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Sample records for albizia lebbeck gliricidia

  1. Efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la germinacion, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium Effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germination, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings

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    Yolanda Gonzalez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la respuesta germinativa, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium, a diferentes condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Los tratamientos fueron: semillas no hidratadas (T1; semillas hidratadas hasta el final de la fase I (T2; semillas hidratadas hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible (T3, y posteriormente se deshidrataron durante 48 horas. Las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron con agua a 80ºC durante 2' antes de hidratar. La germinación de las semillas de ambas especies dependió significativamente de la interacción entre la temperatura del sustrato y la hidratación (PThe effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germinative response, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings was studied under different controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The treatments were: non hydrated seeds (T1; seeds hydrated until the end of stage I (T2; seeds hydrated until two hours before the beginning of visible germination (T3 and they were later dehydrated for 48 hours. A. lebbeck seeds were scarified with water at 80ºC for 2' before hydrating. The seed germination of both species depended significantly on the interaction between the substratum temperature and hydration (P<0,001. In G. sepium the best results in germination were obtained with long periods (stage III, and in A. lebbeck with short periods (stage I. The emergence showed significant effects due to the positive effects of scarification-partial hydration treatments in A. lebbeck (34 vs 10% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively and without their combination in G. sepium (12 vs 8% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively. There was a significant increase in plant growth and development. The hydric treatments were concluded to revigorize the aged and fresh seeds from A. lebbeck and G

  2. Saponins from Albizia lebbeck.

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    Pal, B C; Achari, B; Yoshikawa, K; Arihara, S

    1995-03-01

    Three main saponins named albiziasaponins A, B, and C were isolated from the barks of Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were established through spectral analyses as acacic acid lactone 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)- beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-- >6)]- beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  3. Leaf flavonoids of Albizia lebbeck.

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    el-Mousallamy, A M

    1998-06-01

    Two new tri-O-glycoside flavonols: kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta- galactopyranosides, were identified from the leaves of Albizia lebbeck. Structures were established by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectral analysis.

  4. Temperatura óptima de germinación y patrones de imbibición de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea Optimum germination temperature and imbibition patterns of the seeds from Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea

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    J Reino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron semillas frescas y envejecidas de las plantas arbóreas Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea, procedentes de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba. Se diseñó un experimento de clasificación simple y cinco réplicas para la respuesta germinativa a diferentes temperaturas del sustrato (constante a 25ºC y tres alternas: 25/30ºC, 25/35ºC y 25/40ºC. Antes de la siembra las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron (agua a 80ºC/2'. Para el patrón de imbibición las semillas se colocaron sobre papel de filtro humedecido con agua destilada, según la temperatura óptima de germinación, en luz blanca fluorescente y en diferentes tiempos de imbibición. En las semillas frescas de todas las especies los mayores porcentajes de germinación final se obtuvieron a temperatura alterna de 25/35ºC y en las enveje­cidas a 25/30ºC. Con respecto al patrón de imbibición, todas siguieron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua. Las semillas frescas y envejecidas de G.. sepium presentaron un patrón de imbibición muy similar; sin embargo, las semillas frescas de las otras especies tuvieron una mayor velocidad de hidratación que las enve­jecidas y, por consiguiente, alcanzaron el comienzo de la fase III del patrón de imbibición (i.e., germinación visible más rápidamente. Se concluye que el rango de temperatura óptima para la germinación de las semillas envejecidas fue de 25/30ºC y para las frescas fue de 25/35ºC y ambas presentaron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua cuando la siembra se realizó en la temperatura óptima de germinación.Fresh and aged seeds of the trees Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea from the Experi­mental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba, were used. A simple classification experiment and five replications were designed for the germinative response to different temperatures of the

  5. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

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    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  6. First report of Albizia lebbeck dieback caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum in Oman.

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    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Ba-Omar, Taher

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 Albizia lebbeck trees at Sultan Qaboos University campus wilted and died. The symptoms were dieback of large branches due to infection by Scytalidium dimidiatum. The fungus has also infected Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum. This is the first report of the fungus in Oman and on A. lebbeck, T. populnea, D. regia and P. petrocarpum. The strain of this fungus has not been found to cause human disease in Oman.

  7. Phytofabrication and characterization of monodisperse copper oxide nanoparticles using Albizia lebbeck leaf extract

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    Jayakumarai, G.; Gokulpriya, C.; Sudhapriya, R.; Sharmila, G.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2015-12-01

    Simple effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) using of Albizia lebbeck leaf extract was investigated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized CONPs, viz. UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD. The synthesized CONPs were found to be spherical in shape and size less than 100 nm. It could be concluded that A. lebbeck leaf extract can be used as a cheap and effective reducing agent for CONPs production in large scale.

  8. Nitrogen fixation in Acacia auriculiformis and Albizia lebbeck and their contributions to crop-productivity improvement

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    Mbaya, N.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Luyindula, N.

    1998-01-01

    Pot and field experiments assessed N 2 fixation by Albizia lebbeck and Acacia auriculiformis and contributions from prunings to yields of corn and hibiscus. Nitrogen fixation in these tree legumes was poor, with less than 50% N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) when grown in pots, but higher (>70%) in field conditions, after inoculation with compatible Bradyrhizobium strains. Prunings from A. lebbeck, as green manure improved growth of maize and hibiscus, inducing greater corn-kernel yields than did urea. Acacia auriculiformis prunings were similarly beneficial when mixed with leaves of A. lebbeck or L. leucocephala. Application of slow- and fast-nutrient-releasing leaves is required to maximize their contributions to crop productivity. (author)

  9. Anti-allergic activity of standardized extract of Albizia lebbeck with reference to catechin as a phytomarker.

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    Venkatesh, Pichairajan; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kumar, Nanjappan Satheesh; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Islam, Nurul

    2010-06-01

    The major groups of phytonutrients found in plants include polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, amines, etc., all of which are observed to have potential anti-allergic activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic activity of the standardized extract of Albizia lebbeck with respect to the catechin, a polyphenolic phytomarker. The percentage of catechin in the ethanolic extract was found to be 14.72 mg/g. We administered Albizia lebbeck (50-300 mg/kg) and 50 mg/kg of catechin to mice to evaluate the mast cell stabilization and estimation of histamine elevation in the plasma. Results support the conclusion that Albizia lebbeck at different concentrations has got potent mast cell stabilizing property and the IC(50) value of Albizia lebbeck was found to be 85 microg/ml. This inhibitory potential of catechin from Albizia lebbeck is perhaps due to modulation of two important effector's functions, histamine release and cytokine expression of antigen -IgE activated mast cells.

  10. New Cytochalasin from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an Endophytic Fungus of Albizia lebbeck.

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    Sharma, Nisha; Kushwaha, Manoj; Arora, Divya; Jain, Shreyans; Singamaneni, Venugopal; Sharma, Sonia; Shankar, Ravi; Bhushan, Shashi; Gupta, Prasoon; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2018-03-24

    To explore the potential of Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana an endophytic fungus associated with Albizia lebbeck for pharmaceutically important cytotoxic compounds. One novel cytochalasin, named Jammosporin A (1) and four known analogues (2-5) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, harbored from the leaves of medicinal plant Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data along with MS data and by comparison with literature reports. In preliminary screening the ethyl acetate extract of the fungal culture was tested for the cytotoxic activity against a panel of four cancer cell lines (MOLT-4, A549, MIA PaCa -2 and MDA-MB-231), was found to be active against MOLT-4 with IC 50 value of 10 μg/mL. Owing to the remarkable cytotoxic activity of the extract the isolated compounds (1-5) were evaluated for their cytototoxicity against MOLT-4 cell line by MTT assay. Interestingly, compounds 1-2, 4 and 5 showed considerable cytotoxic potential against the human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4) with IC 50 values of 20.0, 10.0, 8.0 and 6.0 μM, respectively, while compound 3 showed IC 50 value of 25 μM. This is the first report of existence of this class of secondary metabolites in Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana fungus. This study discovered a novel compound, named Jammosporin A, isolated for the first time from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an endophytic fungus of Albizia lebbeck with anticancer activity against MOLT-4 cell line. Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana represents an interesting source of a new compound with bioactive potential as a therapeutic agent against human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT FRACTIONS OF Albizia lebbeck L.

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    Nadia M. Sokkar

    Full Text Available An investigation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of the leaves of Albizia lebbeck L. was performed. The first two fractions expressed the best results regarding the suppression of the increased levels of plasma amino-transferases and alkaline phosphatase in liver-damaged mice (after intoxication with CCl4 compared with silymarin and the significantly increased GSH content of alloxan- induced diabetic rats compared with vitamin E (tests and reference drugs were orally administered. The bioactive fractions of Albizia lebbeck L. were subjected to chromatographic analysis to investigate their phenolic contents using a HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS technique in the negative ion mode. The results constitute the first report of the presence of seven compounds in the genus Albizia, three of which were identified as 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, cafeic acid, myricetin; four other flavonoids (in mg 100 g-1 dry powder ± SD, myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside (0.129 ± 0.0052, quercetin 3-O-dideoxypentoside (0.011 ± 0.001, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside (0.015 ± 0.002, quercetin 3-O-dihexoside (0.138 ± 0.002; quercetin 3-O-rutinoside at a level of 0.135 ± 0.004; and the aglycones quercetin, luteolin and kaempferol. Method validation was performed, providing an analytical technique that can be used to detect trace amounts of the identified compounds in Albizia extracts with rapid sample preparation.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck Benth., an ethnomedicinal plant, in acute and chronic animal models of inflammation.

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    Babu, N Prakash; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2009-09-07

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. is used both in Indian traditional system and folk medicine to treat several inflammatory pathologies such as asthma, arthritis and burns. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scientific basis of anti-inflammatory activity of different organic solvent extracts of Albizia lebbeck. The anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck was studied using the carrageenan, dextran, cotton pellet and Freund's complete adjuvant induced rat models. The extracts obtained using petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol were administered at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts at 400mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (petroleum ether-48.6%; ethanol-59.57%), dextran (petroleum ether-45.99%; ethanol-52.93%), cotton pellet (petroleum ether-34.46%; ethanol-53.57%) and Freund's adjuvant (petroleum ether-64.97%; ethanol-68.57%). The marked inhibitory effect on paw edema shows that Albizia lebbeck possesses remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory diseases.

  13. Chemical Utilization of Albizia lebbeck Leaves for Developing Protein Concentrates as a Dietary Supplement.

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    Khan, Lutful Haque; Varshney, V K

    2017-08-17

    In search of nonconventional sources of protein to combat widespread malnutrition, the possibility of developing a protein concentrate as an alternative dietary supplement from abundantly available yet poorly valorized leaves of Albizia lebbeck (siris) was examined. A process for recovery of leaf protein concentrate (LPC) from these leaves was optimized and applied for isolation of LPCs from lower, middle, and upper canopies of the tree. The optimized conditions (leaves to water 1:9, coagulation at pH 4.0 using 1 N citric acid at 90°C for 11 minutes) afforded LPCs containing protein 37.15%, 37.57%, and 37.76% in 5.99%, 5.97%, and 6.07% yield, respectively. The proximate nutritional composition, pigments, minerals, in vitro digestibility, and antinutritional factors of these LPCs were determined. Analysis of variance of these data revealed no significant difference with respect to canopy. Use of Albizia lebbeck leaves for development of LPC as a food/feed supplement was revealed.

  14. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

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    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  15. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract of Albizia lebbeck in animal model.

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    Saha, Achinto; Ahmed, Muniruddin

    2009-01-01

    The extract of the bark of Albizia lebbeck Benth. obtained by cold extraction of mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol was chosen for pharmacological screening. In rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan, the extract at the 400 mg/kg dose level showed 36.68% (p<0.001) inhibition of edema volume at the end of 4h. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract at the 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level showed 39.9% and 52.4 % inhibition of writhing, respectively. In radiant heat tail-flick method the crude extract produced 40.74% (p<0.001) and 61.48% (p<0.001) elongation of tail flicking time 30 minutes after oral administration at the 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level, respectively.

  16. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers.

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    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Abd El Halim, Mohamed F; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Basudan, Omer A; Alqasoumi, Saleh I

    2017-01-01

    The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n -butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n -hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl 3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside]-(2 E ,6 E -)-farnesol ( 6 ) and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene ( 9 ), in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia ; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and benzyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 2 ); three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ) and linalyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ); (2 E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O- α -l arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), two oligoglycosides, n -hexyl- α -l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (creoside) ( 7 ) and n -octyl α -l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside) ( 8 ); and ethyl fructofuranoside ( 10 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  17. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers

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    Shaza M. Al-Massarani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid–liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside]-(2E,6E--farnesol (6 and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene (9, in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1 and benzyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside (2; three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β-d-glucopyranoside (3 and linalyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4; (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-α-l arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (5, two oligoglycosides, n-hexyl-α-l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (creoside (7 and n-octyl α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside (8; and ethyl fructofuranoside (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  18. In vitro plant regeneration of Albizia lebbeck (L. from seed explants

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    S. Perveen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An efficient and reproducible regeneration protocol for rapid multiplication of Albizia lebbeck (L. was developed by using intact seed explants.Methods: Murashige and Skoog's (MS medium supplemented with different hormones (BA, Kn, GA3 and TDZ was used for the induction of multiple shoots from the seed explants. Ex-vitro rooting was performed by using pulse treatment method in auxins (IBA and NAA and the complete plantlets were transferred to the field.Results: High frequency direct shoot induction was found in aseptic seed cultures of A. lebbeck on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ (Thiadiazuron. Seeds were germinated after 7 days of culture and induced maximum 8 shoots from the region adjacent to the apex of the primary shoot of the seedling upto 25 days of incubation. Proliferating shoot cultures with increased shoot length was established by sub-culture of excised sprouting epicotyls on MS medium supplied with reduced concentrations of TDZ. Maximum shoot regeneration frequency (76 % with  highest number of shoots (21 and shoot length (5.1 cm per sprouting epicotyl was observed in the MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM TDZ after 8 weeks of culture. Different concentrations of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were tested to determine the optimal conditions for ex-vitro rooting of the microshoots. The best treatment for maximum ex-vitro root induction frequency (81 % was accomplished with IBA (250 µM pulse treatment given to the basal end of the microshoots for 30 min followed by their transfer in plastic cups containing soilrite and eventually established in normal garden soil + soilrite (1:1 with 78 % survival rate. In addition, histological study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the regenerated shoots from the epicotyl region.Conclusion: The findings will be fruitful in getting a time saving and cost effective protocol for the in vitro propagation of Albizia

  19. Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

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    Gupta, R S; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh K; Verma, Suresh K; Dobhal, M P

    2005-01-04

    Oral administration of saponins isolated from Albizia lebbeck bark at the dose level of 50 mg/kg/b.w. per day for 60 days to male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. The production of round spermatid was reduced by 73.04% in Albizia lebbeck treated rats. The population of preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatogonia were reduced by 65.07% and 47.48% and secondary spermatocytes by 73.41%, respectively. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as the cell counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 57.47% and 54.42%, respectively. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly. Albizia lebbeck reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. There were no significant changes in RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol contents of the testes, fructose in the seminal vesicle and protein in epididymides were significantly decreased. Histoarchitecture of the testes showed vacuolization at primary spermatocytes stage. Highly reduced seminiferous tubular diameter and increased intertubular space were also observed when compared to controls.

  20. Drought induced changes in growth, leaf gas exchange and biomass production in Albizia lebbeck and Cassia siamea seedlings.

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    Saraswathi, S Gnaana; Paliwal, Kailash

    2011-03-01

    Diurnal trends in net photosynthesis rate (P(N)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass were compared in six-month-old seedlings of Albizia lebbeck and Cassia siamea, under different levels of drought stress. The potted plants were subjected to four varying drought treatment by withholding watering for 7 (D1), 14(D2) and 25 (D3) days. The fourth group (C) was watered daily and treated as unstressed (control). Species differed significantly (p lebbeck. A significant (p lebbeck, r2 = 0.84; C. siamea, r2 = 0.82). Higher WUE was observed in C. siamea (D2, 7.1 +/- 0.18 micromol m(-2) s(-1); D3, 8.39 +/- 0.11 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than A. lebbeck, (control, 7.58 +/- 0.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and D3, 8.12 +/- 0.15 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). The chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC) was more in A. lebbeck than C. siamea. Maximum biomass was produced by A. lebbeckthan C. siamea. From the study, one could conclude that A. lebbeckis better than C. siamea in adopting suitable resource management strategy and be best suited for the plantation programs in the semi-arid dry lands.

  1. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo

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    Shagun Kalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL. Methods: EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ sensitive (MRC2 and CQ resistant (RKL9 strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg and preventive (100-750 mg/kg activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg of extract was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2 and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9. CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001 curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. Interpretation & conclusions: The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  2. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-12-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 ) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9). CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P50 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  3. Gene flow among established Puerto Rican populations of the exotic tree species, Albizia lebbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, B K; Hamrick, J L

    2005-04-01

    We estimate gene flow and patterns of genetic diversity in Albizia lebbeck, an invasive leguminous tree in the dry forest of southwestern Puerto Rico. Genetic diversity estimates calculated for 10 populations of 24 trees each indicated that these populations may have been formed from multiple introductions. The presence of unique genotypes in the northernmost populations suggests that novel genotypes are still immigrating into the area. This combination of individuals from disparate locations led to high estimates of genetic diversity (He = 0.266, P = 0.67). Indirect estimates of gene flow indicate that only 0.69 migrants per generation move between populations, suggesting that genetic diversity within populations should decrease due to genetic drift. Since migration-drift equilibrium was not found, however, this estimate needs to be viewed with caution. The regular production of pods in this outcrossing species (tm = 0.979) indicates that sufficient outcross pollen is received to insure successful reproduction. Direct estimates of gene flow indicate that between 44 and 100% of pollen received by trees in four small stands of trees (n < 11) was foreign. The role of gene flow in facilitating the spread of this invasive plant species is discussed.

  4. The contribution of endophytic bacteria to Albizia lebbeck-mediated phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mendoza, Ordetta Hannah; Kanimozhi, Mahalingam; Chun, Sechul; Pašić, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of chromium often impairs the remediation capacity of plants used in phytoremediation of polluted soils. In this study, we have identified Albizia lebbeck as a prospective chromium hyperaccumulator and examined cultivable diversity of endophytes present in chromium-treated and control saplings. High numbers (22-100%) of endophytic bacteria, isolated from root, stem, and leaf tissues, could tolerate elevated (1-3 mM) concentrations of K2CrO7. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the 118 isolates obtained comprised of 17 operational taxonomic units affiliated with the proteobacterial genera Rhizobium (18%), Marinomonas (1%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Xanthomonas (7%) but also with members of Firmicutes genera, such as Bacillus (35%) and Salinococcus (3%). The novel isolates belonging to Salinococcus and Bacillus could tolerate high K2CrO7 concentrations (3 mM) and also showed elevated activity of chromate reductase. In addition, majority (%) of the endophytic isolates also showed production of indole-3-acetic acid. Taken together, our results indicate that the innate endophytic bacterial community assists plants in reducing heavy metal toxicity.

  5. Germination behavior of Albizia Lebbeck (L. Benth in weakly saline soils in Río Cauto

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    Giosvany Yuriet Oliva Arias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the behavior of nursery germination of Albizia lebbeck (L Benth weakly saline soils in the municipality of Río Cauto, Granma Province. The research was conducted in the period from March to June 2012 in the forest nursery Cauto Embarcadero belonging to Río Cauto silvicultural UEB. To determine the germination of the seeds, the germination test performed which consisted in putting to germinate 25 seeds per treatment at 5 for plates with filter paper petris as Treatment 1: added 10 mL of chloride solution sodium (NaCl, adjusted to an electric conductivity of 2 dS m-1 and as treatment 2: a sample pattern with deionized water having an electrical conductivity of 0, 02 dS.m-1 counts were performed daily until the 30 days. The electrical conductivity was measured with the brand portable conductivity meter HANNA HI 9033 multi-range model. Four treatments were studied: a standard with no saline growing medium and three growing media evaluated as weakly saline in a range of 1 to 2 dS m-1. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between treatments.

  6. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  7. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

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    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  8. Variabilidade genética e estimativas de herdabilidade para o caráter germinação em matrizes de Albizia lebbeck Genetic variability and heritability estimates for the germination trait in Albizia lebbeck parent trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Luiz Hilário Rego

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Em áreas rurais, buscam-se espécies arbóreas que apresentem rápido crescimento, habilidade para fixar nitrogênio e melhorar a estrutura do solo, especialmente em locais degradados, tendo usos múltiplos e facilidade para consórcio com culturas agrícolas. A Albizia lebbeck apresenta essas características. O presente estudo avaliou a variabilidade genética e estimou parâmetros genéticos em progênies de albizia para o caráter germinação. Sementes de 26 matrizes da espécie foram coletadas no município de Campo Grande, MS. Os testes de superação da dormência e germinação foram realizados no laboratório de Botânica da Universidade Católica Dom Bosco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e 15 plantas. As estimativas de herdabilidade no sentido amplo foram de 0,43 para indivíduos e 0,79 para média de matrizes, sugerindo expressivo controle genético. A seleção das 10 melhores matrizes proporcionou ganho genético de, pelo menos, 8,1%. Este germoplasma pode ser usado em programa de melhoramento genético para a espécie.Fast growing and nitrogen fixing forest trees species play an important role in rural areas, mainly in degraded lands, where they provide multiple purposes and facilities for intercropping with other crops. Albizia lebbeck is one of such species. This paper aimed at estimating the genetic variability for germination in a progeny test of this species. Seeds from 26 parent trees were collected in a site located at Campo Grande, MS. The germination tests were performed in the UCDB University under a randomised complete block design with five replications and 15 plants per plot. The broad sense heritability estimates were 0.43 and 0.79 at individual and parent tree mean levels, respectively, which denotes a moderate to high genetic control. Selection of the best 10 parents provided a genetic gain of 8.1%. This genetic resource can be used in a genetic improvement program for

  9. Utilización de piensos criollos con harina de Albizia lebbeck para la ceba de conejos alimentados con bejuco de boniato Use of home-made concentrate feed with Albizia lebbeck meal for fattening rabbits fed sweet potato vines

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    I. L Montejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento durante 40 días en el módulo de animales menores de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión de la harina de Albizia lebbeck en un pienso criollo con diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos, para la alimentación de conejos de ceba. Se utilizaron 26 animales mestizos sanos, de 60 días de edad y 0,94 (± 0,10 kg de peso, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con dos tratamientos (13 animales por cada uno; estos fueron: A 100% bejuco de boniato (Ipomoea batata y B 70% bejuco de boniato más 30% de pienso criollo elaborado con harina de A. lebbeck y diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos. El alimento se ofreció en los horarios de la mañana (9:00-10:00 a.m. y la tarde (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el peso final de los animales (A-1,47 kg y B-1,62 kg. Las mejores ganancias de peso vivo se observaron en el tratamiento suplementado B (16,3 g/animal/día, que fueron superiores (PA trial was conducted for 40 days in the small animal facility of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of Albizia lebbeck meal in a home-made concentrate feed with different energy-protein supplements, to feed fattening rabbits. Twenty-six healthy crossbred animals, 60 days old and with 0,94 (±0,10 kg of weight, were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments (13 animals each; they were: A 100% sweet potato (Ipomoea batata vines and B 70% sweet potato vines + 30% home-made concentrate feed elaborated with A. lebbeck meal and different energy-protein supplements. The feed was supplied in the morning (9:00-10:00 a.m. and the afternoon (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Significant differences were found in the final weight of the animals (A-1,47 kg and B-1,62 kg. The best live weight gains were observed in the supplemented treatment B (16,3 g/animal/day, which were

  10. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.J. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G. [Laboratório de Toxinologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacodinâmica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-27

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  11. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation

  12. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A

    2012-02-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  13. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  14. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Goel, Navneet; Singh, Nasib

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer.

  15. Caracterização farmacognóstica das folhas e sementes de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Cláudia G. Miranda

    Full Text Available Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. é popularmente conhecida no Brasil por coração-de-negro. É uma espécie aclimatada nesse país. As sementes dessa espécie são utilizadas no tratamento de diarréia, disenteria e hemorróidas e as folhas, no tratamento de úlceras e nas conjuntivites alérgicas. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas e sementes dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó das folhas e sementes de A. lebbeck. Saponinas, alcalóides e cumarinas foram detectados nas folhas e sementes; flavonóides foram também identificados nas folhas. O teor de umidade foi 6,78% e 7,91%, respectivamente, para o pó das folhas e sementes. Os valores de cinzas totais e cinzas insolúveis em ácido foram 9,60% e 0,62% para as folhas e 4,13% e 0,21% para as sementes. Os dados obtidos são importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa planta medicinal. O extrato bruto da planta não apresentou atividade antibacteriana.

  16. Effect of seed harvesting season and sterilization treatments on germination and in vitro propagation of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.

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    Kuldeep YADAV

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objective of standardizing the protocol for the micropropagation of Albizia lebbeck (L.. Seeds were collected from three different colored pods (yellow, dark yellow and brownish yellow harvested from field grown Albizia tree from November to January and were surface sterilized using different concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05-0.15% w/v for different exposure durations (2, 5 and 8 min. Seeds collected from dark-yellow colored pod showed the highest germination (83.3 % and short germination time (4.29 days, while those collected from brownish yellow colored pod showedrelatively less germination (53.3% and longer germination time (6.0 days. Success of seed germination increased with maturity upto a certain level after which it declines significantly with increasing harvesting time. A five-minute dip of HgCl2 (0.1% was found to be the optimum duration for giving the maximum (83.3% germinated and healthy seedlings. Increasing time and concentration ofHgCl2 significantly reduced the contamination, but on the other hand it also effected the germination of seeds. Best shoot regeneration response from in vitro nodal segment was obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l + NAA (0.5 mg/l. The highest percentage of callus induction (85% was also observed in the above same media from in vitro internodal segment. Proliferated micro-shoots showed 60% rooting on half strength medium supplemented with IAA (2.0 mg/l after 4 weeks of culturing. The well rooted micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (1:1 with 60% survival rate under field conditions.

  17. Formulation and optimization of pH sensitive drug releasing O/W emulsions using Albizia lebbeck L. seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Chekuri Ashok Kumar; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2018-04-30

    Smart polymers, one of the class of polymers with extensive growth in the last few decades due to their wide applications in drug targeting and controlled delivery systems. With this in mind, the aim of the present study is to design and formulate smart releasing o/w emulsion by using Albizia lebbeck L. seed polysaccharide (ALPS). For this purpose, the physicochemical and drug release characteristics like emulsion capacity (EC), emulsion stability (ES), viscosity, microscopy, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI) and in-vitro drug release were performed. The EC and ES values were found to increase with an increased concentration of ALPS. The emulsion formulations were statistically designed by using 3 2 full factorial design. All the emulsions showed a shear-thinning behavior. The zeta potential and polydispersity index were found to be in the range of -35.83 mV to -19.00 mV and 0.232-1.000 respectively. Further, the percent cumulative drug release of the emulsions at 8 h was found to be in the range of 30.19-82.65%. The drug release profile exhibited zero order release kinetics. In conclusion, the ALPS can be used as a natural emulsifier and smart polymer for the preparation of pH sensitive emulsions in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lebbeckoside C, a new triterpenoid saponin from the stem barks of Albizia lebbeck inhibits the growth of human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Ngo Mbing, Joséphine; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2018-02-19

    One new acacic acid-type saponin, named lebbeckoside C (1), was isolated from the stem barks of Albizia lebbeck. Its structure was established on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR ( 1 H, 13 C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments, HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence as 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-d-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-{(2E,6S)-6-O-{4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-d-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-d-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-β-d-quinovopyranosyl}-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoyl}acacic acid 28 O-[β-d-quinovopyranosyl-(l→3)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(l→4)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl] ester. The isolated saponin (1) displayed significant cytotoxic activity against the human glioblastoma cell line U-87 MG and TG1 stem-like glioma cells isolated from a patient tumor with IC 50 values of 1.69 and 1.44 μM, respectively.

  19. Albizia lebbeck seed methanolic extract as a complementary therapy to manage local toxicity of Echis carinatus venom in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amog, P U; Manjuprasanna, V N; Yariswamy, M; Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Gowda, T V

    2016-11-01

    Viperid venom-induced chronic local-toxicity continues even after anti-snake venom treatment. Therefore, traditional antidote Albizia lebbeck L. (Fabaceae) seed extract was tested against Echis carinatus S. (Viperidae) venom (ECV)-induced local toxicity to evaluate its complementary remedy. Soxhlet extraction of A. lebbeck seeds was performed with the increasing polarity of solvents (n-hexane to water); the extract was screened for phytochemicals (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids and tannins). In preliminary in vitro analysis, A. lebbeck methanolic extract (ALME) demonstrated significant inhibition of ECV proteases, the major enzyme-toxin responsible for local- toxicity. Therefore, in vitro neutralizing potential of ALME was further evaluated against hyaluronidases and phospholipase A 2 (1:1-1:100 w/w). In addition, alleviation of ECV induced characteristic local- toxicity [haemorrhage (i.d.) and myotoxicity (i.m.)] was determined in mice. ALME contained high concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids and demonstrated significant in vitro inhibition of ECV protease (IC 50  =   36.32 μg, p lebbeck in complementary medicine and identifies ALME as principle fraction responsible for antivenom properties.

  20. A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam from the flowers of Albizia lebbeck with platelets anti-aggregatory activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Ali Ali; Abd-El-Halim, Mohamed Farag; Kalil, Ashraf Taha; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ahmad, Mohamed Shamim; El-Tahir, Kamal Hussin; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Abdel-Mageed, Wael Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the flowers of Albizia lebbeck. It showed a significant anti-aggregatory activity against adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid induced guinea-pigs' platelets aggregation in vitro. Six more known compounds were also isolated and fully characterized by measuring 1D and 2D NMR, two of them are the triterpenes β-amyrin and 11α, 12α-oxidotaraxerol, two ceramide derivatives and two flavonoids, kampferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin.

  1. Albizia lebbeck suppresses histamine signaling by the inhibition of histamine H1 receptor and histidine decarboxylase gene transcriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul, Islam Mohammed; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Shahriar, Masum; Venkatesh, Pichairajan; Maeyama, Kazutaka; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Hattori, Masashi; Choudhuri, Mohamed Sahabuddin Kabir; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    Histamine plays major roles in allergic diseases and its action is mediated mainly by histamine H(1) receptor (H1R). We have demonstrated that histamine signaling-related H1R and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) genes are allergic diseases sensitive genes and their expression level affects severity of the allergic symptoms. Therefore, compounds that suppress histamine signaling should be promising candidates as anti-allergic drugs. Here, we investigated the effect of the extract from the bark of Albizia lebbeck (AL), one of the ingredients of Ayruvedic medicines, on H1R and HDC gene expression using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) sensitized allergy model rats and HeLa cells expressing endogenous H1R. Administration of the AL extract significantly decreased the numbers of sneezing and nasal rubbing. Pretreatment with the AL extract suppressed TDI-induced H1R and HDC mRNA elevations as well as [(3)H]mepyramine binding, HDC activity, and histamine content in the nasal mucosa. AL extract also suppressed TDI-induced up-regulation of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA. In HeLa cells, AL extract suppressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- or histamine-induced up-regulation of H1R mRNA. Our data suggest that AL alleviated nasal symptoms by inhibiting histamine signaling in TDI-sensitized rats through suppression of H1R and HDC gene transcriptions. Suppression of Th2-cytokine signaling by AL also suggests that it could affect the histamine-cytokine network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal

  3. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE ALBÍZIA (ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L. BENTH EM FUNÇÃO DA LUZ E DO REGIME DE TEMPERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The albizia is a species arbores of the Leguminosae - Mimosoideae family (Momosaceas, native of Tropical Asia and characterized for presenting a speed growth, ability to fix nitrogen and to improve the structure of earth, especially in areas degraded, having uses multiples and facility to co associate with cultures agricultural. The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of albizia and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the twelve methods to superation of dormancy: humid heat, immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid, and escarification mechanic, beyond of the witness, being determined the percentage of germination of seeds seard and deceased. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under nine combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 25oC; continue light and constant temperature of 35oC; continue light and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; dark continue and constant temperature of 25oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 35oC; dark continue and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 25oC; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 35oC and alternance of light and temperature (light/35oC/8h and dark/20oC/16h. Conclusion the specie Albizia lebbeck presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the escarification mechanic and the sulfuric acid as efficient methods to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of albizia are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  4. [Nutritional evaluation of the seeds of "ipil-ipil" (Leucaena leucocephala), "casco de vaca" (Bauhinia monandra) and scented carob (Albizia lebbeck)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Peñate, M; Bencomo Hernández, A; Sampere Díaz, E; Farrás Fernández, I; Hernández Triana, M; Porrata Maury, C; Ponce de León Boloy, I

    1988-12-01

    Chemical composition, antinutritional factors and biological protein quality of raw and autoclaved (120 degrees C for 10 min) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), casco de vaca (Bauhinia monandra) ard algarrobo de olor (Albizia lebbeck) seeds were determined. The trypsin inhibitor activity was 29, 120, and 150 TIU/mg of sample respectively. Autoclaving eliminated 59, 33 and 100% of the activity. Bauhinia monandra seed depicted a high hemagglutinating activity which was eliminated by autoclaving. Net protein utilization of raw and autoclaved seeds was 31 and 30, 21 and 55 and 29 and 49%, respectively. All seeds were free from cyanide and alkaloids. It is concluded that the relative low protein quality of the seeds would limit their use for human consumption.

  5. Central analgesic activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Albizia lebbeck: role of the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Girish G; Kumar, Anil; Rizvi, Waseem; Tripathi, C D; Khan, R A

    2015-01-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for treating several painful and inflammatory disorders. The possible central analgesic activity and the underlying mechanism of action of the aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) of the leaves of A. lebbeck were investigated in Wistar rats using Eddy's hot plate and the tail flick tests. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism of action, rats were pretreated with naloxone, bicuculline or methysergide and then were administered a per os (p.o.) dose of AE or EE. AE and EE caused a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the mean basal reaction time in the hot plate method and an increase in the latency time in the tail flick method. In rats pretreated with bicuculline and methysergide, a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the analgesic activity was observed in comparison to AE and EE. Thus, AE and EE exhibited significant central analgesic activity and act possibly via the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways. The flavonoids and saponins found in the leaves could be responsible for the observed effect.

  6. Efecto de la escarificación húmeda y seca en la emergencia de plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth Effect of moist and dry scarification on the emergence of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la aplicación de diferentes métodos de escarificación para favorecer la emergencia de plántulas a partir de semillas de A. lebbeck almacenadas al ambiente, para lo cual se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 4 x 13 y 3 x 13 para la escarificación húmeda y la seca, respectivamente. Se encontró interacción significativa entre los factores para la escarificación húmeda (PThe application of different scarification methods to favour seedling emergence from A. lebbeck seeds stored under ambient conditions was evaluated, for which a completely randomized design was used with 4 x 13 and 3 x 13 factorial arrangement for moist and dry scarification, respectively. Significant interaction was found among the factors for moist scarification (P<0,001. The best values for the acid, hot water and soaking were found at 4 mos; they were lower than the control and among them only water and soaking and water and control were statistically different. The contrast between the values at 6 mos for the acid (6,3% and the control (40,1% stands out; in this last evaluation the highest emergence for moist scarification was achieved. In dry scarification, the highest percentage was obtained in the treatment based on the coat cut and 3 mos (71,0%, and differed statistically from the rest. In the cutting method all the emergence records were higher than the control. For the cut and puncture, statistical differences were detected only between 2 and 3 mos; in both the prevailing value was that of the cutting method. The emergence results allow to evaluate the coat cut as an appropriate method for A. lebbeck seeds, without obviating that soaking also constitutes an alternative for scarification.

