner. This dysregulated response was abrogated by C5a receptor blockade. To assess the potential role of C5a in PM, C5a plasma levels were measured in malaria-exposed primigravid women in western Kenya. Compared to pregnant women without malaria, C5a levels were significantly elevated in women with PM. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that C5a may contribute to the pathogenesis of PM by inducing dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses that impair placental function.

  4. Fatty-acid binding protein 4 gene variants and childhood obesity: potential implications for insulin sensitivity and CRP levels

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    Bhattacharjee Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in both adults and children. FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to measure FABP4 plasma levels, assess FABP4 allelic variants, and explore potential associations with fasting glucose and insulin levels in young school-age children with and without obesity. Methods A total of 309 consecutive children ages 5-7 years were recruited. Children were divided based on BMI z score into Obese (OB; BMI z score >1.65 and non-obese (NOB. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, hsCRP, and FABP4 levels were measured. HOMA was used as correlate of insulin sensitivity. Four SNPs of the human FABP4 gene (rs1051231, rs2303519, rs16909233 and rs1054135, corresponding to several critical regions of the encoding FABP4 gene sequence were genotyped. Results Compared to NOB, circulating FABP4 levels were increased in OB, as were LDL, hsCRP and HOMA. FABP4 levels correlated with BMI, and also contributed to the variance of HOMA and hsCRP, but not serum lipids. The frequency of rs1054135 allelic variant was increased in OB, and was associated with increased FABP4 levels, while the presence of rs16909233 variant allele, although similar in OB and NOB, was associated with increased HOMA values. Conclusions Childhood obesity is associated with higher FABP4 levels that may promote cardiometabolic risk. The presence of selective SNPs in the FABP4 gene may account for increased risk for insulin resistance or systemic inflammation in the context of obesity.

  5. Fractal Principle of Mineral Deposit Size Forecasting and Its Implication for Gold Resource Potential Evaluation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长江; 麻土华; 朱兴盛; 王国武

    2002-01-01

    Mineralization distributions are very heterogeneous in nature. As large or superlarge mineral deposits are quite rare whether in time or in space, it is difficult to detect all the largest mineral deposits in a region in a limited period of time owing to the restriction of technology and exploration degrees-this is called "not all discovered". However, all discovered large, especially superlarge, mineral deposits generally have a complete census in the geological literatures. On the other hand, not all discovered small mineral deposits are recorded in the geological literatures because for economic reasons people have not much interest in them-this is called "not all recorded". This practice often results in the observation truncations, that is, the data points near the two ends in an observable population, which is obtained by fitting a power law size-frequency distribution to discovered mineral deposits in a given region, show concave-down departure from the correlation line fitted. The authors suggest that the size and number of undiscovered deposits may be forecast by fitting a fractal size distribution to discovered mineral deposit sizes between the upper and lower truncation observations and then extrapolating the scale-independent area to deposit sizes larger than the upper truncation limit. Based on the statistical results obtained by the fractal size-frequency distributions of 394 discovered gold deposits with sizes greater than 2 t Au in China and 83 known gold deposits with sizes over 0.3 t Au in the Jiaodong area of China, the authors forecast according to the present commercial standards for gold ores that the total resources of undiscovered gold deposits ranging in tonnage from 50 to 2000 t Au are more than 4500 t in China, and that in the Jiaodong area of China the total resources of potential gold deposits with sizes in the range of 30 to 650 t Au are about 700 t.

  6. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  7. The changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, 1991-2011: potential implications of emergence of new strains.

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    Rodica Gilca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to inform meningococcal disease prevention strategies, we analysed the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD in the province of Quebec, Canada, 10 years before and 10 years after the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccination. METHODOLOGY: IMD cases reported to the provincial notifiable disease registry in 1991-2011 and isolates submitted for laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011 were analysed. Serogrouping, PCR testing and assignment of isolates to sequence types (ST by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST were performed. RESULTS: Yearly overall IMD incidence rates ranged from 2.2-2.3/100,000 in 1991-1992 to 0.49/100,000 in 1999-2000, increasing to 1.04/100,000 in 2011. Among the 945 IMD cases identified by laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011, 68%, 20%, 8%, and 3% were due to serogroups B, C, Y, and W135, respectively. Serogroup C IMD almost disappeared following the implementation of universal childhood immunization with monovalent C conjugate vaccines in 2002. Serogroup B has been responsible for 88% of all IMD cases and 61% of all IMD deaths over the last 3 years. The number and proportion of ST-269 clonal complex has been steadily increasing among the identified clonal complexes of serogroup B IMD since its first identification in 2003, representing 65% of serogroup B IMD in 2011. This clonal complex was first introduced in adolescent and young adults, then spread to other age groups. CONCLUSION: Important changes in the epidemiology of IMD have been observed in Quebec during the last two decades. Serogroup C has been virtually eliminated. In recent years, most cases have been caused by the serogroup B ST-269 clonal complex. Although overall burden of IMD is low, the use of a vaccine with potential broad-spectrum coverage could further reduce the burden of disease. Acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness studies coupled with ongoing clinical and molecular surveillance are necessary in