  7. Structural, functional and pH sensitive release characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Albizia lebbeck L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Varma, Chekuri Ashok; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2017-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10 2 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4.06%), rhamnose (22.79%), glucose (38.9%), galactose (17.84%) and xylose (16.42%). Micromeritic properties revealed that the polysaccharide possess potential for pharmaceutical applications. From the surface charge analysis, ALPS was found to be non-ionic polysaccharide. Morphological study reveals the polysaccharide with irregular particle shape and rough surface. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the carbohydrate nature of polysaccharide. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, the second mass loss (243-340°C) attributed to polysaccharide degradation. The drug release profile reveals the use of polysaccharide for the preparation of pH sensitive pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Triterpenoid saponins from Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth and their inhibitory effect on the survival of high grade human brain tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Jihu, Dong; Antheaume, Cyril; Zeniou, Maria; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Guillaume, Dominique; Chneiwess, Hervé; Kilhoffer, Marie Claude; Lobstein, Annelise

    2015-03-02

    As part of our search of new bioactive triterpenoid saponins from Cameroonian Mimosaceae plants, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia lebbeck led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type saponins, named lebbeckosides A-B (1-2). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence. Compounds 1-2 were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the metabolism of high grade human brain tumor cells, the human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell lines and the glioblastoma stem-like TG1 cells isolated from a patient tumor, and known to be particularly resistant to standard therapies. The isolated saponins showed significant cytotoxic activity against U-87 MG and TG1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 3.46 μM and 1.36 μM for 1, and 2.10 μM and 2.24 μM for 2, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First report of an anti-tumor, anti-fungal, anti-yeast and anti-bacterial hemolysin from Albizia lebbeck seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze Kwan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-05-15

    A monomeric 5.5-kDa protein with hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes was isolated from seeds of Albizia lebbeck by using a protocol that involved ion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. It was unadsorbed on both Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose, but adsorbed on Phenyl-Sepharose. Its hemolytic activity was fully preserved in the pH range 0-14 and in the temperature range 0-100 °C, and unaffected in the presence of a variety of metal ions and carbohydrates. The hemolysin reduced viability of murine splenocytes and inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells with an IC₅₀ of 0.21, 0.97, and 1.37 μM, respectively. It impeded mycelial growth in the fungi Rhizoctonia solani with an IC₅₀ of 39 μM but there was no effect on a variety of other filamentous fungi, including Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, Valsa mali and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Lebbeckalysin inhibited growth of Escherichia coli with an IC₅₀ of 0.52 μM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Empleo de la función Weibull para evaluar la emergencia de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el vigor de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck mediante la evaluación de la emergencia de plántulas, a través de la función Weibull modificada, se realizó la siembra en tres condiciones ambientales y en diferentes tiempos de almacenamiento de la semilla. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, con arreglo factorial. Se realizó análisis de varianza para los parámetros M (emergencia acumulada máxima, k (tasa de emergencia y Z (retraso para el inicio de la emergencia de la función Weibull modificada. A partir de los seis meses de iniciado el almacenamiento (44,1 % se observó la pérdida brusca del porcentaje de M en el vivero (A y ligeras variaciones en la cabina (C, en comparación con A y B (sombreador. El ámbito de dispersión del parámetro k osciló entre 0,4-2,6; 0,29-1,9 y 0,5-1,4 % emergencia d-1 para las evaluaciones realizadas en A, B y C, respectivamente. Del análisis de Z se interpretó que el tiempo para el inicio de la emergencia, sin distinción del ambiente de siembra, estuvo enmarcado entre los 3,0 y 7,3 días posteriores a la siembra. En el vivero a pleno sol, en la evaluación a 6 mdia (meses de iniciado el almacenamiento, se obtuvieron los mejores resultados de los parámetros biológicos de la ecuación de Weibull, lo cual permitió un análisis global que indicó un grado de vigor alto en las semillas de A. lebbeck, en comparación con las restantes evaluaciones

  11. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  12. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72±0.2%, Albizia lebbeck  (6.40±0.60%, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2±0.30%. The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  13. Efecto de la escarificación húmeda y seca en la capacidad germinativa de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth Effect of moist and dry scarification on the germination capacity of seeds from Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de favorecer la germinación en semillas de A. lebbeck almacenadas en condiciones ambientales, se evaluaron diferentes métodos presiembra mediante un diseño completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 4 x 13 y 3 x 13 para la escarificación húmeda y la seca, respectivamente. En la escarificación húmeda se halló interacción significativa entre los factores estudiados (PWith the objective of favoring germination in A. lebbeck seeds stored under ambient conditions, different pre-planting methods were evaluated by means of a completely randomized design with 4 x 13 and 3 x 13 factorial arrangement for moist and dry scarification, respectively. In moist scarification significant interaction was found among the studied factors (P<0,001. No statistical differences were observed between the acid and the hot water, in the seeds evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 7 mos; while the same evaluations were statistically different from the control and in all cases the values were lower than the latter. All the soaking and control evaluations were not significant among themselves, while they differed from the hot water and the acid. In the dry scarification the germination capacity showed significant interaction (P<0,001. The highest values were reported in 1, 2 and 3 mos in seeds with one cut; these percentages did not differ among themselves but they did differ from the others. When comparing the cut with the puncture, a statistically different behavior was observed; in all the evaluations the lowest values were those of the puncture. It is necessary to emphasize the efficacy of the seed coat cut and the soaking for 24 hours in water at ambient temperature as dry and moist scarification treatments, respectively, in spite of the acceptable results shown by the control.

  14. diets containing gliricidia ( Gliricidia sepium ) and neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Gliricidia sepium with neem leaves supplementation on nutrient retentions for body weight gain in ewe-lambs. Twelve West African dwarf ewe-lambs with an average weight of 7.00 ± 0.32kg were randomly allotted to three dietary tratments with four ewe-lambs per treatment in a ...

  15. Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, Morinda lucida and Senna si

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-09-30

    Sep 30, 2017 ... Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku .... corresponded to the beginning of the dry season, while ... Statistical analysis: For each foliage data of nutrient .... Arbouche Y, Arbouche HS, Arbouche F, Arbouche R,.

  16. A new species of Bruchidius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) from Albizia in Northern Thailand and a review of Bruchidius group 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Midori

    2008-04-01

    A new species, Bruchidius paicus (Insecta, Coleoptera) reared from the seeds of a leguminous tree, Albizia lebbeck (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae), is described from Northern Thailand. Inspection of genital and external morphological traits of B. paicus revealed that the new species belongs to Bruchidius Group 5 (sensu ). The definition of Group 5 is reviewed based on both external and genital morphology. Further comparison of the group to molecular Clade I of Bruchidius (sensu ) indicates the two groups correspond to each other.

  17. Variabilidad fitoquímica y repercusión antinutricional potencial en especies del género Albizia Phytochemical variability and potential antinutritional repercussion in species of the Albizia genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante los análisis de componentes principales (ACP, clasificación automática (ACA y varianza simple (ANOVA, se estudió el espectro de variaciones de la composición química de once especies del género Albizia (A. berteriana, A. caribaea, A. cubana, A. falcata, A. kalkora, A. lebbeck, A. lucida, A. procera, A. saman, A. semani y A. odoratissima, establecidas en el arboretum de la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" en Matanzas, Cuba. Los indicadores bromatológicos evaluados fueron: PB, FDN, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, ceniza y carbohidratos solubles (CHS; mientras que las concentraciones de los polifenoles totales (FT, los taninos que precipitan las proteínas (TPP, los taninos condensados (TC, los alcaloides (Alc, las saponinas (Sap y las sales nitrogenadas de naturaleza no alcaloidal (SNNA describieron las particularidades fitoquímicas. Se detectó una alta variabilidad para las primeras tres componentes en los indicadores bromatológicos y fitoquímicos (71,19 y 81,95%, respectivamente. Los ACA permitieron identificar cuatro grupos en ambos casos. Las variables que explicaron mejor la varianza fueron los contenidos de K, Ca, ceniza, CHS, FT, TPP y TC. Se concluye que, independientemente que las especies mostraron características particulares en su composición proximal, todas presentaron una aceptable composición bromatológica. Las arbóreas pueden ser divididas por sus características esencialmente polifenólicas (A. berteriana, A. cubana, A. falcata, A. kalkora y A. lucida o saponínicas (A. caribaea, A. procera y A. saman, con elevadas concentraciones de fenoles y Sap (A. odoratissima, o por presentar bajos contenidos de estos últimos metabolitos secundarios (A. lebbeck y A. semani. Desde el punto de vista nutricional A. lebbeck, A. semani, A. caribaea, A. procera y A. saman constituyen las mejores opciones para la alimentación de los rumiantes, y solamente A. lebbeck y A. semani presentan potencialidades para los monogástricos.By means of the

  18. Biosorption of Phosphate Ion on Albizia Lebbeck Seed Pod with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    MATERIALS AND METHODS ... flask with 15mL of CO2-free water. ..... curve is reflecting the boundary layer diffusion effect ... of rough and fibrous porous flakes, this occurred due ..... phosphates by pilot vertical-flow constructed wetlands.

  19. Effect of partial replacement of growers mash with gliricidia sepium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of partial replacement of growers mash with Gliricidia sepium leaf meal (GLM) on the growth of chinchilla rabbits and to determine its implication for extension advisory services. In this study, 10 eight weeks old Chinchilla rabbits were used. They were randomly allotted to three ...

  20. Response of Gliricidia sepium tree to phosphorus application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was carried out in a green house at Bel Air station to determine effect of phosphorus on the growth of Gliricidia sepium in presence of rhizobial strains and an arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus. A factorial 3 factors block was designed with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus aggregatum, phophorus ...

  1. Pengaruh umur pemotongan terhadap produktivitas gamal (Gliricidia sepium)

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Via Savitri; Herni Sudarwati; Hermanto Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cutting interval on production, and nutrition of gamal (Gliricidia sepium). The study was conducted on Agriranch sheep farm, Pandan Rejo Subdistrict, Bumi Aji District of Malang Regency from May 25th to August 25th 2012. Proximate Analysis was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University. The study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) which consisted of four treatments and three cutting age...

  2. Pengaruh Umur Pemotongan Terhadap Produktivitas Gamal (Gliricidia Sepium)

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Mei Via; Sudarwati, Herni; Hermanto, Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cutting interval on production, and nutrition of gamal (Gliricidia sepium). The study was conducted on Agriranch sheep farm, Pandan Rejo Subdistrict, Bumi Aji District of Malang Regency from May 25th to August 25th 2012. Proximate Analysis was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University. The study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) which consisted of four treatments and three cutting age...

  3. In vitro hypoglycemic effects of Albizzia lebbeck and Mucuna pruriens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutkar, Mangesh; Bhise, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic potential of stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) and seeds of Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens) using various in vitro techniques. Methods The plant extracts were studied for their effects on glucose adsorption, diffusion amylolysis kinetics and glucose transport across yeast cells. Results Both the plant extracts adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration. No significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed between the adsorption capacities of A. lebbeck and M. pruriens. In amylolysis kinetic experimental model the rate of glucose diffusion was found to increase with time from 30 to 180 min, and both the plant extracts demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on movement of glucose into external solution across dialysis membrane as compared to control. The retardation of glucose diffusion by A. lebbeck extract was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than M. pruriens. These effects were reflected with higher glucose dialysis retardation index values for A. lebbeck than M. pruriens. The plant extracts also promoted glucose uptake by yeast cells. The rate of uptake of glucose into yeast cells was linear in all the 5 glucose concentrations used in the study. M. pruriens extract exhibited significantly higher (P≤0.05) activity than the extract of A. lebbeck at all concentrations. Conclusions The results verified the antidiabetic potential of A. lebbeck and M. pruriens. The hypoglycemic effect exhibited by the extracts is mediated by increasing glucose adsorption, decreasing glucose diffusion rate and at the cellular level by promoting glucose transport across the cell membrane as revealed by simple in vitro model of yeast cells.

  4. INFLUÊNCIA DA COR E MÉTODOS DE SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE ALBIZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Pereira Benedito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to evaluate the influence of pre-germinatives treatments to overcome dormancy in seeds of albizia (Albizia lebbeck with different colorations. It took place an experiment at greenhouse UFERSA, in Mossoró-RN, in completely randomized design with the treatments distributed in outline factorial 8x2, with the factors treatments for pre-germination and classes of seeds (clear seeds and dark seeds, in four replications of 25 seeds. The germinative pré-germinative consisted either in the immersion of the seeds in sulfuric acid for ten, 15 and 20 minutes; immersion in sodium hypochlorite for ten, 15 and 20 minutes; cutting in the tegument in the opposite side of the embryonic axis and the control (the control was represented by intact seeds. Were analyzed the following parameters: first germination count, germination speed index, and percentage of germination. . By considering the results, it was observed that the dark seeds were better than clear seed. The immersion treatments in sulfuric acid for 10 and 20 minutes and the cutting in the tegument were the most efficient for the break of seeds dormancy.

  5. Pengaruh umur pemotongan terhadap produktivitas gamal (Gliricidia sepium

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    Mei Via Savitri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cutting interval on production, and nutrition of gamal (Gliricidia sepium. The study was conducted on Agriranch sheep farm, Pandan Rejo Subdistrict, Bumi Aji District of Malang Regency from May 25th to August 25th 2012. Proximate Analysis was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University. The study used Randomized Block Design (RBD which consisted of four treatments and three cutting age groups. The treatments were U60 (60 days of cutting age, U80 (80 days of cutting age, U100 (100 days of cutting age, and U120 (120 days of cutting age. The study found that the lowest production of leaves, twigs, dry matter, organic matter, and fibre were at 60 days of cutting age. Meanwhile the highest production of them was at 120 days of cutting age. However, the lowest crude protein content was found at 120 days cutting age. The study suggests that gamal was able to provide better nutrition as animal forages at 80 days of cutting age. Keywords: Gliricidia sepium, cutting age, dry matter, organic matter, fibre

  6. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous tree with greyish bark and compound leaves. Flowers are greenish-yellow in head inflorescences. Fruit pods are yellowish-brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods).

  7. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  8. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from albizia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes of 2-4 cm. The prepared pods were then carbonised in a muffle furnace at temperatures of 4000C, 5000C, 6000C ...

  9. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  10. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  11. Nitrogen fixation and effects of pruning on Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, M.S. de

    1998-01-01

    This 7-year study examined genetic variability in N 2 fixation by Gliricidia sepium and the N 2 -fixing capacity in G. sepium and Leucaena leucocephala as influenced by frequency of pruning, age, and shade from coconut. The 15 N-dilution method was used with the non-nodulating tree legume Senna siamea as the non-fixing reference. There were significant differences in total dry matter, N yield and N 2 -fixation capacity among four G. sepium provenances. Gliricidia had higher values than Leucaena for dry matter, N yield, and amount of N fixed; %Ndfa was comparable in both species (47-55%). A substantial amount (18%) of fixed N 2 was present in the roots of both species. In a long-term study aimed at comparing the effect of pruning practices and age of trees, G. sepium grown under coconut outperformed L. leucocephala in terms of dry matter, N yield and amounts of N 2 fixation. Coconut saplings supplied with G. sepium and L. leucocephala prunings as green manure grew better than those supplied with S. siamea; the fraction of coconut-sapling N obtained from Gliricidia and Leucaena was 40 and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that G. sepium, which demonstrated a high potential for biomass production and N 2 fixation, is appropriate for interplanting with coconut palms. Also, S. Siamea was found to be a suitable reference species. (author)

  12. Biomass and carbon stock potential of Gliricidia Sepium as an alternative energy at Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, F. H.; Hariyadi; Hartono, A.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of biomass from plants is one efforts for the fulfillment an availability of alternative energy in indonesia. Gliricidia sepium is a tolerant species that can grow in dry land. However its utilization as renewable energy source is non-optimized. This study aims to analyze the potential carbon stocks and biomass from Gliricidia sepium as a raw material for alternative energy in East Nusa Tenggara. This study was conducted in November 2015 and located in Humusu Sainiup, Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The method used in collecting data was applied in three different land-use, namely monoculture Gliricidia sepium, polyculture between Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and polyculture between Gliricidia sepium and Zea mays. We used the allometric equation from Ketterings namely B = 0.11ρD2+0,62 and C = 0.5 x B. The results showed that the different land-use will give different value of carbon stocks which is in this study the biggest value of carbon stocks was found in monoculture of Gliricidia sp (35.35 tC ha-1) compared with Gliricidia sp + Leucaena sp (18.83 tC ha-1), and Gliricidia sp + Zea mays (13.79 tC ha-1). The value of biomass and carbon stocks was influenced by wood density, trees density, and diameter at breast height (dbh).

  13. Spatial rooting patterns of gliricidia, pigeon pea and maize intercrops and effect on profile soil N and P distribution in southern Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makumba, W.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Janssen, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competition or complementarity between tree and crop roots for below ground resources have been a major debate in simultaneous systems. Root studies were conducted in three cropping systems, namely: sole maize, pigeon pea/maize intercropping and Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia)/maize

  14. Timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia affects cotton and sunflower nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Dário C; Menezes, Rômulo S C; Oliveira, Fabio F DE; Dubeux Júnior, José Carlos B; Sampaio, Everardo V S B

    2018-01-01

    Organic fertilizers are a viable alternative to increase oilseed productivity in family agriculture systems. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of timing and placement of cattle manure and/or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp) prunings on cotton (Gossipium hirsutum L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) nutrient accumulation and biomass productivity. Experiments were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Taperoá, Paraíba, Brazil. The organic fertilization treatments were: GI - gliricidia incorporated before planting; GS - gliricidia applied on surface 45 days after planting (DAP); MI + GI - manure and gliricidia incorporated before planting; MI + GS - manure incorporated before planting and gliricídia applied on the surface 45 DAP; MI - manure incorporated before planting; and T - with no organic fertilization. In 2010, treatment MI + GS increased N, P, and K accumulation in cotton (12 and 7 kg ha-1) as well as in sunflower (20 and 29 kg ha-1). In 2011, GI and GS treatments resulted in higher N, P, K accumulations in both crops. The highest cotton productivity in 2010 was obtained with MI + GS treatment (198 kg ha-1) and in 2011 with GS treatment (594 kg ha-1). For sunflower, MI + GS treatment yielded the highest productivity in 2010 (466 kg ha-1) and GI treatment in 2011 (3542 kg ha-1). GI and MI + GS treatments increased total biomass productivity for cotton and sunflower. The treatment that combined both cattle manure incorporated into the soil before planting and gliricidia applied on the surface 45 days after planting was the most viable management strategy.

  15. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  16. Chemical composition, “in vitro” digestibility and production of woody forage legumes cultivated in sandy soils Composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" e produção de biomassa de leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas cultivadas em solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Volpe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional value and productivity of woody forage legumes Albizia lebbeck, Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala, to be used in supplementation of cattle as a bank protein, five species in Quartzpisament were evaluated. The experiment was conducted from March 2006 to October 2007. The evaluations were carried out in two periods (rainy and dry, with two cuts by period. There was no difference in the accumulation of dry matter, in rainy period. In the dry evaluation, A. lebbeck and C. argentea were higher than the other legumes. The C. cajan was not recovered after the rainy period, which resulted in a low accumulation of dry matter in the dry period. The leaves of Albizia lebbeck showed the highest levels of crude protein in cuts evaluated (210 to 212 g/kg. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter in the leaves of A. lebbeck was significantly higher, with average values of 568g/kg. A. lebbeck, Cratylia argentea and Gliricidea sepium showed the highest content for digestibility of the thin stem. The A. lebbek and C. argentea presented higher accumulation of dry matter (19,3 and 24,3 t DM/ha, respectively and, still, the best values for the qualitative characteristics. Both species are the most promising and adapted to the formation of protein banks in these types of soils.Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo e a produtividade das leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas: Albizia lebbeck (Albízia, Cajanus cajan (Feijão-Guandu, Cratylia argentea (Cratília, Gliricidia sepium (Gliricídia e Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, a serem utilizadas na suplementação de bovinos como banco de proteína, conduziu-se um experimento em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2006 e outubro de 2007. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois períodos (chuvoso e seco, com dois cortes para cada período. Não houve diferença no acúmulo de matéria seca nos cortes do per

  17. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Gliricidia sepium AGAINST GASTROINTESTINALE NEMATODES OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo Hernandez-Villegas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of local resources for food and health care of animals is a highly profitable and sustainable strategy. Among these resources are native trees and shrubs which in addition to providing good quality nutrients, produce secondary metabolites with anthelmintic (AH effect. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro AH effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves methanol extract (GSME, through the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA. Three concentrations of the extracts were tested: 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL.  Also a negative control (distilled water and a positive control (levamisole 2 mg/mL were included. The GSME showed significant differences P<0.05 when compared with the positive control. The GSME also showed a dose-dependent response in inhibition of eggs hatching. Effectiveness percentages found were: 27.7%, 46.2%, 49.7% of inhibition at 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL respectively. The average dose (ED50 obtained through probit analysis was 394.96 μg/mL. These results suggest that the ME of leaves of G. sepium has anthelmintic activity against eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes.

  18. The Effects of Gliricidia-Derived Biochar on Sequential Maize and Bean Farming

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    Ana Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The addition of biochar to soils can improve soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity. We carried out a field experiment in which biochar produced from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. was added to low-fertility Brazilian planosol and tested to increase the yield of maize (Zea mays and snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in sequential, organic cultivation. Biochar was applied at a 15 t/ha rate, combined or not with Azospirillum Brasiliense inoculation and organic fertilizer (Bokashi. The application of biochar resulted in an increase in soil pH and of the content of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. Contrary to evidence from elsewhere, biochar had a limited effect on increasing maize yield. In the case of beans, when combined with fertilizer, biochar increased the production of beans pods and biomass, but the significant increase was observed only for inoculation. Beans are the principal component of Brazilian diet and increasing productivity of beans is of upmost importance for the poorest in Brazil, and in other tropical countries.

  19. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  20. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  1. Assessment of Albizia zygia gum as binding agent in tablet formulations

    OpenAIRE

    ODEKU, OLUWATOYIN A.

    2005-01-01

    Albizia gum has been evaluated as a binding agent in tablet formulations in comparison with gelatin BP. Compressional properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel and Kawakita as assessment parameters, while the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets. Drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution time as assessment parameters. Fo...

  2. Fermentation Kinetic of Maize Straw-Gliricidia Feed Mixture Supplemented by Fermentable Carbohydrate Measured by In Vitro Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, D.; Nurhayati

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of crop by-products such as maize straw mixed with legume is expected to be able to overcome the limitation of forage availability during dry season and have similar nutritional value with grass. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate in this diet can be improved fermentability and reduced methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground corn grain or rice bran as fermentable carbohydrate in maize straw-gliricidiamixture. Treatment diets evaluated were: Maize straw + gliricidialeaf meal (Control/RO); Control + 10% ground maize grain (ROC); Control + 10% rice bran (RORB). Maize straw was chopped and ground then mixed with gliricidia leaf meal at ratio 60:40% DM. Maize straw-gliricidia mixture then supplemented either with ground corn grain or rice bran at 10% of DM basal diet (control). Sample was incubated for 48 hours, gas production was recorded at 4, 8,12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Study was conducted in randomized complete design. Results of the study showed that supplementation of fermentable carbohydrate from corn grain or rice bran was able to increased (Pfermentation and reduced methane production.

  3. Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium: decomposition of its leaves in soil and effects on sweet-corn yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Sharifuddin, H.A.H.; Anular, R.; Bah, A.R.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Kathuli, P.; Juma, P.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium subjected to three pruning regimes (one, two or four cuts per year) was measured using the 15 N-dilution technique with Cassia siamea as the reference species. Over a 4-year period, estimates of the fraction of N derived from fixation, generally 2 fixer. Gliricidia sepium leaves were placed in litter-bags, buried in an ultisol and sampled at intervals over 70 days. The half-life for dry matter was 17 days, and about 60% of the N was lost within 10 days; K and Ca were the most rapidly released nutrients, with half-lives of only 1 and 3 days, respectively. The N contributions from G. sepium leaves and roots to alley-cropped sweet corn were quantified by the 15 N-dilution technique over three growing seasons. The application of leaves with roots resulted in increased N uptake and dry matter yield in corn. Below-ground competition between hedgerow and corn, assessed using 32 P with the third crop, occurred under conditions of low nutrient-availability. The data imply that there is no advantage of the cut-and-carry system over permanent hedgerows, provided that prunings are applied at the time of nutrient demand in the crop. (author)

  4. Adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 from Aqueous Solution using Low Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Solid Waste: Albizia amara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anitha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 (Reactive Dye from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from Albizia amara pod shell waste as an adsorbent have been carried out. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Kinetic parameters as a function of Initial dye concentration have been calculated and the kinetic data were substituted in Pseudo First Order, Elovich and Pseudo Second order equations. A probable explanation is offered to account for the results of kinetic study. The thermodynamic parameter enthalpy change (∆H suggests the exothermic nature of absorption of Reactive Blue 171 onto activated Albizia amara pod shell waste carbon.

  5. Performance of Dairy Goats Fed Rhodes Grass Hay and Supplemented with Leucaena or Gliricidia-Based Concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondiek, J.O.; Tuitoek, J.K.; Abdulrazak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of dairy goats supplemented with fodder based diets. Six lactating does of Saanen, Toggenburg and Saanen X Toggenburg breed types weighing 46 + or - 7.1 at late stage of lactation were allocated to three dietary treatments in a double 3*3 Latin square design to examine the value of leucaena and gliricidia forages as nitrogen sources in supplementing Rhodes grass hay. Three supplements: Leucaena-based (L), gliricidia-based (G) or commercial concentrate (C) were used. Voluntary feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and live weight changes were measured. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher in group G than C (1385 vs 1331 g day -1 ). Hay DMI was higher in G (835 g d -1 than L or C (789, 782 g day -1 , respectively). Diets had no effect on milk yield, crude protein or butterfat content. Total solid was higher in L than C while that of G was intermediate (15.7, 14.7, 13.7%). Weight changes were least affected although resulted in positive gain (11 g day -1 ) while the others lost (-13,-19 g day -, for L and C respectively). In the digestibility trial 6 female goats weighing 22.3 kg (sd 1.1), were allocated to the three treatments in a completely randomised block design where each goat received a different supplement in each of two periods. Thee were no differences in nutrient digestibility except for DM, which was in C compared to the other treatments (615, 622, 720 g-kg for L, G and C, respectively). It si concluded that fodder based supplement compared well with the commercial concentrate in supporting milk yield and body weight gain of dairy goats. Therefore, locally available tree fodders can be incorporated in supplement diets and utilized without any detrimental effects to substitute the expensive concentrates to improve the performance of dairy goats

  6. Efecto del marco de siembra en la producción de postes vivos de Gliricidia sepium Effect of planting frame on the production of living poles of Gliricidia sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó sobre un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes marcos de siembra en la producción intensiva de postes vivos de la leguminosa arbórea Gliricidia sepium. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos a partir de la combinación de tres distancias de camellón (60, 120 y 180 cm con dos distancias de narigón (50 y 100 cm, utilizando un diseño factorial 3 x 2 con cuatro réplicas. Se obtuvo un comportamiento satisfactorio en la germinación de las semillas, ya que se logró una población de plantas por metro cuadrado a los dos meses de la siembra equivalente a un 67,3% de semillas germinadas, así como una supervivencia promedio del 97% cuando se comparó el número de vástagos principales por hectárea con el número de plantas por metro cuadrado. Se encontró interacción significativa (PThe work was carried out on a Vertisol soil from the Cauto Valley, with the objective of evaluating the effect of different planting frames on the intensive production of living poles of the tree legume Gliricidia sepium. Six treatments were evaluated from the combination of three distances between rows (60, 120 and 180 cm with two distances between plants (50 and 100 cm, using a 3 x 2 factorial design with four replications. A satisfactory performance was obtained in seed germination, because a population of plants per square meter was achieved two months after planting equivalent to 67,3% germinated seeds, as well as 97% average survival when the number of main shoots per hectare was compared to the number of plants per square meter. Significant interaction (P<0,01 was found among the factors in the number of plants per square meter and the best result was achieved with the 50 x 60 planting frame; this was in turn the treatment with higher total yield of poles in the third year. Stem diameter was significantly affected from the second year by the distance between rows. The lowest planting frame was

  7. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y

  8. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.R.; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R.; McNeill, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  9. The effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive and feeding value of Albizia procera for growing goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: mralam@royalten.net.bd; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)

    2005-08-19

    Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated

  10. Efeito da Gliricidia sepium sobre nutrientes do solo, microclima e produtividade do milho em sistema agroflorestal no Agreste Paraibano Effects of Gliricidia sepium on soil nutrients, microclimate and maize yield in an agroforestry system in semi-arid Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Martin Pérez Marin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gliricidia sepium é uma leguminosa arbórea que tem sido utilizada em sistemas em aléias no semi-árido nordestino por apresentar bom desenvolvimento em condições de estresse hídrico. Entretanto, há pouca informação disponível sobre o efeito da introdução dessa espécie nos agroecossistemas da região. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da distância de plantas de Gliricidia sepium sobre características da cultura do milho e do solo e microclima no Agreste Paraibano. O estudo foi realizado no município de Esperança (PB, em área de 0,5 ha, onde, em 1996, foram plantadas fileiras de G. sepium espaçadas 6 m entre si e com 1 m entre as árvores. Nesta área, em 2002, foram delimitadas quatro parcelas de 6 x 8 m e, em cada parcela, foi estabelecido um transeto perpendicular às fileiras de árvores com três posições de amostragem: (1 nas fileiras de árvores (0 m; (2 a 1 m das fileiras de árvores, e (3 a 3 m de distância das fileiras de árvores. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A massa seca de folhedo caído embaixo da fileira de árvores foi de 1.390 kg ha-1 e diminuiu, gradativamente, para 270 kg ha-1 a 3 m de distância das árvores. As concentrações de P, K e matéria orgânica leve (MOL embaixo das árvores foram maiores do que a 1 e 3 m de distância das fileiras. As médias mensais das temperaturas mínimas do ar e do solo embaixo e a 3 m das árvores foram similares. Entretanto, as médias mensais das temperaturas máximas do solo e do ar foram de 6 e 2 °C mais altas a 3 m das árvores, respectivamente, ao longo do período de estudo. A umidade do solo foi significativamente menor embaixo das árvores do que a 1 e 3 m de distância. O milho produziu mais grãos e palha e acumulou mais nutrientes nas posições mais próximas das fileiras de G. sepium.Gliricidia sepium is a leguminous tree that has been used in alley cropping systems in the

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-07-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala.

  12. Identification and quantification of glycoside flavonoids in the energy crop Albizia julibrissin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, C.S.; Beitle, R.R.; Clausen, E.C. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Carrier, D.J. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States). Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Bransby, D.I. [Auburn University, AL (United States). Department of Agronomy and Soils; Howard, L.R. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States). Department of Food Science; Lay, J.O. Jr.; Liyanage, R. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2007-01-15

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values showed that methanolic extracts of Albizia julibrissin foliage displayed antioxidant activity. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques were utilized in the identification of the compounds. The analysis conformed the presence of three compounds in A. julibrissin foliage methanolic extract: an unknown quercetin derivative with mass of 610 Da, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), and quercitrin quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside). Fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) was employed to fractionate the crude A. julibrissin foliage methanolic extract into its individual flavonoid components. The flavonoids were quantified in terms of mass and their respective contribution to the overall ORAC value. Quercetin glycosides accounted for 2.0% of total foliage. (author)

  13. Albizia saman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... determined against the pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 25923; Escherichia coli: ATCC 25922 and ..... Singh S, Jha CS, Firoz N, Tiwari RK. (2013). Effect of certain medicinal plant extracts on bacterial-flora of human oral cavity. Med. Plants Int. J. Phytomed. Relat. Ind. 5(3):168-. 170. D ia.

  14. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae- Papilionoidae na região de Petrolina, Pernambuco Floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae-Papilionoidae in region of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Gliricidia sepium foram estudados no período de março a dezembro de 1999, entre 05:30 e 17:00h., em uma população introduzida na Embrapa Semi-Árido (Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Quinze indivíduos da população foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se a freqüência, o horário e a duração de suas visitas. G. sepium apresenta floração anual do tipo "cornucópia", com pico desta fenofase no mês de agosto. As flores estão reunidas em racemos axilares, com desenvolvimento centrípeto, ocorrendo a antese de 5 a 45 flores/dia. As flores apresentam a formação típica das papilionáceas, com corola de cor magenta, com a parte central do estandarte de cor creme, o qual funciona como guia de néctar. A antese é diurna, ocorrendo por volta da 06:00h, e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas. Abelhas Apidae e Anthophoridae e lepidópteros Hesperiidae são os visitantes mais freqüentes, sendo Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis e Eulaema nigrita consideradas como principais polinizadores desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, G. sepium é xenôgama obrigatória, produzindo frutos e sementes somente após polinização cruzada (51,6%.The aspects of floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium were studied from March to October of 1999, from 5:30am to 5:00pm, in an introduced population at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. The

  15. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  16. Studi Laju Transpirasi Peltophorum dassyrachis dan Gliricidia sepium Pada Sistem Budidaya Tanaman Pagar Serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Konduktivitas Hidrolik Tidak Jenuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Prijono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laju transpirasi tanaman bervariasi dengan karakter vegetasi, karakter tanah, lingkungan dan budidaya tanaman. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari perbedaan kadar lengas tanah dan laju transpirasi tanaman pagar, dan pengaruh laju transpirasi tanaman terhadap konduktivitas hidrolik tidak jenuh. Studi ini dilakukan di Daerah Karta, Lampung Utara, Indonesia selama tiga bulan. Studi ini menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi, dengan dua perlakuan petak utama (jenis tanaman pagar yaitu Peltophorum dassyrachis (P dan Gliricidia sepium (G. Dua perlakuan (anak petak adalah jarak tanaman 40 cm (A dan 120 cm (B. Masing-masing perlakuan ini diulang empat kali.  Pengamatan kadar lengas tanah dilakukan dengan mengkalibrasikan hasil pengukuran Neutron Probe dengan kadar air gravimetrik. Laju transpirasi tanaman dihitung berdasarkan selisih antara kadar lengas tanah pada perlakuan tanaman pagar tanpa perakaran (T dengan kadar lengas tanah pada perlakuan tanaman pagar dengan perakaran (R. Konduktivitas hidrolik tidak jenuh diukur dengan menggunakan metode Pedo Transfer Functions. Data hasil pengamatan selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan metode analisis ragam (ANOVA, uji korelasi dan regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar lengas tanah di bawah G. sepium lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan P. dassyrachis, kecuali pengamatan hari ke-0 di kedalaman 40-70 cm. Kadar lengas tanah cenderung menurun seiring dengan waktu pengamatan pada semua jenis tanaman pagar dan jarak tanamnya. Laju transpirasi G. sepium lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan P. dassyrachis pada kedalaman tanah 0-40 cm, sedangkan pada kedalaman 40-60 cm laju transpirasi kedua jenis tanaman pagar tersebut adalah sama. Pada kedalaman tanah 0-20 cm, laju transpirasi tanaman pagar dengan jarak tanam 40 cm lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan jarak 120 cm. Sedangkan pada kedalaman tanah 20-60 cm, laju transpirasi tanaman pagar dengan jarak 120 cm lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan jarak tanam 40 cm. Hasil uji

  17. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  18. Twigs of Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth. Burkart as a nesting resource for ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Guilherme Morais da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ants can use twigs from fragments of tree branches as a nesting resource. The present study analyzed gatherings of ants in twigs of Albizia niopoides, a Fabaceae native to the Atlantic Forest that is used in landscaping in parks and squares in Brazil. Expeditions were performed in an urban park located in Atlantic Forest areas between February and June 2014. A total of 70 twigs with ants were collected and included 9357 workers, 2309 broods ants, 68 winged ants and 19 queens. Four subfamilies, 10 genera and 17 species/morphospecies were recorded. The species with the largest number of nests were Nylanderia sp.1, Hypoponera sp.4, and Wasmannia auropunctata. Ants of different species were found coexisting in the same twig, and Pheidole gr. tristis was the most common species found sharing a nest. Among the species recorded, only Pseudomyrmex gracilis and P. phyllophilus are arboreal; the others also live in litter. For some species, our results indicate that the twig occupation in the litter can be structured and not by chance. No correlation was found between the twig structure and the colony components.

  19. Evaluación de ensilajes mixtos de Saccharum officinarum y Gliricidia sepium con la utilización de aditivos Evaluation of mixed silages of Saccharum officinarum and Gliricidia sepium using additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la adición de melaza y urea en ensilajes de cogollo quemado de caña de azúcar y Gliricidia sepium, utilizando macrobolsas de 1,18 m³ de capacidad y vacío, mediante un diseño factorial 4 (tipo de ensilaje x 3 (tiempo de fermentación: 20, 40 y 60 días y cinco réplicas. Los tratamientos fueron T1 (cogollo de caña de azúcar, 75% más G. sepium, 25%; T2 (T1 más urea, 0,5%; T3 (T1 más melaza, 4% y T4 (T3 más urea, 0,5%. Se determinó el pH, la MS, la PB, el amoníaco, el nitrógeno soluble, la FB, el extracto libre de nitrógeno, el extracto etéreo, el Ca, el P y la ceniza. No hubo interacción tipo de ensilaje por tiempo de fermentación. Con la adición de urea (T2 se observaron los mayores valores de pH (5,03, PB (8,27%, NH3/Nt (18,13% y NS/Nt (38,31%. Al adicionar la melaza (T3 se constató un mayor porcentaje de MS (35,34 y de ELN (50,93, y con los dos aditivos (T4 se observó un menor contenido de EE (1,02%. Los tenores de FB, los minerales y la ceniza no presentaron diferencias entre los tratamientos. A los 40 días de fermentación se observó un mayor contenido de MS (44,80% y ELN (49,72%. Sin embargo, a los 60 días se obtuvo mayor relación NH3/Nt (11,17% y NS/Nt (33,61%. Mediante la ponderación de las variables más relevantes se concluyó que los ensilajes de mayor calidad se obtuvieron cuando sólo se adicionó melaza (4% o se combinó con urea (0,5%; mientras que la calidad del material conservado fue menor a los 60 días de elaboración.A trial was conducted in Trujillo, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of the addition of molasses and urea in silages of burnt sugarcane tops and Gliricidia sepium, using macrobags of capacity 1,18 m³ and vacuum, by means of a 4 (type of silage x 3 (fermentation time: 20, 40 and 60 days factorial arrangement and five replications. The treatments were T1 (sugarcane tops, 75% plus G. sepium

  20. The effect of feeding bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal on their feed consumption and dried organic matter digestability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, S.; Sobang, Y. U. L.; Samba, F. D.; Hartati, E.; Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding bull Bali Cattle kept in extensive husbnadry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal in their feed consumptions and dried organic matter digestibility. Three bull Bali cattle aged 1 - 2 years old with an initial body weight of 135.5 kg - 168.0 kg were used in this study. The three treatments used were T0 = local feeds (consisted of Leucaena leucocephala, Acasia leochophloea, and Ficus sp. leaves as commonly used by local farmers); T1 = T0 + 1 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal); T2 = T1 +2 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal). The results showed that the dry matter intake were: 2.40, 3.52, and 4.14; organic matter intake were: 2.17, 3.32, and 3.62; dry matter digestible was 64.63%, 72.45%, 77.28% and organic matter digestible was 66.79%, 74.66%, 79.33% for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatments on the three parameters observed on bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system and fed with concentrates contained leaf gliricidia sepium meal and banana starch tuber meal.

  1. Myricitrin and bioactive extract of Albizia amara leaves: DNA protection and modulation of fertility and antioxidant-related genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona El Said; Ibrahim, Lamya Fawzy; Hussein, Sameh Reda; El-Sharawy, Reham; El-Ansari, Mohamed Amin; Hassanane, Mahrousa Mohamed; Booles, Hoda Fahime

    2016-11-01

    Albizia species are reported to exhibit many biological activities including antiovulatory properties in female rats and antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic activities in male rats. The present study investigates the flavonoids of Albizia amara (Roxb.) B. Boivin (Fabaceae) leaves and evaluates their activity on gene expression of fertility and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase-related genes of treated female mice in addition to their effect on DNA damage. Plant materials were extracted by using 70% methanol for 48 h, the extract was chromatographed on a polyamide 6S column, each isolated compound was purified by using Sephadex LH-20 column; its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. Both the leaves extract and myricitrin (200, 30 mg/kg bw/d, respectively) were assayed for their effect on DNA damage in female mice after four weeks treatment using Comet assay. Their modulatory activity on gene expression of fertility (aromatase CYP19 and luteinizing hormone LH) and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-related genes of treated female mice were investigated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside, myricitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated and identified from the studied taxa. Myricitrin and the extract induced low rate of DNA damage (4.8% and 5%, respectively), compared with the untreated control (4.2%) and significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP19 and LH genes and up-regulated GST gene. Our results highlight the potential effect of the leaves extract of Albizia amara and myricitrin as fertility-regulating phytoconstituents with ability to protect DNA from damage and cells from oxidative stress.

  2. Germinação de sementes de Monzê (Albizia polycephala (Benth. Killip ex Record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Soares dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Fabaceae Albizia polycephala é uma espécie clímax que ocorre naturalmente em florestas ombrófilas e estacionais, com enorme potencial para utilização na restauração de áreas degradadas. Porém há poucas informações na literatura quanto à dormência das sementes desta espécie. Com isso o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a germinação de sementes de Albizia polycephala, submetida a diferentes tratamentos pré-germinativos. As sementes foram coletadas em um fragmento de floresta estacional Em laboratório foram inicialmente separadas em três lotes, de acordo com seu formato, e armazenadas em geladeira. Para iniciar o experimento, as sementes foram desinfestadas e submetidas a quatro tratamentos: imersão em água, imersão em ácido sulfúrico, escarificação mecânica e testemunha. Dispostas em placas de petri com quatro repetições de cada tratamento, foram submetidos por 19 dias à temperatura de 30,0 ± 2,0 ºC com luz constante. Não observou-se diferenças entre os lotes e os tratamentos com escarificação mecânica e ácido sulfúrico potencializaram as fases iniciais da germinação das sementes.

  3. Development of Oral Dissolvable Films of Diclofenac Sodium for Osteoarthritis Using Albizia and Khaya Gums as Hydrophilic Film Formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aduenimaa Bonsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral dissolvable films (ODFs of diclofenac sodium intended for osteoarthritis were prepared using Albizia and Khaya gums as hydrophilic film formers. The physicochemical properties of the gums were characterized and the gums were used to prepare diclofenac sodium ODFs (~50 mg/4 cm2 film by solvent casting. The two gums showed satisfactory film forming properties. The physicomechanical properties, drug-excipient compatibility, and in vitro drug release of the films in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were studied. Khaya gum had higher extraction yield, moisture content, insoluble matter and true density while Albizia gum showed greater swelling capacity, solubility, and minerals content. The ODFs were thin, soft, and flexible with smooth glossy surfaces and possessed satisfactory physicomechanical properties. FTIR studies showed that no interaction occurred between the drug and the gums. The ODFs disintegrated in 75% drug release within 7 min with dissolution efficiencies of ~83–96%. Drug releases from F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 were similar to F1 (p>0.05; f115 and f2<50. Drug release followed the Higuchi kinetic model which is indicative of Fickian drug diffusion.

  4. New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Line Made; Noté, Olivier Placide; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Aouazou, Sarah Ali; Guillaume, Dominique; Muller, Christian Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-10-01

    As part of our search for new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D and E (1 and 2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J 8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) and HR-ESI-MS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1 - 3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1 - 3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Litter Production and Decomposition Rate in the Reclaimed Mined Land under Albizia and Sesbania Stands and Their Effects on some Soil Chemical Properties

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    Hery Suhartoyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation establishment is considered as a critical step of mined land rehabilitation. The growing plants do not only prevent soil erosion, but also play important roles in soil ecosystem development. Their litterfall is the main process of transferring organic matter and nutrients from aboveground tree biomass to soil. Thus, its quantification would aid in understanding biomass and nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem. This study was aimed to investigate the litter production and its decomposition rate in a reclaimed mined land using albizia and sesbania, and their effects on some soil properties. The litter under each stand was biweekly collected for four months. At the same time litter samples were decomposed in mesh nylon bags in soils and the remaining litters were biweekly measured. Soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm depths from each stand for analyses of soil organic C, total N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. The results demonstrated that total litter production under albizia (10.58 t ha-1 yr-1 was almost twice as much as that under sesbania stands (5.43 t ha-1 yr-1. Albizia litter was dominated by leaf litter (49.26% and least as understory vegetation (23.31%, whereas sesbania litter was more evenly distributed among litter types. Decomposition rates of all litters were fastest in the initial stage and then gradually decreased. Sesbania leaf litters decomposed fastest, while albizia twigs slowest. Differences in the litter production and decomposition rates of the two species had not sufficiently caused significant effects on organic-C, total N, and CEC of the soils after one year of revegetation.

  6. The aqueous extract of Albizia adianthifolia leaves attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced anxiety, depression and oxidative stress in rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppe, Galba Jean; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Dimo, Théophile; Mihasan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian

    2015-10-19

    While the Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W. Wright (Fabaceae) is a traditional herb largely used in the African traditional medicine as analgesic, purgative, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, memory-enhancer, anxiolytic and antidepressant drug, there are no scientific data that clarify the anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned animal model of Parkinson's disease. This study was undertaken in order to identify the effects of aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced anxiety, depression and oxidative stress in the rat amygdala. The effect of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves (150 and 300 mg/kg, orally, daily, for 21 days) on anxiety and depression was assessed using elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests, as animal models of anxiety and depression. Also, the antioxidant activity in the rat amygdala was assessed using assessed using superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase specific activities, the total content of the reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde levels. Statistical analyses were performed using by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were determined by Tukey's post hoc test. F values for which p amygdala. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract ameliorates 6-OHDA-induced anxiety and depression by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat amygdala. These pieces of evidence accentuate its use in traditional medicine.

  7. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN HASIL DEGRADASI LIGNIN DARI SERBUK GERGAJI KAYU KALBA (Albizia falcataria DENGAN METODE TBA (Thio Barbituric Acid

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    Undri Rastuti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that can delay, retard or inhibit the oxidation reaction. Lignin is a natural polymer consisting of monomeric substituted phenols. Wood lignin degradation Kalba (Albizia falcataria yields substituted phenol. The purpose of this study was to test the antioxidant activity of compounds of lignin degradation products Kalba using TBA (Thiobarbituric Acid. Wood lignin degradation products Kalba tested antioxidant activity using the TBA method. Phase test phase of this antioxidant activity is sample preparation, determination of the maximum wavelength, determination of equilibrium time, absorbance measurements and determination of the percentage of inhibition. The wavelength maximum for BHT test solution was obtained at 530 nm. The stability of absorbance achieved after 80 minutes equilibrium time. BHT test solution and sample solution containing the degradation of lignin 0.10% (w/v increased but not as sharp as the absorbance of control, this suggests that the degradation of wood lignin Kalba have activity as an antioxidant, which relative minimize 13,70 % compare with BHT.

  8. GERMINAÇÃO E MORFOLOGIA DE SEMENTES E PLÂNTULAS DE Albizia edwallii (Hoehne Barneby & J. W. Grimes

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    MANOELA MENDES DUARTE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the morphology of seeds and seedlings and evaluate the germination of seeds of Albizia edwallii submitted to different substrates and temperatures. In physical characterization were evaluated thousand seed weight, the number of seeds per kilogram and moisture content. To determine the morphological characteristics, it was evaluated the biometry of 50 seeds, as well as its internal and external characteristics. Germination was conducted at three temperatures (20 ° C, 25 ° C and 30 ° C and three substrates (sand, vermiculite and blotting paper with five replications of 40 seeds per treatment, in a factorial 3 x 3 and completely randomized design. The variables were germination percentage, germination rate index, mean germination time, and synchronization index. The thousand seed weight was 47.7 g, while the number of seeds per kilo was 20.964 for the moisture content of 13.1%. The seeds have an elliptical shape, no endosperm and have persistent funiculus. Germination is epigeal, and the seedling is phanerocotylar being fully formed at 15 days. Temperatures of 20 ° C and 25 ° C provide the highest germination rates, 42 and 38%, respectively, and germination speed index (GSI. The use of sand as a substrate provided better germination percentage than the other substrates. Thus, it is recommended to use sand as a substrate and temperatures of 20 ° C and 25 ° C in A. edwalli germination tests.

  9. INFLUENCE OF SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM “LIVE FENCES” OF Gliricidia sepium ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN TACOTALPA, TABASCO, MEXICO

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    G. Villanueva-López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify rates of soil respiration on livestock systems with live fences (LF formed by Gliricidia sepium trees and on livestock systems in signal grass monoculture (MP (Brachiaria decumbens; examine the variation of flows in the rainy and dry seasons, and fluctuations during the day, as well as soil temperature and relative humidity. Soil respiration was measured twice a month, four times a day between the hours of 00:00 to 06:00 h, 6:00 to 12:00 h, 12:00 to 18:00 h, and 18:00 to 24:00 h, in both seasons. Soil temperature and the relative humidity were simultaneously measured. The results show that the rate of soil respiration is similar between these systems, LF issued 0.97 and MP 1.01 mol CO2 m2 h-1. In contrast, there was influence of the time of year and time of collection of the samples. In both systems the soil flows were higher in the rainy season (1.1 mol CO2 m2 h-1 on average and slightly lower in the dry season (0.90 mol CO2 m2 h-1 on average and were higher during the night (00:00 to 06:00 hours, during the early morning hours (6:00 to 12:00 hours. Soil temperature was higher in the MP, and the relative humidity in LF. It is concluded that the main factor that caused the variation in soil respiration rates was the presence of G. sepium trees in LF, which led to lower temperatures and more stable humidity, which resulted in lower soil CO2 fluxes.

  10. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

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    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  12. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  13. El proceso de toma de decisiones en la adopción de bancos de proteína de Gliricidia sepium por productores de doble propósito en Rivas, Nicaragua The decision-making process in the adoption of Gliricidia sepium protein banks by double purpose producers in Rivas, Nicaragua*

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    M López

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso de adopción de bancos de proteína de Gliricidia sepium por miembros de la Asociación de Ganaderos de Rivas, Nicaragua (ASOGARI, quienes participaron en el Proyecto de Desarrollo de Sistemas Silvopastoriles implementado con la asistencia técnica del Centro para la Investigación en Sistemas Agropecuarios de Producción Sostenible (CIPAV y el Proyecto Forestal de Nicaragua (PROFOR. Se realizó una encuesta estructurada a 100 ganaderos elegidos al azar entre los miembros de ASOGARI, con el fin de definir las principales tipologías y si existían diferencias entre ellos para la adopción potencial de la tecnología de bancos de proteína. Para el análisis de los factores que afectan la adopción de los bancos de proteína, se analizaron los datos de la encuesta aplicando un modelo binario basado en la premisa de que la adopción depende de los atributos y requerimientos de una tecnología dada. Además, para identificar las variables que afectaban la adopción se analizaron los datos mediante un modelo logístico de regresión múltiple conocido como Tobit. Entre los factores que más afectaron la adopción de los bancos de proteína estuvieron el acceso a la asistencia técnica, la contribución del ganado al ingreso de la finca, la disponibilidad de mano de obra, los años de experiencia en la ganadería y la escolaridad, y el acceso a incentivos para la inversión en la ganadería. El proceso de toma de decisiones para la adopción de los bancos de proteína incluyó las condiciones biofísicas (por ejemplo, la disponibilidad de tierra llana y fértil, el acceso a la semilla o materiales de siembra, las condiciones climáticas en el momento de la siembra y socioeconómicas (por ejemplo, la disponibilidad de mano de obra familiar y/o contratada, la disponibilidad de efectivo o incentivos para la siembra, los precios de la leche y los suplementos, así como una actitud favorable hacia el medio ambiente en los

  14. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the indigenous medicinal plant Albizia odoratissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banothu, Venkanna; Neelagiri, Chandrasekharnath; Adepally, Uma; Lingam, Jayalakshmi; Bommareddy, Kesavaharshini

    2017-12-01

    Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Benth has been used in Indian folk medicine to treat numerous inflammatory pathologies, such as leprosy, ulcers, burns and asthma. To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of A. odoratissima. Dried leaves of A. odoratissima were extracted in organic solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol). The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity was examined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial concentration (MBC), determined by broth microdilution method against Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus). The TPC ranged from 4.40 ± 1.06 to 1166.66 ± 31.85 mg GAE/g of dry weight (DW), and the TFC ranged from 48.35 ± 3.62 to 109.74 ± 1.84 mg QE/g of DW. The IC 50 values of the ethyl acetate extract for DPPH, ABTS, and H 2 O 2 were 10.96 ± 0.40, 4.35 ± 0.07, and 163.82 ± 1.52 μg/mL, respectively. Both methanol and ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated effective antibacterial activity with MICs and MBCs values ranging 136-546 μg/mL and 273-1093 μg/mL, respectively, against the tested pathogenic species. The leaves of A. odoratissima showed potent free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity.

  15. New Records of Bruchidius Spermaphagous Species in Albizia julibrissin and Laburnum anagyroides and Their Parasitoid Complex in Serbia

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    Renata Gagić Serdar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bruchidius villosus feeding in seed of Laburnum anagyroides, and Bruchidius terrenus seed pest of Albizia julibrissin are first recorded and completely new seed-beetle to Serbian Bruchinae fauna. This Chrysomelids which were found in Republic of Serbia during intensive studies from 2012 to 2014 are likely related to a mostly Paleotropical group, including also members of genera Bruchidius, Megabruchidius and Acanthoscellides. These seed-beetles develop in pods of these two woody legumes, widely grown ornamental trees and shrubs. Several recent reports reveal that this species are well established in France, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Materials and Methods: Bruchine and their legume hosts were observed by extensive field sampling throughout Serbia over three years and by rearing the beetles from the samples in the laboratory. Bruchines and the parasitoids were mass-reared in climate controled rooms under conditions close to those of their area of origin: 12:12 L:D, 3-23 °C and ≤80 % RH (depends of host plant ongoing phenology or experimental needs-proof of weevil monophagous feeding preferences. For the purpose of analyzing the observed phenomena (its intensity and relevance, some of the standard methods of statistical analysis and conclusion have been used. Results: Levels of seeds infestation still in the pods were high and comparable to other studies. Bruchine beetle infestation in the dehiscent fruits of host plants may be greater after the seeds and pods drop to the ground, as bivoltine generation occurs, but this has yet to be tested. Hypotheses on the geographic origin of this new species are also discussed. The effect of native parasitoids occurrence could potentially be interesting, given that their appearance suggest their specialization on the Bruchidius beetle species which is a common seed-predator on the leguminous seeds. Conclusions: The establishment of this new species is investigated using both

  16. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  17. An effect of humid climate on micro structure and chemical component of natural composite (Boehmeria nivea-Albizia falcata based wind turbine blade

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    Sudarsono S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wind turbine blade NACA 4415 is fabricated from natural composite of Boehmeria nivea and Albizia falcate. The composite fabrication method used is hand lay up method. The aim of the work is to investigate an effect of humid climate of coastal area on micro structure and chemical composition of composite material of the blade. The wind turbine is tested at Pantai Baru, Bantul, Yogyakarta for 5.5 months. The micro structure scanning is performed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and material component is measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS. The samples are tested before and after the use within 5.5 month at the location. The results show that composite material inexperienced interface degradation and insignificant change of micro structure. From EDS test, it is observed that Na filtration reduces C and increases O in composite material after 5.5 months.

  18. An effect of humid climate on micro structure and chemical component of natural composite (Boehmeria nivea-Albizia falcata) based wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsono, S.; Purwanto; Sudarsono, Johny W.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, wind turbine blade NACA 4415 is fabricated from natural composite of Boehmeria nivea and Albizia falcate. The composite fabrication method used is hand lay up method. The aim of the work is to investigate an effect of humid climate of coastal area on micro structure and chemical composition of composite material of the blade. The wind turbine is tested at Pantai Baru, Bantul, Yogyakarta for 5.5 months. The micro structure scanning is performed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and material component is measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The samples are tested before and after the use within 5.5 month at the location. The results show that composite material inexperienced interface degradation and insignificant change of micro structure. From EDS test, it is observed that Na filtration reduces C and increases O in composite material after 5.5 months.

  19. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia

  20. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea laxiflora, Laportea ovalifolia and three other Cameroonian plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Cedric F; Voukeng, Igor K; Beng, Veronique P; Kuete, Victor

    2017-05-01

    In the last 10 years, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of six Cameroonian medicinal plants Albizia adianthifolia , Alchornea laxiflora , Boerhavia diffusa , Combretum hispidum , Laportea ovalifolia and Scoparia dulcis against a panel of 15 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the reference qualitative phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. The best antibacterial activities were recorded with bark and root extracts of A. adianthifolia as well as with L. ovalifolia extract, with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on 93.3% of the fifteen tested bacteria. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/mL was recorded with A. laxiflora bark extract against Enterobacter aerogenes EA289. Finally, the results of this study provide evidence of the antibacterial activity of the tested plants and suggest their possible use in the control of multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  1. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  2. Etude comparée des performances pondérales des chèvres naines de Guinée supplémentées au Leucaena leucocephala, au Gliricidia sepium ou au tourteau de coton dans l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Growth Performance of West African Dwarf Goat Supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium or Cotton Seed Cake in West Cameroon. A comparative growth performance study of West African Dwarf Goat supplemented with Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium or cotton seed cake was carried out on-farm around Dschang and at the University Experimental Farm on the Western Highland region of Cameroon. Goats aged between 12 and 16 months were divided into 4 groups of 11 animals each, with one group kept as a control. The goats in the supplemented groups received 390 g of L. leucocephala, 513 g of G. sepium and 88.8 g of cotton seed cake respectively, corresponding to a supplementation 6 g of nitrogen per animal per day. Animals were weighed every 21 days during an 84 days period to evaluate their response to supplementation. The weights of animals supplemented with cotton seed cake were not significantly (P> 0.05 different from those of animals supplemented with L. leucocephala. Similarly the weights of animals supplemented with G. sepium were not different from those of the controls. The adjusted average daily weight gains per goat were 18.9 g ; 17.3 g ; 4.3 g ; and 4.0 g respectively for animals supplemented with cotton seed cake, L. Leucocephala, G. sepium and of the control group.

  3. Caracterización morfológica de Gliricidia sepium, composición bromatológica y proporción de azúcares en sus flores

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    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey, con el fin de determinar las características morfológicas de Gliricidia sepium, así como la composición bromatológica y la proporción de azúcares en sus flores. Se midieron las siguientes variables: altura total, diámetro del tronco a la altura del pecho (DAP y ancho de la copa. Además, se estimó la cantidad de flores por árbol y por hectárea. En las flores colectadas se determinó la composición bromatológica: MS, PB, FB y Ca, la humedad y la lignina de Klason. El tamaño de muestra utilizado fue el 12 % del total (20 árboles y cada árbol constituyó una réplica. Los valores medios fueron: DAP de 44,7 cm; altura de 4,85 m; 295 racimos por árbol, con 34 flores como promedio cada uno; el total estimado fue de 10 030 flores por árbol y de 8 986 880 flores por hectárea. La MS fue de 8,69 %; FB, 32,57 %; lignina de Klason, 28,8 %; PB, 7,04 %; y Ca, 0,99 %. Como azúcares simples se detectaron la glucosa (4,82 % y la fructosa (10,36 %, mientras que la sacarosa mostró valores de 1,73 %. Se concluye que todos los árboles de G. sepium muestreados son típicos de la especie. Además, el porcentaje de MS de sus flores fue bajo, pero estas tuvieron un alto contenido de FB, PB, lignina de Klason y calcio. La fructosa fue el azúcar más abundante en el extracto y la sacarosa el más escaso.

  4. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de fitomassa da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N, P e K nas leguminosas arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais de aléias, bem como verificar o efeito da adição de fósforo sobre as leguminosas. Foram realizados experimentos de campo com a utilização de leguminosas, com e sem adição de P, por dois anos consecutivos de avaliação, em Campos dos Goytacazes,RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, estas foram podadas a 1,5 m de altura, restando a haste principal. O material podado foi pesado, descartando-se os ramos com diâmetro superior a 1,5 cm e sendo retiradas as amostras compostas para determinações da fitomassa seca e dos teores de N, P e K. Efetuou-se nova poda 80 dias após a primeira, e pesou-se esse material. No primeiro ano, o guandu mostrou-se superior na produtividade de fitomassa seca e no acúmulo de N, P e K. No segundo ano de avaliação, no experimento com adição de P a leucena e a canafístula assemelharam-se ao guandu na produtividade de fitomassa, enquanto a leucena e o guandu, no acúmulo de N e P, porém a leucena superou o guandu e a canafístula no acúmulo de K na parte aérea. A aplicação de P teve efeito positivo na produtividade de fitomassa seca de algumas espécies.The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot phytomass and shrub legumes N, P and K accumulation in agroforestry system (alley cropping system and study the effect of P fertilization. Two field experiments were carried out - without and with P application - for two years: 2004 and 2005, using shrub legumes in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the

  5. Influence of leafy biomass transfer of agroforestry trees with nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of leguminous tree crops and biomass transfer is the main possibility for soil enrichment with nutrients, especially with nitrogen and play alternative role as source of organic fertilizer. This study investigated the influence of leafy biomass transfer of Albizia lebbeck and Parkia biglobosa leguminous agroforestry ...

  6. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório

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    Otávio Filho Peres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the cutting ant preference of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, to native and exotic forest tree species, in laboratory conditions. The most preferred species were: gmelina ( Gmelina arborea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, caesalpinia (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizzia (Albizia lebbeck and enterolobium (Enterolobium contortisiliquum and the less preferred ones were: eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitiba (Cariniana strellensis and guazuma (Guazuma tomentosa .

  7. Early Growth Of Some Introduced Agroforestry Species In Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the early growth performance of potted seedlings of Grevillea robusta, Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia lebbeck, Prosopis juliflora and Acacia mearnsii . Two types of potting containers were used - the conventional black polypot (size: 10 cm x 15 cm) and the transparent \\"pure water\\' bags (size: 14 cm x 15 ...

  8. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Materials and Methods: Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with ...

  9. Status of industrial pollution and their effect on seed germination and growth performance of albizia lebbek (benth.) and leucaena leucocephala (LAM) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiuli, M.D.; Alam, S.; Mohiuddin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution status of the effluents from three different industries viz. tanneries, fisheries and textiles, grown in the vicinity of the Karnafully River, Chittagong, Bangladesh and their influence on soil, seed germination and plant growth have been studied. The effluents pollute the adjacent water bodies and soils. The effluents from the tanneries are much more polluted than that of effluents from textiles and fisheries. This is due to the accumulation more total solids (1779 mg/l) as compared to that of 539 mg/l and 466 mg/l in textiles and fisheries effluents respectively and thus Chloride (3962 mg/i), Sulfate (450 mg/l) and Nitrate (7.03 mg/l), eventually showed similar trend. In addition to that, some of the pollution related parameters were dominant in the effluents of both textiles ( Turbidity- 177.9 NTU, SS- 23.27 ml/l, D.O.- 3.0 mg/l, COD- 8480 mg/l, BOD- 1860 mg/l Phosphate- 9.38 mg/l) and fisheries (D.O. -2.5 mg/l) than that of the tanneries (Turbidity- 57.6 NTU, SS- 18. 9 ml/l, D.O.- 1.2 mg/l, COD- 7529 mg/i, BOD- 1653 mg/l , Phosphate- 7.28 mg/l). Irrespective of physical or chemical composition most of the effluents were simply unusable. From the analysis of soil it was detected that the pH of soil samples contaminated with effluents was almost similar (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3, respectively) to that of control (6.2), but the concentration of organic matter, N, P, K and S in soil samples contaminated with the industrial effluents of tanneries (OM-4.5%, N- 0.227%, P- 108.21 micro gram/gram and K - 0.22 m eq/100 g), Fisheries (OM-4.0%, N- 0.4%, P-74.71 micro gram/gram, and K- 0.23 meq/100 g) and Textile (OM- 3.4%, N- 0.167%, P- 120 micro g/gram and K- 0.5 meq/100 g) were significantly higher than that of control samples (OM- 2.0%, N-0.24%, P- 50 micro g/g and k-0.15 meq/100g). Adverse effect of contamination, height growth, collar diameter, total biomass and nodule production of Albizia lebbek were 67% , 18.62 cm, 4 cm, 10.2 gm and 59 in soil without any

  10. Nitrogen doses and weed control via intercropping with gliricidia for corn production Doses de nitrogênio e controle de plantas daninhas, através da consorciação com gliricídia, para produção de milho

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    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial influence of nitrogen doses on corn dry grain yield and green ear yield. Due to a growing concern with environmental degradation, many agricultural practices, adopted in the past, are being reexamined. With regard to weed control, strategies that employ mechanical control, including intercrops, are being the object of renewed interest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg N ha-1; as ammonium sulfate and weed control on the growth, green ear yield, and grain yield of the AG 1051 corn cultivar. A randomized block experimental design with split-plots and nine replications was adopted. In addition to nitrogen rates, the AG 1051 cultivar was submitted to the following treatments, applied to subplots: no weeding, two hoeings (at 20 and 40 days after sowing, and intercropping with gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium. Gliricidia was sowed at corn planting, between the corn rows, using two seedlings per pit, in pits spaced 0.30 m apart. Gliricidia did not provide weed control, and gave plant growth, green ear yield and grain yield values similar to the no weeding treatment. However, regarding the number of mature ears got, intercropping with gliricidia did not differ from the two-hoeing treatment. Weed control did not have an effect on plant height and number of marketable, husked green ears, with the application of 120 kg N ha-1; indicating that nitrogen improved the corn's competitive ability. The two-hoeing treatment provided the best means for total green ears weight, number of marketable husked ears, both unhusked and husked marketable ear weight, grain yield and its components than the other treatments. Nitrogen application increased corn growth, green ear yield, and grain yield, as well as weed green biomass, but reduced the stand and growth of gliricidia.Muitos estudos demonstraram a influência benéfica da aplicação de doses

  11. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  12. PREFERÊNCIA DE SAÚVA LIMÃO, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE A DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa .

  13. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  14. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  15. Kaempferol glycosides from Albizia Versicolor | M. Rukunga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  16. Kaempferol glycosides from Albizia Versicolor | M. Rukunga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Peter G. Waterman. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(1), 47-51. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  17. Response of Gliricidia sepium tree to phosphorus application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... and rhizobial strains in a sub-Saharian sandy soil ... used as reference tree for estimating the nitrogen fixation using the 15N isotope dilution technique. ... sulphuric acid and washed vigorously in sterile water and pre-.

  18. Organic manuring through Gliricidia manculata for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Sarkar, Sumana; Nanda, P.; Chandra, D.

    2001-05-01

    Results of this study reveal that application of organic manure (Gliciridia maculata) alone or in combination with urea gave significantly higher yield in comparison to the conventional practice. The new technology is more labor and energy efficient and improves rice crop stand

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.N.; Zeng, D.H.; Chen, F.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Applied Ecology

    2005-07-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus. The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd. However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu. Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand N; Zeng, De-hui; Chen, Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus. The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd. However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu. Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  1. Nutritive value and qualitative assessment of secondary compounds in seeds of eight tropical browse, shrub and pulse legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayemi, O J; Demeyer, D; Fievez, V

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of four tropical multipurpose trees (Albizia saman, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia rhizonse, Leucaena leucocephala), two shrubs (Tephrosia candida, Tephrosia bracteolata) and two pulse legume (Lablab purpureus, Canavalia ensiformis) were chemically analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and ether extract (EE). Qualitative evaluation of secondary metabolites (saponins, phenols, steroids, and alkaloids) was elucidated. The DM, ash, CP, NDF and EE ranged between 88.9-93.6 %, 3.0-5.4 %, 24.8-38.2 %, 22.1-46.9 % and 2.0-17.0 % respectively. All seed species contained at least one group of secondary plant metabolites and steroids were common to all except C. ensiformis that was not implicated for any. A. lebbeck and A. rhizonse showed low saponin content. Indications for water soluble tannins were reported for L. leucocephala while the two species of Tephrosia contained flavonoids or condensed tannins. The study suggested the potentials of the legumes seed species as a feed source for ruminants.

  2. Study of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-09-25

    The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC₅₀ Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL) and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  3. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  4. Evaluation Introduction Albizia julibrissin Durazz in Kherson City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raised questions diversification of ornamental plants for landscaping of Kherson city. We consider the effectiveness of widespread use in gardening Kherson city highly ornamental exotic species albutsiya lankaran. The rapid growth of plants, indiscriminateness to soil fertility, the ability to abundant seed and coppice restoration, resistance to the conditions of urban areas makes albutsiya promising for widespread use in gardening. In the course of the studies found that albutsiya lankaran rated as mild winter-hardy and moderately drought-resistant species, in desert climate conditions regularly damaged but recovered. Maximum decorative displays at the correct location: maximum light and moderate soil moisture. The plant shows high resistance to diseases and pests.

  5. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. I. Variables morfoestructurales Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. I. Morphostructural variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un ensayo en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoestructural de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca en condiciones de vivero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Las variables estudiadas fueron: altura de la planta; diámetro del tallo y de las ramas; número de hojas, ramas, raíces y nódulos totales; y longitud de la rama y de la raíz. Al final de la evaluación (18 semanas no se observaron diferencias significativas entre L. leucocephala y E. fusca en la altura de la planta (45,2 y 51,0 cm, el diámetro del tallo (0,65 y 0,78 cm, el número de hojas (43 y 45 y de ramas (17 y 18 y la longitud de la raíz (32,1 y 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck sólo se destacó en el número de raíces (61 y de nódulos totales promedio (6. Los resultados permiten concluir que con la utilización de un sustrato alcalino en vivero, L. leucocephala y E. fusca exhibieron un comportamiento morfoestructural aéreo similar y superior que el de A. lebbeck; mientras que la albizia mostró mejores resultados en la morfoestructura radical.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the morphostructural performance of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca under nursery conditions. A completely randomized design was used for repeated measurements in time and ten replications per species. The studied variables were: plant height; stem and branch diameter; number of leaves, branches, roots and total nodules; and branch and root length. At the end of the evaluation (18 weeks no significant differences were observed between L. leucocephala and E. fusca in plant height (45,2 and 51,0 cm, stem diameter (0,65 and 0,78 cm, number of leaves (43 and 45 and branches (17 and 18 and root length (32,1 and 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck only stood out for

  6. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  7. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  8. Chemical attributes of soil in agroforestry system of gliricidia intercropped with spineless cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iza de Arruda Sarmento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to assess the chemical attributes of a soil fertilized with organic matter, in an agroforestry system. The experiment was carried out at the Miguel Arraes agricultural experiment station of the National Semiarid Institute (INSA, located in Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. Experimental design consisted of a randomized block with four replications. We applied four treatments of organic fertilization: (HS Humic Substances; (SW Seaweeds; (B Bokashi; and (C control treatment, without fertilization. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm depth, placed in plastic bags and taken to laboratory for the following chemical analysis: pH, potassium (K+, sodium (Na+, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, soil organic matter (SOM, sum of bases (SB, cation exchange capacity (CEC, base saturation (V% and Soil Quality Index (SQI. Organic fertilizers applied to the soil did not affected pH, P, K+, Na+, Al3+ and CEC. Humic substances treatment increased the availability of Mg2+, while seaweeds treatment increased the Ca2+, SB, V% and SOM levels.Atributos químicos do solo em sistema agroflorestal de gliricídia consorciado com palma forrageiraResumo: Objetivou-se avaliar os atributos químicos de um solo adubado com matéria orgânica, em um sistema agroflorestal. Para isso foi conduzido um experimento na Estação Experimental da Fazenda Miguel Arraes, situada na área sede do Instituto Nacional do Semiárido (INSA, Unidade de Pesquisa do Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI, localizada no município de Campina Grande, Paraíba. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos aplicados foram quatro tipos de adubação orgânica: (SH Substancia Húmicas; (AM Algas Marinhas; (B Bokashi; e (T tratamentos controle, sem adubação. As amostras foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-20 cm, acondicionadas em sacolas plásticas e levadas ao Laboratório de Análise de Solos, Água e Plantas (LASAP do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba (IFPB campus Sousa para análises químicas [pH, potássio (K+, sódio (Na+, fósforo (P, cálcio (Ca2+, magnésio (Mg2+, matéria orgânica do solo (MOS], soma de bases (SB, capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC, saturação por bases (V% e Índice de Qualidade do Solo (IQS. Os adubos orgânicos aplicados no solo não influenciaram no pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K+, sódio (Na+, alumínio (Al3+ e CTC. As SH promoveram o aumento na disponibilidade de magnésio (Mg2+ e as AM causaram incremento nos teores de Ca2+, SB, V% e MOS.