  8. δ-Tocotrienol treatment is more effective against hypoxic tumor cells than normoxic cells: potential implications for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Akira; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-08-01

    Tocotrienols, unsaturated forms of vitamin E, inhibit the proliferation of a variety of cancer cells and suppress angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying those effects on cancer cell growth remain unclear especially under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) could be used as a novel anticancer agent against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. δ-T3 inhibited the growth of DLD-1 cells in a dose-dependent fashion by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This effect was more potent under hypoxic than normoxic conditions. The anticancer effect of δ-T3 was achieved by its up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21 and p27), the activation of caspases and the suppression of phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) at Thr(308) and Ser(473). In in vivo studies, oral administration of rice bran tocotrienol (RBT3, mainly γ-T3) (10 mg/mouse/day) significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. In tumor analyses, RBT3 activated p21, p27, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, immunostaining revealed that RBT3 decreased the number of cells positive for CD31/platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in microvessels in the tumor. Taken together, these data suggest that tocotrienols are potent antitumor agents capable of inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Tocotrienols could have significant therapeutic potential in the clinical treatment of tumors. PMID:25979648

  9. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

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    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  10. Microhabitats de Aedes albopictus (Skuse na região do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Gomes Almério de Castro

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o nível de disseminação de Ae. albopictus na região do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas de larvas e pupas em seis locais distintos, segundo transecto com 10 km de extensão. O alvo principal foi oco de árvores, tendo sido também incluídos artefatos antrópicos. As espécies Ae. terrens e Ae. albopictus foram as únicas do gênero Aedes presentes e, algumas vezes, coexistiram no mesmo microhabitat natural. A segregação de sete espécies da comunidade de oco variou de acordo com os macro e microhabitats examinados. Assim, a distribuição de Ae. albopictus envolveu as zonas rural, rural-urbana e urbana, porém a segunda área foi a mais preferida. Como fator favorável à infestação de Ae. albopictus na região, destacou-se a vacância de nichos ecológicos naturais resultante da influência antrópica. As chuvas foram relevantes no "input" de larvas e pupas e os ocos, com volumes superiores a 600 ml, foram os mais produtivos. A abundância desses dois estádios ocorreu nas estações verão-outono, sendo o pico máximo alcançado nos meses de março-abril. Essa sazonalidade foi comum em bambu experimental e recipientes artificiais. Os dados de temperatura média sugeriram a faixa de 23 a 17degreesC como o período mais favorável ao desenvolvimento larvário. Face a isso, a cepa de Ae. albopictus estudada parece ser oriunda da Ásia tropical e, portanto, se reveste de elevada importância epidemiológica pela possibilidade dessa espécie vir a exercer, além do dengue, papel vetorial para a febre amarela no Brasil.

  11. Llegada de Aedes albopictus a España: un nuevo reto para la salud pública Introduction of Aedes albopictus in Spain: a new challenge for public health

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    Nuria Giménez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el Centro de Atención Primaria de Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona se detectó un espectacular aumento de consultas por picaduras de insectos. El posterior estudio de las especies del área permitió identificar a Aedes albopictus. Objetivo: Analizar las consultas por picaduras de insecto (1998-2004. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo. Consultaron 2.760 pacientes durante el período 1998-2004. Resultados: Se detectó un continuo aumento de consultas por picaduras, hasta alcanzar las 16 consultas por 1.000 habitantes. Los pacientes tenían una media de edad de 32 años, y un 62% eran mujeres. El 71% de las lesiones se localizaron en las extremidades y se infectaron el 19% de ellas. El 67% de los pacientes recibió tratamiento sistémico. Conclusiones: La atención primaria alertó sobre el llamativo aumento de consultas por picaduras de insecto. El colectivo de pacientes que consultó por este motivo fue mayoritariamente femenino, joven, recibió con frecuencia tratamiento sistémico y presentó un elevado porcentaje de complicaciones locales.Introduction: A spectacular increase was noticed in the number of consultations for insect stings at the Sant Cugat Primary Care Center (Barcelona, Spain. Subsequent study of the species in the area identified Aedes albopictus. Objective: To analyze consultations for insect stings in this center (1998-2004. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study with a 7-year retrospective review was performed. A total of 2,760 patients consulted. Results: A continual increase in the number of consultations for insect stings was detected, reaching 16 consultations per 1,000 inhabitants. The mean age of the patients was 32 years and 62% were women. Seventy-one percent of the stings were located on the extremities and 19% were infected. Sixty-seven percent of the patients received systemic treatment. Conclusions: Primary care alerted the town council of the significant increase