  9. Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh

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    Shukla Rani Basak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Government of Bangladesh, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, semi-government organizations, private organizations and individuals have established a large number of plantations under different programs viz. social forestry, agro-forestry and avenue plantations with indigenous and exotic tree species without considering their habit and habitats. Along with the indigenous species like Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Trewia nudiflora and Artocapus heterophyllus and many exotic species e.g. Swietenia macrophylla, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia auriculiformis, Melia sempervirens, Acacia mangium etc. have been planted randomly. With increasing trend of climate-induced floods, millions of trees have been dying due to floods and water-logging. The most affected species are Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium and Artocarpus heterophyllus etc. This situation has caused severe impacts on socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The impacts involved a significant loss in terms of investment, biodiversity and afforestation program. Little investigations have been conducted to find out the causes of the deaths and also to find out the suitable adaptation practices to reduce impacts of floods on trees. This synthesis focused on the impacts of floods on plantations and also assessed the potential role of traditional forest management practices in addressing the effects flooding on forests in Bangladesh. The study added important information and revealed knowledge gaps on the causes of large forest deaths. It also provided recommendations for policy on the establishment of frequent floods resilient tree crop plantations.

  10. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  11. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509

  12. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Albizia lebbeck (7.71 +/- 0.012) were found to be more tolerant with higher Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  13. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  14. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of three species of family mimosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Mahmood, Aqeel; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of leaves of Acacia nilotica L., Albizia lebbeck L. and Mimosa himalayana Gamble belonging to family mimosaceae were investigated in this research work. Antibacterial activity was studied by agar well diffusion method against one gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and three gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Crude extract of all plants showed best activity against gram-negative bacterial strains while minor inhibition zones were found against gram positive bacterial strains. Antifungal activity of crude plant extract was screened by agar tube dilution method against Aspergillus nigar and Aspergillus flavus. These results showed that these plants extracts have potential against bacterias, while against fungi their activity is not much effective.

  17. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of "Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  18. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  19. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. II. Patrón de crecimiento y distribución de la biomasa Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. II. Growth and biomass distribution pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de comparar el patrón de crecimiento y la distribución de biomasa de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca durante 18 semanas en vivero. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura (TCA y de la distribución de la MS (TCMS, así como el porcentaje de materia seca (MS y el peso seco por planta de las fracciones (hojas, tallo, raíz. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Erythrina presentó la mayor TCA y TCMS promedio (3,7 mm/día y 94,8 mg/día, seguida por leucaena (3,1 y 81,3 y, por último, albizia (1,2 mm/día y 53,1 mg/día, respectivamente. Independientemente de la especie, el mayor porcentaje de MS promedio se observó en las raíces (31,9, seguido por el tallo (28,0 y las hojas (25,4. Se observó una mayor distribución de MS por planta en las hojas (3,9 g y la raíz (3,1 g, comparados con el tallo (2,9 g. Se concluye que, para estas condiciones de aviveramiento, E. fusca presentó los mejores resultados; mientras que A. lebbeck necesitaría más tiempo para alcanzar las características deseables para su trasplante a campo.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to compare the growth and biomass distribution pattern of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca for 18 weeks in nursery. The studied variables were: growth rate related to height (GRH and DM distribution (GRDM, as well as dry matter percentage (DM and dry weight per plant of the fractions (leaves, stem, root. A completely randomized design for measurements repeated in time and ten replications per species were used. E. fusca showed the highest average GRH and GRDM (3,7 mm/day and 94,8 mg/day, followed by L. leucocephala (3,1 and 81,3 and, lastly, A. lebbeck (1,2 mm/day and 53,1 mg

  20. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  1. Effect of textile industrial effluent on tree plantation and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Bala, N; Rathod, T R; Singh, B

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Arid Forest Research Institute to study the effect of textile industrial effluent on the growth of forest trees and associated soil properties. The effluent has high pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) whereas the bivalent cations were in traces. Eight months old seedlings of Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis juliflora were planted in July 1993. Various treatment regimes followed were; irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water in 1:1 ratio (W2), irrigation with gypsum treated effluent (W3), gypsum treated soil irrigated with effluent (W4) and wood ash treated soil irrigated with effluent (W5). Treatment regime W5 was found the best where plants attained (mean of six species) 173 cm height, 138 cm crown diameter and 9.2 cm collar girth at the age of 28 months. The poorest growth was observed under treatment regime of W3. The growth of the species varied significantly and the maximum growth was recorded for P. juliflora (188 cm height, 198 cm crown diameter and 10.0 cm collar girth). The minimum growth was recorded for A. lebbeck. Irrigation with effluent resulted in increase in percent organic matter as well as in EC. In most of the cases there were no changes in soil pH except in W5 where it was due to the effect of wood ash. Addition of wood ash influenced plant growth. These results suggest that tree species studied (except A. lebbeck) can be established successfully using textile industrial wastewater in arid region.

  2. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha -1 , respectively. The gliricídia residues showed the highest decomposition rates, in the two year seasons.

  3. PENGARUH CARA PENGAWETAN TERHADAP KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN EFISIENSI DALAM BENTUK HAY DAN SILASE PADA DAUN 16 PROVENAN GAMAL (GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM

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    A. W. Puger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available RINGKASAN Percobaan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh cara pengawetan terhadap kandungan zat-zat makanan dan efisiensinya pada daun 16 provenan gamal telah dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri atas 3 perlakuan pengawetan (gamal segar, gamal hay, dan gamal silase dan 3 blok sebagai ulangan. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 16 provenan, yaitu 6 dari Mexico (M, 4 dari Guatemala (G, dan satu provenan masing-masing dari Colombia (C, Indonesia (I, Nicaragua (N, Panama (P, Costa Rica (R, dan Venezuela (V. Sampel setiap daun (helai dan tangkai provenan sebelum dan setelah diawetkan dianalisis kandungan zat-zat makanannya dan dihitung efisiensinya setelah dibuat hay dan silase. Kandungan DM dan CP dari hay adalah tertinggi (P0,05 setelah diawetkan menjadi hay dan silase, sedangkan efisiensi DM, OM, dan CP dari hay lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada silase. Provenan P13, R12, dan M34 mengandung zat-zat makanan lebih tinggi; sementara provenan G14 dan G17 lebih efisien bila diawetkan dalam bentuk hay dan silase. Pada pertanian lahan kering pengawetan gamal dalam bentuk hay lebih efektif dan efisien jika dibandingkan dengan dalam bentuk silase.

  4. Leaf litter decomposition of Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; O'Sullivan, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    No information is available on the decomposition and nutrient release pattern of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica despite their importance in shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea and other tropical regions. We conducted a litter bag study (24 weeks) on a Typic Eutropepts in the

  5. Calidad de las accesiones colectadas en la región centro-oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica Quality of accessions collected in the central-eastern region of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección en el 2005, en la región centro-oriental de Cuba, y se colectaron semillas de 43 accesiones (36 de leguminosas arbóreas y siete de herbáceas. Posteriormente se realizó una prueba de germinación para conocer la calidad de las semillas (con corte de cubierta, en placas de petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas en cada accesión fue diferente (según las colectadas y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las accesiones Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (de Nuevitas y Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. y Centrosema brasilianum (100% de germinación, así como Calopogonium caeruleum (90% y Albizia lucida (91,6%. Siete accesiones no germinaron. La mayoría logró una alta sobrevivencia (en bolsas, aunque en especies como Bauhinia hookeli, B. acuminata, Albizia lebbeck, C. caeruleum, C. brasilianum, Desmodium sp. y Teramnus sp. fue baja y dos accesiones no sobrevivieron. El germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» se incrementó en 34 accesiones. Se demostró la importancia de conocer la calidad de las semillas y la relación entre este indicador y su deterioro, debido a la gran variabilidad que mostró el porcentaje de germinación en semillas colectadas en un mismo período de tiempo.A prospection was made in 2005, in the central-eastern region of Cuba and seeds from 43 accessions (36 tree legumes and seven herbaceous ones were collected. Afterwards, a germination test was conducted in order to learn the quality of the seeds (with seed coat cut, in Petri dishes on river sand. The number of seeds used in each accession was different (according to the collected ones and only one replication was used (without statistical design. The best-quality seeds corresponded to the accessions Bauhinia acuminata, Bauhinia purpurea (from Nuevitas and Vertientes, Cassia fistula, Albizia kalkora, Centrosema sp. and

  6. Heat Energy From Value-Added Sawdust Briquettes Of Albizia Zygia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    ... physical properties between the sawdust briquettes and the solid wood of the same species were carried out. The results ... kerosene and cooking gas in Nigeria, draw attention to the .... between the physical properties of solid wood used for ...

  7. The potential of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) in agroforestry system based on silk tree (Albizia chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, D.; Budiastuti, M. S.; Sakya, A. T.; Cholid, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant. In Indonesia, it is generally cultivated in village home gardens. Famers conducted very simpple cultivation method of turmeric, without specific maintenance and below varies tree. The experiment was conducted by cultivating turmeric below silk trees as in agroforetry system. The experiment was arranged split plot design, the first factor was three level of irradiation (turmeric monoculture/full irradiation, turmeric below silktree with pruning canopy, and turmeric below silk tree no pruning). The second factor was fertilizer NPK 15-15-15 with three levels of doses (100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivating turmeric in agroforestry system based on silk tree which were one year old and not yet needed pruning, application of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer 100 kg ha-1 was enough. The rhizome yield of turmeric 3 months age reaches 139 g per plant (fresh weight). Litter fall from a silk tree one year old in one year is 30 kg per tree per year.

  8. Nota Técnica: Comportamiento productivo de la morera sometida a dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica Technical Note: Productive performance of mulberry subject to two alternatives of organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de la morera (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada ante dos alternativas de fertilización orgánica, se realizó un estudio en áreas de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». El suelo característico del lugar es del tipo Ferralítico Rojo hidratado; las precipitaciones oscilaron entre 1 000 y 1 145 mm de lluvia por año. En el corte de establecimiento se obtuvieron variaciones altamente significativas entre los tratamientos: testigo sin fertilizar, asociación morera-Albizia lebbeck como abono verde vs morera fertilizada con materia orgánica (41,6; 45,0 y 72,4 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, respectivamente. Sin embargo, en la época lluviosa del segundo año de explotación, la producción acumulada no mostró variaciones significativas entre la asociación y la morera fertilizada (88,8 y 86,7 g de biomasa seca comestible por individuo, aunque sí con respecto al testigo que solo produjo 40,7 g. Se concluye que el aporte de materia orgánica al suelo durante el establecimiento de las plantaciones de morera y/o la asociación de A. lebbeck manejada como abono verde, proporcionan una ventaja significativa en la respuesta productiva del arbusto forrajero, y se destacó la segunda alternativa por su carácter endógeno.A study was carried out in areas of the EEPF “Indio Hatuey”, with the objective of evaluating the agronomic performance of mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Acorazonada before two alternatives of organic fertilization. The soil of the site is hydrated Ferralitic Red; rainfall oscillated between 1 000 and 1 145 mm per year. In the establishment cutting highly significant variations were obtained among the treatments: control without fertilization, association mulberry-Albizia lebbeck as green manure vs mulberry fertilized with organic matter (41,6; 45,0 and 72,4 g of edible dry biomass per individual, respectively. Nevertheless, in the rainy season of the second year of exploitation

  9. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K

    2015-03-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.

  10. Características Agronômicas, Massa de Forragem e Valor Nutritivo de Brachiaria decumbens em Sistema Silvipastoril Agronomics Characteristics, Forage Mass and Nutritional Value of Brachiaria decumbens in a Silvopastoral System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Tavares Castro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de três porcentagens de sombreamento (0, 29% e 45%, proporcionado pelas leguminosas arbóreas Acacia angustissima, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, Albizia lebbek e Gliricidia sepium, sobre características agronômicas, e o valor nutritivo do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens, durante o inverno, a primavera e o verão. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. O sombreamento influenciou positivamente a massa de forragem, na primavera e no verão. No inverno, a maior massa de forragem foi obtida sob sol pleno. Os teores de proteína bruta aumentaram com o sombreamento, na primavera, mas não se modificaram em função das porcentagens de sombra, no inverno e no verão. Pelo produto da massa de forragem e o teor de proteína bruta, obtiveram-se as quantidades de proteína bruta por área, que foram maiores sob sombreamento mais intenso, na primavera e no verão. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca não apresentaram tendência consistente com as porcentagens de sombreamento, em função da forte interação deste tratamento com a estação do ano.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.19

    The agronomic traits and nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens pasture were evaluated under three shade percentages (0.29% and 45%, provided by leguminous trees (Acacia angustissima, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, Albizia lebbek e Gliricidia sepium, during winter, spring and summer seasons. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications. The forage mass was positively influenced by shading, in spring and summer seasons. In winter, the higher forage mass was observed in full sunlight condition. The values of crude protein increased in spring with shading, but did not vary with shade percentage in winter and summer seasons. The crude protein quantity per area, obtained by product between forage mass and crude protein

  11. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

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    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  12. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  14. Estimation of Total Saponins and Evaluate Their Effect on in vitro Methanogenesis and Rumen Fermentation Pattern in Wheat Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Goel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to estimate the total saponins and evaluate their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation by in vitro gas production techniques. Three plant material, rough chaff tree seed (Achyranthus aspara, T1, gokhru seed (Tribulus terrestris, T2 and Siris seed (Albizia lebbeck, T3 were selected for present study. The total saponins content in T1, T2 and T3 were 45.75, 25.65 and 48.26% (w/w, respectively. Three levels of each saponins (3, 6 and 9% on DM basis and wheat straw based (50R:50C medium fiber diet (200±10 mg were used for the evaluation of their effect on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation pattern. Results showed the maximum methane reduction (49.66% in term of mM/gDDM and acetate propionate ration (35.08% were found in T1 at 6 and 3% levels. Result show that propionate production (mM/ml was increased; protozoa population decreased (75% significantly on addition with T3 at 6% level. No significant variation was found in dry matter digestibility in all cases. The present results demonstrate that total saponins extracted from different herbal plants are a promising rumen modifying agent. They have the potential to modulate the methane production, dry matter digestibility and microbial biomass synthesis.

  15. Genetic selection and improvement of hard wood tree species for fuelwood production on sodic soil with particular reference to Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Tree Biology

    2001-07-01

    This study is part of a research programme on selection and improvement of fast growing tree species suitable for wood fuel production on sodic wastelands (pH 8.6-10.5). Field trials of nine legumes (Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecellobium dulce) and three other tree species (Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Terminalai arjuna) were selected for this study. Prosopis juliflora was the most promising species in terms of its biomass productivity (68.7 t ha{sup -1}) and fuel value index (148.8) after 8-yr of growth. Acacia nilotica ranked second. Intra-specific variations were screened at provenance and individual tree level in order to improve fuelwood production potential of P. juliflora through selection and breeding. Successful populations (gene pools) and individuals (genotypes) were closed and conserved in clonal gardens to produce quality germplasm for plantations on sodic wastelands. Genetic testing, selection and multiplication of selected material are under progress. This will optimise gains in future afforestation programmes on sodic soils. (Author)

  16. Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Dogra, Kuldip Singh; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Negi, Anjana

    2014-06-01

    Lantana camara, an aromatic shrub, native to tropical America, was introduced into India for ornamental hedging, but later escaped and became a serious invasive weed. This study assessed the quantitative and qualitative status of plant community richness and diversity in areas invaded by L. camara in the Siwalik Hills (Himachal Pradesh, India), and explored allelopathy as a possible mechanism of interference. We measured species diversity, richness and evenness of the vegetation in areas invaded and uninvaded by L. camara. Allelopathic effects of L. camara rhizosphere soil and litter were assessed against two native plants-Achyranthes aspera (a herb) and Albizia lebbeck (a tree). Density, biomass and indices of diversity, richness and evenness were reduced by L. camara, indicating a significant alteration in composition and structure of native communities. Seedling growth of the test species was reduced in L. camara rhizosphere- and litter-amended soil. The inhibitory effect was ameliorated by the addition of activated charcoal, indicating the presence of organic inhibitors (quantified as phenolics) in the soil. Lantana invasion greatly reduces the density and diversity of the vegetation in the invaded area, and chemical interference of its litter plays an important role in invasion.

  17. Potensi Konflik Penggembalaan Kuda pada Habitat Rusa Timor (Rusa timorensis Blainville 1822 di Kawasan Tanjung Torong Padang, Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Kayat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing had been believed to affect on the existence of wildlife, including the timor deer (Rusa timorensis Blainville 1822 through competition. This study aimed to determine whether the free-roaming horse grazing owned by local communities in Torong Padang Cape, East Nusa Tenggara become a competitor for timor deer. Field observations and interviews with horse owners were carried out to determine the distribution of horse in timor deer habitat. Food preference of both horse and timor deer were collected using species identification from feces and compared with 1 x 1 m2 plots at feeding areas of both animals during the dry and rainy seasons in 2014 and 2015. There is no clear indication of competition between timor deer and free-roaming horses in the Torong Padang Cape area.The deer and horse avoided overlapping spatially in their distribution in the Cape. The free-roaming horse mainly occupied hilly savanna, whereas timor deer preferred to occupy savanna with lebbek tree (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth and valleys with tropical dry forest vegetation. In addition, the timor deer prefer to feed shrubs and foliage (browser, while horses prefer grass (grazer. The presence of free-roaming horse in the Torong Padang Capearea does not affect negatively for the timor deer and its habitat.

  18. Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls. Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

  19. Soil biological attributes in arsenic-contaminated gold mining sites after revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jessé Valentim; de Melo Rangel, Wesley; Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Rufini, Márcia; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Varón López, Maryeimy; Pereira da Silva, Michele Aparecida; Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of arsenic contaminated areas is a challenge society faces throughout the world. Revegetation associated with microbial activity can play an essential role in this process. This work investigated biological attributes in a gold mining area with different arsenic contents at different sites under two types of extant revegetation associated with cover layers of the soil: BS, Brachiaria sp. and Stizolobium sp., and LEGS, Acacia crassicarpa, A. holosericea, A. mangium, Sesbania virgata, Albizia lebbeck and Pseudosamanea guachapele. References were also evaluated, comprising the following three sites: B1, weathered sulfide substrate without revegetation; BM, barren material after gold extraction and PRNH (private reserve of natural heritage), an uncontaminated forest site near the mining area. The organic and microbial biomass carbon contents and substrate-induced respiration rates for these sites from highest to lowest were: PRNH > LEGS > BS > B1 and BM. These attributes were negatively correlated with soluble and total arsenic concentration in the soil. The sites that have undergone revegetation (LEGS and BS) had higher densities of bacteria, fungi, phosphate solubilizers and ammonium oxidizers than the sites without vegetation. Principal component analysis showed that the LEGS site grouped with PRNH, indicating that the use of leguminous species associated with an uncontaminated soil cover layer contributed to the improvement of the biological attributes. With the exception of acid phosphatase, all the biological attributes were indicators of soil recovery, particularly the following: microbial carbon, substrate-induced respiration, density of culturable bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria, phosphate solubilizers and metabolic quotient.

  20. Test the Efficiency of some Plants in the Tolerant of Air Pollution within the City of Baghdad. Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Jasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to monitor the ambient air pollution in several sites within Baghdad City of Iraq. The readings started from May 2016 to April 2017. The highest concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 was 2.28 ppmm-3 while nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was 3.68 ppmm-3 and suspended particulate matter was 585.1 μgm-3. This study also included estimating the value of the air pollution tolerance index (APTI for four plant's species Olea europaea L., Ziziphus spina-Christi (L. Desf, Albizia lebbeck(L. Benth. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Were cultivated on the road sides. The study includes four biochemical parameters, total chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid content, pH and relative water content of plant leaves. The results show that combining variety of these parameters give more certain results than those of single parameter. These four estimated parameters have positive correlation with each other and with the values of the air pollution tolerance index in all plants studied.

  1. Biodiversity and Indigenous Uses of Medicinal Plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurya Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional medicines are very important part of Indian culture. In this study the outcome of two-year study of ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary (CPWLS and nearby area is reported. Information related to different plants which are used by local community in the treatment of many common diseases and well-being in the area was collected. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interview of about 122 participants and thorough observations and conversations with local communities. Approximately 100 plants belonging to 43 families used by the local healers were reported in this study. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lawsonia inermis, Gymnema sylvestre, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula Linn., Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze., Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Albizia lebbeck Benth., Aegle marmelos Correa., Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Solanum surattense Burm. f. The most frequent ailments reported were hepatitis, jaundice, constipation, and skin and urinary problems. The parts of the plants most frequently used were fruit, roots, and whole plants (17% followed by leaves (16% and bark (15%. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants.

  2. Seasonal variability in soil-surface CO{sub 2} efflux in selected young tree plantations in semi-arid eco-climate of Madurai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswathi, S.G.; Lalrammawia, C.; Paliwal, K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    2008-07-10

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have been increasing in response to the disruption of the global carbon cycle by anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, agricultural practices and burning of fossil fuels. This has resulted in large shifts among carbon pools. The efflux of CO{sub 2} from soil results from the combined rates of autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial and soil fauna) respiration. It is often called soil respiration. The response of soil respiration (SR) to varying soil temperature and soil moisture was studied in three year-old plantation sites of Dalbergia sissoo, Dalbergia latifolia, Albizia lebbeck, Hardwickia binata and Cassia siamea during 2005--06. Significant seasonal differences in SR rates were observed in each site (P {<=} 0.001). The highest rates of soil CO{sub 2} efflux were generally found during the rainy season and the lowest during summer in all the study sites. Highest SR rates were found in D. sissoo, 9.89 {+-} 0.78 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in November and December, followed by H. binata, 9.68 {+-} 0.45 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in September and October 2005, A. lebbeck, 8.84 {+-} 0.43 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} between November 2005 and January 2006, D. latifolia, 7.6 {+-} 0.12 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in November and December 2005 and C. siamea, 7.3 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} in December 2005. There was a positive and significant (P {<=} 0.001) relationship between SR rates and soil moisture in all the sites (r{sup 2} above 0.60), except C. siamea (r{sup 2} = 0.30). A poor relationship was observed between SR and soil temperature in all the sites (r{sup 2} below 0.2). Examination of the seasonal pattern of SR rates suggests that much of the variability could be attributed to variations in soil moisture. There was a strong indication suggesting that the soil-water deficits served to reduce SR rates during summer and after subsequent rain events. Overall sensitivity of SR rate to soil moisture seems to

  3. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones colectadas en las regiones occidental, oriental y central de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of accessions collected in the western, eastern and central regions of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron dos misiones de colecta durante el 2007 (regiones occidental y oriental y el 2009 (región central en Cuba, que comprendió zonas puntuales de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Río, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus y Villa Clara. Se colectaron semillas de 88 accesiones de leguminosas (52 arbóreas y 36 herbáceas. Posteriormente a todas se les realizó una prueba de germinación en placas de Petri con arena de río, previo corte de la cubierta, para conocer su calidad. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión, en correspondencia con el tamaño de la muestra, y solo se empleó una réplica. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Se obtuvo una alta calidad en las semillas de las especies arbóreas y arbustivas (70-100%, lo cual no ocurrió en las caobas (Swietenia sp. de Granma (0 y 8% ni en Jatropha curcas colectada en Pinar del Río, Guantánamo (0% y Banao (8%, tampoco en Albizia lebbeck procedente de Guantánamo y en Guazuma ulmifolia (24% de Villa Clara. Para las leguminosas herbáceas la germinación varió entre 80 y 100%, excepto en Macroptilium atropurpureum (60% y en Teramnus (12% procedentes de Granma, en Neonotonia wightii (20% de Matanzas, en Calopogonium sp. (52% de Banao y en Glycine sp. (50% de Sancti Spíritus. Se concluye que la calidad de las semillas estuvo en dependencia del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la maduración de las legumbres. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta en otras zonas del país, lo que permitirá una mayor diversidad en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios.Two collection missions were conducted during 2007 (western and eastern regions and 2009 (central region in Cuba, which comprised certain zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Villa Clara. Seeds from 88 accessions (52 tree

  4. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  5. Emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia submetidas à irrigação com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayky F. P. de Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais na água de irrigação sob a emergência e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró, RN, usando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, com 24 sementes em cada parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das concentrações salinas 0,68 (água de abastecimento; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5 dS m-1, obtidas através da adição de NaCl em água. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, número de folíolos, condutividade elétrica acumulada do substrato, índice de conteúdo de clorofila, massa seca da raiz, do caule, das folhas e total. O aumento da salinidade na água de irrigação interfere negativamente na emergência e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia, sendo recomendado água com concentração salina até 1,5 dS m-1, caracterizando esta espécie como glicófita, sensível à salinidade.

  6. Cover layers to the growth of trees and shrobs over a sulfide spoil from gold mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rodrigues de Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was done at a gold mine company in Paracatu, MG, Brazil, and was conducted from March 2000 to November 2005. The substrate (spoil studied was a phillite rock which contains sulfides such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and growth of plant species on different combinations of substrate layers over the spoil. These layers were a cover layer and a sealing layer, both deposited over the spoil. The treatment 1 had saprolite (B1 in the sealing layer (SL and B1 with liming (B1L in the cover layer (CL. The treatment 2 had B1 in SL and B1L + soil with liming (SoL in the CL. The treatment 3 had B1 + SoL in the SL and B1L in the CL. The treatment 4 had B1 + SoL in the SL and B1L + SoL in the CL. The plant species used were Acacia farnesiana, A. holosericea, A. polyphylla, Albizia lebbeck, Clitoria fairchildiana, Flemingia sp., Mimosa artemisiana, M. bimucronata e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. Forty and 57 months after planting, collardiameter, height, and living plants were evaluated. The greatest survival rate was oobservedintreatmentwith B horizon of an Oxisoil in both layers, with 80 %. In general, M. bimucronata and A. farnesiana species showed the highest survival rate. The arsenic-content by Mehlich 3 in the cover layer ranged from 0.00 to 14.69 mg dm- 3 among treatments. The experimental results suggest that layers combinations above the sulfide substrate allow the rapid revegetation of the spoil.

  7. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica . 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii .

  8. Ethnoveterinary plants for the treatment of camels in Shiwalik regions of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Manhas, R K

    2015-07-01

    Camel is an important mode of transportation in the hot and hilly tracts of Shiwaliks of Kathua districts. The camel owners of the region lack the modern veterinary facilities and therefore depend heavily upon local treatments for the animal. This ethnoveterinary knowledge of plants is acquired by them from their forefathers and generally moves from one generation to another orally. The oral mode of transferring this valuable knowledge is vulnerable to erosion with the passage of time and generations. Ethnoveterinary information was collected by interviewing 38 camel keepers and traditional healers as per the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed quantitatively using three indices viz. use-value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), and fidelity level (Fl %). A total of 41 plants were found to be of ethnoveterinary importance in the present study. Herbs and trees (41.5% each) were the most used life forms. The most used plant part was fruit (27.9%). Rhizome, root and whole plant parts collectively contributed to 18.6%. Most of the ethnoveterinary practices (65.9%) used oral mode of medication. The values of UV and Fl (%) shows that the most important species for curing the ailing camels were Curcuma longa, Trachyspermum ammi, Brassica campestris, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Plumbago zeylanica etc. The high values of ICF (0.91-0.99) show that the informants share the knowledge for the treatment of camels amongst themselves on regular basis. A good number of plants are utilised by the informants to cure camels. Most of the preparations used fruits and leaves. Only 18.6% of the practices required destructive collection and such species need sustainable use and conservation. Some of the species like Tamarindus indica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Albizia lebbeck and Citrus medica require further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of GLM approach to assess the responses of tropical trees to urban air pollution in relation to leaf functional traits and tree characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2018-05-15

    Responses of urban vegetation to air pollution stress in relation to their tolerance and sensitivity have been extensively studied, however, studies related to air pollution responses based on different leaf functional traits and tree characteristics are limited. In this paper, we have tried to assess combined and individual effects of major air pollutants PM 10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm), TSP (total suspended particulate matter), SO 2 (sulphur dioxide), NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) and O 3 (ozone) on thirteen tropical tree species in relation to fifteen leaf functional traits and different tree characteristics. Stepwise linear regression a general linear modelling approach was used to quantify the pollution response of trees against air pollutants. The study was performed for six successive seasons for two years in three distinct urban areas (traffic, industrial and residential) of Varanasi city in India. At all the study sites, concentrations of air pollutants, specifically PM (particulate matter) and NO 2 were above the specified standards. Distinct variations were recorded in all the fifteen leaf functional traits with pollution load. Caesalpinia sappan was identified as most tolerant species followed by Psidium guajava, Dalbergia sissoo and Albizia lebbeck. Stepwise regression analysis identified maximum response of Eucalyptus citriodora and P. guajava to air pollutants explaining overall 59% and 58% variability's in leaf functional traits, respectively. Among leaf functional traits, maximum effect of air pollutants was observed on non-enzymatic antioxidants followed by photosynthetic pigments and leaf water status. Among the pollutants, PM was identified as the major stress factor followed by O 3 explaining 47% and 33% variability's in leaf functional traits. Tolerance and pollution response were regulated by different tree characteristics such as height, canopy size, leaf from, texture and nature of tree. Outcomes of this study will help in urban forest

  10. Emergencia y desarrollo inicial de cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos, así como las características morfológicas de las plántulas emergidas en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas: lara ruidosa (Albizia lebbeck, cují (Prosopis juliflora, samán (Samanea saman y carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: escarificación con lija (EL, remojo en agua (RA e inmersión en agua caliente (IAC, en semillas con distintos tiempos de almacenamiento (TA. Se evaluó el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, el largo de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH, el número de nudos (NN y el grosor del tallo (GT. En lara ruidosa el tiempo del RA y la interacción entre la EL y la IAC presentaron diferencias significativas en el PE. En las semillas de cují, los efectos individuales del TA, el RA y la IAC mostraron diferencias en el PE. La EL influyó en el PE de las semillas de cují sin artejo, y en las de carocaro y samán. Se concluye que la EL en las semillas de lara ruidosa, cují sin artejo, carocaro y samán; así como la utilización de semillas de cují con artejo frescas o almacenadas durante tres meses y tratadas con agua caliente por cinco minutos permitieron incrementar la emergencia. Las plántulas mostraron un desarrollo normal y homogéneo.

  11. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  12. Study of the in Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Prosopis juliflora and Punica granatum. Antileishmanial activity against L. infantum was demonstrated in Caralluma sinaica and Periploca aphylla. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by the methanol extract of Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  13. CRESCIMENTO DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS UTILIZADAS NA RECUPERAÇÃO DE ÁREA DEGRADADA

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    Juliana Sousa Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A revegetação de áreas degradadas é uma estratégia de recuperação, fundamental para melhorar os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, além de fornecer através da cobertura vegetal, a proteção necessária para diminuir a perda de sedimentos por erosão hídrica. Com o intuito de recuperar uma área significativamente alterada pelos processos erosivos, foi realizado um plantio heterogêneo, com o emprego de espécies arbóreas selecionadas em função de seu estágio sucessional bem como, sua adaptabilidade e desenvolvimento na região em questão. As variáveis analisadas foram; a altura da planta, o diâmetro da área da copa e do caule conseguidas aos 18 meses do plantio. A Anadenanthera macrocarpa e a Ochroma pyramidalis apresentaram o maior crescimento em altura. Em relação ao desenvolvimento da copa, os maiores valores foram alcançados pela Mimosa caesalpinenafolia e Mimosa artemisiana. O crescimento em diâmetro foi significativo nas espécies Albizia Lebbeck e Mimosa caesalpinenafolia. As plantas mesmo em estágio inicial já oferecem benefícios para a área, através da cobertura foliar e da deposição de serapilheira. O que tem proporcionado maior proteção ao solo, reduzindo a energia das gotas provenientes da chuva, contribuindo também para o aumento da estabilidade dos agregados por meio da incorporação da matéria orgânica.

  14. Thal and technologies for fodder production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Ahmad, M.; Haqqanni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The climate of the study area is arid and semi-arid subtropical, characterized by high summer- temperature (1200 F) with hot dry winds, frequent dust-storms and torrential and erratic rains. Winter is mild, with cold nights having temperature 320 F. The fodder tree species in arid and semi-arid regions are a valuable resource of feeding livestock in these regions during the lean periods of both winter and summer seasons. Fodder trees are properly looked after, not only for their usefulness for fuel and furniture, etc., but good environment would improve the quality of life, along with manifold higher fodder- production for animals. Fodder trees should be lopped only when they are about two to three meters in height and branches more than 7.5 cm thick should not be lopped. Lopping of the whole tree, as usually practiced, is injurious to trees and affects their vigor. Lopping cycle should be such that we get new leaves at the desired time of the year. It is recommended that; (i) proven grass-species, like Cenchrus ciliaris, Lasiurus sindicus, Pennisetum orientale and Panicum antidotale, be introduced in Thai, (ii) the improved varieties of some fodder-crops like oats, berseem, lucerne, sorghum sudan grass hybrid and mott grass being multicut (would cover the scarcity periods) can be introduced in the irrigated areas and (iii) the trees and shrub-species, such as Acacia tortilis, Zizyphus nummularia, Acacia anura, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica, Tacomella undulate, Zizyphus mauritiana, Calligonum polygonoides, Tamarax aphylla and Albizia lebbeck, can be propagated and promoted in Thai desert. (author)

  15. Evaluation of phenolic content variability, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of selected traditional medicinal plants from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eSingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics, antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma cancer cell lines and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 µg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW and 3.17 to 102.2 µg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 µg/mL, ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 µg/mL and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2 cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09 and 29.66 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  16. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Materials and Methods: Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Results: Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica. 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). Conclusion: This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii. PMID:28487894

  17. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  18. Micorrizas arbusculares no crescimento pós-transplantio de mudas de árvores em solo com excesso de metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Siqueira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos adversos dos metais pesados para as diversas formas de vida dificultam a recuperação de solos contaminados por estes elementos. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento e absorção de metais de mudas de cinco espécies arbóreas, transplantadas para misturas que continham diferentes proporções de um solo contaminado (PSC. Mudas de Senna multijuga (L.C. Rich. Irwin et Barneby (cássia verrugosa, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et Zucc. (açoita-cavalo, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (tamboril, Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (albizia e Senna macranthera (Collard. Irwin et Barneby (fedegoso, inoculadas e sem inoculação, foram transplantadas para as misturas de solos e desenvolvidas por 180 dias, no período de abril a novembro de 1996, em vasos, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, Lavras (MG. Verificou-se que a elevação na PSC na mistura reduziu o desenvolvimento das mudas e a colonização micorrízica (CM, sendo isto causado pela elevada absorção de metais pelas plantas, especiamente, de Cd e Zn. A inoculação favoreceu o crescimento das mudas após transplantio, sendo esse efeito mais evidente nas misturas de solo com baixa PSC. A CM foi reduzida de 70 a 90% no solo não contaminado para valores próximos de zero na mistura com alta PSC. Os níveis críticos de toxidez (redução de 10% na matéria seca das plantas inoculadas dos metais no solo foram, em mg dm-3, de 83, 57, 153, 256 e 16, para o Zn, e de 1,3; 0,9; 0,8; 4,0 e 1,6, para Cd, para açoita-cavalo, cássia verrugosa, fedegoso, tamboril e albizia, respectivamente. Observando esses níveis críticos, as plantas não inoculadas apresentaram produção de matéria seca relativa, média para todas as espécies, de apenas 39%, evidenciando os benefícios da inoculação para o crescimento pós-transplantio das mudas. Esses benefícios relacionaram-se com menores

  19. Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is the most commonly occurring immunological disorder, and it affects 40 million men, women, and children in the United States. Symptomatically, it is an inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes that line the nose. Allergy is defined as a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel botanical formulation, Aller-7/NR-A2, was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; it is a combination of medicinal plant extracts from Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. This novel formulation has demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell-stabilization activities. All of the doses for these toxicity studies were selected according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Acute toxicity of Aller-7 was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. No histopathological changes were observed in major vital organs. A similar study was conducted in Albino Wistar rats, which were sacrificed at the end of 15 days. No histopathological changes or toxicity was observed at up to 2 g/kg body weight. Subacute toxicity was conducted in Albino Wistar rats at a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, then at 180 mg/kg for the next 3 days, and then at 270 mg/kg for 3 weeks. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and tested; no toxicity was observed. In a subchronic toxicity study, there was no observed adverse effect level at 1 g/kg body weight in rats. In a teratological assay, at doses of 3.0 g/kg (20 times the recommended dose) and 1.8 g/kg, respectively, no

  20. Safety of a Novel Botanical Extract Formula for Ameliorating Allergic rhinitis. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Joshua, A J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Each year more than 50 million Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis, which is a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity. Basically, allergic rhinitis is symptomatically recognized as the inflammation and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes; sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy; watery, and swollen eyes; and defined as a state of hypersensitivity/ hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular allergen (antigen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. Earlier studies in our laboratories have demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell stabilization activities of Aller-7 in addition to its efficacy in a clinical setting. A series of preliminary toxicological evaluations were also conducted in the past, which demonstrated its safety. In this study, we have conducted further safety studies on Aller-7, including acute oral, acute dermal, acute dermal irritation, eye irritation, and 90-day repeated dose toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity of Aller-7 was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats and no mortality or toxicity was observed at this dose, while the acute dermal toxicity was found to be greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight. In the acute dermal irritation study, the skin irritancy index was found to be 0.0, which classifies Aller-7 as a nonirritant to rabbit skin. In the acute eye irritation study, Aller-7 was found to have minimal irritancy to eyes of rabbits. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study, Aller-7 was administered at dose levels of 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg rat body weight for 90

  1. Exo-oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 are required for symbiosis with various legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Forsberg, Lennart S; D'Haeze, Wim; Gao, Mu-Yun; Carlson, Russell W; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Pellock, Brett J; Jones, Kathryn M; Walker, Graham C; Streit, Wolfgang R; Broughton, William J

    2006-09-01

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish endosymbiotic associations with legumes. Nodule formation depends on various bacterial carbohydrates, including lipopolysaccharides, K-antigens, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). An acidic EPS from Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 consists of glucosyl (Glc), galactosyl (Gal), glucuronosyl (GlcA), and 4,6-pyruvylated galactosyl (PvGal) residues with beta-1,3, beta-1,4, beta-1,6, alpha-1,3, and alpha-1,4 glycoside linkages. Here we examined the role of NGR234 genes in the synthesis of EPS. Deletions within the exoF, exoL, exoP, exoQ, and exoY genes suppressed accumulation of EPS in bacterial supernatants, a finding that was confirmed by chemical analyses. The data suggest that the repeating subunits of EPS are assembled by an ExoQ/ExoP/ExoF-dependent mechanism, which is related to the Wzy polymerization system of group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Mutation of exoK (NGROmegaexoK), which encodes a putative glycanase, resulted in the absence of low-molecular-weight forms of EPS. Analysis of the extracellular carbohydrates revealed that NGROmegaexoK is unable to accumulate exo-oligosaccharides (EOSs), which are O-acetylated nonasaccharide subunits of EPS having the formula Gal(Glc)5(GlcA)2PvGal. When used as inoculants, both the exo-deficient mutants and NGROmegaexoK were unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on some hosts (e.g., Albizia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala), but they were able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other hosts (e.g., Vigna unguiculata). EOSs of the parent strain were biologically active at very low levels (yield in culture supernatants, approximately 50 microg per liter). Thus, NGR234 produces symbiotically active EOSs by enzymatic degradation of EPS, using the extracellular endo-beta-1,4-glycanase encoded by exoK (glycoside hydrolase family 16). We propose that the derived EOSs (and not EPS) are bacterial components that play a crucial role in nodule formation in various legumes.

  2. Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P; Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7 exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50 24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium [NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical (IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine

  3. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratibha, N; Saxena, V S; Amit, A; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7% inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated 31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated

  4. Carbon stocks assessment in subtropical forest types of Kashmir Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Khan, R.W.A.; Hussain, K.; Ullah, T.S.; Mehmood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential. (author)

  5. Evaluación de accesiones de árboles y arbustos forrajeros durante el período de establecimiento Evaluation of forage tree and shrub accessions during the establishment period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys C Toral

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey» se evaluaron 43 accesiones de árboles y arbustos forrajeros, provenientes de las prospecciones y colectas realizadas en diferentes ecosistemas de Cuba, con el objetivo de seleccionar las mejores durante el período de establecimiento. Existieron diferencias entre y dentro de las accesiones en cuanto al comportamiento durante dicho periodo. Trece accesiones de Leucaena, siete de Albizia, seis de Bauhinia, dos de Enterolobium, dos de Cassia y una de los géneros Morus, Gmelina, Gliricidia y Moringa, respectivamente, alcanzaron valores superiores a la media poblacional, por lo que se seleccionaron como las más promisorias. Después del transplante a campo, 22 accesiones alcanzaron una altura promedio de 2,11 m entre los 7 y 14 meses, lo que superó el criterio establecido para el establecimiento. La supervivencia de estas accesiones durante el período osciló entre 80 y 100%, con excepción de B. reticulata y P. discolor. Se concluye que la evaluación de las accesiones, en un suelo de mediana fertilidad, mostró la existencia de individuos con una capacidad sobresaliente de adaptabilidad a esas condiciones, lo que permitió su selección en etapas tempranas del proceso selectivo; la variabilidad total fue alta en función de los indicadores medidos y/o estimados, lo que determinó una marcada diferenciación entre los individuos. La altura y los meses que demoraron las plantas en establecerse fueron los indicadores más variables, los cuales contribuyeron, de forma marcada, a la posterior agrupación y selección casuística de las accesiones sobresalientes; el 75% de las accesiones se adaptaron a las condiciones de suelo y fueron tolerantes, en función del régimen de explotación, si se considera que no se utilizó riego ni fertilización. Se recomienda incorporar las accesiones sobresalientes en etapas más avanzadas, relacionadas con investigaciones en sistemas donde se

  6. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards;Fixacao biologica e transferencia de nitrogenio por leguminosas em pomar organico de mangueira e gravioleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra, E-mail: gleiciamiranda@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: deborah@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  7. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15 N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha -1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha -1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15 N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  8. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  9. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  10. Estimative of relative stiffness of the exudate gum polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marilia A.; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Smidsrod empirical stiffness parameter (B) of A. occidentale and A. lebbeck gum were determined using the correlation of intrinsic viscosity [η] with ionic strength. The B value of 0.204 and 0.193 found respectively for A. occidentale and A. lebbeck suggests a flexible the molecule. The ionic strength has a greater influence on the [η]. The decrease of [η] increase of I, from 0.01 M to 0.1 M of NaCl, is higher for A. lebbeck (89%) than for A. occidentale (19%). (author)

  11. Potential values of some non-leguminous browse plants as dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    Babayemi and Bamikole, 2006) of three West African dwarf (WAD) goats that were previously fed Panicum maximum with Gliricidia sepium and compounded feed consisting of 20% corn, 20% wheat bran, 25% corn bran, 20% ...

  12. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    hepatobiliary complaints (0.90. Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881 reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC.Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries.

  13. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza Faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    hepatobiliary complaints (0.90). Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881) reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC. Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries.

  14. Finding of No Significant Impact/Finding of No Practicable Alternative: Environmental Assessment of the Privatization of Military Family Housing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-09

    mimosa (Albizia julibrissin), cattails (Typha spp.), cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), lantana (Lantana camara...exotic invaders such as Australian pine, mimosa, and cogon grass . Another concern is mangrove tree invasion of drainage ditches. While mangrove

  15. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  16. Evaluation of the chemical composition of woody forage silages of the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Deames Araújo Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of the woody forage silage in the completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of forage species: Prosopis juliflora, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala. It was found that the silages jurema preta, jucá and sabiá, showed higher levels of DM more than 35 %. Leucena silage presented a higher content of CP (22.40 % and higher pH (5.5, while the algaroba silage presented lowest level of EE (2.83 %. Higher levels of N-NH3 (10.93 % and TDN (66.94 % and lowest content of lignin (3.79 % were found for gliricidia silage. Sabia silage presented a higher content of NDF (64.09%, while its ADF valor (35.54% was similar to jurema preta silage (35.76 %. Algaroba and gliricidia silages presented highest levels of NFC (28.32 and 26.86%, respectively and lower hemicellulose (13.39 and 12.65%, respectively. Leucena and gliricidia silages showed lower levels of cellulose with 14.77 and 15.53%, respectively. The woody forage silages studied in this work shown a good quality and can be used as sources in animal feed.

  17. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS ON PHASEOLUS. VULGARIS SEEDLINGS. Sale, F.A.. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of ..... Sale, F.A. (2009). Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis. Eucalyptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  19. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  20. The potential of legume tree prunings as organic matters for improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wahyudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to elucidate roles of Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia prunings and their extracted humic and fulvic acids on improving phosphorus availability and decreasing aluminum concentration in an Ultisol was conducted in a glasshouse. Thirteen treatments consisting of two prunings, six rates of pruning application (5, 7.5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 t/ha and one control (no added prunings were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each mixture of prunings and soil was placed in a pot containing 8 kg of soil and maize of Srikandi cultivar was grown on it for 45 days. At harvest, soil pH, P content and aluminium concentration were measured. Results of the glasshouse experiment showed that application of Gliricidia and Tithonia prunings significantly increased soil pH, reduced Alo concentration, increased Alp content, increased P availability, and increased P taken up by maize grown for 45 days. The optimum rate of both Gliricidia and Tithonia pruning should be 40 t/ha. However, at the same rate, optimum production gained by Tithonia would be higher than that of Gliricidia.

  1. Nitrogen use efficiency and carbon sequestration in legume tree-based agroforestry systems. A case study in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makumba, W.I.H.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous cropping of maize withGliricidiasepium and relay cropping of maize withSesbaniasesban are the twoagroforestrysystems for soil fertility improvement which fit

  2. Suplementasi Urea Molasis Blok untuk Meningkatkan Penampilan Kambing Peranakan Etawah yang Diberi Pakan Hijauan Gamal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of urea molasses block for increasing performance of ettawah crossbred goats fed diet containing gliricidia spium green forage ABSTRACT. The aimed of this experiment to study the supplementation of urea molasses block for performance increased of ettawah crossbred goats fed diet containing Gliricidia spium green forage has been conducted at Tabanan regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory. The Latin Square Design which four treatments and four replicates was used in this experiment. The four treatments were the levels of urea molasses block : 0, 50, 100 and 150g respectively. The animal access to ad libitum Gliricidia spium green forage and drink water. The animal fed twice a day urea molasses block at the morning and at the afternoon. The variables which were observed including feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The result of this experiment showed dry matter feed consumption, drink water, nutrient digestibility of the four treatments is not significantly different (P >0.05. The body weight gain at treatment C was significantly higher (P <0.05, but feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly lower (P <0.05 than treatments A, B and D. From the results in this experiment it can be concluded that the used of urea molasses block 100g on the effect to increased the performance of ettawah crossbred goats with basal diet Gliricidia spium green forage.

  3. Phosphorus fractionation and crop performance on an alfisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Sokoto phosphate rock (PR) and plant residues on soil phosphorus (P) fractions and crop performance was studied in the field on an alfisol in the derived savanna of southwestern Nigeria. The plant residues studied were leaves of Dactyladenia barteri, Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena ...

  4. EFFECT OF Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of prunings of Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.), and Senna siamea (Lam.) on the activity of earthworms and soil and worm cast properties. Earthworm activity was measured by quantifying ...

  5. Effects of Combining Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Triple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for determination of NaOH- and Bray I -P. In addition, a P adsorption study was conducted to determine .... of combining MPR with GliriCidia leaves or maize atomic absorption' and. flame photometry, stover on .... DTPA zinc (mg Zn kg'l ). 1.04.

  6. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out on an alley-cropping farm in Ajibode village, near Ibadan where cassava alley-cropped with three hedgerow trees (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Senna (Syn Cassia) siamea), and sole planted cassava (all in three replicates) were arranged with arbuscular mycorrhizal ...

  7. Integrated nutrient management research with sweet potato in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a series of field experiments that investigated the effects of organic and inorganic nutrients on sweet potato tuber yield in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In the first experiment, plots were planted with Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica, which

  8. Nutrient stocks of short-term fallows on high base status soils in the humid tropics of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand nutrient dynamics in tropical farming systems with fallows, it is necessary to assess changes in nutrient stocks in plants, litter and soils. Nutrient stocks (soil, above ground biomass, litter) were assessed of one-year old fallows with Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and

  9. Physical Properties And Maize Production In A Spent Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the use of plant species and organic nutrients to improve the physical properties of oil-contaminated soil, with a view to making it conducive for crop production, is very important. Three legumes (Gliricidia sepium, Leucenae leucocephala and Calapogonium caeruleam) combined or not with poultry manure ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 781 ... Vol 28, No 1 (2001), Effects of Albizia saman pods supplementation on feed intake and live weight changes of White Fulani calves, Abstract. BA Adebiyi, JA Adeneye. Vol 40, No 2 (2013), Effects of alphamune g on the performance, serum and haematological parameters of Escherichia coli challenged ...

  11. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  12. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  13. Effects of excipients and formulation types on compressional properties of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, John Oluwasogo; Itiola, Adelanwa Oludele; Odeniyi, Michael Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Different models used to characterize powders have not been extended to granule behavior in tablet technology. Hence, Kawakaita equation and tapping experiments were used to compare the effect of different excipients on the properties of powders and granules in diclofenac formulations containing corn starch (DCS), lactose (DL) and dicalcium phosphate (DDCP). The binding properties of Albizia gum from Albizia zygia tree were also compared with those of gelatin in the granule formulations. Diclofenac (powder and granule) formulations were characterized for particle size and particle size distribution. Volume reduction was done by subjecting materials to N number of taps. Values of maximum volume reduction (a 'determined') and index of compressibility (b) were obtained from the plots of N/C against powder volume reduction with tapping (C). Another value for a (a' calculated) were obtained from Kawakita equations. The individual and interaction effects of type of diluent (X1) and formulation (X2) on the characteristics of powder and granule were determined, using a 22 factorial experimental design. The mean granule size increased with binder concentration, larger granules were obtained with Albizia gum than gelatin in the formulations. In DCS, a was lower in granules, granules had higher values of a than powders in DDCP (p Diclofenac had higher compressibility index (b) with the excipients. Generally, b was higher in granules than in powder formulations (p properties. Granules and powders can be characterized using the same parameters. Albizia gum was shown to confer good flow and compression properties in diclofenac formulations.

  14. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract ...

  15. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract of rheumatic tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub-acute toxicity profile of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF), a polyherbal tea consisting of Salix alba, Eucalyptus globulus and Albizia chevalieri was investigated in wistar rats of both sexes. Wistar rats were orally administered three different doses of ethanol extract of RTF for 28 days after which the effect on body weight, ...

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  17. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three kaempferol glycosides were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Albizia versicolor and identified as kaempferol-3-neohesperidoside, kaempferol-3-O-(26-a-rhamnopyranosyl)-rutinoside and mauritianin on the basis of NMR studies. These glycosides are all new to the genus. INTRODUCTION.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Albizia saman pods supplementation on feed intake and live weight changes of White Fulani calves. Abstract · Vol 23 (1996) - Articles The Effects of broiler litter as protein source on the performance of Bunaji (White Fulani) bull calves. Abstract · Vol 20, No 1 (1993) - Articles Effect of parity on intake and utilization ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Ziziphus mucronata and Ricinus communis leaves extracts. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 3 (2015) - Articles In vitro immune-modulatory potential of crude extract of leaf of Albizia gummifera against stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear and raw cells. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes ... treatment processes (Markovska et al., 2006). Activated ..... preparation of activated carbons from coal by chemical ...

  1. EVALUASI BIJI TANAMAN GAMAL PROVENAN RETALHULEU PADA LAHAN KERING DI BUKIT BADUNG BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Puger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium provenance Retalhuleu seed garden has been established in 1992 in dry land farming at Bukit Pecatu Village, Bukit Badung Peninsula, South Bali, at 100m sea level, on red-brown mediteran calcareous-base soil, with 1552 mm rainfall, distributed during 4 months wet season and 8 months dry season. The Completely Randomized Block Design Arrangement consisted of 60 famili(F as treatments, 6 blocks as replications and 10 plants per treatment were used in this experiment. The first harvest was carried out in November 1995 and the subsequent harvest was carried out in October-November each year. Results of 11nd harvests (16 year plant age on seed production and quality showed that famili F12, F17 and F51 (ranking order could be registered (priority rights as planting.

  2. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (Pcooking loss. Of the sensory attributes evaluated in the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the lambs, color and juiciness did not differ (P>0.05). However, the silages led to differences (Plambs that consumed old man saltbush silage and lower in the meat from those fed buffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicia Miranda Paulino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e gravioleira com feijão-guandu; e a testemunha mangueira e gravioleira. Agliricídia apresentou maior potencial de FBN (80%, seguida da crotalária (64,5% e feijão-guandu (45%. Em dois cortes, a crotalária forneceu 149,5 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 96,5kg derivados da FBN. A gliricídia com três podas anuais forneceu 56,4 e 80,3 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 45 e 64 kg derivados da FBN, em dois anos consecutivos. A quantidade de N fornecida foi superior à demandada pela mangueira e gravioleira. Variações na abundância natural de 15N foram detectadas somente na gravioleira. Gliricídia e crotalária destacaram-se na transferência de N, com cerca de 22,5 e 40% do N fixado, respectivamente. A adubação verde com gliricídia possibilita o parcelamento do N, com melhor aproveitamento pelas espécies frutíferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia, Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following intercropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80% , followed by sunnhemp (64.5% and pigeon pea (45%. After two sunnhemp prunes, 149

  4. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  5. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  6. Optimal land-use decisions in the presence of carbon payments and fertilizer subsidies: an Indonesian case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wise, RM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available .L., and Wise, R.M. (2003). Carbon-accounting methods and reforestation incentives, The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 47 (2): 153-179. de Foresta, H. and Michon, G. (1997). The agroforest alternative to Imperata grasslands: when... Research and Development, Indonesia. Grist, P., Menz, K., and Nelson, R. (1999). Gliricidia as Improved Fallow, In K. Menz, D. Magcale-Macandog and I. Wayan Rusastra (ed.), Improving Smallholder Farming Systems in Imperata Areas of Southeast Asia...

  7. Broccoli yield in response to top-dressing fertilization with green manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bernardo de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive performance of broccoli under different top-dressing organic fertilizations. The experiment was conducted under protected cultivation, in a completely randomized design with four replications, with two plants per experimental unit. Broccoli seedlings were produced in a commercial substrate in styrofoam trays. The seedlings were transplanted to plastic pots containing 10.0 L of substrate made up of subsoil and organic compost at the ratio of 3:1 (v/v, respectively, which is equivalent to about 20.0 t ha-1 of organic compost at planting. After seedling establishment, the top-dressing fertilization treatments were applied: gliricidia biomass associated or not with liquid biofertilizer of cattle manure to the soil and bokashi. Two control treatments were established: one with mineral fertilization recommended for the crop and the other without top-dressing fertilization. The broccoli production was evaluated (commercial standard. Plants that received mineral fertilizer were more productive, however, they were not significantly different (p>0.05, by Dunnet test, from the plants fertilized with 2.5 t ha-1 gliricidiabiomass (dry mass associated with liquid biofertilizer (2.0 L m-2 applied to soil. Top-dressing fertilizations with only gliricidia, at 2.5 and 5.0 t ha-1 of biomass (dry mass, resulted in no significant increase in production of broccoli inflorescence. The use of bokashi in addition to gliricidia biomass and liquid biofertilizer reduced the efficiency of the fertilization compared with plants that received only gliricidia and liquid biofertilizer.

  8. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  9. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  10. Etude de la culture en couloirs de manioc ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de l'étude est de recommander aux paysans un système de production de manioc à la fois rentable et préservatrice de l'environnement. Pour atteindre cet objectif, deux systèmes améliorés de culture en couloirs (manioc amélioré Yavo/soja vert (Mung bean)/Gliricidia sepium avec un apport de fumure de fond ...

  11. Caracterización bromatológica de seis especies forrajeras en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danis M. Verdecia Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis experimentos simultáneos para determinar la composición bromatológica de leguminosas forrajeras en las condiciones edafoclimáticas del Valle del Cauto, Cuba. Se empleó un diseño en bloques al azar con seis réplicas y los tratamientos fueron las edades de rebrote de 60, 120 y 180 días para los árboles y arbustos ( Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Eritrina varie - gata y de 30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 días para las leguminosas rastreras ( Neonotonia wightii y Te - ramnus labialis , en los periodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso. Se determinaron MS, PB, Ca, P, Mg, Si, FND, FAD, LAD, celulosa, hemicelulosa, contenido celular, ceniza, MO, DIVMS, DV, DISMS, DMO, DFND, DFAD y DPB. Se realizaron análisis de conglomerados para agrupar las especies con características simila - res. Durante el periodo lluvioso se encontraron seis grupos y en el poco lluvioso siete grupos; con los mejores resultados, de forma integral, para la Neonotonia wightii, Teramnus labialis, Gliricidia sepium y Tithonia diversifolia , en el periodo lluvioso; y en el poco lluvioso, para Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Erythri - na variegata a edades tempranas. Se concluye que la edad presentó un marcado efecto en la composición bromatológica al disminuir la calidad en la medida que la madurez avanza.

  12. Soil attributes of a silvopastoral system in Pernambuco Forest Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo N.B. Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated soil properties in a silvopastoral system using double rows of tree legumes. Treatments were signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in monoculture or in consortium with sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium. Treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with 4 replications. Response variables included chemical characteristics and physical attributes of the soil. Silvopastoral systems had greater (P<0.001 soil exchangeable Ca (gliricidia = 3.2 and sabiá = 3.0 mmolc/dm3 than signalgrass monoculture (2.0 mmolc/dm3. Water infiltration rate was greater within the tree legume double rows (366 mm/h than in signalgrass (162 mm/h (P = 0.02. However, soil moisture was greater in signalgrass pastures (15.9% (P = 0.0020 than in silvopastures (14.9 and 14.8%, where soil moisture levels increased as distance from the tree rows increased. Conversely, the light fraction of soil organic matter was greater within the tree legume double rows than in the grassed area (P = 0.0019. Long-term studies are needed to determine if these benefits accumulate further and the productivity benefits which result.

  13. PENGARUH TEPUNG DAUN GAMAL DAN DAUN KELOR DALAM UREA CASSAVA BLOK (UCB TERHADAP KECERNAAN, KADAR VFA, DAN NH3 IN-VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M. WITARIADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh tepung daun gamal dan daun kelor sebagai sumber protein dalam urea cassava blok (UCB terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, kadar VFA, dan NH3 cairan rumen pakan jerami padi secara invitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mempergunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Sehingga secara keseluruhan terdapat 15 unit penelitian. Adapun ketiga perlakuan tersebut adalah: Perlakuan A (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor; B (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun gamal, dan C (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor dan daun gamal. Varibel yang diamati adalah kecernaan bahan kering (KCBK , kecernaan bahan organik (KCBO in-vitro, produksi vollatile fatty acid (VFA, produksi NH3, dan pH supernatan. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa KCBK, KCBO invitro, VFA, NH3, dan pH supernatan pada ketiga perlakuan berbeda nyata (P<0,05. Penggunaan daun gamal sebagai sumber protein pada UCB menghasilkan KCBK, KCBO, VFA, NH3, tertinggi dibandingkan dengan daun kelor maupun kombinasi antara daun gamal dan daun kelor. EFFECT OF USING GLIRICIDIA (Gliricidia sepium AND MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAVES MEALS IN UREA CASSAVA BLOCK (UCB ON DIGESTIBILITY, VOLLATILE FATTY ACID, AND NH3 IN-VITRO. ABSTRACT The experiment has been conducted in order to now the effect of Gliricidia sepium and Moringa oleifera leaves meal a source of protein in urea cassava block (UCB to the digestibility dray matter and organic matter , VFA and ammonia concentration with rice straw diet. The experiment set in completely randomized design using three treatment. The treatment are: A (rise straw + UCB with Moringa; B (rise straw + UCB with Gliricidia sepium, and C (rise straw + UCB with Moringa and Gliricidia sepium. The observed variable are: dry matter, organic matter digestibility, volatile fatty acid, ammonia concentration, and pH rumen juice

  14. Notes à La Flore de Corse, XXV

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    These “notes” deal with 110 noteworthy taxa amongst which 21 are new to the island's flora. One of these taxa is native: Reseda alba subsp. hookeri and 20 are introduced: Abies pinsapo, Acer ×coriaceum, Albizia julibrissin, Arundo micrantha, Azolla filiculoides, Bolboschoenus laticarpus, Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria violascens, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, Genista januensis subsp. lydia, Hedera helix subsp. maroccana, Morus kagayamae, Oenothera rosea, Paspalum vaginatum, Puccinelli...

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with shade trees and Coffea arabica L. in a coffee-based agroforestry system in Bonga, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sewnet ,Tadesse Chanie; Tuju, Fassil Assefa

    2013-01-01

    In a first step to understand the interactions between Coffea arabica L. trees and mycorrhizae in Ethio¬pia, an investigation of the current mycorrhizal colonization status of roots was undertaken. We sampled 14 shade tree species occurring in coffee populations in Bonga forest, Ethiopia. Milletia fer¬ruginea, Schefflera abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, Ficus vasta, F. sur, Albizia gummifera, Olea capensis, Cordia africana, Ehretia abyssinica, Pouteria adolfi-friederici, Pavetta oliveriana, ...

  16. Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicuson Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicusis the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerellaand rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus. A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidusinoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus

  17. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  18. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity.

  19. Potential Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineral of Soil in Coffee Agroforestry System with Various Shading Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto .

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of shading trees in coffee farms has been well understood to establish suitable condition for the growth of coffee trees, on the other hand their role in nitrogen cycle in coffee farming is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of various legume shading trees on the concentration of soil mineral N (N-NH4 + and N-NO3-, potential nitrification and to study the controlling factors of nitrification under field conditions. This field explorative research was carried out in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Twelve observation plots covered four land use systems (LUS, i.e. 1 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiasepium as shade trees; 2 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaas shade trees and Arachis pintoias cover crops; 3Coffee agroforestry with Paraserianthes falcataria as shade trees; and 4 Mixed/multistrata coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaand other fruit crops as shade trees. Measurements of soil mineral-N concentration were carried out every three weeks for three months. Results showed that shade tree species in coffee agroforestry significantly affected concentrations of soil NH4 +, NO3- and potential nitrification. Mixed coffee agroforestry had the highest NH4+/N-mineral ratio (7.16% and the lowest potential nitrification (0.13 mg NO2-kg-1 hour -1 compared to other coffee agroforestry systems using single species of leguminous shade trees. Ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral increased 0.8—21% while potential nitrification decreased 55—79% in mixed coffee agroforestry compared to coffee agroforestry with Gliricidia or P. falcatariaas shade trees. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcatariaas shade trees had potential nitrification 53% lower and ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral concentration 20% higher than that with Gliricidia. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcataria as shade trees also had organic C content 17% higher, total N 40% higher, available P 112% higher than that with Gliricidia. The presence of A. pintoiin

  20. Proporsi penggunaan berbagai jenis daun tanaman untuk pakan ternak kambing pada lokasi dan ketinggian berbeda di wilayah Malang Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Susanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating the proportion of several types of tree foliages leaves as animal feed in different locations and altitudes in Malang Raya. The case study was conducted in five districts of Malang Raya where were assumed as the centre of goat farms. The results showed that there were 30 types of forage used as goat feeds, both leaves of tree foliages and shrubs, or grasses, crop residues and others. Most forages (73% were leaves of tree foliages and shrubs, both legumes, and non-legumes. Tree foliage leaves were more used as goat feeds in the study area with higher altitude, whereas in the area with lower altitude, farmers also utilized grasses and crop residues. The leaves of tree foliages were Paraserianthes falcataria, Gliricidia sepium, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Leucaena leucocephala and Calliandra calothyrsus. Paraserianthes falcataria was most widely used in Klampok-Singosari (88.3%. The proportion of Calliandra calothyrsus ranged from 32 to 98%, while Gliricidia sepium was 58-98%, both were most widely used in Argoyuwono-Ampelgading. Artocarpus heterophyllus was most widely used in Wajak (90.3%, whereas Leucaena leucocephala leaf was used by all respondents (100% in Sumberdem-Wonosari. It is necessary to evaluate the quality of these tree foliage leaves to provide a better animal feed through supplementation technology. Keyword: altitudes, foliages, leave, location

  1. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  2. Efficacy of woody biomass and biochar for alleviating heavy metal bioavailability in serpentine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Tharanga; Herath, Indika; Kumarathilaka, Prasanna; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Ok, Yong Sik; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-04-01

    Crops grown in metal-rich serpentine soils are vulnerable to phytotoxicity. In this study, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) biomass and woody biochar were examined as amendments on heavy metal immobilization in a serpentine soil. Woody biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) biomass at 300 and 500 °C. A pot experiment was conducted for 6 weeks with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) at biochar application rates of 0, 22, 55 and 110 t ha -1 . The CaCl 2 and sequential extractions were adopted to assess metal bioavailability and fractionation. Six weeks after germination, plants cultivated on the control could not survive, while all the plants were grown normally on the soils amended with biochars. The most effective treatment for metal immobilization was BC500-110 as indicated by the immobilization efficiencies for Ni, Mn and Cr that were 68, 92 and 42 %, respectively, compared to the control. Biochar produced at 500 °C and at high application rates immobilized heavy metals significantly. Improvements in plant growth in biochar-amended soil were related to decreasing in metal toxicity as a consequence of metal immobilization through strong sorption due to high surface area and functional groups.

  3. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Evizal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora, namely sun coffee (without shade trees, coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina indica are evaluated during 2007—2008. Smallholder coffee plantation in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, which managed under local standard were employed using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The result showed that litter fall dynamic from shade trees and from coffee trees was influenced by rainfall. Shade trees decreased weed biomass while increased litter fall production. In dry season, shade trees decreased litter fall from coffee shaded by M. champaca. G. sepium and E. indica shaded coffee showed higher yield than sun coffee and M. champaca shaded coffee. Except for M. champaca shaded coffee, yield had positive correlation (r = 0.99 with litter fall production and had negative correlation (r = —0.82 with weed biomass production. Biomass production (litter fall + weed of sun coffee and shaded coffee was not significantly different. Litter fall of shade trees had significance on nutrient cycle mainly to balance the lost of nitrogen in coffee bean harvesting.Key Words: Coffea canephora, Michelia champaca, Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina indica, litter production, nutrient cycle, coffee yield.

  4. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévila Oliveira Salles

    Full Text Available Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (0.05, Bonferroni test. Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  5. Combination Of Organic Matter And Inorganic N Fertilizer For Enhancing Productivity And N Uptake Of Upland Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter in soil plays very important roles in agriculture, especially in highly weathered soil like most soils in Indonesia. Inorganic fertilizer which is an instant N source, is still required, to supply plant demand. Combination of organic matter and inorganic N fertilizer would be the best solution to achieve high agricultural product. To study organic matter addition in combination with N fertilizer in upland rice cultivation, two experiments were conducted in The Agricultural Research Station, Citayam. One experiment was a field experiment and the other was a pot experiment conducted in the field in which the field experiment was performed, by installing pots in the center of plot experiment 15N technique was applied in the pot experiment The experiments were designed with Randomized Block Design. Prior to the experiment. N soil was extracted by planting blanket plant. i.e. corn. The treatments for field and pot experiments were the same, i.e.: 0 as Control I (without organic matter, without N fertilizer); N as Control 2 (without organic matter, 45 kg N/ha at planting + 45 kg N/ha a month after planting); GN-I (Gliricidia at planting; 45 kg N/ha at planting + 22,5 kg N/ha a month after planting); GN-2 (Gliricidia at planting + Gliricidia a month after planting; 45 kg N/ha at planting); GN-3 (Gliricidia at planting; 22,5 kg N/ha at planting + 22,5 kg N/ha a month after planting); JN-I (rice straw at planting; 90 kg N/ha at planting); JN-2 (rice straw at planting; 45 kg N/ha a planting + 45 kg N/ha a month after planting); JN-3 (rice straw at planting; 45 kg N/ha at planting + 22,5 kg N/ba month after planting); KN-I(long bean residue at planting; 45 kg N/ha at planting + 22,5 kg N/ha a month after planting); KN-2 (long bean residue at planting; 22,5 kg N/ha at planting + 22,5 kg N/ha a month after planting). Soil N was successfully depleted by blanket plant showed by very low rice production and N uptake of Control I. Result of the pot experiment

  6. The influence of surface modification on sound absorption coefficient of albizzia wood absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Prabowo, Anditya E.; Jamasri, Suharty, Neng Sri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of surface modification to sound absorption on absorber based albizia wood and kenaf fiber. The absorber was produced using the albizia wood as main materials, and the kenaf fiber was used as acoustic fill. The albizia wood used for producing the absorber was cut in the transverse direction so that its surface had good porosity. The size of specimens had 100 mm in diameter and 40 mm in thickness. The configuration of resonator cavities was 30 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth, and each resonator was completed with a neck hole of the resonator. The types of surface modification were the addition of screen printing ink, fabric (with and without neck hole), and vinyl-wallpaper (with and without neck hole). According to ISO 10534-2, the absorber specimens were tested using two microphones impedance tube with random noise source to get the curve of noise absorption coefficient (NAC) for each specimen. The result shows that both unmodified absorber and absorber modified with screen printing ink have the similar characteristic of NAC and they are feasible to be used as an absorber in conversation rooms. The addition of fabric and vinyl-wallpaper as cover on the absorber surface give the positive effect of the air gap, and it increases the NAC in low frequency (100-400 Hz). However, the covers decrease the NAC in high frequency (400-1,400 Hz). The holes on the fabric and wallpaper covers give the improvement of NAC.

  7. Restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.S.; Chaulya, S.K.; Tewary, B.K.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1996-03-01

    For the restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump, five tree species viz Delgergia sisoo, Azadirachta indica, Albizia procera, Delonix regia and Acacia nilotica were seeded to evaluate their germination and growth performance. Dalbergia sisoo was found to be the best early successional leguminous plant species showing maximum increase in shoot length and diameter on the mine dump. Therefore, it is recommended that the findings of this study be implemented on mass scale in the dry tropics of India. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Evaluation of forage tree and shrub accessions during the establishment period

    OpenAIRE

    Toral, Odalys C; Iglesias, J. M

    2012-01-01

    En la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey» se evaluaron 43 accesiones de árboles y arbustos forrajeros, provenientes de las prospecciones y colectas realizadas en diferentes ecosistemas de Cuba, con el objetivo de seleccionar las mejores durante el período de establecimiento. Existieron diferencias entre y dentro de las accesiones en cuanto al comportamiento durante dicho periodo. Trece accesiones de Leucaena, siete de Albizia, seis de Bauhinia, dos de Enterolobium, dos d...

  9. Molecular systematics of selected genera of subfamily mimosoidae-fabaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Jamil, K.; Zahra, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)

  10. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  11. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  12. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  13. Efeito de coberturas mortas vegetais sobre o desempenho da cenoura em cultivo orgânico Effect of mulch of different plant species on the performance of organically grown carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAB Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de coberturas mortas com resíduos de diferentes espécies de plantas no rendimento da cenoura em cultivo orgânico e nos níveis de reinfestação pela vegetação espontânea. O experimento foi conduzido no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica ("Fazendinha Agroecológica Km 47", em Seropédica-RJ, empregando delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de coberturas dos canteiros com a biomassa aérea, seca e triturada, de capim Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e guandu (Cajanus cajan, além da testemunha (sem qualquer cobertura. Por ocasião da colheita da cenoura, determinou-se a produtividade e as médias em peso, comprimento e diâmetro máximo das raízes tuberosas. A reinfestação de ervas espontâneas foi estimada pelo número total de indivíduos por m², sendo as coletas realizadas aos 20, 50 e 80 dias após a semeadura. A cenoura cultivada nas parcelas tratadas com resíduos de leguminosas apresentou aumentos significativos de todas as variáveis fitotécnicas, com exceção para o comprimento médio da raiz. Nas parcelas cobertas com resíduos da gramínea, os resultados foram estatisticamente iguais aos da testemunha. A reinfestação por plantas espontâneas por unidade de área cultivada alcançou níveis da ordem de 300% superiores em parcelas sem cobertura do solo, na comparação com aquelas que receberam as palhadas.The effect of soil mulch with different plant species was evaluated in relation to the performance of organically grown carrots and to weed population levels. The experiment was carried out at the Integrated Agroecological Production System located in Seropédica, Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Baixada Fluminense, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design comprising four treatments replicated six times. These treatments consisted of soil mulch with chopped and dried above

  14. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2008-10-01

    In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University), has been testing the effectiveness of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bioengineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection in Nicaragua. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency. These techniques are appropriate for sustainable watershed management especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used we experimented four native species. Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas are suitable for soil bioengineering more than Bursera Simaruba. Economically speaking, the sustainability of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the evaluation of the cost of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua compared to the cost in different contexts.

  15. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.Pastures are the fodder supply of Brazilian livestock, and are exhaustively degraded by nitrogen (N deficiency. Intercropping with legumes, aside from nitrogen fixation, may have

  16. Especies vegetales que habitan en los derechos de vía de las carreteras principales de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jiménez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current article presents information about species of trees growing on the road easements on the highways of Nicaragua. Inventories of trees and bushes were carried out on two representative highways within the national roadway system to assess the most prevalent species of plants. The criteria for the selection of the highways under analysis were established by taking into account the relevant information on a precise and satisfactory level. The parameters analyzed were: proliferation, value of the species, degree of coverage, density, plant species composition and vitality. In conclusion, the tree species identified on the road easement areas were typically those of indigenous plants or the remains of riparian forests. The species most frequently found were Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae, Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae, Senna siamea (Caesalpiniaceae, y Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Mimosaceae.