  12. Porosity and Permeability of Jurassic-Triassic Formations of the South Georgia Rift Basin: Potential Implications for CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Prasad, M.; Olsen, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Porosity and permeability are critical for evaluating reservoir injectivity and seal integrity for subsurface CO2 storage. Both properties are needed to determine the effective CO2 storage capacity. In addition, the ability to model and understand the physical interactions of the CO2 reservoir systems under in situ conditions is dependent on the reservoir porosity. We present results of rock physics evaluation of the porosity and permeability of the buried Jurassic-Triassic formations of the South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin using existing well and new experimental data. The SGR basin covers parts of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida and is buried beneath Cretaceous and younger Coastal Plain sediments. We focused our study on the South Carolina portion of the basin that has been identified in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of United States and Canada as containing saline formations suitable for subsurface CO2 storage. Results of our rock physics analysis confirm the presence of porous reservoir units capped by low-porosity diabase sills. These potential reservoirs appear to have the capacity (pore volume and porosity) to store significant quantities of supercritical CO2. Our analysis further suggests that the SGR basin may contain distinct porosity-permeability regimes (geo-hydrologic systems) that are influenced by depositional environments. These regimes are: (1) high-porosity, low/medium permeability, as observed in the Norris Lightsey well with Triassic formation porosity of 20 - 32.5 percent and core-derived permeability of 1.5 - 8.9 mD, and (2) low-porosity, low-permeability, based on the average total porosity of 6.3 percent and permeability of 6.6 (E-5) - 1.6 (E-2) mD reported in the literature for the Dunbarton Triassic sediments. The Norris Lightsey sedimentary rocks are primarily lacustrine deposits and consist of fine-grained Triassic sandstone with interbedded layers of siltstone and mudstone, while the Dunbarton basin is dominated by fluvial

  13. Distribuição espacial de Aedes albopictus na região sul do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Spatial distribution of Aedes albopictus in the southern area of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a distribuição espacial da população de Aedes albopictus, visando fornecer subsídios para construção de planos de amostragem e decisão sobre o controle deste vetor em levantamentos em campo. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em área urbana próxima de resquícios de vegetação primária, no distrito Picadinha, distante 20 km do município de Dourados, MS. Dez amostragens foram realizadas entre 28/1/2003 e 9/4/2003, utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo ovitrampas e monitoradas semanalmente, distribuídas em uma área amostral fixa com 10 pontos de coleta por amostragem, espaçadas em 300 m. Foram calculados os índices de agregação e ajuste às seguintes distribuições teóricas de freqüência: binomial negativa, binomial positiva e de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A variância amostral foi superior à média nas amostragens, resultando nos índices de razão variância-média sempre acima da unidade (32,066, 29,410, 14,444, 58,840, 56,042, 111,262, 70,140, 50,701, 93,221 e 8,481. O índice de Morisita apresentou valores significativamente acima da unidade em todas as amostragens (6,275, 3,947, 1,484, 3,725, 3,014, 5,450, 3,214, 3,886, 3,954 e 5,810. O parâmetro K resultou em valores entre 0 e 8 (0,174, 0,309, 1,867, 0,332, 0,449, 0,203, 0,408, 0,314, 0,306 e 0,200. Os testes do qui-quadrado de ajuste às distribuições binominal negativa, binomial positiva e de Poisson não foram significativos. CONCLUSÕES: A população de Aedes albopictus da localidade estudada apresentou distribuição espacial padrão agregada. Isso implica que ao encontrar alguns indivíduos do vetor em um determinado local, é provável que outros sejam encontrados nas áreas circunvizinhas, preconizando a aplicação de inseticidas sem a necessidade de amostrar outros pontos dessa localidade.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial distribution of Aedes albopictus population to provide input for developing sampling plans and supporting decision making on