  17. Simaltaneous determination of Paracetamol and Chlorzoxazone in authentic mixtures and capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Abdel-Aziz M.; Gazy, Azza A.; Abdel-Razak, Omayma

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the ethanolic extract of the pods of Albizzia Lebbeck (L.) Benth,afforded a Orthogonal functions ratio spectrophotometry has been developed and applied to the determination of paracetamol and chlorzoxazone in authentic mixtures and capsules. A basic computer program was used to facilitate the calculations behind the method. The methods have been validated. The accuracy as determined by the analysis of laboratory prepared mixture was found to be 99.0 to 100.3%with repeatabilty of less than 1% (RSD). Linearity ranges werefound to be 3.0-21.0 and 5.0-40.0ug per ml ,respectively. The methods were found to be robust to +-0.5nm shift in the wavelength scale. Certain ratios have been developed to prove specifcity. (author)

  18. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of corn by forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck in the diets of lactating goats on the nutrient intake, milk production and composition and ingestive behavior. Five crossbreed Saanen x Pardo Alpina goats with body weights of 47 ± 3.3 kg were used in the study. The design was 5x5 Latin square design, in which the treatments were as follows: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of girl cactus included in the diet as a partial replacement of corn, with 0, 18, 36, 54 and 72% of the added the cactus comprising of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Walp as roughage in all treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05 the dry matter intake, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients with the increasing levels of cactus in the diet, presenting means of 1.64, 0.26, 0.82, 0.54 and 1.17 kg day-1, respectively. In the same way, no influence was observed on the daily milk production and levels of fat, protein, lactose and total solids of milk, which averaged 1.18 kg day-1; 3.74, 3.34, 5.06 and 13.56%, respectively. The inclusion of cactus also had no influence (P > 0.05 on the ingestion behavior. The treatment with 35% cactus showed a lower impairment of food intake (31%. The partial replacement of the corn by the girl cactus in the diets of dairy goats can be accomplished because it does not alter the intake, milk yield and composition and feeding behavior. The replacement of up to 54% corn by the cactus is recommended to reduce producer costs for food.

  19. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  20. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  1. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  2. Forage Production Technology Transfer in Kwale and Kilifi Districts of Coast Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwatate, C.D; Ramadhan, C.D.A; Njunie, M.N

    1999-01-01

    A forage production and utilisation programme was introduced in Kwale (AEZ CL2/CL3) and Kilifi (AEZ CL3/CL4) districts to combat major constraint in low quality and quantity feed at the coast. Dairy production had a great market potential stimulated by the high urban and rural population. Willing farmers were invited to PRC-Mtwapa to see how grasses, legumes and multipurpose trees would fit in their mixed maize cassava farming system. After explaining the forage characteristics to the farmers, they were allowed to select a maximum of three out of eight legumes (Vigna Unguiculata; Dolichos lablab; Clitoria tanatea; Stylosanthes guianennsis; Mucuna pruriens; Pueraria phaseloids; Macroptlium atropurpureum and Centrosema pubescens), tree out of five Napier grasses (Cultivar Mott, Clone 13, French Cameroon, Gold Coast and Bana). Giant panicum and and one of the two multipurpose trees (Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) to test in their farms. After planting in mid 1996 on-farm the research-extension team monitored ground cover and labor aplied monthly by gender, green leaf production, and survival over the drought in 1997. Along-side the planted forages, actual forage fed by dairy farmers was sampled, analysed for chemical composition and degradability to advise farmers on ration formulation. Ranking by farmers showed a preference for clitiria, Macuna and Dolichos in Kwale as the three best legumes. More than 70% of Napier grass variety had established while establishment rate of gliricidia was 33%. An extension leaflet developed during the study will be used to disseminate the information in the region

  3. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasinghe, K S; Kirda, C; Bowen, G D [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section; Zapata, F; Awonaike, K O; Holmgren, E; Arslan, A; De Bisbal, E C; Mohamed, A R.A.G.; Montenegro, A [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit

    1996-07-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of {Delta} with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of {Delta} with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that {Delta} values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N{sub 2} derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use {Delta} values for screening of leguminous crops for high N{sub 2} fixation potential. {sup 13}C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of {Delta} with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of {Delta} with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  5. Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L. yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Awopegba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the influence of shrub and herbaceous mulch types on soil properties and nutrient composition of maize (Zea mays L. at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The shrub mulch; Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia, herbaceous mulch; Calopogonium mucunoides and Moringa oleifera were applied at the rate of 5 t ha-1. Application of NPK (20:10:10 fertilizer at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 was included as the standard treatment for the experiments. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replication. The growth, agronomic parameters and nutritional quality of maize (Zea mays L. were monitored and determined in both experiments. Results indicated that herbaceous mulch types and NPK fertilizer significantly (P<0.05 increased the number of leaves, plant height and leaf area when compared with the control in both years. Significant increases in yield parameters over the control were obtained for the NPK fertilizer treatment. In 2013 and 2014 cropping season NPK 20-10-10 treatment significantly produced the highest cob yield but was not significantly higher than the yield from Gliricidia sepium treatment in 2014. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, potassium (K, and exchangeable cations were positively stimulated by herbaceous mulches while residual phosphorus (P was increased by NPK fertilizer treatment. Mulched treatments significantly increased crude protein, carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and ash content of maize grain in both years of cropping season thereby improving nutritional content of maize grain. Therefore, shrub and herbaceous mulch treatments applied at 5t/ha-1 could be applied alternatively in lieu of scarce and expensive inorganic fertilizer for improved maize yield, soil properties and nutrient composition.

  6. Living Mulch Performance in a Tropical Cotton System and Impact on Yield and Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a major crop in the Vidarbha region of central India. The vertisol soils on which much of the cotton is grown have been severely degraded by the tropical climate, excessive tillage and depletion of organic matter. Living mulches have the ability to mitigate these problems but they can cause crop losses through direct competition with the cotton crop and unreliable weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at four locations in Vidarbha to study the potential for growing living mulches in mono-cropped cotton. Living mulch species evaluated included gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L. Merr.], sorghum sudan grass [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench ssp. Drummondii (Nees ex Steud. de Wet & Harlan] and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Living mulch height was controlled through mowing and herbicides were not used. Living mulches generated 1 to 13 tons ha−1 of dry matter across sites and years. Weed cover was negatively correlated with both living mulch biomass and cover. Where living mulches were vigorous and established quickly, weed cover was as low as 7%, without the use of herbicides, or inter-row tillage. In a dry year, living mulch growth had a negative impact on cotton yield; however, in a year when soil moisture was not limiting, there was a positive relationship between cotton yield and living mulch biomass. Use of living mulches in cotton production in the Vidarbha region of India is feasible and can lead to both effective weed suppression and acceptable cotton yields.

  7. Influence of binder type and process parameters on the compression properties and microbial survival in diclofenac tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oluwasogo Ayorinde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of binder type and process parameters on the compression properties and microbial survival in diclofenac tablet formulations were studied using a novel gum from Albizia zygia. Tablets were produced from diclofenac formulations containing corn starch, lactose and dicalcium phosphate. Formulations were analyzed using the Heckel and Kawakita plots. Determination of microbial viability in the formulations was done on the compressed tablets of both contaminated and uncontaminated tablets prepared from formulations. Direct compression imparted a higher plasticity on the materials than the wet granulation method. Tablets produced by wet granulation presented with a higher crushing strength than those produced by the direct compression method. Significantly higher microbial survival (pA influência do tipo de ligante e os parâmetros do processo de propriedades de compressão e sobrevivência microbiana em comprimidos de diclofenaco foram estudados utilizando uma nova goma de Albizia zygia. Os comprimidos foram produzidos a partir de formulações de diclofenaco contendo amido de milho, lactose e fosfato bicálcico. As formulações foram analisadas usando os gráficos de Heckel e Kawakita. A determinação da viabilidade microbiana nas formulações foi feita nos comprimidos contaminados e não contaminados preparados a partir de formulações. A compressão direta confere maior plasticidade dos materiais do que o método de granulação úmida. Comprimidos produzidos por granulação úmida apresentaram maior força de esmagamento do que aqueles produzidos pelo método de compressão direta. Observou-se sobrevivência significativamente maior (p<0,05 em formulações preparadas por compressão direta. A sobrevivência percentual dos esporos de Bacillus subtilis diminuiu com o aumento da concentração do agregante. O estudo mostrou que a goma de Albizia é capaz de conferir maior plasticidade aos materiais e apresentou maior redução da

  8. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  9. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol composition of oils from some Sudanese oil bearing sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven oils, obtained from seven Sudanese oil bearing sources that are Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO and Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO, were investigated. The seeds were collected in Sudan from Ghibaish, North Kordofan state. In addition to the oil content, the fatty acid was determined by capillary gas chromatography and the tocopherols were evaluated by highperformance liquid chromatography. The oil content of the seven seeds amounted to 12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, and 21.3%, respectively.The oils contained 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 and 10.9 % palmitic acid and 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % oleic acid, and 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34.6, 33.5, 36.3 % linoleic acid and traces of linolenic acid, respectively.The tocopherol content of these oils amounted to 85.6, 48.2, 32.7, 163.5, 52.5, 30.9, and 26.4 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Alpha-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Albizia lebbek, Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia occidentalis, and Abutilon pannosum, while gamma-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Mitracarpus villous, Ipomea indica and Sesamum alatum.Se analizan siete aceites procedentes de plantas y semillas de Sudán: Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO y Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO. Las semillas se recolectaron en el estado de Ghibaish, North Kordofan. Además del contenido en aceite (12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, y 21.3 %, respectivamente, se determinaron los ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases y los tocoferoles mediante HPLC. Los aceites contenían, respectivamente, 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 y 10.9 % de ácido palmitito, 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % de ácido oleico, 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34

  10. Species composition of the vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jamtsho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the riparian vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan was conducted from April to December 2015 to explore the plant communities in terms of species composition. A total number of 18 plots were placed within the remnant patches of the vegetation on either side of the river. In total, 172 species of vascular plant has been recorded. The cluster analysis suggested four types of plant communities in the study area viz., the MallotusDesmodium-Rhus shrubland and the Syzygium venosum woodland communities, which are located in V-shaped valleys and the Albizia-Flueggea woodland and Quercus glauca woodland communities located in U-shaped valleys. In broad-spectrum, the topographic features and environmental variables i.e. litter accumulation and flooding condition might also have some impact on the species composition of the plant communities of this vegetation.

  11. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus

  12. Screening of Kenyan medicinal plants for antimalarial effects on Plasmodium falciparum in vitror. Final report for the period 15 December 1993 - 31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofulla, A V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The antimalarial activities of extracts of Albizia gummifera and Aspilia mossambicensis against culture adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum were evaluated using an in citro {sup 3}H-hypoxanthine uptake technique. Chloroquine was used as a standard antimalarial drug for comparison with the plant extracts. The plant extracts showed various levels of activities (expressed as 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}s) in ug/ml of test culture) against P. falciparum in vitro, with Al gummifera showing the highest activity (eman IC{sub 50} of 5.98 {+-} 2.9 SD, n=6), followed by A. mossambicensis (mean IC{sub 50} 73.36 {+-} 59.3 SD, n=18). The mean antimalarial activity of chloroquine (in ug/ml) was 0.037 ({+-} 0.04 SD, n=10), far higher than that of the plant extracts. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs.

  13. Screening of Kenyan medicinal plants for antimalarial effects on Plasmodium falciparum in vitror. Final report for the period 15 December 1993 - 31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofulla, A.V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The antimalarial activities of extracts of Albizia gummifera and Aspilia mossambicensis against culture adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum were evaluated using an in citro 3 H-hypoxanthine uptake technique. Chloroquine was used as a standard antimalarial drug for comparison with the plant extracts. The plant extracts showed various levels of activities (expressed as 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 s) in ug/ml of test culture) against P. falciparum in vitro, with Al gummifera showing the highest activity (eman IC 50 of 5.98 ± 2.9 SD, n=6), followed by A. mossambicensis (mean IC 50 73.36 ± 59.3 SD, n=18). The mean antimalarial activity of chloroquine (in ug/ml) was 0.037 (± 0.04 SD, n=10), far higher than that of the plant extracts. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  14. Firewood crops in areas of brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Parts of the Mathura, Agra, Etah and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh have a special problem of brackish water which is the result of the complete destruction of natural vegetation during a period of several centuries. Twenty species of trees and shrubs (listed) were planted during 1981-1982 in plots of 30 x 30 m at a spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m. A detailed analysis of water from the Forest Research Station, Mathura is presented; pH ranged from 7.00 to 7.85 and electrical conductivity from 4.0 to 6.10. Various salt concentrations were high. At 18 months old the species that were doing well were: Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Terminalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbek, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia auriculata, Adhatoda vasica and Cassia siamea.

  15. Manejo da irrigação associada a coberturas mortas vegetais no cultivo orgânico da beterraba Irrigation management and mulching in organic beet planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas orgânicas, como a cobertura do solo com palha, foram testadas em área irrigada por gotejamento na Baixada Fluminense, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O cultivo de inverno da beterraba nesta região é favorecido por temperaturas mais amenas, coincidindo com a época de maior disponibilidade do produto no Estado. No cultivo da beterraba, foram adotados três tipos de cobertura do solo e seis lâminas de irrigação (0; 29; 48; 78; 100 e 148% da ETc determinadas com base no balanço de água no solo utilizando a técnica da TDR. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Sob cobertura morta de Pennisetum purpureum, de Gliricidia sepium e na ausência de cobertura morta, os valores máximos relativos de EUA, no cultivo de beterraba, foram de 21,00; 32,90 e 17,90 kg m-3, respectivamente. A maior e a menor lâmina de irrigação acumulada para cada tipo de manejo foram de 2.746 e 951 m³ ha-1 nas parcelas sem cobertura morta. Em comparação, as parcelas com cobertura do solo reduziram em 34,5 e 10,5% as lâminas acumuladas, respectivamente. Os valores acumulados de nitrogênio nas partes das plantas foram maiores no cultivo sob cobertura morta de G. sepium, indicando vantagens desta prática cultural associada à irrigação por gotejamento.Organic farming practices, like mulching, were tested in drip irrigated area in Baixada Fluminense, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In this region, the winter crop of sugar beet is favored by mild temperatures, coinciding with the period of higher product availability in the State. For the beet planting were used three soil management practices (different conditions of coverage. In each one, six irrigation depth(0, 29, 48, 78, 100 and 148% of ETc, estimated based on soil water balance using TDR technique were applied through drip of different flow rates. Moreover, it was also included a plot without irrigation. The statistical

  16. IDENTIFICACIÓN, USOS Y MEDICIÓN DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS FORRAJERAS EN RANCHOS GANADEROS DEL SUR DEL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Olivares Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar las especies arbóreas leguminosas, usos, densidad, frecuencia, abundancia y medidas dasométricas en ranchos ganaderos del sur del Estado de México; así como evaluar la producción de follaje (kg materia seca árbol-1ha-1 de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium —preferidas por los ganaderos como fuente de forraje y con mayor densidad—; y evaluar  la producción de fruto (kg materia seca  árbol-1ha-1 de Acacia  cochliacantha y P. dulce. La información de usos se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a 69 ganaderos, cantidad que representó 83% de la población. Las mediciones de los árboles se realizaron en seis ranchos mediante trabajo de campo. La información se analizó usando estadísticas descriptivas. Se identificaron 12 especies arbóreas (Acacia cochliacantha, Lysiloma divaricata, Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium, las cuales presentaron mayor densidad, frecuencia y abundancia. De 46.6% de las arbóreas, su follaje y fruto es consumido por rumiantes; de 20%, es consumido follaje, fruto y flor. Se proporcionan de cinco a ocho usos en 80% de las especies, además del forrajero, como leña, poste, sombra, cerca viva, medicinal, consumo humano, artesanal y maderable. Las arbóreas con mayor fuste fueron: Caesalpinia coriaria, Pithecellobium dulce, Enterolobium cyclocarpum y Leucaena esculenta, con diámetro basal (DB de 47.11 a 57.2 cm, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP de 49.34 a 50.3 cm y altura (A de 7.4 a 14.5 m,  los cuales son preferidos para sombra. La producción de follaje de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium fue de 44.5, 8.8 y 8.4 kg MS arbol-1, respectivamente. La producción de fruto de Pithecellobium dulce y Acacia cochliacantha fue 63.9 y 21.7 kg MS árbol-1, respectivamente. Las 12 leguminosas

  17. Weeds under the canopies of tree species submitted to different planting densities and intercropping Plantas daninhas sob copas de espécies arbóreas submetidas a consórcios e densidades de plantio diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the growth and floristic composition of species that grow under the canopy of trees is important for weed control (WC. The objective of this study was to assess two experiments (E1 and E2, when the trees were two years and one year of age, respectively. In E1, sabiá (S and gliricidia (G were submitted to planting densities from 400 to 1.200 plants ha-1. In E2, growing systems consisting of S, G, and neem (N combinations were compared: SSS, GGG, NNN, GSG, NSN, SGS, NGN, SNS, and GNG (each letter represents a row of plants. A random block design was adopted, with three (E1 and four (E2 replicates. In E1, treatments were arranged as split-plots (species in plots. In E2, the degrees of freedom for treatments (8 were partitioned into growing systems (treatments that involved the same species and between growing system groups (2. Twenty-one weed species were found in E1. Gliricidia attained greater plant height than sabiá, but these species did not differ in canopy diameter, number of weed species per plot, and weed green and dry biomass of the shoot. Higher planting densities resulted in the reduction of all those traits. Twenty-six weed species were found in E2. Growing systems that included gliricidia showed canopies with greater diameters than growing systems that included neem. There were no differences between growing systems for number of weed species per plot and for weed green and dry biomass of the shoot.Avaliações do crescimento e da composição florística de espécies que vegetam sob a copa das árvores são importantes no controle de plantas daninhas (PD. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar essas avaliações em dois experimentos (E1 e E2, quando as árvores tinham idades de dois anos e um ano, respectivamente. Em E1, sabiá (S e gliricídia (G foram submetidas a densidades de plantio de 400 a 1.200 plantas ha-1. Em E2, foram comparados sistemas de cultivo de S, G e nim (N: SSS, GGG, NNN, GSG, NSN, SGS, NGN, SNS e GNG

  18. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (pheterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (pArtocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba

  19. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

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    T. Seresinhe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP, dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL (Trt 1, C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS (Trt 2, Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3, A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4, Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5, C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6, Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7, A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8. The condensed tannin (CT content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium. Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p0.05 NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8 mixture which may be attributed with it’s highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05 was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6 followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8 and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental substitution of legume forage increased gas production parameters, NH3-N, IVDMD and microbial population in the fermentation liquid. Methane production was not significantly affected by the presence of CT or different levels of CP in forage mixtures. Among non legumes, Ceiba perntandra and Artocarpus

  20. Drought effects on soil COcacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  1. Anatomía y usos de la madera de ocho especies tropicales de Quintana Roo, México

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    Silvia Rebollar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la anatomía de la madera de ocho especies procedentes de asociaciones secundarias de las selvas alta y mediana subperennifolia del estado de Quintana Roo: Acacia gaumeri, Diphysa carthagenensis Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena glauca, Senna racemosa, Murraya paniculata, Maytenus guatemalensis, y Pimenta dioica, de acuerdo con la metodología establecida. Son especies de interés por su distribución, abundancia en el estado, y por los usos que tradicionalmente les han dado los campesinos mayas en postería, cercas, construcción rural durmintes, tablones y leña, debido a las cualidades de dureza y resistencia a la humedad y a los insectos. Las especies presentan porosidad difusa, los vasos con puntuaciones areoladas opuestas y alternas, la placa perforada es simple; el parénquima axial se presenta aliforme y en bandas; con cristales en todas las especies a excepción de Acacia gaumeri y Senna racemosa. Los rayos son bajos finos y numerosos; las fibras son de tipo libriforme. Las diferencias encontradas son: el arreglo de los poros, tipo de parénquima axial y radial, la presencia de fibrotraqueidas y traqueidas vasculares y tílides.This paper describes the wood anatomy of Acacia gaumeri Blake, Diphysa carthagenensis Jacq., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud., Leucaena glauca (L. Benth., Senna racemosa (Mill Irwin & Barneby, Murraya paniculata L.Mant., Maytenus guatemalensis Lundell, and Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. These species are aesthetically attractive as well as hard, highly durable and resistant to insects and locally are widely used in posts, fences, sleepers and rural buildings. Samples were collected from the rainforest in Quintana Roo, Mexico. One tree for each species was collected, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were described and measured in wood samples, permanent slides and macerated material. Woods have diffuse porosity, simple perforation plates, alternate and opposite vessel pits and small rays. Crystals

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  3. Evaluation of hedgerow trees in alley cropping for phosphorus use efficiency and N{sub 2} fixation in low P soils in moist savanna in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginga, N [International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Danso, S K.A. [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility and Crop Production Section; Zapata, F [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit; Bowen, G D [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glen Osmond (Australia). Div. of Soils

    1996-07-01

    Soils low in P and N are common in the moist savanna climatic zones and consequently growth of hedgerow trees in alley cropping systems might require addition of N and P fertilizers. This is difficult for small scale farmers who have limited access to fertilizers and therefore depend only on limited input cropping systems. Exploiting genetic differences in P use efficiency and using hedgerow trees selected for high N{sub 2} fixation ability can improve tree establishment and growth on N and P-poor soils, restore soil fertility and preserve soil from degradation. Field experiments carried out at Fashola (moist savanna) have shown that large differences in growth and P use efficiency occurred between N{sub 2} fixing trees such as Gliricidia sepium, and non N{sub 2}-fixing trees such as Senna siamea and Senna spectabilis. Provenances or isoline differences in P use efficiency also occurred within species and was also influenced by level of P and period of growth. Differences between species and provenances in P uptake and growth were largely related to differences in physiological P-use efficiency (PPUE), root length and VAM infection rate, especially at low P. In general, nodulation was improved by P application, but varied among provenances. Gliricidia Sepium fixed about 61% of its N from atmospheric N{sub 2} in the pot experiment and 40% in the field. The percentage of N fixed was not affected by rate of P application. Differences in P and N accumulation and use efficiency were also influenced by management practices such as pruning. The distribution of total P followed the same trend as that of dry matter yield, while no significant correlations were found between partitioning of dry matter and total N. Uncut and cut G. Sepium derived 35 and 54% respectively of their N from atmospheric N{sub 2}. About 54% of the fixed N{sub 2} was partitioned to shoots and roots and this was not proportional to the size of these organs relative the whole plant. 17refs,2figs,2tabs.

  4. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  5. Estímulo no crescimento e na hidrólise de ATP em raízes de alface tratadas com humatos de vermicomposto: II - Efeito da fonte de vermicomposto Improving lettuce seedling root growth and ATP hydrolysis with humates from vermicompost: II - Effect of vermicompost source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Cardoso Rodda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores mais limitantes para a produção de vermicomposto é a disponibilidade de esterco. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da substituição parcial do esterco por bagaço de cana e por resíduos de leguminosa (Gliricidia sepium na vermicompostagem sobre a qualidade do vermicomposto e sobre a bioatividade dos humatos, avaliadas por meio da análise do crescimento radicular e da atividade das bombas de H+ isoladas de raízes de alface. A substituição do esterco por bagaço de cana e por resíduos de leguminosas não acarretou prejuízo às características químicas dos vermicompostos. No entanto, os humatos isolados dos diferentes vermicompostos apresentaram características químicas distintas, tais como: acidez e propriedades óticas distintas. Os humatos produzidos a partir de esterco de bovino e da mistura esterco bovino + bagaço proporcionaram maiores estímulos no crescimento radicular das plantas de alface, sendo os mais indicados para uso na forma solúvel. A inclusão de resíduos de leguminosas no processo de vermicompostagem produziu humatos sem efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das raízes de alface.Cattle manure availability is one of the most limiting factors for vermicompost production. The effects of the partial substitution of manure with sugarcane bagasse or residues of Gliricidia sepium on the quality of vermicomposts and the bioactivity of their humates were evaluated by analyzing the root growth and H+-ATPase activity of lettuce seedling roots. The substitutions of manure by sugar cane bagasse and legume cover crops residues did not affect the chemical properties of humates. Humates isolated from the different vermicomposts, however, presented different chemical characteristics, such as acidity and distinct optical properties. Humates isolated from manure and manure + bagasse enhanced growth; these are more adequate for use in soluble form. Humates isolated from vermicompost with legume substitution were

  6. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  7. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  8. Soil Fertility Status, Nutrient Uptake, and Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Following Organic Matters and P Fertilizer Application on Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, S.; Harieni, S.; Anasrullah, A.; Purwanto, H.

    2017-04-01

    Objective of this study were to elucidate effects of organic matters and P fertilizer application on soil fertility status, nutrient uptake and maize yield in the Andisol. This experiment consisted of two factors. The first factor comprised of four levels of organic matters input (without organic matter, manure, rice straw, and Gliricidia sepium leaves), with the application dosage 10 t.ha-1 and the second factor comprised of three levels of P fertilizer application (without P addition (control), 50 kg P2O5 ha-1, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). Results of this study showed that organic matters and P fertilizer application improved soil fertility status, especially pH, soil organic C, cation exchange capacity (CEC), available P which resulted in an increase in P uptake that improve yield of maize. The highest yield of maize (corn cob) was obtained through application Gliricida sepium (8.40 t.ha-1), followed by manure (6.02 t.ha-1) and rice straw (5.87 t.ha-1). Application of 50 kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (5.76 t.ha-1) and application of 100 Kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (6.12 t.ha-1).

  9. Nitrogen fixation in legume trees: Measurement based on 15N techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Rasyid, H.; Sisworo, H.W.; Solahuddin, S.; Wemay, J.

    2000-01-01

    A field experiment has been conducted to measure the N2-fixation in six legume trees, namely Gliricidia sepium(F1), Sesbania sesban(F2), Caliandra tetragona(F3), Flemengia conges-7ta(F4), Acacia mangium(F5), and Leucena leucocephala (F6), using 15N techniques, e.g. the isotope dilution method. For this technique a reference tress, that is a non N2--fixing trees has to be used. In this experiment three reference trees were planted, but only one was used, which above ground growth was equal to the legyme trees. The reference tree chosen was Eucalyptus alba (R1). Data obtained from this experiment show that in general the legume trees have growth then the reference trees expressed, in dray weight of various plant parts and plants and total-N uptake (TN). At harvest some of the legume and reference tree have reached a 2.5 m height. The percentage of N2-fixation(%-fix) ranges from 50-70%. The highest %N-Fix was shown by Leucena leucocephala (F6) (70%N-Fix). High %N-Fix does not necessarily mean hgh N-Fix uptake(gn/tree)too. The N-Fix appears to be determined by the TN (gn/tree). The highest N-Fix was contributed by the leaves, which also has the highest percentage of total -N(%TN) compare to the other plant parts, i.e. roots, stem, and branches

  10. Protein Binding Capacity of Different Forages Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusiati, L. M.; Kurniawati, A.; Hanim, C.; Anas, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Eight forages of tannin sources(Leucaena leucocephala, Arachis hypogaea, Mimosa pudica, Morus alba L, Swietenia mahagoni, Manihot esculenta, Gliricidia sepium, and Bauhinia purpurea)were evaluated their tannin content and protein binding capacity. The protein binding capacity of tannin were determined using precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Swietenia mahagonihas higest total tannin level and condensed tannin (CT) compared with other forages (P<0.01). The Leucaena leucocephala has highest hydrolysable tannin (HT) level (P<0.01). The total and condensed tannin content of Swietenia mahagoni were 11.928±0.04 mg/100 mg and 9.241±0.02mg/100mg dry matter (DM) of leaves. The hydrolysable tannin content of Leucaena leucocephala was 5.338±0.03 mg/100 mg DM of leaves. Binding capacity was highest in Swietenia mahagoni and Leucaena leucocephala compared to the other forages (P<0.01). The optimum binding of BSA to tannin in Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoniwere1.181±0.44 and 1.217±0.60mg/mg dry matter of leaves. The present study reports that Swietenia mahagoni has highest of tannin content and Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoni capacity of protein binding.

  11. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  12. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  13. THE EFFECT OF CALF STARTER RATION FOR PRE-WEANING ONGOLE GRADE (PO CALVES ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Winarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to determine the effect of calf starter in the pre-weaning calves against the daily body weight gain. Twenty Ongole grade (PO calves age of 1 month divided into 4 treatment groups of feed, 5 calves for each treatment. Treatment (P1 fed with extra soybean groats; (P2 soybean groats 50% + Gliricidia 50%; (P3 soybean groats 50%+ rice bran 50%; (P4 soybean groats 50%+ rejected bread 50%. Calf starter was given at age 1 month to 3 months. Observation was carried out on calves daily weight gain. This experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design. Data was  analyzed by analysis of variance and continued Least Significant Difference Test. Statistical analysis showed that feed of (P <0.05 significantly affected the daily weight gain of the calves. Results of the study can be concluded that calf starter with soya groats provide the best daily weight gain of pre-weaning calf.

  14. Production and efficiency of organic compost generated by millipede activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Sousa Antunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The putrefactive activity of organisms such as diplopods in the edaphic macrof auna can be leveraged to promote the transformation of agricultural and urban waste into a low-cost substrate for the production of vegetable seedlings. This research aimed to evaluate: (1 the quantity of Gervais millipedes ( Trigoniulus corallinus needed to produce an acceptable quantity of organic compost; (2 the main physical and chemical characteristics of different compost types; and (3 compost efficiency in the production of lettuce seedlings. The first experiment lasted 90 days and was conducted using 6.5L of Gliricidia, 6.5L of Flemingia, 13.5L of grass cuttings, 4.5L of cardboard, 4.5L of coconut husk, and 4.5L of corncob. Treatments consisting of 0, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50, and 0.90L of millipedes were applied. This experiment compared millicompost and vermicompost, using four repetitions. After 23 days, the heights of grown lettuce plants and the weights of the fresh and dry mass of above ground lettuce and of the roots were assessed. A millipede volume of 0.1L proved to be sufficient for the production of an acceptable volume of organic compost. However, the addition of greater volumes leads to increased calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content. Millicompost has similar physicochemical characteristics those of vermicompost, and both are equally efficient as a substrate for the production of lettuce seedlings.

  15. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3 from Vermisources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayogan Sivasankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost was prepared from leaf materials of Gliricidia sepium + Cassia auriculata + Leucaena leucocephala with cow dung (1 : 1 : 2 using Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg and Eisenia fetida for 60 days. Nineteen bacterial strains which have the capability to fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate, and produce phytohormones were isolated from vermicompost, vermisources, and earthworm (fore, mid, and hind guts and tested for plant growth studies. Among the bacterial strains only five strains had both activities; among the five Bacillus spp. showed more nitrogen fixing activity and Pseudomonas spp. showed more phosphate solubilizing activity. Hence these bacterial strains were selected for further molecular analysis and identified Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3. Plant growth studies use these two organisms separately and as consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. in (1 : 1 ratio at different concentrations using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. at different day intervals. The germination percent, shoot length, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll a content of the leaves, chlorophyll b content of the leaves, total chlorophyll content of the leaves, fresh weight of the whole plant, and dry weight of the whole plant were significantly enhanced by the consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. of two organisms at 5 mL concentrations on the 15th day compared to others.

  16. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  17. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs.

  18. Effects of inclusion levels of banana (Musa spp.) peelings on feed degradability and rumen environment of cattle fed basal elephant grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Sabiiti, Elly Nyambobo; Bareeba, Felix Budara; Sporndly, Eva; Kabi, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The effect of feeding varying banana peeling (BP) levels on rumen environment and feed degradation characteristics was evaluated using three rumen fistulated steers in four treatments. The steers were fed BP at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels of the daily ration with basal elephant grass (EG) to constitute four diets. Maize bran, cotton seed cake, and Gliricidia sepium were offered to make the diets iso-nitrogenous. The nylon bag technique was used to measure BP and EG dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Effective DM, CP, and NDF degradabilities of BP ranged between 574 and 807, 629-802, and 527-689 g/kg, respectively, being lower at higher BP levels. Elephant grass degradability behaved similarly with relatively high effective CP degradability (548-569 g/kg) but low effective DM and NDF degradability (381-403 and 336-373 g/kg, respectively). Rumen pH and VFA reduced with increasing BP in the diets. Rumen pH dropped to 5.8 and 5.9 at the 40 and 60% BP feeding levels, respectively. Banana peelings were better degraded than EG but higher BP levels negatively affected feed degradability and rumen environment.

  19. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M Herrera G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet, 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group consumed diet based on corn and soybeans. They were reared on floor. Weighed every seven days. Weight gain, voluntary intake, conversion, balance and efficiency of feed utilization were calculated. Results. The highest total feed intake and average daily gain in rearing were 37.43g 9509.96 g respectively for M. alba (p<0.05, which also presented the best efficiency of energy and protein. Meanwhile, G. sepium showed the lowest values. Conclusions. It is possible to replace 5% of corn and soy in the diet of naked neck chickens, with the inclusion of leaf meal M. alba and get a favorable productive behavior.

  20. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production.

  2. Forage tree legumes. II. Investigation of nitrogen transfer to an associated grass using a split-root technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpoole, D.W.; Blair, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The glasshouse study reported, employed a split-root technique, whereby trees of leucaena and gliricidia were grown in boxes with 15 N fed to one half of the root system and the transfer of N to the other half of the box was measured by sampling tree and planted grass. Detection of 15 N in the grass tops and roots from the unlabelled half of the box was used to indicate N transfer from the tree roots to the grass. Transfer of labelled N to the grass amounted to 4.1% in the first 6 week period when 15 N was being injected in the tree root zone. A harvest of the tree and grass was made at 6 weeks and both allowed to regrow for a further 6 weeks with no further addition of 15 N. Over the entire 12 week experimental period 7.6% of the labelled N from the tree was transferred to the grass. The low proportion of N transferred from tree legume to the grass in this experiment, where herbage was cut and removed, is similar to the findings in the earlier field experiment and indicates that, in such a system, little direct beneficial effect of N fixation would be expected in an understorey grass or food crop. 24 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon[(AFRA - African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E; Tendonkeng, F; Kadjio, J T.T.; Kwami, H N; Taboum, R K; Kana, J R; Tegodjeu, A [University of Dschang, FASA, Department of Animal Sciences, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2002-06-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E.; Tendonkeng, F.; Kadjio, J.T.T.; Kwami, H.N.; Taboum, R.K.; Kana, J.R.; Tegodjeu, A.

    2002-01-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  5. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  6. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  7. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Presencia de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA en especies representativas del bosque seco tropical del litoral ecuatoriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Chiquito Noboa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA son microorganismos que mantienen una relación simbiótica mutualista con las raíces de las plantas. El bosque seco tropical contiene abundantes especies de interés silvícola, sin embargo, en Ecuador se desconoce las relaciones simbióticas de los HMA con los árboles que representan el bosque seco. El propósito de este estudio fue aislar e identificar la presencia de HMA en determinadas especies vegetales de este nicho ecológico del Ecuador. Las muestras de suelo y raíces se recolectaron en la época húmeda entre los meses de marzo y abril del 2017. Los porcentajes de micorrización encontrados fueron los siguientes: Cochlospermun vitifolium (Bototillo 80.8%, Triplaris cumingiana (Fernán Sánchez 71.7%, Albizia multiflora (Compoño 70.0%, Tecoma castanifolia (Moyuyo de montaña 68.6%, Bursera graveolens (Palo Santo 68.3%, Sapindus saponaria (Jaboncillo 67.5%, Croton wagneri (Purga 65.0%, Ceiba trichistandra (Ceibo 62.2%. Todas las plantas muestreadas presentaron una densidad media de esporas por 100 gr de suelo, pero Triplaris cumingiana (Fernán Sánchez obtuvo una mayor esporulación a pesar de presentar la misma densidad media.

  9. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T E; Sartori, A L B; Rodrigues, M L M

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  10. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  11. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Tree species diversity in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tarakeswara Naidu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to analyze tree species diversity in the tropical forests of the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India.  A total of 270 species of trees (≥15cm girth at breast height pertaining to 177 genera belonging to 55 families were recorded.  Among the 270 species, 141 species were observed to be common, 78 were occasional and 51 species were rare in the study area.  Fabaceae was the dominant family with 33 species followed by Rubiaceae with 15 species and Malvaceae, Moraceae and Phyllanthaceae with 13 species each.  The genera with the highest number of species include Ficus (12 species, Diospyros (8 species, Albizia and Grewia (6 species each, Acacia and Bauhinia (5 species each.  Forty-five percent of the species were indigenous. This illustrates the diversity of the tree species in the studied area of the Eastern Ghats and also emphasizes the need for their conservation. 

  13. Efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en posturas de Leucaena, Cedro y Samán

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    Leonides Castellanos González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evaluó el efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en la producción de postura de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit., Cedrela odorata L. y Albizia saman (Jacq. Merr. Se desarrollaron tres experimentos en condiciones de vivero, uno para cada especie. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorio con cuatro parcelas por tratamiento. En cada experimento los tratamientos fueron: Trichoderma harzianum a razón de 20 g.L-1, 40 g.L-1 y un testigo. Se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación y las variables morfométricas diámetro y altura del tallo, así como biomasa seca en raíz y parte aérea de la planta. Los tratamientos con Trichoderma no incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación en cedro, samán y leucaena. T. harzianum incrementó la altura, el número de hojas y la biomasa seca del área foliar en las plántulas de cedro, mientras que en leucaena y samán solo provocó incrementos del diámetro basal de las plántulas.

  14. Characterization of biomasses available in the region of North-East India for production of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmal, Soumya; Goud, Vaibhav V.; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2012-01-01

    The lignocellulosic materials are cheap and readily available either in the form of agricultural waste or forest residues. These materials can be used as a source for energy production either in the gaseous form (CO, H 2 etc) or in liquid form (ethanol, butanol etc) to meet the rising demand of energy. The reign of lignocellulosic materials for energy production is a proven fact in this era of energy research. The present study focuses on characterization of three biomass samples namely areca nut husk (Areca catheu), moj (Albizia lucida) and bonbogori (Ziziphus rugosa), available in the region of North-East India. Physical and chemical analysis of these lignocellulosic biomass samples were performed using X-ray diffraction techniques, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and CHNSO analysis. Maximum crystalinity was observed in areca nut husk fiber (63.84%) followed by moj (46.43%) and bonbogori (42.46%). The calorific values of all the biomasses were found within the range of 17 MJ/kg to 22 MJ/kg. All these properties combined together per se shows that areca nut husk, bonbogori and moj are potential sources for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Non-conventional biomasses were considered in this study. ► Complete characterization of these biomasses are reported. ► Maximum crystalinity was observed in areca nut husk fiber followed by moj and bonbogori. ► Results confirmed that these biomasses can be utilized for biofuel production.

  15. Design and testing of botanical thermotropic actuator mechanisms in thermally adaptive building coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Ronald P.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper lays out the inspiration, operational principles, analytical modeling and coupon testing of a new class of thermally adaptive building coverings. The fundamental driving concepts for these coverings are derived from various families of thermotropic plant structures. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (Sensitive Plant), Rhododendron leaves or Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa Tree), exhibit actuation physiology which depends on changes in cellular turgor pressures to generate motion. This form of cellular action via turgor pressure manipulation is an inspiration for a new field of thermally adaptive building coverings which use various forms of cellular foam to aid or enable actuation much like plant cells are used to move leaves. When exposed to high solar loading, the structures use the inherent actuation capability of pockets of air trapped in closed cell foam as actuators to curve plates upwards and outwards. When cold, these same structures curve back towards the building forming large convex pockets of dead air to insulate the building. This paper describes basic classical laminated plate theory models comparing theory and experiment of such coupons containing closed-cell foam actuators. The study concludes with a global description of the effectiveness of this class of thermally adaptive building coverings.

  16. Physical Characters of Trees And Their Effects on Micro-Climate (Case Study at Urban Forest and Green Open Space at Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endes N Dahlan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature in cities are increasing which can cause reduce the human comfort and productivity. Urban forest can make the environment comfortable. The objectiveof the researc hwere: (1. To Determine the effects of urban forest on air temperature and relative humidity, (2. To analyze the effects of physical characters of trees ont he micro-climate amelioration and(3. To Determine species of trees which are very effective for micro-climate amelioration.The results of the research revealed that the average of daily air temperature in the urban forest was 30.2 C with arelative humidityof 74.0%, while the daily air temperature around the urban forest was 31.8 Karakter Fisik Pohon ... (Dahlan E o C with relative humidityof 71.1%. Tree composisitin of all study sites consist of192trees, 29 speciesand 13families. The TinjomoyoForest Tourism has the highest density of trees(406trees/ha, while the lowest in the Parks Minister Supeno (316trees/ha. Value of Key Performance Indicator (KPI of trees based on calculation of tall of trees, diameter of canopies, total leaves area and canopy forms noticed that very effective trees for micro-climate amelioration were: Angsana(Pterocarpus indicus, beringin(Ficus benjamina, flamboyan(Delonix regia , ketapang(Terminalia catappa, mahoni (Swietenia mahogany, andtrembesi (Albizia saman.

  17. Diversity analysis of diazotrophic bacteria associated with the roots of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Arvind; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Thakur, Rishu; Chauhan, Sunita; Chawla, Isha

    2011-06-01

    The diversity elucidation by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of 96 associative diazotrophs, isolated from the feeder roots of tea on enriched nitrogen-free semisolid media, revealed the predominance of Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria within the Kangra valley in Himachal Pradesh, India. The Gram-positive bacteria observed belong to two taxonomic groupings; Firmicutes, including the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus; and Actinobacteria, represented by the genus Microbacterium. The Gram-negative bacteria included alpha-Proteobacteria genera Brevundimonas, Rhizobium, and Mesorhizobium; gamma-Proteobacteria genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; and beta-Proteobacteria genera Azospira, Burkholderia, Delftia, Herbaspirillum and Ralstonia. The low level of similarity of two isolates, with the type strains Paenibacillus xinjiangensis and Mesorhizobium albiziae, suggests the possibility of raising species novum. The bacterial strains of different phylogenetic groups exhibited distinct carbon-source utilization patterns and fatty acid methyl ester profiles. The strains differed in their nitrogenase activities with relatively high activity seen in the Gramnegative strains exhibiting the highest similarity to Azospira oryzae, Delftia lacustris and Herbaspirillum huttiense.

  18. Thermo-Analytical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Woody and Non-Woody Biomass from an Agro-ecological Zone in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Oluwabusayo Balogun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Woody (Albizia pedicellaris and Terminalia ivorensis and non-woody (guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor glume and stalk biomass resources from Nigeria were subjected to thermo-analytical and physico-chemical analyses to determine their suitability for thermochemical processing. They were found to have comparably high calorific values (between 16.4 and 20.1 MJ kg-1. The woody biomass had very low ash content (0.32%, while the non-woody biomass had relatively high ash content (7.54%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA of the test samples showed significant variation in the decomposition behavior of the individual biomasses. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatives indicated the presence of fatty and resin acids in the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 extracts. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS of the samples revealed that the volatiles liberated consisted mostly of acids, alcohols, ketones, phenols, and sugar derivatives. These biomass types were deemed suitable for biofuel applications.

  19. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  20. Economics of trees versus annual crops on marginal agricultural lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, T.; Mohan, D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the CMA in Rajasthan, selected as one of the major problem states because of its hot, arid and drought-prone character, and its present declining agricultural, livestock and fuelwood production coupled with an expansion of the area under annual crops. The present situation in Rajasthan is described and estimates made of returns from current land based enterprises (annual crops and livestock rearing) in comparison with the expected costs and returns of establishing suitable tree crops in the area. The financial and social feasibility of changing land use from annual to tree crops (while maintaining livestock production) is discussed, together with a consideration of some management and policy issues. Six tree species (Acacia tortilis, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek, Prosopis cineraria, P. juliflora, Zizyphus species and Leucaena leucocephala) were identified as adaptable for the region and the economics of raising each over 1 felling cycle calculated. Depending on the species and cycle length, net annual returns were Rs 360-3270/ha (using a discount factor of 11%), with an expected return of Rs1680/ha if the species were allocated equally; this is considerably better than the expected returns from annual crops and standing farm trees (Rs-40 to Rs30/ha, with or without including the costs of family labor). Fifteen tables in the text and 9 in appendices give detailed breakdowns of costs and returns. 104 references.

  1. Preferency of soil macrofauna to crops residue at different light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every species of soil macrofauna prefer specific food and environment to be establish in it's habitat. Their diversity depend on variation of food and environmental condition. The aim of this research was to study the effect of different crop residue and light intensity on population of several soil macrofauna specieses. Mycrocosmos experiment was arranged in split-plot design with two treatments factor, i.e.: (1 crop residue (albizia, papaya, elephant grass, maize, sweet potato and without crop residue input, and (2 light intensities (0, 5, 15 and 25 Watt/day. The soil macrofauna were earthworms, millipedes, scarabids larvae and cocroachs. Results of the study showed that: (1 crop residues apllication increased soil macrofauna population, especially maize residue ( by 113%, respectively, compare to control tretment, (2 on higher light intensity, population of earthworms, scarabids larvae and cocroach decreased, but population of millipedes increased, (3 the highest macrofauna population was on maize residue and 5 Watt/day light intensity treatment.

  2. Phytopatological monitoring of Inonotus rickii and GPS-GIS applications, Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriondo M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease management may be improved by collecting, storing, manipulating, analysing and displaying epidemiological information using a Geographic Information System (GIS, a useful tool to evaluate plant disease problems in a spatial context. In this study, GIS analysis was applied along with global positioning systems (GPS to integrate field data-collected with the spatial distribution of the pathogen Inonotus rickii. This pathogen provokes a decay of sapwood/heartwood and cankers, determining a progressive crown dieback and structural weakness of the trees, therefore increasing risk of branch breaks and tree failures. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and it has already been recorded in many areas in Rome on Acer negundo, Albizia julibrissin, Koelreuteria paniculata, Celtis australis and Platanus x acerifolia. A survey was carried out in different boulevards of A. negundo and A. julibrissin with the aim of evaluating disease symptoms such as sparse foliage, dead twigs and branches, wood decay and presence of fungal structures. In this survey, I. rickii was recorded also on Robinia pseudoacacia, which is a new host. The study allowed to obtain thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of all infected trees, as well as the presence of anamorph and/or teleomorph structures of the fungus. Moreover, a map representing the incidence of the pathogen in different boulevards was obtained. The usefulness of GIS analysis in studies aimed to support and refine management strategies for disease control in urban trees is discussed.

  3. Browser impacts in Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa: Should we be worried?

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    Corli Coetsee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of browsers on vegetation types within the Mapungubwe National Park and specifically whether rocky outcrops or ridges in the park serve as refugia from browsers, particularly elephants. We sampled 80 transects at 20 sites and recorded 1740 plants comprising 65 species. We found that a high proportion (> 80% of the woody vegetation sampled indicated browser utilisation. Although certain woody species (e.g. Albizia harveyi, Boscia albitrunca, Lannea schweinfurthii appeared to be preferred by browsers, browsing levels were relatively high among all woody species. High levels of browsing by herbivores other than elephants suggest that they have a significant impact on the park’s vegetation. We did not find that rocky ridges acted as refugia to browsers, but instead found that vegetation in rocky ridges was more severely impacted by browsers than vegetation in flat areas, despite vegetation being more accessible in flat areas. If elephant numbers continue to increase at the current rate (e.g. elephant numbers doubled between 2007 and 2010, we predict that some of the heavily utilised species will become locally rare over time. Conservation implications: High levels of browsing by both elephant and smaller herbivores contribute to significant impacts on vegetation away from rivers in Mapungubwe National Park. Without management interventions that address both types of impact, structural and species diversity are bound to decrease over the short to medium term.

  4. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  5. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  6. Case studies related to the management of soil acidity and infertility in the West-African Moist Savannah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Sanginga, N.; Diels, J.; Merckx, R.

    2006-01-01

    cropping in the tree-based systems, and even increased in the Senna treatments. Soil pH KCl values decreased at least 0.5 units in the control and Leucaena treatments, but only slightly in the Senna treatments. In general, the soils that received fertilizer during the trial were more acid (0.2 to 0.3 units) than the ones not receiving fertilizer. From the above, the Senna-based alley cropping system with fertilizers is the more resilient one, both in terms of crop yields and soil fertility status. A third experiment evaluated the potential of deep-rooting hedgerow trees to recycle basic cations from the subsoil and increase the topsoil pH. Topsoil Ca content, effective cation exchange capacity, and pH were substantially higher under Senna than under Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, or the no-tree control plots in sites with soils having a Bt horizon rich in exchangeable Ca. It was shown that this effect was largely related to the recovery of Ca from the subsoil by the Senna trees. The lack of increase in Ca accumulation under the other species was related to (i) potential recovery of Ca from the topsoil itself and/or (ii) substantial Ca leaching. The accumulation of Ca in the topsoil under Senna had a marked effect on the topsoil pH, the latter increasing significantly compared with the Leucaena, Gliricidia, and no-tree control treatments. (author)

  7. Preferencia de vacunos por el follaje de doce especies con potencial para sistemas agrosilvopastoriles en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela Preference of cattle for the foliage of twelve species with potential for agrosilvopastoral systems in the Trujillo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la preferencia de bovinos jóvenes por doce especies forrajeras en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica y Samanea saman se efectuó una prueba de cafetería a través de mediciones del consumo de follaje, mediante un diseño cuadrado latino con período de evaluación de 12 días. A los forrajes se les determinó la composición fitoquímica (PB, EB, FDN, fenoles, taninos condensados, taninos que precipitan proteínas y esteroles totales y la degradabilidad ruminal in situ (DMS y DMO. Las especies más preferidas fueron: P. pedicellare (327,98 g MS, L. leucocephala (325,63 g MS, M. alba (293,37 g MS, G. ulmifolia (292,48 g MS, C. tinctoria (277,18 g MS y C. alba (274,49 g MS. Los follajes de G. sepium (108,05 g MS, T. diversifolia (106,09 g MS, M. oleifera (76,28 g MS, A. indica (76,19 g MS y S. saman (58,72 g MS fueron medianamente consumidos. Sin embargo, la biomasa de T. gigantea (1,39 g MS fue prácticamente rechazada. Durante el período experimental se observaron diferentes tendencias en el consumo de cada espe­cie. No obstante, no se observó una relación significativa entre el consumo y la composición química, la concentración de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. Se concluye que es importante realizar ensayos de preferencia con animales para la selección de especies con potencial para sistemas silvopastoriles.With the objective of knowing the preference of young cattle for twelve forage species of the Trujillo State, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman a cafeteria test

  8. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  9. Efecto de las prácticas agronómicas en las propiedades del suelo en laderas

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    Claro A. Alfonso

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de las prácticas agronómicas en las propiedades del suelo en laderas. En un suelo Ultisol de textura arenosa, fuertemente erosionado, de baja fertilidad en fósforo, materia orgánica y ácido, ubicado en la localidad de La Leña en la provincia de Pinar del Río, en la República de Cuba, se realizó durante el año 1996 un ensayo en dos segmentos de microcuencas, en las que se implementaron medidas de conservación de suelos consistentes en barreras vivas de Gliricidia sepium L. (primer segmento y Vetiveria zizanoide L. (segundo segmento complementadas con coberturas de maíz asociado con Mucuna d. y Canavalia e., como precedentes del frijol. Los resultados mostraron ligeros cambios de la pendiente intrabarreras con respecto al valor inicial (10 y 9%. Los valores de la biomasa seca total de las asociaciones fueron de 17 y 15 t/ha, la velocidad de cubrimiento a los 30 días fue mayor al 70%, la colonización radical profusa presentada por las asociaciones indican una mejora de la red poral del suelo, reflejándose en la tendencia positiva del estado interno de la estructura que evoluciona hacia un estado (G poroso. Los rendimientos de maíz fueron de 2900 y 2500 kg/ha y los de frijol de 1800 y 1630 kg/ha. Valores considerados elevados, si se tiene en cuenta el grado de deterioro de este suelo

  10. Prácticas de conservación de suelos en sistemas de cultivo maíz-frijol en Cuba

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    Alfonso Claro A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos ensayos en segmentos de microcuencas en condiciones de producción de la Provincia de Pinar del Río: uno en Campo Hermoso y el otro en La Comunidad La Leña, Cuba. En ambas localidades se rotó el frijol variedad Bat 304 y Tomeguin 93, seguidos de maíz asociado con Mucuna deeringianum y se establecieron bordes de desagüe protegidos con barreras vivas de Leucaena leucocephala y Gliricidia sepium. Las pérdidas de suelos se estimaron en piscinas de sedimentación y limnígrafos Valday en Campo Hermoso y en el caso de La Leña sólo se determinaron las variaciones de la pendiente y el espesor máximo de sedimentos (EMS al final de cada ciclo. El suelo fue un Ferralítico Cuarcítico (Ultisol, la fertilización se realizó de acuerdo a sus reservas, la preparación y labores culturales con tracción animal. Los resultados al cabo de cinco años mostraron una reducción en las pérdidas de suelos por debajo del umbral permisible (5 t/ha, aumento de la altura de las terrazas debido a los sedimentos acumulados, mayor disponibilidad de agua en la sección receptora, mayor cobertura en el período lluvioso, disminución del efecto erosivo de la lluvia, reciclaje de nutrimentos a través de los abonos verdes e incremento de los rendimientos respecto a las áreas donde no se realizaron prácticas de manejo. Se concluyó que el manejo integrado de los diferentes factores en laderas con pendientes mayores de 5%, es necesario para la conservación de suelos y agua

  11. Use and management of tree fodder resources on farms in central Veracruz, Mexico

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    L. Ascencio-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó este estudio para determinar el uso y potencial de árboles y arbustos en 60 explotaciones ganaderas de los municipios de Tlapacoyan, Misantla y Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México. Los productores fueron encuestados con el objetivo de identificar, localizar y describir el uso de especies leñosas promisorias de interés forrajero, en tres sistemas de producción animal. Las encuestas registraron información acerca de: tamaño de la explotación, miembros (edad, escolaridad, años de experiencia de la familia, sistema de producción animal, manejo de pasturas, principales productos de la explotación; y la identificación, manejo y uso de árboles y arbustos en el sitio. Los datos se analizaron por estadísticos descriptivos como promedios y frecuencias relativas. Se caracterizaron tres sistemas de producción animal. Doble propósito (57%, cría y finalización (30%, y finalización en pasturas (13%; donde se identificaron 145 especies de árboles, siendo Bursera simaruba, Gliricidia sepium y Cedrela odorata las más comunes. Las dos primeras, de 12 especies fueron las más consumidas por el ganado, principalmente en ramoneo (38.80% o corte y acarreo (3.50%. El uso principal de estas especies fue: leña, carbón, madera y cercos vivos. El estudio mostró que existe una alta diversidad de especies leñosas de uso forrajero, con múltiples funciones en las explotaciones, destacando algunas especies como forrajeras, con un valor añadido en los sistemas de producción animal durante las épocas críticas del año.

  12. Efecto de dos enraizadores en tres especies forestales promisorias para la recuperación de suelos

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    Luz Adriana Giraldo C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La erosión es uno de los principales problemas que afecta los suelos de ladera en el mundo. Algunas de las especies utilizadas en obras de bioingeniería se propagan por medio de estacas, sin embargo no todas enraízan fácilmente, por lo que es necesario utilizar sustancias inductoras de enraizamiento. En este trabajo, evaluamos dos sustancias promotoras de enraizamiento en estacas de mataratón (Gliricidia sepium, nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea y sauce (Salix humboldtiana. La investigación se realizó en el municipio de Dosquebradas, Risaralda, a una altitud de 1450 m. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de un enraizador de síntesis (Hormonagro®, un enraizador natural (extracto de Aloe vera y un testigo sin aplicación de inductores. Los resultados obtenidos indican que para las tres especies es necesario emplear estimuladores de enraizamiento. El extracto de A. Vera produjo un mejor efecto sobre el enraizamiento de las tres especies, siendo más notorio sobre S. humboldtiana, 60 días después de la aplicación. La especie T. gigantea no mostró diferencias significativas con respecto a la aplicación de estimulantes de enraizamiento. En cuanto a la tolerancia de las especies al encharcamiento del sustrato de siembra, S. humboldtiana presentó mayor tolerancia mientras que T. gigantea presento los mayores problemas de pudrición.

  13. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

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    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  14. Caracterización físico-química y organoléptica de miel de Melipona beecheii obtenida en sistemas agroforestales

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    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar las características organolépticas y físico-químicas de la miel producida por Melipona beecheii. Para la extracción y el envasado de la miel se utilizaron jeringuillas estériles y frascos secos esterilizados, debidamente etiquetados. Después, se detectó en la muestra la presencia de granos de polen pertenecientes a Gliricidia sepium, y se realizó un análisis sensorial y físico-químico basado en los siguientes indicadores: aspecto, color, olor, sabor, textura, humedad (g/100 g, acidez libre (meq/100 g, pH y sólidos solubles (g/100 g = %. Además, se realizaron determinaciones cromatográficas de los azúcares presentes. Los valores de pH estuvieron alrededor de 3,6; la acidez libre fue de 35,0 meq/100 g, y la humedad, de 24 %. Por su parte, el análisis sensorial estuvo acorde con las especificaciones de calidad recomendadas en la norma de calidad cubana, ya que la miel no presentó ningún sabor, aroma o color desagradables. Se concluye que la miel de M. beecheii presentó una excelente calidad, al no sufrir ningún proceso de degradación aparente; por ello se puede considerar como una miel fresca, lo que constituye un requisito clave para cualquier alimento destinado al consumo humano.

  15. Caracterización química de panojas y vainas con semillas nativas del estado de Guerrero, México, para uso en la alimentación animal

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    Fernando Pérez-Gil Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se seleccionaron e identificaron cinco especies forrajeras nativas del estado de Guerrero, México: Bothriochloa sp, Sorghum halepense (L. Pers, Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Stend, Acacia farnesiana (L. Willd, consideradas forrajes no convencionales por ser productos naturales, no utilizados actualmente para la alimentación animal. El objetivo fue determinar la composición química en muestras representativas de las cinco plantas, vainas con semillas y panojas. Los análisis realizados fueron: análisis químico proximal, fracciones de fibra, perfil de aminoácidos, factores antinutricios, minerales y vitaminas hidrosolubles. Se encontró que el valor de proteína cruda osciló entre 60 y 202, fibra cruda entre 132.5 y 354.8, extracto etéreo 17 a 32.4, reportados en g-1 kg-1 de materia seca (MS. El contenido de lignina en las gramíneas fue 52 a 82 y en las muestras de leguminosas fue de 132 a 202 g; mientras que la celulosa para el primer grupo fue de 189 a 276 y para el segundo de 95 a 269 g kg -1 MS. De los factores antinutricios analizados el inhibidor de tripsina cuantificado fue de 1.0 a 4.97 UIT mg-1, hemaglutininas y saponinas no se detectaron. Se analizaron los siguientes minerales: Ca (301-652, Mg (57-88, K (565-1286, Na (64.3-630, Zn (0.93-5.1 y Fe (8.3-21.0 (reportados en g kg-1. Se cuantificaron 17 aminoácidos y 3 vitaminas (B1, B2 y B3 de cada muestra presentando valores similares entre ellas. Se concluye que las panojas y las vainas con semillas podrían considerarse como un recurso no convencional en la alimentación de rumiantes.

  16. EFECTO DE DOS LEGUMINOSAS Y BANANO MADURO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE CONEJOS NUEVA ZELANDA

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: a Determinar la leguminosa tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth y Gliricidia sepium y el nivel de banano maduro (BM (50, 75, 100 y 100, 125, 150 g animal-1 día-1, que permita incrementar los parámetros reproductivos (fase uno y productivos (fase dos, en conejos Nueva Zelanda. b Determinar la Relación beneficio/costo de los tratamientos. Se utilizó 28 y 42 conejos respectivamente. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 + 1, en un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA, con cuatro y tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (p≤0.05. El mayor consumo fue para el kudzu (p0.05 el peso de las hembras al parto, el periodo de gestación, peso y tamaño de la camada al nacimiento. Los niveles de BM no influenciaron (p>0.05 sobre la ganancia de peso, índice de conversión alimenticia (ICA, peso final (PF, peso a la canal (PC y rendimiento a la canal (RC. Los tratamientos en base a leguminosas tropicales y niveles de BM superaron al testigo (p<0.01. La mayor rentabilidad en la fase 1 y 2 se obtuvo al combinar kudzu tropical más 100 y 75 g y 125 y 100 g de BM animal-1 día-1 (30.34 y 29.48%.

  17. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  18. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

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    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  19. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo

    2011-09-22

    Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the

  20. ANALISIS USAHATANI TERPADU TANAMAN DAN TERNAK KAMBING DI AREAL PERKEBUNAN KELAPA DI SULAWESI UTARA

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    Derek Polakitan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut Commodity as a source of income many people in North Sulawesi. The area of   266,147.36 ha of coconut plantation largely cultivated in monoculture. Under these conditions it is necessary to empower that coconut farming remains a mainstay source of income for the family farm. Objective of the assessment that has been done is to analyze the integrated plant and goat farming in the area of   coconut plantation. The rationale, the lower the productivity of coconut. In the 2003 - 2004 has made   the development of goats in the plantation area in KP Pandu village Talawaan Bantik Wori District of North Minahasa. Development is done using a model of integrated farming of coconut, corn and goats. One hectare of coconut land area fenced with Gliricidia produced 843.2 kg of fresh forage /90 day. 0.2 ha of  land planted with king grass has produced fresh forage 9,150kg/45 day. 0.6 ha of land planted with corn yield 2,829.6 kg and 8,787 kg of straw hay. Compiling the ability to produce forage of three forage sources can meet the needs of 90 goats. Compiling the ability to produce forage of three forage sources can meet the needs of 90 goats. An increase in profits of  Rp 634,650/year/ha in monoculture to Rp 14,262,070/year/ha in integrated farming. In conclusion, in order to increase productivity and farm income coconut diversification should do both vertical and horizontal. How to apply the integrated farming systems integration goat corn coconut (SIKJK.

  1. WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The weed control procedures are known to affect the soil physical attributes and the nutrient amount taken up by weed roots. This work hypothesis is that weed control methods might also affect soil chemical attributes. Four experiments were carried out, three with maize (E-1, E-2 and E-3 and one with cotton (E-4, in randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plots, with five replications. In E-1 experiment, the plots consisted of two weed control treatments: no-weed control and weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and the subplots consisted of six maize cultivars. In the three other experiments, the plots consisted of plant cultivars: four maize cultivars (E-2 and E-3 and four cotton cultivars (E-4. And, the subplots consisted of three weed control treatments: (1 no-weed control; (2 weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and (3 intercropping with cowpea (E-2 or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. (E-3 and E-4. In all experiments, after harvest, eight soil samples were collected from each subplot (0-20 cm depth and composed in one sample. Soil chemical analysis results indicated that the weed control by shovel-digging or intercropping may increase or decrease some soil element concentrations and the alterations depend on the element and experiment considered. In E-2, the weed shovel-dug plots showed intermediate soil pH, lower S (sum of bases values and higher soil P concentrations than the other plots. In E-4, soil K and Na concentrations in plots without weed control did not differ from plots with intercropping, and in both, K and Na values were higher than in weed shovel-dug plots. Maize and cotton cultivars did not affect soil chemical characteristics.

  2. Caracterización de especies arbóreas y arbustivas forrajeras en clima semiárido del sur de Mozambique

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    E Cordoví

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento de especies forrajeras arbóreas y arbustivas en clima semiárido se desarrolló un experimento, con corte y en secano, con Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Moringa oleifera, Senna siamea y Morus alba. El diseño fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, y se utilizaron parcelas de 12 m². En verano, L. leucocephala, L. pallida, S. siamea y M. alba produjeron más de 12 t de MS por hectárea como promedio; mientras que en invierno se obtuvieron entre 9,38 y 11,62 t/ha, excepto en M. oleifera (5,49 t/ha. Los intervalos de corte variaron entre 62 y 65 días en verano; mientras que en invierno aumentaron hasta 102 y 117 días en G. sepium y M. oleifera, respectivamente, y oscilaron entre 81 y 92 días para el resto de las especies. El porcentaje de hojas fue superior en invierno y en ello sobresalió S. siamea (62 y 69 % en verano e invierno, respectivamente. Durante el invierno se obtuvo una alta producción de MS, en lo cual se destacaron G. sepium, M. alba y S. siamea (47-50 %. Se confirmó el buen comportamiento de estas especies arbóreas y arbustivas en condiciones semiáridas, con rendimientos de MS superiores a 12 t/ha y una producción estable durante el año. Se recomienda incluirlas en investigaciones con animales en sistemas silvopastoriles y bancos de proteína; así como utilizar otros marcos de siembra en función de mejorar su potencial productivo

  3. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin; Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian; Lopez-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A.; Dendooven, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO 2 from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N 2 O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH 4 + , NO 2 - and NO 3 - decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH 4 + and NO 2 - , but the concentration of NO 3 - was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  4. Saber popular de especies forrajeras en la zona central de Nicaragua: un estudio en grupos focales

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    Fabio Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se hace una descripción de la tecnología local de manejo de pasturas y se analizan las percepciones locales sobre el consumo de plantas por el ganado. Se estudia la clasificación local y valoración que los lugareños otorgan a las especies herbáceas y leñosas forrajeras presentes en los potreros. El estudio se realizó en la zona piloto del proyecto Pasturas Degradadas en Centroamérica (PD en Muy Muy, Nicaragua. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante diferentes técnicas de investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se aplicaron técnicas cualitativas para recabar información en profundidad del acervo de conocimiento local respecto al uso de vegetación arbórea, arbustiva y herbácea en las fincas ganaderas. Se registró un total de 25 especies herbáceas forrajeras, siendo las variedades más reportadas la grama natural (Paspalum sp, pasto estrella (Cynodon plectostachyus K. Schum. Pilg. y jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa. De la misma manera, fueron identificadas las especies leñosas más frecuentes en las fincas ganaderas el guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, madero negro (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. y roble (Tabebuia rosea. Se concluye que el conocimiento de los productores es empírico y funcional. Esto significa que es derivado de la experiencia práctica y generalmente en función de las actividades realizadas por su propia voluntad o inducida por agentes externos.

  5. Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah Abd Rahman; Bah Abd R

    2002-01-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with 33 P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by 33 P- 32 P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH 4 + -N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH 4 + -N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by conserving soil moisture. (Author)

  7. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  8. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  9. Estudios preliminares para la crioconservación de especies forestales arbóreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Abdelnour Esquivel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La crioconservación presenta numerosas ventajas con respecto a otras técnicas que se utilizan rutinariamente para la conservación y almacenamiento de germoplasma. Algunas de estas ventajas son los bajos costos de labor durante el mantenimiento de las colecciones y la conservación de la estabilidad genética por tiempo indefinido. El presente estudio muestra los resultados obtenidos en la crioconservación de frutos y semillas de melina (Gmelina arborea, teca (Tectona grandis, pilón (Hyeronima alchorneoides, cenízaro (Pithecellobium saman y madero negro (Gliricidia sepium utilizando la técnica de desecación y congelamiento rápido en nitrógeno líquido. Los frutos recibieron un tratamiento previo a la congelación con 10 mgL-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 o agua, o el lijado del endocarpo duro. Una vez descongelados, los materiales fueron sembradas en el invernadero para evaluar la sobrevivencia. Se encontró que tanto los frutos como las semillas de las especies evaluadas sobrevivieron al congelamiento. El estudio también mostró la importancia de la colecta y el manejo que se dé a las semillas antes de realizar experimentación en crioconservación. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la factibilidad de utilizar esta técnica para la conservación de forestales y el potencial que presenta para que pueda ser evaluada en otras especies forestales de interés.

  10. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.

  11. Avaliação de coberturas mortas em cultura de alface sob manejo orgânico Evaluation of mulches on organically grown lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura morta do solo com leguminosas e gramíneas é uma prática cultural que traz benefícios aos sistemas de produção. Foi conduzido um experimento no município de Seropédica, estado do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta sobre a reinfestação de ervas espontâneas e sobre o desempenho agronômico de alface, em cultivo orgânico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas de oito plantas na área útil. Os tratamentos foram: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., bambu (Bambuza sp., capim Cameroon (Penisetum purpureum, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, eritrina (Erythrina poeppigiana, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, guandu (Cajanus cajan, mucuna cinza (Mucuna pruriens e controle (sem cobertura dos canteiros. Estimou-se a decomposição in situ e a liberação de nitrogênio de cada cobertura morta. Foram avaliados dois ciclos consecutivos de alface, cultivar Regina, na mesma área, visando a comparar o efeito residual das coberturas mortas. Observou-se maior acúmulo de N nos resíduos vegetais das leguminosas (máximo de 1.010 kg ha-1 com mucuna-cinza. Em relação à decomposição da cobertura morta, avaliada na colheita do primeiro ciclo de alface (35 dias após o transplante, as leguminosas apresentaram percentuais inferiores aos das gramíneas de massa seca e N remanescentes. A reinfestação dos canteiros pelas ervas espontâneas não diferiu significativamente entre coberturas mortas, variando entre 31 e 58 plantas m-2, mas a redução da densidade populacional da vegetação reinfestante chegou a 83% em comparação ao tratamento controle. Em ambos os ciclos de cultivo da alface, a massa fresca (de 315,8 a 366,0 e de 202,9 a 225,0 g planta-1, respectivamente nos primeiro e segundo ciclos, o diâmetro da cabeça (de 30,8 a 31,7 e de 25,5 a 28,5 cm e o teor de N (de 32,3 a 38,8 e de 28,0 a 30,3 g kg-1 foram superiores

  12. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  13. HAN Fei's Experience in Treatment of Children Tic Disorder by Using "Angle Medicine"%韩斐运用"角药"治疗小儿抽动障碍经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范菲

    2017-01-01

    角药是针对一定病因、病机、病症,将3味药组合在一起以达到协同增效作用的一种配伍方法.韩斐教授是著名中医儿科专家,多年来致力于小儿抽动障碍的研究,具有丰富的临床经验.本文介绍了韩教授运用珍珠母合龙骨、牡蛎,白芍合僵蚕、蝉蜕,苍耳子合白芷、辛夷,首乌藤合石菖蒲、合欢皮等角药治疗小儿抽动障碍的经验,并初步分析其使用的原因及内涵.%Angle medicine is a concerted application of three kinds of Chinese materia medica for a certain cause, pathogenesis and disease. Professor HAN Fei is a famous TCM pediatric specialist. She has been working on children tic disorder for a number of years, with a lot of experience. This article introduced Professor HAN Fei's experience in treatment of children tic disorder by using angle medicine, and briefly analysed the reasons and connotation of application, including Margaritifera Concha combine with Dragons Bones and Ostreae Concha, Paeoniae Radix Alba combine with Bombyx Batryticatus and Cicadae Periostracum, Xanthii Fructus combine with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix and Magnoliae Flos, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis combine with Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Albiziae Cortex.

  14. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  15. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad-1. Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  16. [Preliminary attempt at the speciation of 25-elements in the Chinese medicinal herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Ouyang; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Huang, Zhuo; Tu, Peng-Fei; Guo, Xu-Lin; Liu, Hu-Sheng

    2004-08-01

    To make an attempt at the multi-element speciation in the Chinese medicinal herbs by determining the concentrations of 25 elements in different extraction solutions. Firstly, five Chinese medicinal herbs (Buddleja officinalis, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Myristica fragrans, Albizia judibrissin and Inula japonica) from the same region of China were treated to obtain water-soluble phase, lipid-soluble phase and non-soluble phase by water extraction, organic solvent extraction and acid digestion, respectively. Secondly, Phytolacca acinosa, a Chinese medicinal herb collected from 9 regions of China, was extracted by 0% EtOH, 50% EtOH, 75% EtOH, 95% EtOH, respectively, referring the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Finally, the concentrations of 25 elements, such as Be, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Tl, Pb and REEs, in the above three phases were determined by ICP-MS. Under the optimal conditions, all the 25 elements could be determined with detection limits ranged from 0.003 to 0.71 ng x g(-1). The average recoveries of the elements in P. acinosa were 88% approximately 119%, with the relative standard deviations 1.7% approximately 13.3%. It was observed that the determined 25 elements distributed in all the water-soluble, lipid-soluble and non-soluble phases, indicating that the inorganic species, organicspecies, as well as the protein bound species were coexisted in the herbs. Big differences of the element extraction rates could be found by using different ethanol solutions. With the aid of the obtained results, we may increase the extraction of necessary elements while decrease that of the toxic elements from the herbs by choosing a suitable solvent during the drug production.