  14. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

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    Santos Luciana Urbano dos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  15. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

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    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  16. Biosimilars: potential implications for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleryan, Misty G; Akhiyat, Sophia; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Ehrlich, Alison

    2016-01-01

    With the expiration of patent protection for several biologics looming, the production of highly similar therapeutic agents has begun to emerge on the pharmaceutical market. These alternative drugs are referred to as biosimilars. Many anticipate that the introduction of these agents will result in a reduction in health care costs, which may create a more affordable biopharmaceutical market and also improve patient access. In contrast to generics, which are exact copies of their original products, biosimilars are not identical to their reference products. Due to concern about the safety and efficacy of biosimilars, separate regulatory approval pathways have been developed and implemented by several countries, including the US and Europe. Europe has led the way in acceptance of biosimilars into mainstream clinical practice. Biosimilars are not generic products and require extensive clinical and nonclinical bioequivalence studies before receiving marketing approval. Not only is there a lengthy developmental process, but also they will likely be required to have postmarketing surveillance and ongoing safety monitoring to keep track of issues that may arise, such as immunogenicity. Although US Food and Drug Administration approved the first biosimilar product in March 2015, physicians remain unfamiliar about their indications. PMID:27382321

  17. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistência e susceptibilidade ao temephos, em municípios com ocorrência de casos de dengue e diferentes características de urbanização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion. Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS: Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a coexistência de populações de Aedes aegypti e de Aedes albopictus em municípios do Estado do Paraná e Santa Catarina com diferentes formas de urbanização, onde ocorrem casos de dengue, e avaliar a susceptibilidade ao organofosforado temephos. MÉTODOS: O número de ovos por ovitrampa foram contados (sem distinguir a espécie e colocados para eclosão e posterior identificação das espécies. A análise das populacões foi conduzida para determinar aleatoriedade e agregação usando a razão variância/média (índice de dispersão. A susceptibilidade ao

  18. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistência e susceptibilidade ao temephos, em municípios com ocorrência de casos de dengue e diferentes características de urbanização

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro; Onilda Santos Silva; Jonny Edward Duque Luna; Carla Fernanda Piccoli; Luiz Alberto Kanis; Mario Antonio Navarro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggr...

  19. 香茅醛对白纹伊蚊空间驱避作用的研究%The space repellency of citronellal on Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝蕙玲; 孙锦程

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨香茅醛作为一种可能的空间驱避剂的应用价值.方法 在风洞系统内测试香茅醛不同剂量浓度诱导的白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)行为反应及对宿主定向行为的影响.在密闭窄间中,分别以0.013~0.250μg/cm3浓度的香茅醛处理白纹伊蚊24~96 h后测定其感受、定向寄主的能力.结果 香茅醛高浓度(96%)对白纹伊蚊有一定的驱避作用,低浓度(3.0%~6.0%)则有一定的引诱作用.12.0%~96.0%浓度的香茅醛溶液对白纹伊蚊正常感受宿主气味均有一定的抑制作用,低于此浓度,抑制效果明显下降.白纹伊蚊在0.013~0.250μg/cm3浓度的香茅醛气味空间处理24~96 h后未影响其正常感受宿主气味的能力.结论 香茅醛只有达到一定浓度时,才对白纹伊蚊定向宿主有一定的抑制效果,而且这种抑制具瞬时性.%Objective In order to study citronellal' s repellency action and judge its prospects. Citronellal could be a spatial repellent against Aedes albopictus and play a major role in new repellent technology. Methods Olfactory behavior and host seeking ability of Aedes albopictus were tested with a olfactometer, and the inhibation of their host seeking ability following treatments at dosages of 0.013 - 0. 250 μg/cm3 for 24 - 96 h were observed too. Results Citronellal at dosage of 96% could be an effective spatial repellent to Aedes albopictus,and at dosages of 3.0% -6.0%could be an effective attractant. It was observed that mosquitoes at dosages of 12.0% -96.0% all showed different degrees of reduction in host seeking ability,and the reduction were lost under the dosage of 12.0%. But citronellal was ineffective on reducing the host seeking ability of Aedes albopictus following treatments with dosages of 0.013 -0. 250 μg/cm3 for 24 - 96 h. Conclusion Citronellal can be a spatial repellent against Aedes albopictus at a higher dosages ,and the inhibation is momentary.

  20. Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal.

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    Meghnath Dhimal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl] to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl. The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for