  17. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph Kueffer,; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive, non-native plants (or environmental weeds) have long been recognized as a major threat to the native biodiversity of oceanic islands (Cronk & Fuller, 1995; Denslow, 2003). Globally, several hundred non-native plant species have been reported to have major impacts on natural areas on oceanic islands (Kueffer et al., 2009). In Hawaii, at least some 50 non-native plant species reach dominance in natural areas (Kueffer et al., 2009) and many of them are known to impact ecosystem processes or biodiversity. One example is the invasive Australian tree fern (Cyathea cooperi), which has been shown to be very efficient at utilizing soil nitrogen and can grow six times as rapidly in height, maintain four times more fronds, and produce significantly more fertile fronds per month than the native Hawaiian endemic tree ferns, Cibotium spp. (Durand & Goldstein, 2001a, b). Additionally, while native tree ferns provide an ideal substrate for epiphytic growth of many understory ferns and flowering plants, the Australian tree fern has the effect of impoverishing the understory and failing to support an abundance of native epiphytes (Medeiros & Loope, 1993). Other notorious examples of invasive plant species problematic for biodiversity and ecosystem processes in Hawaii include miconia (Miconia calvescens), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), albizia (Falcataria moluccana), firetree (Morella faya), clidemia (Clidemia hirta), kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), and fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), to name just a few. Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis) is a recent example of a seriously problematic invasive species for Hawaii’s agriculture and is damaging certain high-elevations native ecosystems as well.

  18. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  19. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

  20. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Ronald M; Barrett, Cassandra M

    2014-01-01

    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad −1 . Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  1. Flora, life form and chorological study of soil seed bank in Sisangan box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark Forest Reserve

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    Moslem Akbarinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the soil seed bank flora of the Sisangan Box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark reserve by using seedling emergence method. 150 soil samples were collected during late June and early November by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 to a depth of 5 cm. Results showed 67 species, representing 63 genera and 38 families germinated from soil seed bank. 45 species belonging to 28 families and 59 species belonging to 32 families were recorded in June and November soil seed bank respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (7 species, 10.5%, Lamiaceae (6 species, 9%, Poaceae (5 species, 7.5% and Rosaceae (4 species, 6% which compromised 32.8% percent of the total species in the soil seed bank. Results also showed that Hemicrptophytes (28.4% and Euro-Sibria elements (23/9% were the most important biological spectrum and phytochorion respectivly in the soil seed bank of Sisangan forest. From the total number of species recorded in seed bank, 30 species (44.6 % were found only in the seed bank and never observed in above-ground vegetation. In this regard, seeds of 10 woody species including Albizia julibrissin, Ficus carica, Morus alba, Diospyrus lotus, Celtis australis, Gleditsia caspica, Buxus hyrcana, Ulmus minor, Zelkova carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus were found in the soil seed bank, from which only 6 species were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. This condition confirmed low similarity between above-ground vegetation and persistent soil seed bank and it also reiterated the importance of soil seed bank study for introducing more accurate capacity of plant biodiversity.

  2. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium. PMID:29267357

  3. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

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    Fang-Pey Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%. In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1. There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.

  4. Contribution of Plantation Forest on Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea Pollinators Conservation in Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

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    Imam Widhiono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild bee pollinators (Hymenoptera : Apiade diversity and abundance were studied in three types of plantation forest on Mt. Slamet (Central Java Province, Indonesia. The aims of the research was to know the diversity and abundance of wild bee pollinators and to determine the possibility of plantation forest contribution on wild bees conservation. Sampling has been done at three stands: a pine forest (PF, with Pinus merkusii, an Agathis forest (AF, with Agathis damara and a community forest (CF, with Albizia falctaria. Each habitat was divided into 5 line transect (100 x 5 m and sweep nets were used to collect the wild bee samples. Sampling was done eah month from April to August 2015. The diversity of wild bees was high (12 species in 9 genera; members of the Apidae (7 species were dominant. The most abundant species across the forests were Apis cerana (343 individuals; 25.5% of total, Trigona laeviceps (195 individuals; 14.5%, and Megachille relativa (165 individuals; 12.3%. Measurements of species diversity (H’, species evenness (E, habitat similarity (Ss and species richness indicated that the wild bee species diversity in the region was relatively high (H’ = 1.275 to (H’ = 1.730;(E= 0.870 to (E = 0.93. The result showed that the diversity of wild bees in three different plantation forest habitats on Mt. Slamet were similar and can be concluded that plantation forest types were important for pollinator conservation, and an appropriate future preservation strategy should include of the areas of all plantation forest types.

  5. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  6. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchego, Carlos E; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium.

  7. Shelterbelt plantations in arid regions. [Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthana, K.D.; Mahander, S.; Mertia, R.S.; Arora, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Three shelterbelts were planted on sandy soils at the Jodhpur Research Farm in 1973. Belts had 3 rows of trees each and spacing between and within rows was 3 m; they were laid out perpendicular to the wind direction. The length of each belt was 300 m and they were spaced 165 m apart centre to centre. The outside rows were made up of 33 plants each of (a) Acacia tortilis, (b) Prosopis juliflora (Israel variety) and (c) Cassia siamea planted on either side of the belts randomly in the paterns abc, bca and cab. The centre rows were planted with Azadirachta indica, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek and Eucalyptus camaldulensis respectively in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shelterbelts. The shelterbelts were easily established and grew well. Grain yield of bajra sown between the belts increased with distance from them reaching a maximum at 25 X belt height and then declining. Average yield between the belts was higher than in control plots. Consumptive water use and water use efficiencies were less near the 1st shelterbelt (leeward side) and increased away from it, again reaching maximum at 25 X belt height. Mean air temperature 1-2m above ground level was 0.1-0.2 degrees C higher on leeward than on windward sides of shelterbelts in the summer months, and 0-0.1 degrees higher in the monsoon months. Pan evaporation on the leeward side was reduced by 8% in the summer and 6% in the monsoon months. Belts of C. siamea and Acacia tortilis were more effective in reducing wind speed than those of P. juliflora (which grew least of all species).

  8. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  9. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g −1 , chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g −1 , lead 0.12–0.23 μg g −1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g −1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  10. Use of three fodder trees in the feeding of goats in the subhumid tropics in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Perez, Jaime; Aviles Nova, Francisca; Albarran Portillo, Benito; Castelan Ortega, Octavio A; Rojas Hernandez, Saul

    2013-03-01

    Chemical composition, in vitro gas production with and without polyethyleneglycol (PEG-4000 MW), and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic (IVOMD) foliage from Pithecellobium dulce, Gliricidia sepium and Haematoxylum brasiletto were determined. The preference test was run for 15 days: the first 10 days as adaption period and the 5 days served as evaluation period. It was conducted in ten developing female Creole goats of 6 months old, weighing 14 ± 2.0 kg in order to determine goat preference for any of the three foliages. Productive performance of 35 male creole kids of 6 months old (14 ± 3.0 kg) was also determined by ad libitum feeding of the foliage of the tree: the 30 and 15 % of each of the P. dulce (T1, T2), G. sepium (T3, T4), and H. brasiletto (T5, T6) foliages were added to the experiment diets, while T7 served as control diet that did not contain any foliage. The crude protein (CP), total phenols (TP), condensed tannins (CT), IVDMD, and IVOMD were different among the foliages. The PEG determined the biological activity of the TP and CT of H. brasiletto. Goats preferred to consume the foliage of P. dulce because of its higher content of CP and IVDMD and low content of TP and CT. In the productive response, dry matter intake (DMI) was higher in kids fed T1 diet and was stimulated by higher IVDMD and IVOMD, which resulted in the higher daily weight gain (DWG). The contribution with TP and CT of H. brasiletto to T5 and T6 and the rejection by the animals of G. sepium in T3 and T4 explain the negative effects on the DMI and the DWG. Findings of the study suggested higher kid performance for P. dulce foliage. Possible attributes may include its better CP, low TP and CT, and higher digestibility.

  11. Assessment and Comparison of salt Content in Mangrove Plants in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dissanayake

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the predicted threats of global warming and sea level rise, the salt tolerance and salt accumulative abilities of plants have become popular contentious topics. Mangroves are one of the major groups of salt tolerant plants and several mechanisms are known as instrumental in their salt tolerance. Salt excretion through leaf drop is given as one, but its validity is questioned by some recent works compelling the necessity for further studies. Knowledge of the salt contents in different mangrove plants is a pre requisite for such studies. Hence, this study aimed to quantify and compare the salt content in mature leaves of nine mangrove species in Sri Lanka., i.e. Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata which are growing in the same mangrove system; the Rekawa lagoon in Sri Lanka. Two species of non mangrove plants, Gliricidia sepium and Artocarpus heterophyllus, which were growing in inland areas were also selected for comparison. The concentration of Na+ in leaves was considered as a measure of the salt concentration. The Na+ in leaves was extracted by acid digestion and quantified by flame photometry. The salt content of mangroves was measured under two contrasting hydrological situations: at the highest and lowest water levels of the lagoon. Rekawa lagoon can be considered as a ‘barrier built estuary’, the highest water level occurs when the lagoon mouth is blocked due to the formation of the sand bar and the water level is increased by fresh water inflow, inundating the total mangrove area and decreasing the soil/water salinity. The water level of the lagoon becomes lowest when the lagoon mouth is opened (naturally or by dredging and lagoon water is flushed out to the sea. Then the salinity of lagoon water becomes high due to sea water influx. The results showed

  12. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.

  13. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  14. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  15. Evaluation of phospherus uptake from Minjingu phosphate rock, growth and nodulation of agroforestry tree species on an acid soil from Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, N.K.; Mwendwa, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to study the effect of P application on fast growing multi-purpose trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate availability and uptake of phosphorus (P) from Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR). An acid soil and six agroforestry tree species namely Leucena leuco-cephala, Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania sesban, Grevillea robusta, Cassia siamea and Eucalyptus grandis were used. Phosphorus was applied at 25.8 mg P/ kg soil as Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) or Triple Superphosphate (TSP). Pregerminated seedlings were transplanted and divided into two sequential harvests at 3 and 6 MAT (months after transplanting). 32 P isotope carrier free solution was added to transplanted seedlings at the beginning and when they were 3 months old. The soil was tested for isotopically exchangeable P by incubating the soil with the MPR and TSP. The soil was high in P-fixing capacity. At 3 MAT all the species except G. robusta gave a 150-250% significantly higher stem dry weights where P was added and L. leuco-cephala, S. sesban and C. siamea maintained this up to 6 MAT. The legumes and E. grandis where P was applied differed significantly from controls in root dry weight with Minjingu PR being superior with G.sepium and E. grandis. The legumes and E. grandis had significantly higher P uptake where P was applied at 3 MAT. The relative availability of MPR at 3 MAT showed that L.leucocephala and G. sepium derived 2.93 and 1.06 times more P from Minjingu PR than from TSP respectively. Data obtained from G. robusta P uptake showed that this species preferred soil P to externally supplied P in the three sampling periods. Tree species and fertilizer P interactions at 6 MAT were highly significant (P=0.01). Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculation improved growth, P uptake from MPR and nodulation of G. sepium seedlings. Inoculating L. leucocephala seedlings with VAM increased availability of P from MPR. (author)

  16. NUEVOS HOSPEDEROS Y REGISTROS DE ÁCAROS FITÓFAGOS PARA COSTA RICA: PERÍODO 2008-2012

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    Hugo Aguilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se actualizan las e especies de á caros fitó - fagos identificadas para Costa Rica entre 2008 y 2012. Se procesó el material vegetal provisto por productores, técnicos, estudiantes e interesados en general, así como el recolectado por personal del Laboratorio de Acarología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y s e identificó. Se mencionan 63 nuevas especies e n 29 familias de plantas hos - pedantes, p ara 5 familias de ácaros fitófagos. Tetranychus urticae , familia Tetranychidae, fue la segunda especie en cuanto a número de h os - pederos, encontrándose e n 1 2 nuevas p antas. También s e hallaron o tras especies de la familia, como Eutetranychus banksi , Mononychellus planki , Oligonychus peronis , O. pratensis , O. punicae , O. ununguis , O. yothersi , Paraponychus corderoi , Tetranychus cinnabarinus , T. ludeni , T. mexicanus y 3 especies de este género que no fueron identificadas. S e registran 4 especies de la f amilia Tenuipalpidae: Brevipalpus californi - cus , B. gliricidiae , B. obovatus y B. phoenicis . Dentro de la familia Tarsonemidae, se informa de Phytonemus pallidus , Polyphagotarsonemus latus , con 15 nuevos registros, especie con mayor aporte en asociación con plantas para este nuevo período; s e informa también de Steneotarsone - musananas , asociada conpiña. De la familia Eriophyidae, se indica de Abacarus doctus, descrita recientemente como nueva especie p ara la ciencia y asociada con caña de azúcar en el país y de Calepitrimerus muesebecki , relaciona - da con aguacate; además 2 especies de eriófidos expuestos, no descritas aún. Retracrus johnstoni , familia Phytoptidae, recolectado de Heliconia latispatha , de la familia Heliconiaceae y primer registro de un ácaro de este género asociado con una planta ajena a la familia Arecaceae. Por último, se expone la descripción del reconocimiento de campo para algunas especies escogidas dentro de las 5 familias estudiadas.

  17. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  18. Cultural significance of the flora of a tropical dry forest in the Doche vereda (Villavieja, Huila, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Toro, Jeison Herley; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Santos-Fita, Dídac; Ruan-Soto, Felipe

    2018-03-22

    In Colombia, ethnobotanical studies regarding plant cultural significance (CS) in tropical dry forests are scarce and mainly focused on the Caribbean region. Different authors have indicated that the plants with the most uses are those of greater cultural importance. Additionally, gender differences in knowledge and interest in natural resources has been widely recorded. This study evaluated the cultural significance of plants in the Doche community, in the Department of Huila. Furthermore, it evaluates the richness of plant knowledge among local inhabitants, looking for testing the hypothesis that the CS of plants positively correlates to the number of uses people inform about, and that there are significant differences on the richness of ethnobotanical knowledge between men and women in this community. The ethnobotanical categories: "food," "condiment," "economy," "fodder," "firewood," "timber", "medicine," and "others" were established to carry out semi-structured interviews, social cartography, and ethnobotanical walks. The frequency of mention was calculated as a measure of CS. The richness of knowledge of each collaborator was obtained. Non-parametric tests were performed to determine whether differences between the numbers of mentioned species existed between genders and ethnobotanical categories. Finally, Pearson correlation tests determined the relationship between CS and the number of ethnobotanical categories. A hundred useful species were registered in crops and forests. The most abundant categories were medicinal (45 species), firewood (30), and fodder (28). The most culturally significant species according to frequency of mention were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Guazuma ulmifolia, Manihot esculenta, and Musa balbisiana. The species with the most registered uses (five) were Guazuma ulmifolia and Gliricidia sepium. We found a correlation between CS and the number of uses per ethnobotanical category, but no significant difference between genders regarding

  19. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  20. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  1. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  2. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  3. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  4. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zaharah Abd; R, Bah Abd [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia). Dept of Land Management

    2002-07-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs)) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with {sup 33}P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by {sup 33}P-{sup 32}P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by

  5. Effect of Interactions on the Nutrient Status of a Tropical Soil Treated with Green Manures and Inorganic Phosphate Fertilizers

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    Abdul R. Bah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg−1 soil in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (~1000 mg kg soil−1 and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  6. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua.

    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one.

    Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.

    In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress

  7. Effect of the species and the regrowth age on the fatty acid profile of tropical legumes and shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edwin Mojica-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available © 2017 Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria 465Corpoica Cienc Tecnol Agropecuaria, Mosquera (Colombia, 18(3:ISSNe 2500-5308 ISSN 0122-8706septiembre - diciembre / 2017septiembre - diciembre / 2017Efecto de la especie y la edad de rebrote en el perfil de ácidos grasos de leguminosas y arbustivas tropicalesAlimentación y nutrición animal463-477ResumoAvaliou-se o efeito de três idades de rebrotação (4, 8 e 12 semanas sobre a produção de forragem, qualidade nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos em leguminosas herbáceas: Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides,Canavalia brasiliensis, Centrosema molle, Centrosema macrocarpum, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Lablab purpureus,leguminosas arbustivas: Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Desmodium velutinum, Cajanus cajan,Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae e uma arbustiva não leguminosa: Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae. Utilizou-se um desenho de parcelas divididas com blocos aleatoriamente em que a parcela principal foi a espécie forrageira e a subparcela foi a idade de rebrotação. Os principais ácidos graxos presentes nas espécies foram o ácido palmítico (C16:0, ácido linolênico (C18:3 e o linoleico (C18:2. No entanto, nas leguminosas herbáceas e arbustivas, o conteúdo de ácidos graxos foi diferente e diminuiu com a idade do rebrotação nos dois grupos. A relação C18:2/C18:3 foi maior nas leguminosas herbáceas do que nas arbustivas, o que poderia resultar em uma maior concentração de ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC na gordura do leite. A leguminosa Cajanus cajan apresentou o maior (p<0,05 conteúdo de ácido linolénico (C18:3 e de precursores de ALCnas três idades de rebrotação avaliadas, o que sugere que seu uso na alimentação de bovinos em sistemas de dupla aptidão resultaria em concentrações mais altas de ALC c9 t11 na gordura do leite em comparação com outras espécies.

  8. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  9. Vegetasi Habitat Komodo dalam Bentang Alam Riung dan Pulau Ontoloe di Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Amu Blegur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengkaji vegetasi habitat komodo dalam bentang alam Riung dan Ontoloe. Ekosistem karst mendominasi di Riung dan Ontoloe. Lokasi kajian merupakan taman nasional yaitu CA Wolo Tado, CA Riung dan TWAL 17 Pulau. Taman nasional ditetapkan pada tahun 1992 dan 1996. Pembakaran sabana di hutan sabana atau savanna woodland dengan skala kecil menjaga ketersediaan sabana di Pulau Besar, Flores. Sabana tersebut merupakan sumber makanan bagi pakan komodo yaitu rusa (Cervus timorensis. Sebaliknya, di Pulau Kecil atau Ontoloe tidak ada pembakaran sabana berskala kecil. Secara khusus, penelitian ini, mempelajari: a tipe ekosistem penyusun bentang alam Pulau Besar dan Pulau Kecil; b cacah jenis, densitas dan growth form vegetasi habitat; c kualitas ἀsiko kimia tanah yaitu temperatur, tekstur, pH, NO3, NH4,  PO4, K tersedia; udara yaitu temperatur dan salinitas air ekosistem hutan bakau. Data dikoleksi dengan  kuadrat plot dengan bantuan transek. Ukuran plot pada ekosistem hutan bakau, hutan ekoton dan hutan legong 20mx20m dengan ulangan 4x. Sedangkan  padang rumput yang jarang pohon, ukuran plot 100mx100m dengan ulangan 4x. Data dicuplik berupa: cacah jenis, densitas dan growth form penyusun vegetasi.  Data ἀsikokimia  tanah, udara dan air dicuplik di bawah kanopi dan gap kanopi. Hasil yang diperoleh tipe ekosistem habitat di Pulau Besar lebih banyak daripada di Pulau Kecil yaitu ekosistem hutan bakau, hutan ekoton, hutan sabana, dan hutan legong. Cacah jenis, densitas dan growth form di Pulau Besar juga lebih tinggi daripada di Pulau Kecil. Hal ini merespon tekstur tanah, kadar NO3, kadar NH4 dan temperatur. Pada Pulau Kecil, ditemukan ancaman dengan densitas yang cukup tinggi per 4 ha yaitu sapling L. glauca 179 individu, A. lebbeck 353 individu dan semak L. camara 169 individu. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa pembakaran hutan sabana dengan skala kecil menjaga ketersediaan sabana di Pulau Besar, sehingga komodo akan terlindungi.   This study

  10. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0∼2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0∼2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica were

  11. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  12. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to sub-optimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Van Asten, Piet; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Cocoa agroforestry is perceived as potential adaptation strategy to sub-optimal or adverse environmental conditions such as drought. We tested this strategy over wet, dry and extremely dry periods comparing cocoa in full sun with agroforestry systems: shaded by (i) a leguminous tree species, Albizia ferruginea and (ii) Antiaris toxicaria, the most common shade tree species in the region. We monitored micro-climate, sap flux density, throughfall, and soil water content from November 2014 to March 2016 at the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana with climate and drought events during the study period serving as proxy for projected future climatic conditions in marginal cocoa cultivation areas of West Africa. Combined transpiration of cocoa and shade trees was significantly higher than cocoa in full sun during wet and dry periods. During wet period, transpiration rate of cocoa plants shaded by A. ferruginea was significantly lower than cocoa under A. toxicaria and full sun. During the extreme drought of 2015/16, all cocoa plants under A. ferruginea died. Cocoa plants under A. toxicaria suffered 77% mortality and massive stress with significantly reduced sap flux density of 115 g cm -2  day -1 , whereas cocoa in full sun maintained higher sap flux density of 170 g cm -2  day -1 . Moreover, cocoa sap flux recovery after the extreme drought was significantly higher in full sun (163 g cm -2  day -1 ) than under A. toxicaria (37 g cm -2  day -1 ). Soil water content in full sun was higher than in shaded systems suggesting that cocoa mortality in the shaded systems was linked to strong competition for soil water. The present results have major implications for cocoa cultivation under climate change. Promoting shade cocoa agroforestry as drought resilient system especially under climate change needs to be carefully reconsidered as shade tree species such as the recommended leguminous A. ferruginea constitute major risk to cocoa functioning under

  13. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  14. Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochwang'i, Dominic O; Kimwele, Charles N; Oduma, Jemimah A; Gathumbi, Peter K; Mbaria, James M; Kiama, Stephen G

    2014-02-12

    Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine their use by local communities. The present study was carried out in Kakamega County of Kenya to identify and document medicinal plants used for treatment and management of cancer states by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical rainforest of Kakamega County, Kenya. An ethnobotanical survey was done using semi-structured questionnaires administered to 32 randomly selected herbalists from Kakamega County. Sixty five (65) plants of 59 genera and 32 families were identified as candidates in therapeutic intervention against cancer states. Most commonly cited plant species were Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex poir, Prunus africana (Hook. f.) kalkman, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don and Aloe volkensii Engl. The following were documented for the first time; Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke, Synsepalum cerasiferum (welw.) T. D penn., Albizia coriaria Welw. ex Oliv., Aloe volkensii Engl. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill, Croton macrostachyus Delile, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Dicliptera laxata C.B. Clarke, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Gardenia volkensii K. schum. ssp. volkensii, Glycine wightii (wight & Arn.), Ocimum gratissimum Suave, Olea hotcsh spp. hochstetteri, Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Phyllanthus fischeri Pax, Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich), Rhus vulgaris Meikle, Senna didymobotyra (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby, Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C. Jeffrey

  15. Flora and fauna of Thummalapalle uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullaiah, T.

    2012-01-01

    Thummalapalle Uranium Mining site is located near Thummalapalle village in Vemula mandal, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. Flora and faunal study was carried out in the area 30 km radius from the mining site, covering an area of 2828 Km 2 , during 2009-2012. The geographical coordinates of the centre point are NL 14° 19 min 59.3 sec and EL 78° 15 min 18.2 sec. Altitude of the study area ranges from 198 to 875 m above MSL. Scrub type of forest is dominant in the core zone followed by waste lands and agriculture lands. Buffer zone I and II also are dominated by scrub forest except a small patch at the North West corner where degraded dry deciduous forest is seen. A total of 859 plant taxa comprising 474 genera and 120 families were identified. Of the 859 taxa, 768 are Angiosperms, 9 Pteridophytes, 25 Bryophytes, 44 Algae and 14 Lichens. A total of 49 endemic taxa (2 strictly Andhra Pradesh, 5 to Eastern Ghats and 43 from Peninsular India) have been recorded. Albizia thompsonii and Ceropegia spiralis, rare taxa, have been recorded in the study area and these two species are distributed throughout peninsular India. Quadrat analysis revealed that Heteropogon contortus, Catunaregum spinosa, Asparagus racemosus and Croton scabiosus are the dominant in herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees respectively. A total of 419 animal species belonging to 358 genera and 178 families have been recorded in the Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area. A total of nine endemic animal species have been recorded. Golden Gecko (Calodactylodes aureus) which is endemic to Eastern Ghats is recorded in Buffer zone 1. Fejervarya caperata is a new record to Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported from Western Ghats. An analysis of the flora reveals interesting features. Orchidaceae which is the second largest family in India is only one species represented in Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area as it is evident that the growth and development of Orchids in open dry deciduous and scrub forests are

  16. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  17. Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea Volcano, Puna District, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Puna District, Hawaii, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed

  18. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbosuria, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm -1 , 0.165cm -1 , 0.163cm -1 , 0.156cm -1 , 0.149cm -1 , 0.143cm -1 , 0.133cm -1 , 0.132cm -1 , 0.127cm -1 , 0.124cm -1 , 0.085cm -1 , 0.123cm -1 , 0.122cm -1 , 0.113cm -1 , 0.101cm -1 , 0.088cm -1 , 0.087cm -1 , 0.086cm -1 , 0.082cm -1 respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value layer shows the thickness at various energy regions.

  19. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigbosuria, E F [Department of Computer Electronics/Physics, Lead City University, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2011-10-24

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm{sup -1}, 0.165cm{sup -1}, 0.163cm{sup -1}, 0.156cm{sup -1}, 0.149cm{sup -1}, 0.143cm{sup -1}, 0.133cm{sup -1}, 0.132cm{sup -1}, 0.127cm{sup -1}, 0.124cm{sup -1}, 0.085cm{sup -1}, 0.123cm{sup -1}, 0.122cm{sup -1}, 0.113cm{sup -1}, 0.101cm{sup -1}, 0.088cm{sup -1}, 0.087cm{sup -1}, 0.086cm{sup -1}, 0.082cm{sup -1} respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value

  20. The characteristics and diversity of indigenous rhizobia that nodulate selected indigenous multipurpose leguminous trees and shrubs in three soils of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boakye, Emmanuel Yaw

    2013-03-01

    Trees in general and leguminous trees in particular form an integral part of the traditional farming systems in Ghana. Compared to other plants, leguminous trees have the advantage that, they are generally capable of growing better on N-deficient soils due to their ability to convert unavailable atmospheric N_2 into plant utilizable N. However, several factors including the abundance and effectiveness of the specific rhizobial partner, the available N and P in soil, are among the important factors that severely affect how much N_2 can be fixed in these trees. This study was thus conducted to assess the abundance and characteristics of the rhizobia that nodulate 18 selected indigenous tree legumes grown in three representative soils of Ghana and to ascertain important soil nutrient constraints that affect their nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth. The three soils belonged to the Hatso, Toje and Alajo local series (equivalent to Haplic lixisol, Rhodic lixisol and Calcic vertisol, respectively). The 200 Rhizobium isolates obtained from nodules of these tree legumes were found to be highly diverse and varied in their abilities to nodulate legumes other than the host plants from which they were isolated. The isolates were further characterized culturally, metabolically, phenotypically and for their effectiveness in fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Of the 10 multi-purpose shrubs and tree species belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae examined as much as 70% of them formed nodules in the three soils, whiles only 20% and 10% of the tree legumes that formed nodules belong to Papilionoideae and Caesalpinoideae sub-families respectively. As to the Rhizobium isolates from these shrubs and tree species, those obtained from Pithecelobium spp and Melletia thonningi appeared to be highly specific, nodulating only their respective homologous hosts, while those from Acacia mangium, Albizia lebbek and Acacia auricloformis appeared to be slightly promiscuous, and moderately

  1. Diversidad, composición y estructura de la vegetación en un agropaisaje ganadero en Matiguás, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Sánchez Merlos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la diversidad, composición y estructura de la vegetación en un paisaje ganadero en Matiguás, Nicaragua, y se comparó las diferencias florísticas y estructurales de seis tipos de hábitats (bosques secundarios, bosques ribereños, charrales, cercas vivas y potreros con alta y baja cobertura arbórea. Se registraron un total de 3 949 árboles de 180 especies y 52 familias. El 46% del total de especies informadas para el paisaje fueron representadas por Guazuma ulmifolia (18.5%, Bursera simaruba (13.2%, Tabebuia rosea (6.3%, Enterolobium cyclocarpum (4.2% y Albizia saman (3.4%. Muchas de las especies dominantes en el paisaje son típicas de áreas abiertas y perturbadas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes hábitats en los patrones de riqueza, abundancia, diversidad, estructura y composición florística. Los bosques ribereños tuvieron mayor riqueza (p=0.0001 y diversidad de especies (p=0.0009, que los demás hábitats. La composición florística vario entre hábitats, con pares de hábitats compartiendo solamente entre 18.4 y 51.6% de las mismas especies arbóreas, y con claras diferencias en composición entre los hábitats forestados (ribereños y bosques secundarios y los hábitats agropecuarios. De los hábitats estudiados los bosques ribereños y bosques secundarios parecen ser los hábitats que tienen mayor valor para la conservación de la flora en el agropaisaje porque tienen la mayor riqueza de especies, además de que mantienen poblaciones bajas de especies maderables en peligro de extinción. En base a este estudio, recomendamos incluir los paisajes agrícolas en estrategias de conservación y sugerimos algunos criterios para asegurar el mantenimiento de la flora en el paisaje de Matiguás.Vegetation diversity, composition and structure in a cattle agro-landscape of Matiguás, Nicaragua. The diversity, composition and structure of vegetation in a cattle landscape in Matiguás, Nicaragua

  2. Valor de uso e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa às margens do riacho do Navio, Floresta, PE, Brasil Use-value and phytosociology of woody plants on the banks of the Riacho do Navio stream, Floresta, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Serafim Feitosa Ferraz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na mata ciliar do riacho do Navio, Floresta (8º35' 60"S; 38º34'05"W, PE e teve dois objetivos: (a estimar o valor de uso de espécies lenhosas consideradas úteis por moradores do local e (b relacionar o valor de uso das espécies aos seus parâmetros fitossociológicos, estimados a partir de dados de 16 parcelas de 20×30 m, estabelecidas em cinco fragmentos florestais mais bem conservados. Os maiores conhecedores das plantas e seus usos foram considerados informantes-chave e os demais entrevistados integraram a comunidade em geral. Foram identificadas oito categorias de uso: construção doméstica, construção rural, medicinal, alimentação, forragem, tecnologia, energético e outros usos não madeireiros. A vegetação do local foi caracterizada pela presença de Ziziphus joazeiro Mart., Crataeva tapia L., Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir. DC., Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso Benth. & Hook. F. ex S. Moore, Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., Schnopsis brasiliensis Engl., Sapindus saponaria L., Albizia inundata (Mart. Barneby & Grimes e Triplaris gardneriana Wedd. Os entrevistados atribuíram usos para 34 espécies entre as quais destacaram-se com maiores valores de uso a T. aurea, com 6,44 para os informantes-chave e 4,10 para a comunidade em geral; Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Benan. var. cebil (Griseb Altschul., 4,81 para os informantes-chave e 3,53 para a comunidade em geral e S. brasiliensis, 4,25 para os informantes-chave e 4,47 para a comunidade em geral. O maior número de espécies conhecidas é utilizado para forragem, embora o maior componente do valor de uso total tenha sido as construções rurais. Os parâmetros fitossociológicos estimados não apresentaram correlação com os valores de uso atribuídos às espécies. A importância das formações ciliares foi ressaltada não só para a conservação dos recursos hídricos e para o atendimento das necessidades da comunidade local, mas como garantia de perpetua

  3. Desenvolvimento inicial de espécies exóticas e nativas e necessidade de calagem em área degradada do Cerrado no triângulo mineiro (Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Alcione Hermínia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    O processo de recuperação do solo de uma área degradada deve ter como princípio básico o retorno de condições mínimas para o estabelecimento e crescimento das plantas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e estabelecimento de algumas espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas submetidas a diferentes doses de corretivo numa área degradada com intensos processos erosivos no município de Uberlândia - Minas Gerais. O período experimental foi conduzido de fevereiro a maio de 2009, numa área rural de cascalheira em avançado estado de degradação. Avaliaram-se oito espécies, quatro delas exóticas (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium, Mimosa artemisiana e Acacia auriculiforme e quatro nativas (Gonçalo Alves - Astronium fraxinifolium; Mutamba – Guazuma ulmifolia; Angico vermelho - Anadenanthera macrocarpa; e Ingá - Inga edulis. O desempenho de cada espécie foi submetido a quatro diferentes doses de calcário (0, 50, 100 e 200 g de CaCO3, resultando em 32 tratamentos com duas repetições, sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. As variáveis estudadas - diâmetro do caule, largura da copa e altura da planta aos 60 dias do plantio – foram submetidas a análise de variância e comparadas pelo teste de Scott - Knott a 5% de probabilidade. No período de estudo, as doses de calcário avaliadas não produziram diferenças significativas. Em contra partida, houve variação de desenvolvimento entre espécies para todas as variáveis analisadas. G. sepium apresentou melhor estabelecimento e crescimento inicial em diâmetro, seguida de I. edulis e G. ulmifolia. Quanto

  4. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriyah Firdausi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  three stages,  1  identification  of  potential  plants  producing  tannin,  2  isolation  of tannin-protein  complexes,  and  3  in  vitro  test  of  tannin-protein  complexes effect  of  the  -amylase activity.  Some  of  the observed  plants  were  sidaguri  leaf (Sida rhombifolia, melinjo leaf (Gnetum gnemon, gamal leaf (Gliricidia sepium,lamtoro  leaf  (Leucaena  leucocephala ,  betel  nut  (Areca  catechu ,  and  crude gambier  (Uncaria  gambir a s  a  source of  tannins  and  melinjo  seed was  used  asprotein  source.  Betel  nut  and  melinjo  seed  were  the  best  source  of  tannin-protein  complex,  tannin  content  1.77  mg  TAE/mL  with  antioxidant  activity  of  90%,the  ability  to  inhibit  the  activity  of  -amylase by  95%  with  IC 50  values  of 10 mg/mL.Key words: Tannin, protein, -amylase, botanical pesticides,Areca catechu, Gnetum gnemon.

  5. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    caatingaensis (endophyte from Tacinga inamoena ), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha , and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis . Chile : Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata. France : Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii : Beltraniella acaciae , Dactylaria acaciae , Rhexodenticula acaciae , Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa ) . India : Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran : Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion : Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia : Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita , Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala , Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita , Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria , Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum. Mexico : Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand : Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla , Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla , Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis , Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius , Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis , and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis. Panama : Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea . South Africa : Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp

  6. Soil mineral N dynamics beneath mixtures of leaves from legume and fruit trees in Central Amazonian multi-strata agroforests Dinâmica do nitrogênio mineral no solo em misturas de folhas de leguminosas arbóreas e de fruteiras em sistemas agroflorestais multiestratificados na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Melanie Schwendener

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term applications of leguminous green mulch could increase mineralizable nitrogen (N beneath cupuaçu trees produced on the infertile acidic Ultisols and Oxisols of the Amazon Basin. However, low quality standing cupuaçu litter could interfere with green mulch N release and soil N mineralization. This study compared mineral N, total N, and microbial biomass N beneath cupuaçu trees grown in two different agroforestry systems, north of Manaus, Brazil, following seven years of different green mulch application rates. To test for net interactions between green mulch and cupuaçu litter, dried gliricidia and inga leaves were mixed with senescent cupuaçu leaves, surface applied to an Oxisol soil, and incubated in a greenhouse for 162 days. Leaf decomposition, N release and soil N mineralization were periodically measured in the mixed species litter treatments and compared to single species applications. The effect of legume biomass and cupuaçu litter on soil mineral N was additive implying that recommendations for green mulch applications to cupuaçu trees can be based on N dynamics of individual green mulch species. Results demonstrated that residue quality, not quantity, was the dominant factor affecting the rate of N release from leaves and soil N mineralization in a controlled environment. In the field, complex N cycling and other factors, including soil fauna, roots, and microclimatic effects, had a stronger influence on available soil N than residue quality.Aplicações a longo prazo de leguminosas como adubo verde podem aumentar o nitrogênio (N mineralizável sob árvores de cupuaçu em solos pouco férteis e ácidos (Ultisols e Oxisols da Bacia Amazônica. Entretanto, a baixa qualidade da liteira de cupuaçu pode influênciara liberação de N do adubo verde e a mineralização deste no solo. Neste estudo foram comparados o N mineral, N total, e o N da biomassa microbiana sob árvores de cupuaçu cultivadas em dois sistemas